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Abstracts

June 24 - 28, 2017


Botany 2017 Conference Organizers American Fern Society

President - Eric Schuettpeltz Program Director - George Yatskievych

American Society of Plant Taxonomists President – Jeffrey Doyle Program Director – Harvey Ballard Local Rep - Peter Fritsch

American Bryological and Lichenological Society President – Larry St. Clair Program Director – Catherine La Farge

International Association for Plant Taxonomy President – Vicky Funk Secretary – Karol Marhold

Society for Hebarium Curators President - Austin Mast Program Director - Andrea Weeks

Local Host - Botanical Research Institute of Texas Director - Ed Schneider

Field Trip Coordinator Brooke Best

Botanical Society of America

President – Gordon Uno Program Director – Amy Litt Executive Director – Bill Dahl Director of Conferences - Johanne Stogran


Table of Contents Special Addresses

Bryology And Lichenology

Oral Papers................................................ 61 Posters....................................................... 69

Plenary Address..................................... 3 Regional Botany Special Lecture.......... 3 Kaplan Memorial Lecture...................... 4 Annals of Botany Lecture...................... 4 Emerging Leader Lecture...................... 5 Address of the BSA President-Elect...... 5

Classical Genetics Oral Papers................................................ 70 Posters....................................................... 73

Comparative Genomics/ Transcriptomics

Symposia and Colloquia

Oral Papers................................................ 74 Posters....................................................... 76

4D Botany of the Anthropogenic Environment................................................ 6 A Single Symbiota-based Herbarium Network for the US..................................... 9 Big Data and the Conservation of North America's Flora......................................... 13 Campanian-Maastrichtian Floras on Laramidia: Vegetation rends West of the Seaway......................... 16 Geology and Plant Life: the growing legacy of Arthur Kruckeberg................................ 21 Getting everyone involved: Saving the seaside alder.............................................. 23 Green digitization: online botanical collections data answering real-world questions ................................ 25 Kral-ing Through Time: The Impact of Robert Kral on the Past, Present, and Future of Botany in the Southeastern U.S....................................... 29 The Role of Boundaries in Plant Diversification........................................... 32

Conservation Biology Oral Papers................................................ 79 Posters....................................................... 85

Crops And Wild Relatives Oral Papers................................................ 87 Poster........................................................ 91

Ecology Oral Papers................................................ 92 Posters..................................................... 103

Education And Outreach Oral Papers.............................................. 109 Posters..................................................... 115

Ethnobotany Oral Papers.............................................. 116 Posters..................................................... 118

Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo)

Anatomy and Morphology Oral Papers................................................ 35 Posters....................................................... 41

Oral Papers.............................................. 119 Posters..................................................... 124

Biodiversity Informatics & Herbarium Digitization

Hybrids And Hybridization Oral Papers.............................................. 126 Posters..................................................... 128

Oral Papers................................................ 45 Posters....................................................... 48

Macroevolution

Biogeography

Oral Papers.............................................. 129

Oral Papers................................................ 49 Posters....................................................... 55

Molecular Ecology

Botanical History

Mycology

Posters..................................................... 134

Oral Papers................................................ 59 Posters....................................................... 60

Posters..................................................... 135

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Paleobotany

Workshops 225

Oral Papers.............................................. 136 Posters..................................................... 154

Annual Meeting of the US Virtual Herbarium Project (WERA 1015)................................... Using Digitized Herbarium Data in Research: Applications for Ecology, Phylogenetics, and Biogeography................................................ Introduction to Next Generation Sequencing................................. Introduction to botanical drawing with Betsy Barry.......................................... AIBS Communicating Science to Decision-makers...................................... Planting Inquiry in Science Classroom........s The Cornell University Plant Anatomy Collection: an online resource for teaching and research............................. Tips for Success: Applying to GraduateSchool............................................. Machine learning with R for botanists.......... Title: Cutting the cord - a workshop for computer-free presentation skills.................. Next Generation Research Uses of Biodiversity Collections................................ Strategic Planning for YOUR Herbarium— A Professional Development Opportunity brought to you by the Society of Herbarium Curators and iDigBio....................................

PhylogenomicsOral Papers 158 Posters..................................................... 166 Physiology & Ecophysiology Oral Papers.............................................. 167 Posters..................................................... 172

Population Genetics/Genomics Oral Papers.............................................. 177 Posters..................................................... 179

Pteridology 182 Oral Papers.............................................. 182

Reproductive Processes Oral Papers.............................................. 185 Posters..................................................... 190

Symbioses: Plant, Animal, And Microbe Interactions Oral Papers.............................................. 191 Posters..................................................... 194

Systematics 197 Oral Papers.............................................. 197 Posters..................................................... 215

Tropical Biology Oral Papers.............................................. 222 Posters..................................................... 224

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Special Addresses

Plenary Address

Regional Botany Special Lecture

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LIPSCOMB, BARNEY* 1 and JASON, SINGHURST 2

KIMMERER, ROBIN

The Fortress, the River and the Garden: new metaphors for cultivating a symbiosis of indigenous and scientific knowledges

A Botanical Waltz Across Texas: Biological Crossroads and Floral Wonders of the Lone Star State

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he most pressing environmental challenges we face, as a global society, lie at the intersection of natural ecosystems and human cultures. There is growing evidence that the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of indigenous peoples with a long history of place-based sustainability offers concepts, models, philosophies and practices which can inform the design of new sustainability solutions. Academics, agency scientists and policy makers have increasingly sought traditional knowledge as a wellspring of ideas for emerging models of ecosystem management, conservation biology and ecological restoration and TEK is rich in knowledge of plant biology. TEK has value not only for its wealth of factual information, but also for the cultural framework of respect, reciprocity and responsibility in which it is embedded. Embraced as a complement to western science, TEK offers both key ecological insights and a cultural framework for environmental problem solving that explicitly incorporates human values. While TEK is an ancient body of knowledge, embedded in a sophisticated cultural epistemology, it had long been marginalized and often dismissed by the institutions of contemporary western science, due to limited understanding of its nature and capacity. In the scientific community, much is lost when we fail to consider multiple ways of knowing and much is gained by engagement with intellectual pluralism. The next generation of environmental scientists has a high probability of encountering issues involving TEK; thus exposure to TEK has a legitimate role in the education of the next generation of plant science professionals. A pressing concern for both western and indigenous scientists lies in how we engage with TEK in a way that promotes mutual learning and respects and protects indigenous knowledge.

D

ue to its size and geological features, Texas is a vast and diverse landscape resembling much of the U.S. A major biological crossroads of America, it has a variety of land forms and habitats with a diverse flora and fauna. Four physiographic provinces converge in Texas: 1) Great Plains, 2) Central Lowlands, 3) Basin & Mtns., and 4) Coastal Plain. Elevations range from sea level in the coastal plain to 2667 m (8,751 ft) in the basin and mountains of west Texas. The variety of rainfall, soils, and elevation has resulted in tremendous biodiversity in the state. Today approximately 5,500 taxa of native and naturalized vascular plants are found in 10 vegetational areas including nearly half of the grass species indigenous to the U.S. and over 300 taxa that are endemic to the state. Texas is fortunate to have a wealth of information about its plant life, vegetation, and natural history due to many collectors and collections over the last 197 years, since the first scientific collecting began in Texas in 1820. A wave of zealous naturalists came, explored, and collected Texas in the 19th century. The 20th century marshaled in a new era of collecting and botanists who made new observations and discoveries. Herbarium specimens have accumulated and are a gold mine of information, information that is good for science and good for conservation in the 21st century. More than 225 Texas plants have been identified as rare and of conservation concern. Thirty-three species are listed as threatened or endangered. A Botanical Waltz Across Texas will give a broad overview of the 10 vegetational areas of Texas, highlight some of the unique and fascinating ecological systems, plus give a closer look at some of the more rare plants in the Lone Star State. 1

Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 1700 University Dr., Fort Worth, TX, 761072Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 4200 Smith School Road, Austin, TX, 78744

Dr. Robin Wall Kimmerer, SUNY Distinguished Teacher Professor, plant ecologist, Director of the Center for Native Peoples and the Environment at the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry and author of “Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge and the Teachings of Plants� will introduce concepts of TEK and its relevance to plant sciences and present three models by which we might respectfully engage TEK in research, education and outreach. SUNY Distinguished Teaching Professor, Professor of Environmental and Forest Biology, Director, Center for Native Peoples and the Environment, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY, 13210

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Kaplan Memorial Lecture

Annals of Botany Lecture

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CHITWOOD, DAN

TRAVESET, ANNA

Mutualistic networks in the Galápagos under pressure from aliens

Persistent homology and organismal theory: quantifying the branching topologies of plants

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slands harbor much of the world’s threatened biodiversity, most of which is endangered by habitat degradation, over-exploitation and the introduction of alien invasive species. Increasing evidence confirms that it is not the decline of species diversity per se that scientists, conservationists, and restoration managers should be most concerned about, but rather the extinction of the interactions between organisms that ultimatly breathe life into ecosystems. Consequently, research on species interactions patterns has increased dramatically in recent years, mostly thanks to the implementation of network theory which facilitates the representation and interpretation of such complex Interaction networks. In this talk, I will present our findings on the dynamic structure of mutualistic (pollination and seed dispersal) networks in the Galapagos archipelago, and the mechanisms underlying the observed patterns. I will deep into the mechanisms whereby alien species infiltrate the mutualistic networks, examining whether partner fidelity differs between alien and native species and the community-level implications of such differences. Finally, I will discuss the potential cascading effects of invasive alien plants and insects on the native species and interactions.

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orphology in plants arises at the organismal level, rather than as an emergent property from the collective behavior of cells. Some siphonous algae developed convergent morphologies with land plants, but dramatically uncouple morphology from cell division. The green alga Caulerpa is arguably the largest single celled organism in the world yet is differentiated into leaf, stem, and root analogs. I will present results of a de novo assembled intra-cellular transcriptomic atlas of the giant coenocyte Caulepra taxifolia. Gene expression patterns are organized along an apical-basal gradient from the frond tip to the stolon and holdfasts that roughly corresponds to the flow of genetic information in the cell, from transcription to translation. I will also present evidence that similar cohorts of transcripts have been recruited to form organs between Caulerpa and the land plants. An organismal theory of plants emphasizes the overall plant form—rather than cells and histogenesis—as the focus of plant morphology. I will end with a discussion of a promising new topological technique, persistent homology, which unlike traditional morphometric approaches can capture the branching architectures of plants. I will describe the application of persistent homology to leaf shape, leaflet serrations, and root architecture in the same plants that reveals a shared genetic basis for these diverse features in tomato introgression lines. I will end with a preview of applying persistent homology to predict plant family and location independently of each other in >170,000 leaves, and quantifying the complex, 3D branching architectures of roots and inflorescences using X-ray Computed Tomography.

Spanish Research Council, Imedea, C/ Miquel Marques 21, Esporles, 07190, Spain

Independent Researcher

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Special Addresses Emerging Leader Lecture

Address of the BSA President-Elect

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BARKER, MICHAEL

RIESEBERG, LOREN

Plant Evolution in a Human-altered World

Genome Duplication, Natural Selection, and the Evolution of Plant Diversity

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n a poster designed by cartoonist Walt Kelley to publicize the first annual earth day in 1970, Pogo the Possum is shown picking up trash that humans have strewn across his home in Okefenokee Swamp, with the headline, ‚We have met the enemy and he is us.’ This quote has even greater resonance today. Humans are the main threat to life on our planet and have emerged as its dominant selective force. This provides unparalleled opportunities for evolutionary biologists to study evolution in action. However, it also leads to the question of whether plants (and other organisms) can evolve fast enough to keep up with the rapid pace of human-caused environmental change. I will discuss what we have learned about plant adaptation from studies of contemporary evolution. Plant evolution in the Anthropocene is pervasive and can be rapid, but in many species it lags behind environmental change due to long generation times and limited dispersal. In the absence of intervention, extinction of such taxa seems likely. To maintain productive communities and ecosystems, botanists must develop strategies to aid adaptation when desired (e.g., evolving climate-adapted crops or forests) and hinder it when necessary (e.g., in weeds). A key scientific challenge will be to scale up from predictions of the evolutionary responses of populations to ecosystems (the scale of primary interest for conservation policy and resource management), because of unknowns such as dispersal rates and the effects of species interactions. An even greater challenge will be to harmonize science-based recommendations for facilitating adaptation with the political realities of the decision-making process. Ultimately, our focus going forward should be on adaptation rather than preservation of the status quo.

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olyploidy, or speciation by genome duplication, has experienced a renaissance of interest this century. Analyses of plant genomes revealed that they have been duplicated many times and raised numerous questions about the role of genome duplication during plant evolution. Here, I present results from one of the largest analyses of plant genomic data to date. Using a combination of phylogenomic and novel machine learning approaches, our analyses of data from more than 1400 species revealed that the incidence of ancient polyploidy increases nearly 500% from the algae to flowering plants. Significantly, the number of observed WGDs in our empirical data is consistent with simulations based on a range of polyploid and diploid net diversification rates. Collectively, our macroevolutionary analyses suggest that genome duplications have been an important contributor to the evolution of plant diversity. These macroevolutionary patterns and the biology of ploidal changes provide many hypotheses about how genome duplication may drive diversity. To these hypotheses, we have focussed our efforts on two different study systems: the recent and anciently duplicated genomes of Brassica and the resurrection plants of Selaginella , the only lineage of land plants without an ancient WGD. Our analyses indicate that substitution rates are higher in polyploids compared to their diploid relatives. Further, analyses of the domestication and genetic diversity of the crop Brassicas indicates that genetic variation from polyploidy, even paleopolyploidy, can be important for recent adaptation and selection. Given the distribution of polyploidy throughout the history of green plants, our results suggest that the genetic legacy of WGDs may significantly contribute to adaptation even millions of years later and may ultimately drive the diversification of polyploid lineages.

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

University Of Arizona, Department Of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, P.O. Box 210088, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA

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Spectral profiles at the leaf or whole plant level can be used as integrated measures of phenotypes, because chemical, anatomical, and morphological characteristics of plants determine how light is reflected from the visible (VIS, 400-700 nm), to the near- (NIR, 700-1000 nm), and short wave-infrared (SWIR, 1000-2500 nm) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Spectral measurements can be acquired in a rapid and repeatable way, they can be performed at the individual level even when taxonomic identities are unknown, and they are scalable to remote sensing, allowing frequent observations of large areas. This presentation will illustrate how spectral profiles can be used to detect different dimensions of biodiversity and ecosystem function across spatial scales, ranging from the leaf to the canopy level. Data from the long term biodiversity experiment at the Cedar Creek LTER shows that spectral diversity predicts functional and phylogenetic diversity, and explains more total variation in aboveground productivity than other diversity metrics. Furthermore, species appear to retain unique trait combinations across the biodiversity gradient that can be captured spectrally. This dissimilarity of species’ spectral profiles increases with phylogenetic distance and enables species to be spectrally distinguishable despite high intra-specific trait variability. Our results highlight how spectral data can further our understanding of the consequences of different biodiversity components for ecosystem function and facilitate consistent and standardized biodiversity monitoring globally.

Symposia and Colloquia 4D Botany of the Anthropogenic Environment Sponsored by Economic Botany Section, Genetics Section, Systematics Section / ASPT, Tropical Biology Section and Physiological Section.

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MEYER, RACHEL

4D Botany of the Anthropogenic Environment

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his symposium draws from across environmental science to connect research on spatiotemporal (4D) dynamics of the anthropogenic environment. The diversity of novel communities and ecosystems created by humans requires new theory and creative approaches to discover the drivers of relationships and the basis for fragility or resilience. Increasing climate variation is an alarm for the urgency to understand the conflicts and the effects of imposed solutions aimed to relax strains on natural resources in these new situations. It is a time infuse more science into policy, particularly for conservation. The presentations pivot on the integration of shallow or deep timescale data into spatial studies ranging from the corridors of metropolis biodiversity to tropical silviculture, from the systemic effects of paradomestication to land management and pollution. We feature a variety of cutting edge and sensitive techniques useful to track signatures of impact over time, such as environmental ancient DNA metagenomics, tree ring chemistry and morphotyping, and predictive environmental modeling. In this way, we will catalyze interdisciplinary adoption of the multitude of theories and approaches to handling complex 4D datasets innovated by the BSA community and beyond, and examine the ways these research endeavors are being translated into real world change.

University of Minnesota, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, 1479 Gortner Ave, Saint Paul, MN, 55108, USA

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DEVALL, MARGARET S

Metal transport into Bayou Trepagnier wetlands in Louisiana

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stablishment of a petroleum refinery in 1916 near the headwaters of Bayou Trepagnier, with subsequent dredging of the bayou, resulted high levels of Pb and other metals. Substantial quantities of pollutants (Pb, Zn, Cr, other metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) were released into the bayou. Cores were taken from baldcypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard] trees growing in the swamp alongside the bayou and trees growing along a 610-m transect (nine trees) and a 183-m transect (six trees) running perpendicular from the spoil bank into the swamp. The cores were crossdated, annual rings were measured, and 5-yr segments of the cores were prepared and analyzed for metals. Heavy metals and organic pollutants from oil refineries and other sources contaminated the annual rings of the trees, beginning in the early 1900s. Levels of Pb and Zn in Bayou Trepagnier swamp trees were compared to levels in nine baldcypress trees growing along Stinking Bayou, a reference area. An historical record of levels of pollution was produced, showing high levels of Pb as well as Zn correlated with the establishment of petroleum refineries and dredging. Trees in the upper portion of the bayou (near the refinery) averaged more than twice as much Pb as trees in the lower portion. Baldcypress trees growing near the refinery on the spoil bank along the bayou averaged 4.5 mg/kg Pb, and trees along Stinking Bayou averaged 2.1 mg/kg. In contrast to Pb, concentrations of Zn did not correlate with distance from the refinery and were similar to levels in the refer-

University of California Los Angeles

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SCHWEIGER, ANNA K.* and CAVENDER-BARES, JEANNINE

Spectral profiles of plants: Integrating multiple dimensions of biodiversity

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oss of plant biodiversity imperils ecosystem functions and services because many ecosystem processes depend on functional differentiations among plants. Functional diversity promotes resource partitioning and facilitation across spatial and temporal scales. Assessment of functional diversity is thus critical but also complicated. Both practical limitations and incomplete knowledge impede our ability to decipher and measure the most important traits for particular ecosystem functions. Assessing the variability among individuals in these traits, the effects of species interactions, and the spatial and temporal distribution of key limiting resources adds additional difficulty. Spectroscopic techniques can advance efforts to address these challenges.

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Symposia and Colloquia ence area. Trees in Bayou Trepagnier swamp soil with 10 to 425 mg/kg Pb concentrated much more Pb than trees growing on the heavily polluted bank. Greater uptake of Pb by trees in the swamp is discussed in terms of soil dynamics and Pb sources.

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U.S. Forest Service, Center For Bottomland Hardwoods Research, PO Box 227, Stoneville, MS, 38776, USA

Interlinked relationships among plants, subsistence-oriented communities and climate change

SAVO, VALENTINA* 1, LEPOFSKY, DANA 2, BENNER, JORDAN 1, KOHFELD, KAREN 1, BAILEY, JOSEPH 1 and LERTZMAN, KEN 1

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NICHOLS, RUTH* 1, HEINTZMAN, PETE 2, WANG, YUE 3, NEWSOM, LEE 4, BELMECHARI, SOUMAYA 5, GREEN, EDWARD 6, VOLLMERS, CHRISTOPHER 6 and SHAPIRO, BETH 7

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n the Anthropocene, human impacts on the environment have been extensive. In terms of plant biodiversity, land use change, pollution, biotic exchanges and climate change are among the most important drivers of change. Many human communities have close relationships with their surrounding environments and have developed systems of management and stewardship that promote biodiversity and cultural diversity. Many of these communities have paced their subsistence activities to the rhythms of the seasons and to cycles of resource availability and abundance. Consequently, community members are often both keen observers of changes in these cycles and are profoundly affected by them. Here, we present the results of a global review of observations made by these subsistence-oriented people about changes in their biological worlds. This study covered peer-reviewed and gray literature (~1000 sources) and included observations of climate change and its impacts on plants and animals. A total of 2899 observations were collated from many localities around the world. The most frequent observations were about decreases in crop production or quality, especially as a consequence of altered rainfall patterns, more extreme droughts, and an increased persistence of pests due to warmer temperatures. People observed that both crops and wild plants can now thrive at higher altitudes in mountainous areas, while the range of mountaintop species has shrunk. At high latitudes, several communities have observed the northward advancement of the treeline and the appearance of new species. People also report phenological alterations of wild and cultivated plants, with potentially adverse consequences for humans and animals. Although the current declines in biodiversity have multiple causes, in several localities local communities have detected that climate change is having a role in local extirpations. These declines reflect a loss of genetic diversity and ecosystem complexity, but also a loss of human sustenance, medicines, and cultural diversity more broadly.

Reconstructing plant communities using DNA metabarcoding

U

nderstanding how ecosystems change can provide important information for managing biodiversity in the face of predicted future climate change. To this end, soil environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to characterize plant community compositions in both modern sites and sites throughout the last ice age. Despite the rise in the use of eDNA and metabarcoding, multiple factors that can potentially influence the taxonomic composition of a eDNA sample have yet to be fully explored. In our study, we compared present-day community composition on St. Paul Island, Alaska as inferred from analyses of eDNA with above-ground vegetation surveys and tested the effect of soil volume, number of PCR cycles, number of replicates and amount of sequencing done on the resulting taxonomic composition found via DNA metabarcoding. Importantly, we have found that the metabarcoding reaction itself produces biased results that can severely skew the outcome of a metabarcoding study. We investigate and describe this bias and discuss the ramifications for current metabarcoding studies.

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University of California Santa Cruz, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA, 95060, USA2Tromsø University Museum, Department of Natural Sciences, P. O. box 6050 Langnes, Tromsø, NO-9037, Norway3University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Geography, 550 North Park Street, Madison, WI, 53706, USA4Flagler College, Social Sciences, 74 King Street, St. Augustine, FL, 32084, USA5University of Arizona, Laboratory of TreeRing Research, 1215 E. Lowell St., Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA6University of California Santa Cruz, Biomolecular Engineering, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064, USA7University of California Santa Cruz, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA, 95064, USA

1

Simon Fraser University, School of Resource and Environmental Management, Burnaby, BC, Canada2Simon Fraser University, Department of Archaeology, Burnaby, BC, Canada

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MENDOZA, MARTIN ALFONSO* 1 , NEGREROS-CASTILLO, PATRICIA 2, NAVARRO-MARTêNEZ, ANGƒLICA 3, MIZE, CARL W 4 and CÁMARA CABRALES, LUISA 5

Creating silviculture systems for tropical forests in Mexico

S

ilviculture is the art, science and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, health, quality and growth of forests to accomplish a set of management objectives. Numerous scientific studies have been carried out to understand tropical forest ecology in Mexico, including regeneration mechanisms, growth rates and silviculture methods. This presentation presents three approaches to tropical silviculture in Mexico. I) Plan Costa de Jalisco (PCJ) is an alternative response to traditional tropical timber management as practiced in most parts of the world, including the Yucatan Peninsula. After 35 years of successful practice, PCJ has improved over traditional management because it does not rely on minimum diameter cutting, or limits to harvest removals, or re-entry cylce. Instead, PCJ operates by group selection cuts, some of them as large as two hectares. II) MIZE (Integrated method of ecological zonification), considers three basic tools proposed to manage the natural forests in the Yucatan Peninsula: 1) Slash & Burn shifting agriculture (S & BA). Apply S & BA as a silvicultural system to establish valuables species, including mahogany; 2) Stand replacement, efficiently harvest all available products while opening space to develop a new even-aged stand containing the species mix characteristic of the region with a preponderance of desired species; and 3) tending, apply all intermediate treatments (thinning, spacing, sanity, enrichment, etc.) needed to develop the type of stand desired. III) Método Silvícola Peninsular (MSP), adapted PCJ to mahogany forests from Yucatan Peninsula by enlarging harvest openings enough to allow corn production in a fashion similar to S & BA. Since rotation delays in mahogany forests are usually large, these were adopted as a harvest regulation scheme. Allocation of cutting areas and stand replacement treatments in MSP follow a Taboo search algorithm driven by simulated forecasts of stand development from a silvicultural simulation model. This model is designed as a production function that complies with economic theory, such as diminishing returns to scale. Financial performance of land value is the main criterion to select a recommended management plan. MIZE and MSP connect forest theory and regulatory frameworks with a traditional culture of land use, such as Maya style S & BA is expected to facilitate the willingness of ethnic Maya communities to participate in commercial timber production. A secondary expected outcome is a firmer handling of timberlands when treated as part of the household endowment in these traditional communities.

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Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Veracruz, Km 36.5 Carretera Mexico Texcoco, Montecillo, Texcoco, Mexico, 56230, Mexico2Academia Nacional de Ciencias Forestales, Forestry, Santos Degollado #81-5, Xalapa, Outside US/Canada/Australia/France/Germany, 91000, Mexico3Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Av. Centenario Km

5.5., Chetumal, Quintana Roo, 77900, Mexico4Academia Nacional de Ciencias Forestales AC, Mexico, CDMX, Mexico5Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Av. Universidad s/n, Col. Magisterial, Villahermosa, Tabasco, 86040, Mexico

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KOPTUR, SUZANNE* 1, JONES, IAN M. 2 and DIAZ, CECILIA M. 3

Ants and plants with extrafloral nectaries in urban and natural landscapes of south Florida

N

ative plant species with extrafloral nectaries interact with ants in natural areas, but what happens to these associations in fragmented natural areas, gardens, and other urban places? Ants are attracted to extrafloral nectaries of native legumes in many genera (including Chamaecrista, Senna, Lysiloma, and Pithecellobium) and in several cases we have evidence that the ants may benefit plants by deterring herbivory by phytophagous insects. Many other species of these native plant genera grow as ornamentals or invasive species in south Florida, and serve as host plants for some of the same herbivore species as do the native plant species. We contrast the ant species associated with these plants in natural and urban areas, and use network analysis to compare ant/plant interactions in these two communities. 1

Florida International University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 11200 SW 8th St, Miami, FL, 33199, USA2USDA Invasive Plant Research Laboratory, 3225 College Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, 33314, USA3Institute of Ecology (INECOL), Interacciones Multitroficas, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico


Symposia and Colloquia A Single Symbiota-based Herbarium Network for the US 14

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BARKWORTH, MARY* 1 and BUCKLEY, STEVE 2

A Single Symbiota-based Herbarium Network in the US

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BUCKLEY, STEVE and BARKWORTH, MARY* 2

C

urrently there are 10 different herbarium networks in the US, 8 of which use Symbiota to display information and 1 of which is moving to Symbiota. Although each has its own primary focus, there is significant overlap among them in the kinds of specimen records they host. This is particularly true of the regional networks, most of which accept records of all organismal groups housed in the herbaria of their region, no matter where the specimen was collected. The existence of multiple networks is a significant long term disadvantage to herbaria. It limits the ability to use the tools in Symbiota to accelerate data capture, georeferencing, and general data cleaning. The consequence is increased costs for initial digitization and maintenance. It also requires that numerous tasks, such as adding newly described taxa to a nomenclatural backbone, have to be conducted separately within each network. In addition, it is a major obstacle for applications that wish to interact directly with original records and record providers. This is particularly serious problem for the many federal agencies whose interests extend across the whole country. We suggest that development of a single Symbiota-based network would better serve the needs of both herbaria and the many users of herbarium data. Such a Symbiota-based network could be built with minimal impact on existing specialist networks and portals. It would draw the data herbaria are already providing into a common Symbiota network, extending the benefits derived from its duplicate discovery tools to be used across all herbaria while providing all users access to Symbiota“s data management, cleaning tools, visualization, communication, and teaching tools without requiring that they be used. Development of a single Symbiota-based network would accelerate the rate at which records could be provided to iDigBio and facilitate increasing in their quality. It would also not affect workflows within a herbarium nor from a herbarium to an already existing Symbiota-based portal. A single national network would also appeal to several potential funding sources without impeding, and possibly aiding, sources currently open to taxonomic and regional networks. This aspect is particularly important as concerns rise about how to fund the ongoing maintenance of these digital resources on which we and non-botanical users are increasingly dependent. The colloquium is designed to provide an opportunity for hearing different perspectives on the above proposal and address the many questions that it raises, including those relating to funding and governance.

A Single Symbiota-based Herbarium Network for the US

C

urrently there are over 10 different herbarium networks in the US. Although each has its own primary focus, there is significant overlap among them for the kinds of specimen records they host. This is particularly true of the regional networks, most of which accept records of all organismal groups housed in the herbaria of their region, no matter where the specimen was collected. The existence of multiple networks is becoming a significant long term disadvantage to herbaria. It limits the ability to use already existing tools that help with duplicate discovery to accelerate data capture, georeferencing, and general data cleaning. The consequence is increased maintenance costs and requires that numerous tasks, such as adding newly described taxa to a nomenclatural backbone, have to be conducted separately within each network that is accepting records. This is also a major obstacle for applications that interact directly with original records and record providers. This is particularly serious problem for the many federal agencies whose interests extend across the whole country. We suggest that development of a single Symbiotabased network would better serve the needs of both herbaria and the many users of herbarium data including government agencies. As opposed to having multiple networks using different systems. Such a Symbiotabased network could be built with minimal impact on existing specialist networks and portals. It would draw the data herbaria are already providing into a common Symbiota network and provide all users access to Symbiota“s data management, visualization, communication, and teaching tools. Similarly, development of a single Symbiota-based network would not affect any records sent to iDigBio, nor would it affect workflows within a herbarium nor from a herbarium to an already existing Symbiota-based portal. A national network would appeal to funding sources because of its scale, especially collaborative funding, which would be harder to obtain for a taxonomic or regional network without detracting from the ability of such networks to appeal to funding sources with a narrower interest. This aspect is particularly important as concerns rise about how to fund the ongoing maintenance of these digital resources on which we are becoming increasingly dependent. The colloquium is designed to provide an opportunity for hearing different perspectives on the above proposal and address the many questions that it raises, including those relating to funding and governance of the proposed network.

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Utah State University, Department Of Biology, 5305 OLD MAIN HILL, Logan, UT, 84322-5305, USA2Lassen Volcanic , PO Box 100, Mineral, CA, 96063, USA

1

National Park Service2Utah State University, Department Of Biology, 5305 OLD MAIN HILL, Logan, UT, 84322-5305, USA

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NELSON, GIL* 1, GILBERT, EDWARD 2, MONFILS, ANNA K 3, MURRELL, ZACK 4, RABELER, RICHARD 5, SWEENEY, PATRICK 6 and THIERS, BARBARA 7

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The Practical Importance of Multiple Networks in Aggregating Herbarium Data across the United States

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ince the National Science Foundation’s 2011 launch of the Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections (ADBC) program, the creation and mobilization of biodiversity data across all collection domains has increased exponentially. This has been especially true for herbaria, a number of which began successful digitization programs even before the establishment of ADBC. Institutions such the New York Botanical Garden, Florida Museum of Natural History, the Harvard Herbaria, Missouri Botanical Garden, Rocky Mountain Herbarium at the University of Wyoming, the Jepson Herbaria at the University of California, Berkeley, and Fairchild Tropical Garden were among the earliest of those making digital data available online. Along with these were several multi-institutional networks, including the California Consortium of Herbaria, the Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria, and SEINet. ADBC has supported the sustainability and expansion of many of these initiatives as well as the establishment of numerous new initiatives. In 2011, iDigBio became the NSF’s designated central HUB for facilitating the creation, mobilization, aggregation, and discovery of digital collections data. As a condition of funding, institutions who receive NSF awards must now agree to deposit their biodiversity data into the iDigBio data store. The establishment of an NSF-supported data store and the coalescing of the various institutional and networked databases has led to a multi-tiered approach to data aggregation and discovery in the United States. At the base of this hierarchy are institutional datasets maintained in a variety of open and closed systems (e.g. Arctos, EMu, Specify, standalone and networked Symbiota-based portals, and custom online and desktop applications). This framework has allowed maximum flexibility for institutions when choosing how to manage their data and how to deliver those data to national and international aggregators. Here we argue for the benefits of this multitiered infrastructure and a single national data repository. We also argue that building specialized interfaces against a common, nationally designated data store is more effective in harnessing the collective resources of the botanical community than building parallel systems that lack the leverage to ensure adequate data contributions and likely the human and financial capital to sustain such systems.

1

Florida State University2Arizona State University, Global Institute Of Sustainability, 2831 E. 18th St, Tucson, AZ, 85716, USA3Central Michigan University, Biology, 2401 Biosciences, Mt. Pleasant, MI, 488594APPALACHIAN ST UNI, Department Of Biology, 572 RIVERS ST. RANKIN SCI BLDG, BOONE, NC, 28608, USA5University of Michigan, Research Museums Center, 3600 Varsity Drive #1042, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48108-2228, USA6Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University Herbarium, P.O. Box 208118, New Haven, CT, 06520-8118, USA7The New York Botanical Garden, Herbarium, 2900 Southern Blvd., Bronx, NY, 10458, USA

RABELER, RICHARD

ADBC + Symbiota at MICH: Rapid acceleration and diversification of a digital resource igitization of herbarium specimens at the University of Michigan Herbarium (MICH) began over 40 years ago with the development of a database for recording information about type specimens in the mid-1970s using the TAXIR information storage/ retrieval system running on the MTS operating system on an Amdahl 470V/6 mainframe computer. Prior to 2012, several other databasing projects were initiated; most involved collections aligned with faculty research interests. Participation in a multi-institution web portal started in 2007 when MICH joined the JSTOR Global Plants Initiative project. MICH received the first of six TCN grants in 2011, with digitization for the Tri-Trophic TCN beginning in January, 2012. In the last five years, the number of specimens represented by at least a skeletal database record has grown from about 318,000 to over 990,000 with the imaged collections (specimens or labels) growing even further from about 100,000 to over 665,000. Management of this resource has been, up to now, dispersed - with roughly one-half of MICH specimens currently located in Specify with most of the remainder housed in six different Symbiota portals; records in only two of these six overlap. Over 564,000 records were created directly in these portals, often taking advantage of duplicate matching and SALIX parsing during transcription of specimen labels after imaging. A recent move to consolidate the database systems in the University of Michigan natural history museums within an in-house Specify system will not only change workflows within any future TCN projects, but also change the interaction with portals from direct record creation to one of supplying MICH records via an IPT (Internet Portal Toolkit) server. University of Michigan, Research Museums Center, 3600 Varsity Drive #1042, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48108-2228, USA

18

HARDISON, LINDA K.

The Oregon Flora Project: adding value to a regional floristic dataset

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he Oregon Flora Project website (http://oregonflora.org) is a comprehensive resource about the ~4,650 non-cultivated vascular plants of Oregon. Herbarium specimen records are a key component of this floristic dataset. The Oregon Flora Project (OFP) manages the database of the vascular plants from the Oregon State University Herbarium and delivers these data to aggregators including the Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria (CPNWH). To present a holistic view of Oregon taxa, the OFP website combines specimen data from 13 regional herbaria along with unvouchered observations using a custom-coded interactive mapping tool that was first released in 2005. Small, regionally significant collections from government agencies and small colleges were databased for this effort. Records from larger academic institutions that were independently databasing specimens were also included. The OFP plant distribution database now includes <540,000


Symposia and Colloquia vouchered and unvouchered records of Oregon taxa from over 35 herbaria. Most datasets are retrieved from the CPNWH. With its focus on Oregon, a high degree of curation is applied to imported data. A taxonomic thesaurus developed for a new Flora of Oregon provides the nomenclatural framework. All OFP tools reflect rich synonymy and are cross-referenced to the nine key floras covering Oregon. Ambiguities within imported records such as names which are misapplied to Oregon taxonomic concepts and names that refer in part to more than one accepted Oregon concept are resolved before the records are presented in the OFP website. If clarity cannot be reached, the records are suppressed, as are those that lack sufficiently accurate georeferencing coordinates. The OFP has very recently moved to a Symbiota platform and maintains a portal. Existing Symbiota functionality and newly developed features allow the OFP to continue its presentation of Oregon taxonomic concepts reflected in specimen data. The OFP website also gained the capacity to map specimen records for Oregon taxonomic concepts beyond state boundaries. The relevance and accessibility of OFP data are extended to a wide audience through supporting datasets such as unvouchered occurrence data, a photo gallery, and interactive resources to targeted audiences such as native plant gardeners.

20 SHARON

Why Isn't There Already a Single Herbarium Network?

It’s not the platform that’s the predicament; the problem is the planning.”If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled platforms,Where’s the peck of pickled platforms Peter Piper picked? There is no single place to easily retrieve plant biodiversity data. Why? A cycle of fracturing. The vPlants project (http://vPlants.org) was a good online resource for retrieving regional plant records. However, its tools were specific to the project, and the scope of the data was narrow. That was a necessary limitation of the funding, and a consequence was that its tools could not be easily shared across similar systems. New projects therefore had to recreate these tools and re-publish data again and again. How do we break the cycle? Data tools need to be shared, datasets need to be connected, and funding should consider the long-term. Symbiota“s toolset addresses the issue of needing reusable tools, but datasets remain disconnected. VertNet (http://vertnet.org) is a collaborative tool for the publication and discovery of vertebrate biodiversity data. It successfully connects data that originally started with separate collections datasets (OrNIS, MaNIS, HerpNet, FishNet).

Oregon Flora Project, Botany & Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis,, OR, 97331-2902, USA

19

WEBBINK, KATE* and GRANT,

BUCKLEY, STEVE

The Public Lands Flora: Building informatics systems to manage biodiversity in protected areas

The U.S. NSF Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections (ADBC) program is an example of a national funding stream whose remit is to consider the longterm permanence of natural history digital content.

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he Public Lands Flora (http://symbiota.org/nps) is a pilot project designed to explore the use of biodiversity informatics systems to benefit land management in protected areas and other federally-controlled lands. The Public Lands Flora links checklist from multiple federal agencies with occurrence data in a floristic information system that contains both identification and analysis tools. The system draws on the NSF-funded open source content management system Symbiota and accesses millions of plant specimens housed in natural history collections that are part of the Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet). The Public Lands Flora has a national scope and is hindered only by the lack of a single Symbiota infrastructure. In the absence of a federated system that links up Symbiota data, the unique tools for data management found in the Symbiota system are not as fully useful for federal or other large-scale land managers. A disconnected nodal system hinders the capacity to create agency-curated and other national datasets. It also limits the use of the many data curation and data quality tools that help to improve data found in herbaria across the United States. Large scale data management can be done today using the existing technology found in Symbiota portals, were it not for the disconnection of portals.

Considering the examples set by Symbiota, VertNet, and ADBC provides a framework for breaking the cycle.

Field Museum of Natural History, Technology, 1400 S Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL, 60605, USA

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BARKWORTH, MARY* 1 and BUCKLEY, STEVE 2

Funding and Organization Issues

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he biggest problem that biodiversity informatics networks face is funding. Funding is neededfor digitization, maintenance of existing networks, and for adding new abilities to existing network software. Forming a single, Symbiota-based, herbarium network will not lead to an immediate increase in funding. However, it will lead to an effective increase as the duplicate discovery, georeferencing, and feedback tools already integrated into Symbiota become available across all US herbaria, not just within a network. Maintenance and updating of the taxonomic backbone of individual networks could be made easier through this economy of scale. Maintenance costs might not be substantially lower in the short-term but, in the long term, management of a single network could increase efficiency and enable beneficial specialization. Moreover, many potential donors would find supporting maintenance of

National Park Service, Lassen Volcanic National Park, PO Box 100, Mineral, CA, 96063, USA

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a national network more appealing than supporting disconnected partial networks. Forming a single network would also make it easier to provide high quality data on the progress US herbaria are making in digitizing existing collections and integrating digitization into their standard operating procedures and on usage of the data. This would aid in seeking support. Lastly, with a fund for maintenance in place, new proposals could focus on integrating new entities and abilities into Symbiota. Organizationally, there would need to be a governing board to advise and oversee development of the network. Such an board should include representatives from multiple user groups in addition to herbaria and their staff. In developing the board, consideration should be give to providing voting rights only to those providing financial support. 1

Utah State University, Department Of Biology, 5305 OLD MAIN HILL, Logan, UT, 84322-5305, USA2National Park Service, Lassen Volcanic National Park, PO Box 100, Mineral, CA, 96063, USA

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BARKWORTH, MARY* 1 and BUCKLEY, STEVE 2

Open Discussion

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he last session of the colloquium is set aside for open discussion of the proposal that the US would benefit from forming be a single, Symbiota-based herbarium network that would draw from existing networks so as to permit taking advantage of its abilities across all US herbaria. Presenters can be asked to elaborate on comments they made but it is also a time to bring up issues or concerns not addresse by any of the speakers. 1

Utah State University, Department Of Biology, 5305 OLD MAIN HILL, Logan, UT, 84322-5305, USA2National Park Service, Lassen Volcanic National Park, PO Box 100, Mineral, CA, 96063, USA


Symposia and Colloquia Big Data and the Conservation of North America's Flora 23 ANNE* 2

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FRANCES, ANNE* 1, OLIVER, LEAH 2 and TREHER, AMANDA 2

Using data from the Natural Heritage Network to analyze trends in plant conservation

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OWELL, PEGGY and FRANCES,

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he conservation of native plants, especially those experiencing threats and population declines, is dependent on accurate information about each species’ location, population health, and protection needs. In cooperation with Natural Heritage Programs in each U.S. state, Canadian Conservation Data Centres, and other collaborators, the NatureServe Network has used a long-standing, standardized, and vetted methodology to assess each plant species’ risk of imperilment at subnational, national, and global scales for decades. These assessments, or ranks, determine priorities that support the protection and management of the rarest and most vulnerable plant species. The NatureServe Network tracks the status of rare species through the mapping of Element Occurrences, which represent populations that contribute to the survival or persistence of the species. This presentation will review trends in plant conservation in the U.S. and Canada from Natural Heritage Network data, including conservation status assessments and Element Occurrences. We will identify data gaps necessary for effective conservation and discuss how these gaps may be filled by newly available data such as online floras, digitized herbarium specimens, plant trait databases, and citizen science data.

Big Data and the Conservation of North America's Flora

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otanists have a crucial role to play in conserving the plants of North America. To fully realize the goal of conserving plant biodiversity in a comprehensive and holistic manner, academics, conservationists, and land managers need to join forces. This is because approximately one third of the 30,000 species of plants native to the US and Canada are considered at-risk (“critically imperiled”, “imperiled”, or “vulnerable”according to NatureServe). Plant imperilment is expected to increase due to intensifying impacts of climate change and plant pests and pathogens. Yet plant conservation overall continues to suffer from insufficient attention and funding. For example, only 20 percent of plants regarded by NatureServe as "critically imperiled" or "imperiled" are federally listed under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). More than 55 percent of species protected by the ESA are plants and yet only four percent of Federal recovery funds go to ESA listed plants. In addition, botanical expertise is spread thin and botanical capacity is declining. Although many plants have been successfully conserved over the past several decades, our conservation methods and level of engagement have largely remained the same. To meet the pressing challenge of conserving plants in the coming decades, we need to integrate new approaches that enable us to use limited resources in more coordinated and efficient ways. New technologies and the increasing availability of big data provide opportunities to increase our efficiency and connect research results to conservation. This symposium will highlight how big data can inform and guide plant conservation more effectively, while identifying challenges associated with big data. The presentation topics span many aspects of plant conservation that overlap different areas of botanical research. The first talk analyzes trends in plant status over the decades using data from the Natural Heritage Network, observation data, and newly digitized herbarium specimens. The next presentation summarizes results on the first attempt to quantify plant extinction in North America north of Mexico. The following topic explores how the rapidly changing fields of systematics and bioinformatics pose new opportunities and challenges for tracking taxonomic concepts. Subsequently, the use of new technologies in both ex-situ and in-situ conservation will be discussed. The next presentation provides a regional perspective on plant conservation, with important insights gained only from documenting complete floristic inventories over time. The final talk examines incorporating data from multiple scales (e.g., climate data and plant genetic data) into seed sourcing for ecological restoration.

1

NatureServe, 4600 North Fairfax Drive, 7th Floor, Arlington, VA, 22203, USA, 305-321-70732NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington, VA, 22203, United States

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KNAPP, WESLEY* 1, FRANCES, ANNE 2, WEAKLEY, ALAN 3, NACZI, ROBERT 4, GANN, GEORGE D. 5, JACKIE, POOLE 6, BALDWIN, BRUCE 7, JOHN, CLARK 8, DANIEL, GLUESENKAMP 9, HEIDEL, BONNIE 10, KATHRYN, KENNEDY 11, PATRICK, MCINTYRE 12, JAMES, MILLER 13, BRENT, MISHLER 14, GERRY, MOORE 15, REED, NOSS 16, RICHARD, OLMSTEAD 17, DANIELA, ROTH 18, JASON, SINGHURST 19 and ANNA, STRONG 19

Vascular Plant Extinction in North America north of Mexico; what have we lost and what can we learn?

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1

Bureau of Land Management2NatureServe, 4600 North Fairfax Drive, 7th Floor, Arlington, VA, 22203, USA, 305-321-7073

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pecies extinction is a permanent event that we as a conservation community strive to prevent. As we progress through the Anthropocene the extinction rates of plants and animals are expected to increase, and some biodiversity hot-spots are projected to become centers of extinction. Though speculation is common about increased extinction rates in the future, we have yet to quantify the current extinction rates of plants and many animals. This study represents the first effort to quantify the extinction rate of the vascular flora of North


America, north of Mexico. We compiled our data on potentially extinct species by querying plant conservation databases, searching the literature, and vetting the resulting list against a large group of botanical experts from across North America. Because taxonomic opinion can vary widely amongst experts, we developed an Index of Taxonomic Uncertainty (ITU). The ITU scale ranges from A to F, with an A rank indicating unanimous taxonomic recognition and an F rank indicating taxonomic recognition by a single author. The ITU allowed us to evaluate extinction rates under standardized taxonomic considerations. Our data suggest 81 plants are globally historic or extinct from our study area, since European settlement. The disparity between western and eastern North America extinction rates may be a result of survey effort before widespread settlement. The majority of extinct plants were single site endemics and occurred in areas not recognized as a biodiversity hot-spot. Given the paucity of plant surveys in many areas of North America, particularly prior to European settlement, the actual extinction rate of vascular plants is undoubtedly much higher than this study indicates. The number of plants that went extinct before being documented by science is impossible to quantify, but it is plausible that hundreds of single site endemics went extinct before they were described. The fact that many extinct plants occurred in habitats not recognized as biodiversity hotspots has significant implications for current conservation efforts. If limited conservation resources focus only on biodiversity hotspots, it is likely that the extinction of single site endemics will continue into the future. We recommend further research, particularly taxonomic and field, on single site endemics to ensure their protection into the future. 1

North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, 176 Riceville Rd., Asheville, NC, 288052NatureServe, 4600 North Fairfax Drive, 7th Floor, Arlington, VA, 22203, USA, 305-321-70733CB 3280, UNC Herbarium / NC Botanical Garden, UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-3280, USA4The New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern Blvd., Bronx, NY, 10458, USA5The Institute for Regional Conservation, 100 E. Linton Blvd, Suite 302B, Delray Beach, Florida, 33483, USA6Wildlife Diversity Program, Retired, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, TX7University Of California Berkeley, JEPSON HERB & DEPT INTEGR BIOL, 1001 Valley Life Sciences Building, MC 2465, Berkeley, CA, 94720-2465, USA8Center for Plant Conservation, Escondido, CA9California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA10Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY11U.S. Forest Service, Albuquerque, NM12California Natural Diversity Database, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, Sacramento, CA13Missouri Botanical Gardens, St. Louis, MO14Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA15National Plant Data Team, Natural Resource Conservation Service, Greensboro, NC16Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL17University Of Washington, Department Of Biology, CAMPUS BOX 355325, SEATTLE, WA, 98195-5325, USA18New Mexico EMNRD-Forestry Division, Santa Fe, NM19Texas Parks and Wildlife, Austin, TX

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WEAKLEY, ALAN

The role of systematics, taxonomic concepts, and databases in conservation

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t may seem a truism to state that systematics is fundamental to conservation; yet the connection is often obscured. We can’t work to conserve what we don’t know exists, and modern planning for the conservation of rare species depends on accurately assessing the taxonomy of putative imperiled species, gathering accurate and current data on extant and viable occurrences of these species, and working to assure their conservation. The taxonomic validity of taxa, and the vailidity of their imperilment, are both critical to avoiding either unaffordable Type 1 or Type 2 errors: failing to conserve a valid and imperiled taxon, or expending substantial effort to conserve a taxonomically meaningless or non-imperiled taxon. Efficient conservation planning leading to optimal and effective conservation action depends on aggregating data on many species and conducting geographically explicit meta-analyses. With increasing efforts to aggregate biodiversity data, this goal may seem in reach, but it is seriously hampered by uncareful and unsophisticated data aggregation that ignores the pervasive issue of differing taxonomic concepts for a taxon and associated different meanings of a name (on the one hand, data associated with a particular name may not refer unambiguously to the same entity, and on the other hand, data associated with a different name may refer unambiguously to the same entity). Developing an effective data foundation for conservation is also hampered by severe underfunding for field surveys, taxonomic research, imperilment ranking, and database design and development. We can do better, in small and large ways, to provide a solid data foundation to inform conservation!

CB 3280, UNC Herbarium / NC Botanical Garden, UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-3280, USA

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MASCHINSKI, JOYCE M* , CLARK, JOHN R and HEINEMAN, KATHERINE

Integrating plant conservation data at multiple scales to inform plant conservation recovery priorities

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o meet the pressing challenge of conserving endangered plants for the future will require that we integrate new approaches to accomplish coordinated and efficient conservation actions with limited resources. Much of the solution to this coordination lies in how data is input, managed, and shared. The Center for Plant Conservation and its participating institutions are committed to ex situ conservation that supports species survival in the wild. Because we work at local, regional, national and international scales, we exemplify a model of such integration. Working with partners in their regions, CPC scientists identify species of concern, their threats, and possible solutions for the species’ recovery. While making seed collections from wild rare plant populations, they note population level data: location, numbers of individuals, and numbers of reproductive individuals. As part of standard protocols for storing


Symposia and Colloquia seed, they test seed to determine viability, the rate and percent germination. Ensuring consistency in data collection and efficiency in data assimilation is a challenge for this type of cross-institutional collaboration. To improve the speed and quality of data sharing among institutions, we have created a system of online forms that automatically populates a cloud database, which can be accessed by our partners for state and national level analyses. For example, data kept by individual participating institutions to track accessions can collectively inform whether goals of California Plant Rescue have been met. This state-wide effort aims to secure ex situ collections of seed from at least 75% of the rarest California plant species by 2020 in support of Target 8 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. A centralized database populated from online forms enables broadscale tracking and planning for future seed collections. Sensitive information in the database is only available to member institutions, while generalized information about the species that have been collected is available to the public. Collating CPC institutional data on national and international scales allows us to examine patterns of rare plant attributes and conservation actions across ecosystems, taxa, and time. A key component for all new initiatives will be to make the forms themselves useful at multiple scales so that data transfer is seamless and easily converted for analysis. So doing will leave more time for essential plant conservation - the whole point after all.

ing all existing information on plant distributions and rarity, intensive field surveys in dozens of protected areas, and collecting and databasing herbarium specimens. IRC then assessed the conservation status of the South Florida flora using a modified Heritage Program ranking system (now NatureServe). Results of this work are published online as the Floristic Inventory of South Florida (Gann et al. 2001-2017) and as the book Rare Plants of South Florida: Their History, Conservation and Restoration (Gann et al. 2002). These major findings directed IRC’s collaborative activities with multiple agencies at the local, regional and national level including: 1) setting up research and monitoring programs for rare plants in fragmented ecosystems; 2) actively restoring degraded habitat for numerous rare plants and several species listed by the U.S. Endangered Species Act; and, 3) conducting baseline studies to evaluate the impact of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan on rare plants in Everglades National Park. While Big Data from FNAI and NatureServe have been critical to the project, especially at early stages, the comprehensive nature of IRC’s work revealed gaps in knowledge at larger scales, producing data on new discoveries, changing taxonomic concepts, historical and extirpated taxa, and nationally imperiled species otherwise ignored. This information is then shared with collaborators, taking advantage of differences in scale to maximize effectiveness. The Institute for Regional Conservation, 100 E. Linton Blvd, Suite 302B, Delray Beach, Florida, 33483, USA

Center for Plant Conservation, San Diego Zoo Global, Plant Conservation, 15600 San Pasqual Valley Rd., Escondido, CA, 92027, USA

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29 PEGGY 2

GANN, GEORGE D.

EDWARDS, FRED* 1 and OWELL,

Connecting landscape scale ecological restoration with plant conservation

Scaling down and re-scaling up, using a comprehensive regional conservation approach to enhance national and international plant conservation strategies a case study from South Florida

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onserving North Americas Flora will require landscape scale restoration and vegetation management. Effective landscape scale restoration and vegetation management will require land managers to be strategic and more sophisticated about the native seed sources we select and use. Individual native plant species are the basic tools for restoring and managing ecosystems, but more often than not, we have very little information about individual life history, genetics, ecological interactions and distribution information of the common species we use for restoration. Current approaches to agronomic seed production will probably not restore population genetics and coevolved ecological relationships while “local is best” native seed sourcing may no longer be appropriate with changing climate. Developing the genetically appropriate seed sources we need for restoration requires botanists to understand and use data across scales ranging from molecular genetics and population genetics to ecoregions and climate data sets. The National Seed Strategy provides a framework for integrating science with land management and a useful example of how big data from multiple scales and sources needs to be integrated into seed source decision making for ecological restoration.

F

lorida is a large, floristically diverse state with many rare plant taxa of pressing conservation concern. While NatureServe and The Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) have collected and curated data on rare plants in Florida since the early 1980s, the biological diversity and geographic complexity of plant distributions present a challenge for conserving rare plants. South Florida, in particular, has undergone rapid transformation. With barely 25,000 residents in 1900 the area now contains about 8 million people spread unevenly over an area of about 4 million hectares. The greater Everglades ecosystem, home to myriad tropical and subtropical species, was wracked by massive engineering works and expansion of the agriculture frontier. Coastal and upland ecosystems, containing many endemic species, were radically transformed to accommodate growing human populations. In the mid-1990s, The Institute for Regional Conservation (IRC) initiated the Floristic Inventory of South Florida to complete a comprehensive conservation assessment of the region’s entire flora - a total of more than 1,400 native species, of which nearly 300 are found nowhere else in North America. This ambitious and collaborative program began with catalog-

1

U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, 1340 Financial Blvd, Reno, NV, 89502, USA2U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, 1849 C Street NW, Room 2134 LM, Washington , DC, 20240, USA

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Campanian-Maastrichtian Floras on Laramidia: Vegetation Trends West of the Seaway Sponsored by Paleobotanical Section.

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CONTRERAS, DORI L. 1 and BOUCHER, LISA* 2

Campanian-Maastrichtian floras on Laramidia: vegetation trends west of the seaway

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he record of Campanian-Maastrichtian floras in western North America is extensive and provides an exciting opportunity to understand the vegetation present on Laramidia before the end of the Cretaceous. Well-preserved macrofloral and microfloral assemblages occur at a number of sites distributed from northern North America to Mexico, which include leaves, wood and reproductive organs. A number of research groups are actively working on floras from different regions of eastern Laramidia. Colloquium participants will share their results from accumulated research efforts within different regions as well as new discoveries and more recent collections. Contributions will focus on local- and landscape-scale reconstructions, trends in anatomical and morphological leaf and wood traits, plant-insect interactions and paleoclimate. These contributions will be taxonomic and ecological in nature, including interdisciplinary and quantitative approaches that integrate sedimentological, stratigraphic, and geochemical data with paleobotanical information. By comparing such a large number of sites and specimens along eastern Laramidia, we can set the foundation to better address a number of questions and test hypotheses about Campanian-Maastrichtian floras, such as: How does vegetation vary with geography and/or climate? Are there taxa in common among similar settings? Does a latitudinal gradient in abundance or diversity exist among floral assemblages? Are there trends in leaf and wood characters in different plant groups? What type of vegetation dominated the landscape? Were forests open or closed canopy, and in what environments? Is there a correlation with those trends seen in the faunal composition and diversity? By organizing a colloquium focusing on comparing similar age floras from a diverse number of sites, we will be better able to synthesize data and significantly improve our understanding of Late Cretaceous floras. It would also be a perfect opportunity to encourage and plan manuscript contributions for a special journal volume.

1 University of California Berkeley2University Of Texas At Austin, Department Of Biology, 110 Inner Campus Drive F0404, Austin, TX, 78712-1711, USA, 402-850-8901

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JUD, NATHAN A* 1, D’EMIC, M. D. 2, WILLIAMS, S. A. 3, MATHEWS, J. C. 4, TREMAINE, K. M. 5 and BHATTACHARYA, J. 6

Fossil woods and the evolution of angiosperm body size

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lowering plants occupy the full range of sizes evolved by land plants, from minute herbs to enormous trees. How quickly did they come to occupy this range of morphospace? The fossil record of angiosperm woods offers an opportunity to answer this question because stem diameter is related to tree height and standing biomass. We recently discovered an enormous permineralized angiosperm log in the Turonian Ferron Sandstone in Utah. The specimen has an estimated 1.8 m diameter and at is least 11 m long. We used allometric scaling equations to estimate that this tree was approximately 50 m tall. To understand the significance of this discovery, we reviewed the published record of Cretaceous woods worldwide and collected data on minimum stem diameter for angiosperm woods at each locality. Our review indicates that this is among the largest Cretaceous angiosperms to date, and the only documented case of an angiosperm trunk >1 m diameter older than the Campanian. We also confirm the presence of a latitudinal gradient in both the size and abundance of Late Cretaceous angiosperm woods for western North America. Our review of the literature plus this new discovery indicate that large angiosperm trees formed part of the forest canopy in southern Laramidia and Appalachia by the early Late Cretaceous, nearly 10 million years earlier than previously thought, but at least 35 million years after flowering plants first appear in the fossil record.

1

Cornell University, School of Integrative Plant Sciences, Mann Library, Ithaca, NY, 14850, USA2Adelphi Univeristy, Department of Biology, Garden City, NY, 11530, USA3Burpee Museum of Natural History, Rockford, IL, 61103, USA4Northern Illinois University, Department of Biology, DeKalb, IL, 60115, USA5Montana State University and Museum of the Rockies, Earth Sciences, Bozeman, MT, 59715, USA6McMaster University, School of Geography and Earth Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L8, Canada

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UPCHURCH, JR., GARLAND* , PARROTT, JOAN 2, ESTRADA-RUIZ, EMILIO 3 and CONTRERAS, DORI L. 4

1

Climate and vegetation of southern Laramidia: A paleobotanical reconstruction for the upper Campanian Jose Creek Member, McRae Formation, south-central New Mexico

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eaf physiognomy of non-monocot angiosperms (“dicots”) is a long-standing source of data on Late Cretaceous terrestrial climate. Wood anatomy of nonmonocot angiosperms has similar potential, but error in the relation between wood anatomy and climate leads wood anatomists to urge caution. Leaf and wood macrofossils rarely occur in sufficiently close stratigraphic/ geographic proximity to permit cross checking, especially wood assemblages with high species diversity.


Symposia and Colloquia found in situ and as float. The Jose Creek wood flora, as currently understood, is one of the three most diverse Cretaceous wood floras in the world, and the only one where the majority of wood types represent mature, rather than juvenile, wood. Thirty-six species of nonmonocot angiosperms are present and represent both members of the magnoliid clade and eudicots. Most magnoliids represent Lauraceae (nine wood types). Today the family is a dominant element in Asian tropical and subtropical vegetation. Four wide-rayed platanoid types have a combination of features considered primitive in the Baileyan scheme of advancement (e.g., exclusively solitary vessels, scalariform perforation plates and very indistinct or no growth boundaries), warranting a new genus. Twenty-four woods (67 %) have simple perforation plates. An assemblage of exceptionally large angiosperms (Forest of Giants) consisting of in situ stumps and logs is composed of three wood types: Paraphyllanthoxylon, a probable Lauraceae, and a third morphotype with simple perforation plates and axial parenchyma in short rows. The largest Cretaceous angiosperm stump yet recorded worldwide, a Paraphyllanthoxylon encased in a matrix of coarse sandstone, measures two meters in diameter, indicating long periods of stable environment interrupted by high-energy disturbances. The absence of conifers at the site confirms evidence from Big Bend for angiosperm tree dominance in some ecological settings at lower-middle latitudes by the Late Campanian. A comparison of the Jose Creek wood flora to fossil woods worldwide indicates heterogeneity in the evolution of wood anatomical features. A higher percentage of McRae woods have solitary vessel arrangement compared to woods from Late Cretaceous or Paleocene floras worldwide, indicating a “less modern” aspect to the McRae flora in terms of that character, as would be expected given their Late Campanian age. In contrast, the percentage of taxa with simple perforation plates and obvious axial parenchyma shows Jose Creek woods to be more “modern” than the global average for Maastrichtian and Paleocene woods, and intermediate between these woods and woods of the Deccan Intertrappan Series (67-64 Ma, latest Cretaceous to earliest Paleocene).

The upper Campanian (74-76 mya) Jose Creek Member (JCM) of the McRae Formation, south-central New Mexico, USA, provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct climate for southern Laramidia through the combined analysis of leaf physiognomy, wood anatomy, and life form. The JCM preserves an abundant and diverse impression flora of >175 species, and an exceptionallypreserved permineralization flora of >50 species that comprises non-monocot angiosperm woods, conifer woods, and stems of palms and other large monocots. Leaf margin analysis estimates Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) of 21-22ºC, based on an early collection of 42 species and an expanded collection of 161 species, both from the same volcanic ash bed. Wood anatomy estimates warmer temperatures, with 30 and 38 species from the entire JCM estimating MAT of 24-27ºC and Cold Month Mean Temperature (CMMT) of 1623ºC. Leaf and wood estimates of MAT and CMMT are congruent with the absence of annual rings in most angiosperm and conifer wood types, and the presence of diverse rosette plants, including multiple types of palm stems and leaves, thermophilic cycad leaves and cones (cf. Ceratozamia) and a large palm stem base suggestive of tree habit. These constrain MAT to >13ºC and CMMT to >10-11ºC. Estimates of Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) are in general less certain, but year-round precipitation is indicated by abundant palms and gingers in non-swamp environments and non-calcic paleosols; wood anatomy sets an upper limit for MAP of ~3.5 m. The more southerly Olmos flora of Coahuila, Mexico provides similar climatic estimates from dicot leaf margins and wood anatomy but with possibly wetter conditions, consistent with major coal deposits. The range of estimates for the JCM and Olmos floras indicates climate most comparable to that of modern paratropical to tropical forest (sensu Wolfe, 1979) and tropical lowland to premontane moist/wet forest (sensu Holdridge, 1947). The JCM and Olmos floras, in combination with marine geochemical data, imply that lowland regions of southern Laramidia had fully tropical temperatures during the late Campanian-Maastrichtian. 1

Texas State University, Department Of Biology, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX, 78666, USA2Texas State University, Department of Biology, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX, 786663Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Departamento de Zoología, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n,, Col. Santo Tomás, Ciudad de México, MX, 113404University of California Berkeley

1

Texas State University, Department of Biology, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX, 786662Texas State University, Department Of Biology, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX, 78666, USA

34

MACCRACKEN, SARAH AUGUSTA* 1, MILLER, IAN M. 2, MITTER, CHARLES 3 and LABANDEIRA, CONRAD C. 4

33

PARROTT, JOAN* 1 and UPCHURCH, JR., GARLAND 2

The Angiosperm Wood Flora of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) McRae Formation, South-Central New Mexico: Diversity and Significance

Insect Herbivory of the Kaiparowits Formation Flora, Late Cretacous (Campanian) of Utah

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P

he Jose Creek Member of the McRae Formation, south-central New Mexico, preserves a diverse angiosperm flora of Late Campanian age (74-76 Ma). The Jose Creek Member is of special interest because it provides an abundance of fossil evidence in the form of leaves, reproductive structures, and silicified woods

lant-insect associations are becoming increasingly well documented in the fossil record, yet many reconstructions of ancient ecosystems continue to omit insects and insect herbivory. Western Interior fossils of phytophagous insects are relatively rare and known from only a small number of Late Cretaceous amber

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deposits. However, evidence for the damage that phytophagous insects inflictâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the punctures, skeletonization, galls and leaf mines in fossil leavesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;provide abundant evidence about deep-time species interactions. The Kaiparowits Formation (Late Cretaceous, 76.6-74.5 Ma) of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in south-central Utah has a well-documented paleontological record that continues to enhance our understanding of ecology and biogeography of Campanian ecosystems. Insect herbivory was analyzed for a portion of the Kaiparowits flora in an effort to characterize the diversity of plants and insect damage types. Of the ~800 identifiable leaf specimens, the majority of which are dicotyledons, 42% exhibit insect mediated damage. There are 52 distinct insect damage types categorized into eight functional feeding groups: hole feeding, surface feeding, skeletonization, leaf mining, oviposition, piercing and sucking, galling, and seed predation. This is the first research to describe and quantify plant-insect associations of the Kaiparowits Formation, which will augment reconstructions of Laramidian ecosystems. 1

Smithsonian Inst. National Museum of Natural History, Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, MRC 121, Washington, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, 20013-7012, United States2Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Earth Sciences, 2001 Colorado Blvd, Denver, CO, 80205, USA3University of Maryland, Entomology, 4291 Fieldhouse Drive, College Park, Maryland, 20742, USA4 Smithsonian Inst. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, MRC 121, Washington, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, 20013-7012, United States

35

CONTRERAS, DORI L.* 1, LOOY, CINDY 2, UPCHURCH, JR., GARLAND 3 and MACK, GREG 4

The late Campanian Jose Creek flora from New Mexico, a window into forest structure during the rise of angiosperms

L

ate Cretaceous floras spanning the North American Western Interior document an important transition in the composition and structure of forests during the ecological radiation of angiosperms. Although patterns in species richness of different plant groups are fairly well documented, patterns of evolution in community structure and life form dominance are not yet well established. Here we provide an updated report on an exceptional late Campanian macroflora (74.7 +/-1 myr) from southern Laramidia that is preserved in a single-horizon of recrystallized volcanic ash exposed over a 1.2 km long transect. The flora is from the Jose Creek Member, McRae formation of south-central New Mexico, which records deposition on an alluvial plain >200km inland from the Western Interior Seaway. To reconstruct landscape patterns, we established 26 quarries along the full length of the exposure, and censused fossils at each quarry by both the number of specimens and percent cover of morphotypes on rock surfaces using a line-intercept method. The deposit, which overlies a paleosol horizon indicative of well-drained conditions, contains abundant well-preserved plant macrofossils showing little to no evidence for transport, including in-situ stumps. To date over 155 leaf morphotypes have been recognized (>89% angiosperms) from the census of over 6,350 specimens and 30,860 2-cm line incre-

ments. Rarefaction analyses suggest that with increased sampling we will continue to recover new non-monocot angiosperms, but that diversity of other groups is not likely to increase appreciably. Angiosperms are the most abundant plant group (74% of specimens, 84% cover), followed by conifers, cycads, and ferns. There is strong dominance structure in the community. The most abundant five taxa by all metrics are a sequoioid conifer, Zingerberopsis-type monocot, Sabalites palm, Dryophyllum eudicot (Fagales), and a Brachyphyllum conifer. Diverse non-monocot angiosperms are mostly represented by locally abundant to rare taxa (totaling 47% of specimens, and 38% cover). As such, significant taxonomic heterogeneity exists between quarries, expected if each quarry represents locally-growing plants. Numerous reproductive structures are also found, including pollen cones, ovuliferous cones and isolated cone scales, flowers, seeds, and fruits. The overall picture that emerges is one of a diverse, spatially heterogeneous, non-analog flora consisting of redwoods, gingers, palms, diverse non-monocot angiosperms, and low-abundance ferns and cycads, which grew under paratropical/tropical, moist to wet conditions. 1

University of California Berkeley, UC Museum of Paleontology, 1101 Valley Life Sciences Bldg, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA2University Of California, Berkeley, Integrative Biology, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg #3140, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3140, USA3Texas State University, Department Of Biology, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX, 78666, USA4New Mexico State University, Department of Geosciences, Las Cruces, NM, 88003, USA

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BOUCHER, LISA

Reconstructing a Late Cretaceous woodland flora from southern Laramidia using fossil leaves and wood

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he Fruitland and Kirtland Formations (Late Cretaceous, 75.5-73 Ma) of northwestern New Mexico contain well-preserved leaf and reproductive macrofossils as well as silicified wood providing information about the plant diversity and ecology along a heterogeneous floodplain landscape. This study will summarize data from over twenty-five sites that have been extensively sampled for compression/impressions, and from well over sixty wood specimens collected from in situ stumps and logs in the same region. The leaf and wood data have been analyzed for paleoclimate variables, and they support subtropical-tropical temperatures with possible environmental disturbances and fluctuations in water availability. Leaf assemblages at some sites are dominated by angiosperms, whereas pteridophytes and conifers are more abundant at others with correlations to different subenvironments along the floodplain. Over 100 morphotypes have been identified including a leaf flora consisting of a variety of basal and eudicot angiosperms, palms, other monocots, araucariaceous and taxodiaceous conifers, and several fern orders including the Osmundales, Schizaeales and Polypodiales among others. Although much of the wood is coniferous (Cuppressinoxylon and Araucarioxylon), several angiosperm xylotypes have been identified such as Palmoxylon, Baasoxylon, and Paraphyllanthoxylon. Most of the larger stumps are conifers, with fewer angiosperms reaching larger tree sizes, and spacing is consistent with open


Symposia and Colloquia canopy woodlands. Because sites are heterogeneous on small spatial scales, the fossil type, sample size, and depositional setting play key roles in making meaningful comparisons between floral assemblages at different sites locally and globally. However, these data when combined with other sedimentological, microfloral, and geochemical data will provide a clearer picture of the evolutionary and paleoecological trends seen in Late Cretaceous floras.

38

University Of Texas At Austin, Department Of Biology, 110 Inner Campus Drive F0404, Austin, TX, 78712-1711, USA, 402-850-8901

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MATSUNAGA, KELLY K.S.* 1, SMITH, SELENA 2 and SHELDON, NATHAN 3

Paleoenvironmental insights into a Maastrichtian coniferous coastal ecosystem on the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway of North America he Western Interior Seaway occupied central North America during the mid to Late Cretaceous, extending as far north as Alaska during its highest stand, and beginning its retreat in the late Campanian or Maastrichtian. Calcareous concretions containing permineralized plant fossils from Maastrichtian deposits of the Pierre Shale Formation in Colorado provide a window into the vegetation and terrestrial environments on the western margin of the seaway. The concretions occur in shallow marine sediments and preserve fossilized fruits, seeds, spores, leaves, stems, and wood fragments that reflect a diverse flora comprising lycophytes, ferns, conifers, Bennettitales, and angiosperms. However, most fossils represent conifers, pointing to a conifer-dominated ecosystem at a time when many coeval floras in North American were angiosperm-dominated. Additionally, the frequent occurrence of charcoalified conifer wood suggests regular fires. To understand the paleoenvironmental context of this flora better, we analyzed the carbon isotopic composition of wood, charcoal, and bulk plant carbon. Our preliminary data yield a δ13C range of -26.50 - -22.46‰ (mean=-24.31‰) for wood. Similar values were observed for charcoalified wood, which exhibited a range of -25.21--23.30‰ (mean=-24.47‰). In contrast, the δ13C of bulk detrital plant carbon was -27.48--26.78‰ (mean=-27.08‰). Using a relationship derived from modern C3 plants that relates plant δ13C to atmospheric δ13C and the mean δ13C of the wood, we calculated a δ13C value for atmospheric CO2 of -5.20‰, which is consistent with a dominantly mantle/volcanic source of Cretaceous CO2. These data were then used to calculate two environmental indicators: pi/pa and Δleaf. pi/pa expresses the partial pressure of CO2 inside the leaf (pi) relative to that of atmospheric CO2 (pa), and increases with atmospheric CO2 concentration. Δleaf represents the offset between δ13C of the atmosphere and δ13C of plant leaf carbon, and generally decreases with water availability reflecting increased water-use efficiency by the plant. The mean pi/pa value for bulk carbon was 0.77, consistent with high Cretaceous atmospheric CO2 concentrations. For Δleaf, values for wood ranged from 21.29-17.26‰, with a mean of 19.11‰. In contrast, bulk carbon values ranged 22.28-21.58‰, and a mean of 21.88‰. The offset between Δleaf values of the bulk carbon and the wood, all or most of which was conifer wood, indicates the conifers were experiencing water stress. Taken together, the isotopic and macrofossil data indicate a relatively water-stressed, and possibly wildfire-prone, coniferous coastal ecosystem on the western margin of the seaway during the Maastrichtian.

37

ESTRADA-RUIZ, EMILIO* 1, UPCHURCH, JR., GARLAND 2, WHEELER, ELISABETH 3 and MACK, GREG 4

Late Cretaceous angiosperm woods from McRae Formation, south-central New Mexico, USA: Part II

O

ver the past three decades, angiosperm woods have been reported from the Campanian to Maastrichtian of Coahuila and Chihuahua, Mexico, and Big Bend National Park, Texas. Recent investigations of the upper Campanian (76 -74 mya) Jose Creek Member of the McRae Formation, south-central New Mexico, U.S.A., indicate an abundant record of well-preserved silicified woods that, when fully published, will comprise one of the most diverse Cretaceous wood floras in the world. Published descriptions of angiosperm woods from the Jose Creek Member include early records of Celastraceae and Myrtaceae, and a magnoliid with similarities to Annonaceae. In this report we describe four new angiosperm wood taxa, which comprise a magnoliid belonging to Lauraceae and three eudicots with different levels of comparability to extant orders and families. A new species of Ulminium has a combination of features that occurs in multiple extant genera, these genera are in a group variously referred to as Cinnamomeae Nees, Laureae Maout & Decaisne, or Lauroideae Burnett / core of Lauraceae. McRae Wood Type 2 has many features in common with Dilleniaceae, but differs in having narrower rays. McRae Wood Type 3 has a suite of features seen in multiple families of Malpighiales. McRae Wood Type 4 has a suite of features found in different genera of Dilleniales, Ericales, and Malpighiales. All wood types, with the exception of type 3, have minimum axis diameters greater than 10 cm (12 - 50 cm), indicating that they represent the wood of trees. This reinforces previous evidence for the presence of small to large angiosperm trees in the Jose Creek Member, and underscores the importance of woody angiosperms in vegetation of the southern Western Interior during the Campanian Maastrichtian.

1

Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Departamento de Zoología, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n,, Col. Santo Tomás, Ciudad de México, MX, 113402Texas State University, Department Of Biology, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX, 78666, USA3North Carolina State University, Department of Forest Biomaterials, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA4New Mexico State University, Department of Geological Sciences, Las Cruces, NM, 88003, USA

1

University Of Michigan, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100

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North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA2University Of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Avenue, 2534 CC Little Building, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA3University Of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Avenue, 2534 CC Little Building, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, United States

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WHEELER, ELISABETH* 1 and LEHMAN, TOM 2

Late Cretaceous Wood Assemblages of Big Bend National Park, Texas

C

ampanian and Maastrichtian strata in the Aguja and Javelina formations of Big Bend preserve a well-documented succession of angiosperm and conifer wood types. Some of the angiosperm wood types appear to be unique to Big Bend (Agujoxylon and Gassonoxylon), while others (Sabinoxylon, Metcalfeoxylon, Baasoxylon, and Javelinoxylon) are known from correlative strata in nearby Mexico or New Mexico, but not elsewhere. Agujoxylon from the Aguja Formation has features suggesting affinities with the Olacaceae; Javelinoxylon from the Javelina Formation is Malvaceae. One striking functional trait of these angiosperms, especially Baasoxylon and Metcalfeoxylon, is their high incidence of parenchyma. Paralleling the distribution of the Big Bend angiosperms, araucarioid conifer wood types that occur in Big Bend have not been reported from correlative strata elsewhere, and the common cupressoid/podocarpoid woods here differ from the taxodioid woods common at northern localities. Most of the common angiosperm and conifer wood types in Big Bend represent large trees, and these must have been significant canopy-forming elements in southern paleolatitude forests. In-situ stump fields suggest that at least some of these forests had open woodland architecture, rather than closed canopy. Significant changes in wood types from Campanian through Maastrichtian time reflect in part a progression from coastal to inland environments, as well as the passage of time. These observations suggest that, in spite of the low latitudinal temperature gradient during CampanianMaastrichtian time, forests in southern paleolatitudes of Laramidia differed significantly from those at northern paleolatitudes, at least in the dominant canopy-forming tree types, paralleling faunal differences.

1

DEPT OF WOOD & PAPER SCIENCE, 710 Dixie Trail, Raleigh, NC, 27607, USA2Texas Tech University, Department of Geosciences, P.O. Box 4109, Lubbock, TX, 79409-1053, USA


Symposia and Colloquia Gardening with Native Plants of the Pacific Northwest (1982). Starting in 1958, Art and his wife Mareen nurtured a plant collector’s garden at their home north of Seattle. Drawing on their interest and success in propagating plants, Mareen founded MsK Nursery in 1969. The garden and nursery are now owned by the City of Shoreline and operated by the nonprofit Kruckeberg Botanic Garden Foundation, with a special emphasis on programs for young families. Art was never more engaging or influential than when out leading a field trip, where he communicated his deep knowledge and love of plant life in an effortless recital of plant names, key concepts, and word play.

Geology and Plant Life: the growing legacy of Arthur Kruckeberg Sponsored by Genetics Section, Systematics Section / ASPT and Physiological Section.

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WILLIS, JOHN 1, PEPPER, ALAN* , IVALÚ CACHO, NATALIA 3, O'DELL, RYAN 4 and RIESEBERG, LOREN 5

2

Geology and Plant Life: the growing legacy of Arthur Kruckeberg

Governor's Salmon Recovery Office, Recreation and Conservation Office, PO Box 40917, Olympia, WA, 98504-0917, USA

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rthur Kruckeberg, Professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of Washington, passed on May 25, 2016 at the age of 96, leaving an immense legacy of work centered on plant/geological interactions and encompassing taxonomy, ecology, evolutionary biology, genetics and conservation. The focus of the symposium would be to update the themes of Art’s work with the recent insights emerging from areas such as genetics/genomics, molecular phylogenetics and ecology. The title of the symposium is adapted from his influential 2002 popular science book “Geology and Plant Life.” The topical range of the symposium will be everything about plant/edaphic interactions except for salt and drought, and will include modern research on plant adaptation to dunes, gypsum soils, limestone barrens, serpentine, and clays.1

42

MOORE, MICHAEL J.* 1, MULLER, CLARE 2, DRENOVSKY, REBECCA 2, HEIDEN, NATHANIEL 2, FEDER, ZOË 1, TILEY, HELENE 1, DOUGLAS, NORMAN 3, FLORES OLVERA, HILDA 4, OCHOTERENA, HELGA 4, MONTSERRAT, GABRIEL 5 and PALACIO, SARA 6

Gypsum biomineralization: a key mechanism explaining the historical assembly of gypsum plant communities worldwide?

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ypsum endemic plant communities represent an excellent opportunity to investigate soils as a driving force in plant evolution and ecology, offering key insights into such fundamental biological processes as adaptation, the formation of new species, and the factors controlling plant community composition. Gypsum exposures occur worldwide in arid and semiarid ecosystems and are home to rich endemic floras that have evolved independently on five continents. Ongoing phylogenetic and ecological studies demonstrate that gypsum endemics in Spain and North America fall into two overall categories: geographically widespread endemic species that accumulate gypsum crystals within their leaves (presumably as a mechanism to sequester excess sulfur and calcium), and highly local endemic species that do not. Furthermore, recent work has shown that the nearest relatives of widespread gypsum endemic species often accumulate gypsum, regardless of the substrate they grow on. These results suggest that the ability to accumulate gypsum may have existed in the ancestors of many of today’s dominant gypsum endemic plants. Consequently, we hypothesize that gypsum accumulation may be an important mechanism that has allowed certain groups of plants to colonize and eventually dominate gypsum communities.

Duke University2Department Of Biology, Texas A&M University, TAMUS 3258, College Station, TX, 77843, USA, 979-845-25183Instituto de Biología-UNAM, Mexico City, DF, Mexico4U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Marina, CA5University of British Columbia, Canada

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GAGE, SARAH

The Many Green Thumbs of Arthur Kruckeberg

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rt Kruckeberg’s legacy extends far beyond his work on the interactions of plants and geology. He made lasting and synergistic contributions to conservation, horticulture, and educating the public. Art was instrumental in helping to establish Washington State’s Natural Areas Preserves Act and its Natural Heritage Program, which are charged with ensuring the long-term persistence of the state’s uniquely rich natural heritage. He participated in developing the first list of rare plants for Washington and helped refine it through his long years of field observations. Art co-founded the Washington Native Plant Society in 1976, and it continues as a robust organization with 12 chapters statewide and an ardent membership that gathers regularly for field trips and chapter programs. Under the pen name “Doug,” Art produced the society’s journal Douglasia almost single-handedly for 10 years. In addition to his scientific papers, he authored several influential books for popular audiences, including Geology and Plant Life (2002), Natural History of Puget Sound Country (1991), and

1

Oberlin College, Department of Biology, 119 Woodland St., Oberlin, OH, 44074, USA2John Carroll University, Biology Department, 1 John Carroll Blvd, University Heights, OH, 44118, USA3University of Florida, Department of Biology, 618A Carr Hall, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA4Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Biologia, 3er. Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, DF, 04510, Mexico5Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia, Avda. Mon-

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taña 1005, Zaragoza, Zaragoza, 50059, Spain6Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia, Av. Nuestra Señora de la Victoria, 16, Jaca, Huesca, 22700, Spain

43

1

IVALÚ CACHO, NATALIA

Evolutionary ecology of edaphic specialization in California Jewelflowers

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lants associated with peculiar soils, or how Art would call them, ‚kooky’ soils, contribute greatly to global diversity. Art Kruckeberg’s legacy lays the foundation for studying the eco-evolutionary forces responsible for generating diversity, which are still poorly understood. present progress in our understanding of California Jewelflowers as a model to study edaphic endemism. California Jewelflowers (Streptanthus and allied genera) are mustards long recognized as an “extraordinary example of adaptive radiation and edaphic specialization” because of their morphological and ecological diversity in connection to edaphic endemism: about 30% of species are endemic to serpentine soils. will address hypotheses on the evolutionary ecology of edaphic specialization integrating aspects of soil chemistry, habitat characterization, niche evolution and biogeography, using a molecular phylogenetic framework. I will then expand on the role of competition and competitive ability in promoting soil endemism, and its relation with aspects of microhabitat and defense against enemies. In particular, I will explore how the ability of a species to compete with its neighbors relates to the bareness of its microhabitat, and whether there are tradeoffs between competitive ability and chemical defense that could further contribute to ecological specialization.

I I

Instituto de Biología-UNAM, Mexico City, DF, Mexico

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PEPPER, ALAN* 1, HAWKINS, ANGELA 2, GARZA, ELYSSA 3, IVALU, CACHO 4 and STRAUSS, SHARON 5

Streptanthus (Brassicaceae) as a model for the study of serpentine adaptation and endemism

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propose a genetic model to explain the widely observed endemism on serpentine and other unusual edaphic substrates.

ruckeberg (1985) suggested that plants in the genus Streptanthus (Brassicaceae) might serve as effective models for the study of serpentine tolerance and endemism, as they "display a full range of step toward absolute restriction to serpentine— from mere (ecotypic) variants...to highly singular taxa with little resemblance to living antecedents." At the time, Kruckeberg also observed "a great hiatus in our understanding of the genecological/ecophysiologcal traits associated with...serpentine plants." Here we describe the insights on the evolution of serpentine tolerance and endemism gained from recent genetic, molecular and genomic studies of the serpentine endemic Caulanthus (Streptanthus) amplexicaulis var barbarae in comparison with its serpentine intolerant conspecific C. amplexicaulis var amplexicaulis. These findings point to roles for widespread duplication of individual genes and reticulate evolution (introgression) in the acquisition of serpentine tolerance. We also

Department Of Biology, Texas A&M University, TAMUS 3258, College Station, TX, 77843, USA, 979-845-251823Texas A & M University, Department Of Biology, Tamus 3258, College Station, TX, 77843, USA4Instituto de Biología, UNAM, Departamento de Botánica A-204, 3er Circuito de Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, Mexico, DF, 04510, Mexico5University of California, Davis, Department of Evolution and Ecology, 2320 Storer Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA

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O'DELL, RYAN E.

Strict vertic clay endemic flora of the Inner South Coast Ranges, California

I

n his book, Introduction to California Soils and Plants, Art Kruckeberg identified the following substrates as principal contributors to edaphic endemism in California with the highest number of species to lowest following as - serpentine (285), granite (109), clay (94), carbonate (90), volcanic (88), alkaline (62), gabbro (20), sandstone (16), shale (10), and gypsum (1). While the extreme physical and chemical characteristics of serpentine substrates and its influence on the flora it supports has been well-studied in California, the edaphic ecology of other extreme substrates such as clay, have been scarcely studied. Areas of vertic clay soils are common throughout the Inner South Coast Ranges of California. These soils are derived from acidic, saline marine shale and composed primarily of high shrink-swell smectite clay that is often sodic. The soil absorbs much water during winter rainfall and dries during the summer to form deep cracks. Although the seasonal shrink-swell cycles (argilliturbation) of the vertic clay soils prevent most perennial plant species from establishing, a diverse suite of annual plant species have adapted and evolved to become strict edaphic endemics on the extremely stressful substrate. This study introduces the strict vertic clay edaphic endemic flora of the Inner South Coast Ranges and presents a newly discovered species of Extriplex (Chenopodiaceae) that is a local strict endemic to extremely sodic vertic clay soils.

Bureau of Land Management, Central Coast Field Office, 940 2nd Avenue, Marina, CA, 93933, USA


Symposia and Colloquia 46

Getting everyone involved: Saving the seaside alder

OSTEVIK, KATE 1, ANDREW, ROSE 2 and RIESEBERG, LOREN H* 3

The Ecology and Genetics of Adaptation and Speciation in Dune Sunflowers

Sponsored by Ecological Section and Paleobotanical Section.

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ister sunflower taxa are often found in divergent habitats. For example, both H. neglectus and an ecotype of H. petiolaris inhabit active sand dunes while their closest relative is found on sand sheets. We explore ecological divergence in these two dune systems and asses their progress towards speciation. We find that larger seeds have evolved in both dune habitats but that the genetic basis of those differences are unlikely to be the same. We also find that assortative mating via conspecific pollen precedence arose surprisingly early between the H. petiolaris ecotypes while major chromosomal change is associated with the evolution of H. neglectus. Ultimately, understanding the similarities and differences between these systems will help answer the question - how predictable is speciation?

47 LEY* 2

GIBSON, PHIL 1 and RICE, STAN-

Getting everyone involved: Saving the seaside alder

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uccessful conservation efforts require interaction and coordination among organizations representing different stakeholders and working at a variety of levels and. This is exemplified in work being done on the extremely rare tree species seaside alder (Alnus maritima). Seaside alder exists as three rare subspecies: one on the Delmarva Peninsula; one in south central Oklahoma; and one in northwest Georgia. In contrast, hazel alder (A. serrulata) grows abundantly in wetlands across eastern North America. Because it is unlikely that government action by itself can rescue this species, an interdisciplinary group of botanists working for private and public organizations are taking different approaches to study and protect this rare species. This symposium addresses (1) How did the seaside alder become so rare in the first place, and (2) What is being done to save it from extinction? Seaside alder was likely once widespread in North America, but DNA studies indicate that its current populations are relictual. It is extremely shade intollerant. Researchers are investigating seed germination to identify necessary germination conditions to increase population sizes. Existing individuals sprout vigorously after disturbance, thus survival of the species depends on the persistence and propagation of existing clumps until seedling establishment procedures can be developed. Building on successes of regional conservation groups, The Nature Conservancy is interested in further protecting and using it for wetland reclamation. Public gardens such as the Tulsa Botanic Garden can be involved in planting it extensively for erosion control, public education, and germplasm protection. Species including Ginkgo biloba, Franklinia alatamaha, and Torreya taxifolia that are now rare or extinct in the wild have been saved from extinction because people have planted them in gardens. By encouraging the horticultural use of this species through conservation and botanical education, citizen scientists can learn about plant evolution and participate in an important conservation effort.

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Duke University, Department of Biology, Durham, NC, USA2University of New England, School of Environmental and Rural Science, Armidale, NSW, Australia3University Of British Columbia, Department Of Botany, 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada

1 University of Oklahoma2SOUTHEASTERN OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY, Box 702722, Tulsa, OK, 74170-2722, USA, 580/745-2688

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DUNN, MICHAEL

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GIBSON, J PHIL

The fossil record of the Seaside Alder, and Alnus subgenus Clethropsis

Genetic Diversity, Disjunct Distribution, and Recruitment in Seaside Alder

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lnus maritima (Seaside Alder) may have been widespread across North America once, but now is divided into three disjunct subspecies in Oklahoma, Georgia, and Delaware: A. maritima subsp oklahomensis, A. maritima subsp georgiensis, and A. maritima subsp maritima respectively. Arguably, A. maritima subsp oklahomensis is ancestral to the other two populations. Phenologically, A. maritima is isolated from all other North American alders by flowering in autumn rather than spring, but is united into the sub-genus Clethropsis with the disjunct species A. nitida (Himalayan Alder) from the temperate Himalayas of southeast Asia, and A. formosana (Formosan Alder) from Taiwan, based primarily on autumn flowering. Current top-down approaches have been unsuccessful in reconstructing the bio-geographical history of these disjunct species and subspecies. However, all taxa in sub-genus Clethropsis share leaf characteristics in that the leaves are all relatively narrow with small upturned teeth. Those leaf characters combined with the abundant fossil record of Alnus throughout the Cenozoic of the Northern Hemisphere suggests that a bottom-up approach may be useful in deciphering the past distribution of the Seaside Alder. This contribution to the Seaside Alder Symposium proposes to do just that by reviewing the fossil record of Alnus, specifically focusing on subgenus Clethropsis leaves. CAMERON UNIVERSITY, 2800 Gore Blvd, LAWTON, OK, 73505, USA

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RICE, STANLEY

How the seaside alder survives and how it doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t: Shade intolerance and seedling failure

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he seaside alder (Alnus maritima) has a relictual distribution. The ancestral species may have been widespread in North America during the most recent glacial retreat, when there were extensive areas of wet, sunny gravel, conditions that appear to be most conducive to alder germination. Today, however, most places that are wet enough for alder seed germination are too shady, and if they are sunny enough they are too dry. In contrast, the hazel alder (A. serrulata) is widespread in eastern North America. Both species of alders require bright light, as demonstrated by the way their branches lean out over the water. But seaside alders, in all three subspecies, are less shade tolerant. They are found more frequently in full sunlight than are hazel alders, and their shade leaves contain less chlorophyll per weight than do those of hazel alders. Field surveys suggest that seedling establishment is very rare, and no clear evidence has been found of seedling establishment past the first year. This species persists in the wild because of clonal re-sprouting. Southeastern Oklahoma State University, Biological Sciences, 425 W. University Blvd, Durant, OK, 74701-3347, USA

ne of the most curious aspects of Alnus maritima seaside alder is its highly disjunt distribution. Only three regional populations in Oklahoma, Georgia, and the Delmarva Peninsula remain for this species Although it has been proposed to be due to anthropogenic factors, genetic analyses indicate the three remaining populations are remnants of a once larger distribution. Failure of new individuals to establish in the remaining populations poses an immediate threat to loss of the unique genetic contained in the different regions. In addition to censusing of remaining trees in Oklahoma, current research is investigating the factors limiting establishment of new individuals, which is critical to maintaining genetic diversity within and among populations. Germination analyses indicate seed viability is not limiting establishment, but rather competition with other plants and a potentially negative interaction with their root microbiome may be negatively affecting recruitment in this species

University of Oklahoma, Department of Microbiology & Plant Biology, Department of Biology, Norman, ok, 73019, USA

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BORER, CATHERINE* and CARVER, MICHELLE

The Georgia seaside alder: conservation challenges and opportunities

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he seaside alder (Alnus maritima) is a wetland tree species growing in three geographically isolated locations: on the Delmarva Peninsula, in south central Oklahoma, and in northwest Georgia. These three separate groups are genetically distinct and are considered to be separate subspecies of the seaside alder. They are thought to be relicts from a previously widespread tree species. The Georgia subspecies exists in two known populations in Drummond Swamp, a spring-fed swamp near the Etowah River in Bartow County in northwest Georgia. Much of the land in which these trees grow is owned by Georgia Power, which is actively working to obtain and conserve the relevant parcels of land, to protect this species. However, substantial portions of the seaside alderâ&#x20AC;&#x153;s habitat in the Drummond Swamp are currently owned privately. A variety of land uses in the area result in a range of conservation challenges. In order to learn more about this rare subspecies, we have been evaluating the seaside alder in Drummond Swamp to determine average stem diameter and clump size, as well as tree height and reproductive status, and map the current extent of this subspecies. We are working with local conservation organizations and with Georgia Power to evaluate and conserve the seaside alder in Georgia, and to understand its essential wetland habitat. It is likely that educational programs will be developed in the future, to help educate the public about the unique attributes of this species, and the importance of its habitat. Berry College, Biology, P.O. Box 490430, Mount Berry, GA, 30149, USA


Symposia and Colloquia Green digitization: online botanical collections data answering realworld questions

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THIERS, BARBARA

The Macrofungi Collection Consortium: Foundation for a Mycoflora of North America

Sponsored by Bryological and Lichenological Section, Genetics Section and Systematics Section / ASPT.

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he Macrofungi Collection Consortium (MaCC) is a digitization project funded by NSF’s Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collection. Between 2012 and 2015, 35 participating institutions digitized 800,000 herbarium specimens of fungi with conspicuous sporebearing structures, such as polypores, mushrooms and puffballs. These data, combined with previously digitized specimens created a database of approximately 1.6 million specimens records which are shared through the MycoPortal. The MaCC project was succeeded by the Microfungi Collections Consortium (MiCC) that has the goal of digitizing all additional mycological collections held in U.S. Herbaria. In addition to the digitized herbarium specimen data, the MycoPortal also contains descriptions, illustrations, and observational records and is a resource both amateur and professional mycologists. The amateur mycological community is very well established and organized in the U.S. with 80 clubs and 10,200 individual members under the umbrella North American Mycological Association. Three of the herbaria included in the MaCC were built largely through the efforts of amateur mycologists. Outreach to the amateur community has been a major component of the Macrofungi digitization project, including numerous tours, lectures and training sessions about how to use the MycoPortal for club or individual projects. The need for a Mycoflora of North America was articulated in 2011, and a workshop of 75 professional and amateur mycologists was convened to explore the topic in 2012. Many details of the proposed Mycoflora of North America were not explored in depth, but those assembled agreed on the need for collection, sequencing and vouchering of specimens by amateur clubs as well as professionals and students. Since 2012, at least 14 amateur clubs have embarked on projects to obtain DNA sequences from their collections, and to create voucher specimens. Clubs make arrangements with laboratories to obtain sequences, and the cost of sequencing comes from club dues. In some cases, they use sequence data to compare species and identify novelties. What is lacking so far is direction from a wide range of professional mycologists about which groups should be surveyed, which genes are best for which groups, and how to document voucher specimens. However, this may be about to change, as plans are currently underway for the development of a more formal collaboration between amateur and professional mycologists to create a Mycoflora, published using the tools available in the MycoPortal.

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JAMES, SHELLEY A. 1, SOLTIS, PAMELA S.* 2 and NELSON, GIL 3

Green digitization: online botanical collections data answering real-world questions

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ecent advances in digital technology coupled with rapidly increasing interest in the creation and dissemination of digitized specimen data for use in broad scale research by botanists and other organismal scientists have encouraged the development of a variety of new research opportunities in the botanical sciences. It is now increasingly possible to collect, use, re-use, and share data more easily and effectively. With the advent of the NSF’s Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections initiative and the establishment of iDigBio as the national resource for specimen digitization and digital data mobilization, researchers now have access both ever larger and varied digital data sets for visualization, analysis, and modeling and new opportunities for adopting “big data” strategies for facilitating discovery. The iDigBio portal alone now includes approximately 28 million botanical specimen records, a figure that is growing rapidly as new institutions mobilize and share data with iDigBio and other biodiversity data aggregators. In our symposium, we will present a broad array of examples of the latest developments in botanical biodiversity research using digitized specimen data, including in the fields of genomics, conservation assessment, ecology, phenology, and taxonomic revisions. We will present current trends in proactive digitization of specimen data that occurs during the collecting and vouchering of specimens and field data, tools, skills, and strategies needed for linking and visualizing botanical data, and innovative methods for digital discovery. We also highlight how digital data are being used especially for research that expands our understanding and conservation of biodiversity and the environment. 1

Florida Museum of Natural History2University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO BOX 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611-7800, USA, 352/273-19643Florida State University

The New York Botanical Garden, Herbarium, 2900 Southern Blvd., Bronx, NY, 10458, USA

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BONNET, PIERRE* 1, ALEXIS, JOLY , HERVƒ, GOËAU 1, JEAN-CHRISTOPHE, LOMBARDO 3, ANTOINE, AFFOUARD 2, SEN, WANG 2, REMI, KNAFF 4, JEAN-FRANÇOIS, MOLINO 5 and DANIEL, BARTHƒLƒMY 6 2

Potential and limits of automated plant identification based on visual data, feedbacks from the development of Pl@ ntNet initiative

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l@ntNet is a free web and mobile platform dedicated to automated, image-based plant identification and to collaborative gathering of plant observations (http:// identify.plantnet-project.org/). It relies on crowdsourcing approaches and machine learning techniques for data production, validation and enrichment. The initial version of the application, launched in 2013, covered 800 French native species. It now covers a large part of European flora (6,200 species) and has been extended to other floristic regions, such as the Mascarene Islands, the Guiana Shield and Maghreb. Through its iPhone and Android apps (> 3 million downloads and 10,00050,000 daily users), Pl@ntNet gathers increasingly large amounts of botanical observations voluntarily contributed by an array of people who are often novice in plant identification. These observations are continually checked and amended (for identifications and image quality) by hundreds of amateur botanists, through Pl@ ntNet’s collaborative web tools. We recently worked on several different datasets shared by national and international institutions (such as a visual dataset from Encyclopedia of Life), in the aim to improve efficiency and taxonomic coverage of Pl@ntNet application. This has allowed the adaptation of Pl@ntNet to several new floras, such as the North American flora, a part of the Caribbean and Hawaiian flora, and the Tropical Andes flora. We propose to present (i) recent developments dedicated to data aggregation and enrichment (notably the semi-automated plant image annotation), (ii) the limits of this approach, (iii) as well as the perspectives of improvements, based on both the users feedback, and on analyses of the data already collected. This emphasize on one side, the potential of new technologies for botanical and ecological activities, and on the other side, the capacity of multi-disciplinary projects to address societal needs at large scale.

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CIRAD, BIOS, Umr AMAP - TA A-51 / PS1, Bd de La Lironde, Montpellier Cedex 5, 34398, France2Inria, Zenith team, 860 rue de St Priest, Montpellier, 34095, France3Inria, 860 rue de St Priest, Montpellier, 34095, France4Inra, EFPA, Umr AMAP - TA A-51 / PS1, Bd de La Lironde, Montpellier Cedex 5, 34398, France5IRD, Umr AMAP - TA A-51 / PS1, Bd de La Lironde, Montpellier Cedex 5, 34398, France6CIRAD, BIOS, Avenue Agropolis, TA A - DIR / 04, Montpellier Cedex 5, 34398, France

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NELSON, GIL* 1, GILBERT, EDWARD 2 and SWEENEY, PATRICK 3

Use of Globally Unique Identifiers (GUIDs) to link herbarium specimen records to physical specimens

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ith the advent of the U.S. National Science Foundation“s (NSF) Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections (ADBC) program and related worldwide digitization initiatives, the rate of herbarium specimen digitization in the United States has expanded exponentially. Of the approximately 651 active U.S. vascular and non-vascular plant herbaria reported by Index Herbariorum, about 240 are currently participating in at least one of the seven plant-based ADBC-funded Thematic Collections Networks (TCNs). Recent evidence from 116 self-defined small herbaria suggests that 84% of these are databasing their collections and another 48% are imaging them. Collectively, U.S. herbaria curate approximately 76 million specimens, all of which will eventually be digitized and made available online. As the number of electronic records proliferate, the importance of linking these records to the physical specimens they represent as well as to related records from other sources will intensify. Ideally, future internet searches (by a user or software agent) will not only return one or more records of a specimen’s label data and physical location, but will include links to data about separately housed genetic resources, related literature and source materials (e.g. catalogs, ledgers, field notes, etc.), duplicates deposited in other herbaria, additional sheets of larger specimens, fruits and other parts stored in separate containers, enriched data appended post collection (e.g. georeferences, determinations, and other annotations), and potentially other objects or metadata derived from and directly related to the specimen. We argue that facilitating this linking through the association of Globally Unique Identifiers (GUIDs) with physical herbarium specimens and including these identifiers in all electronic records about those specimens is essential to effective digital data curation. We also address practical applications for ensuring these associations.

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Florida State University2Arizona State University, Global Institute Of Sustainability, 2831 E. 18th St, Tucson, AZ, 85716, USA3Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University Herbarium, P.O. Box 208118, New Haven, CT, 06520-8118, USA


Symposia and Colloquia 56

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WILLIS, CHARLES* 1, LAW, EDITH 2, WILLIAMS, ALEX 2, PARK, DANIEL 1 and DAVIS, CHARLES 3

VON KONRAT, MATT* 1, SMITH, ARFON 2, CARSTENSEN, BRIAN 3, SNYDER, CHRIS 3, TROUILLE, LAURA 3, ARONOWSKY, AUDREY 4, BRISCOE, LAURA 5, BRYSON, MIKE 6, CAMPBELL, TOM 7, DELAVOI, CHARLIE 8, VAUGHN, CAITLIN 1, WALKER, TAYLOR 9, LARRAIN, JUAN 1, ZILLEN, ZAK 10, SCHEFFEL, JONATHAN 1, DE LANGE, PETER 11, SHAW, BLANKA 12, CARTER, BEN 13, GAUS, EVE 1, COHEN, STEVE 14, NEWSON, JORDAN 1, STRAUSS, KALMAN 1, YANG, CHRISTINA J. 1, TAYLOR, PETERSON 1 and LOPEZ, ALEXANDRA 10

CrowdCurio: an online crowdsourcing platform to facilitate climate change studies using herbarium specimens

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henology is a key aspect of plant success and is vital to our understanding of how plants will respond to human-caused climate change. Yet, the availability of long-term, observational datasets on phenological responses to climate change suffers from geographic, spatial, and phylogenetic biases. Recent research has demonstrated that herbarium specimens, which have much broader long-term geography and phylogeny sampling, can provide reliable data on plant phenology. Thus, massive digitization efforts of herbarium specimens have the potential to greatly expand herbarium-based phenological research, but also pose a serious challenge regarding efficient data collection. Here, we introduce CrowdCurio, an online crowdsourcing tool for the collection of phenological data from herbarium specimens. We test its utility by having workers collect phenological data (number of flower buds, open flowers, and fruits) from specimens of two common New England species: Chelidonium majus L. and Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton. We assess the reliability of using non-expert workers (i.e., Amazon MTurk) against expert workers (i.e., trained herbarium staff). We also use these data to estimate the phenological sensitivity to temperature for both species across multiple phenophases. We found no difference in the data quality of non-experts and experts. Non-experts, however, had several advantages: they were more efficient at collecting data, provided more estimates per specimens, and collected data at a lower cost. We also found that phenological sensitivity varied across both species and phenophases. Our study demonstrates the utility of CrowdCurio as a tool for the collection of phenological data from herbarium specimens. While our study focused on the efficacy of paid non-expert workers, our results also demonstrate promise for implementing CrowdCurio as a citizen science program. Furthermore, our results highlight the insight gained from collecting large amounts of phenological data at different developmental stages to estimate multiple phenophases. We are currently greatly scaling up these efforts to investigate the impacts of climate change on plants across New England.

Crowd-sourced science: Connecting digitized natural history collections to biodiversity education and conservation

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larmingly, the world“s biodiversity is diminishing rapidly and undergoing an extinction crisis. Biological collections of museums and academic institutions, documenting the fossilized and living members of the world’s ecosystems and their changes over time, are uniquely poised to inform the stewardship of life on Earth. The NSF program Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections (ADBC) is enhancing and expanding the national resource of digital data documenting biological and paleontological collections at a rapid pace. We provide a collaborative model founded on these digitization efforts that work towards addressing the critical urgency of the loss of taxonomic expertise and the rapid decline of biodiversity. We adopt Symbiota as an online platform to accelerate documentation and discovery of a hyper-diverse liverwort genus (see: http://bryophyteportal.org/frullania/) coupled with Citizen Science to help yield high quality data and to expedite taxonomic research. Scientists and educators are partnering with leaders in online Citizen Science, Zooniverse (see www.zooniverse.org), and have a coordinated network including students and professionals at universities and partnering high schools and middle schools to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery. The project has the specific goal of engaging a broader audience, especially students and citizen scientists, to partner with our efforts in recording critical data sets from digitally rendered images. A web-based tool has been developed (see http://microplants.fieldmuseum. org) demonstrating a model approach to aid in relieving some of the taxonomic impediment, accelerating biodiversity documentation and discovery. We also demonstrate how this has recently been expanded using touch screen technology as part of a public exhibit on natural history collections. Almost 10,000 participants have generated data that are being utilized by researchers to help with species delimitation and aiding in uncovering cryptic species. The project focuses on a mega-diverse liverwort genus occurring in Australasia, the Malay Archipelago, and southern South America - representing several global biodiversity ‚hotspots’ - including the Polynesia-Micronesia hotspot, which is considered the

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Harvard University, Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Ave, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA2University of Waterloo, David R. Cheriton School of Computer Science, Waterloo, ON, N2L-3G1, Canada3Harvard University, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology / Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Ave, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA

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epicentre of the current global extinction crisis by Conservation International. Only scant data exist for liverworts compared to many animal and seed plant groups of the region. Data derived directly from the participation of Citizen Scientists, particularly cryptic complexes of species, has a significant impact on our understanding of species distribution patterns and direct implications for conservation of these organisms in the region. 1

The Field Museum, 1400 S Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL, 60605, United States2Data Science Mission Office at Space Telescope, USA3Adler Planetarium , Chicago, USA4University of Chicago, Chicago, USA5New York Botanical Gardens, New York, NY, USA6Roosevelt University, Chicago, USA7Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, USA8University of Connecticut, USA9Hollins University, USA10Northeastern Illinois University, USA11Department of Conservation, New Zealand12Duke University, USA13San Jose State University, USA14Roosevelt University, USA

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SOLTIS, PAMELA S.

Linking Digital Heterogeneous Data for Biodiversity Research

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merging cyberinfrastructure and new data sources provide unparalleled opportunities for mobilizing and integrating massive amounts of information from organismal biology, ecology, genetics, climatology, and other disciplines. Key among these data sources is the rapidly growing volume of digitized specimen records from natural history collections. With over 84 million specimen records currently available online, these data provide excellent information on species distributions and changes in distributions over time. Particularly powerful is the integration of phylogenies with specimen data, enabling analyses of phylogenetic diversity in a spatio-temporal context, the evolution of niche space, and more. Such data-driven synthetic analyses may generate unexpected patterns, yielding new hypotheses for further study. However, a major challenge is the heterogeneous nature of complex data, and new methods are needed to link these divergent data types. Ongoing efforts to link and analyze diverse data are yielding new perspectives on a range of ecological problems. We will present case studies that address different aspects of ecology and evolutionary biology that have been addressed using digitized specimen data and related heterogeneous data sources. Integration of plant phylogeny, distributions, traits, and ultimately genetics is permitting new perspective on landscape-level patterns of biodiversity, with implications for conservation and management of natural resources. Although many specific hypotheses may be addressed through integrated analyses of biodiversity and environmental data, perhaps the greatest value of such data-enabled science will lie in the unanticipated patterns that emerge.

University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO BOX 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611-7800, USA, 352/273-1964


Symposia and Colloquia and dendrology, and mentored graduate students doing floristic and taxonomic research. Major influences on his development as a human being and a botanist, as well as his practices, methods, and accomplishments as teacher and mentor will be explored.

Kral-ing Through Time: The Impact of Robert Kral on the Past, Present, and Future of Botany in the Southeastern U.S

Valdosta State University, Biology, Bailey Science Cntr 2035, 1500 N Patterson St, Valdosta, Georgia, 31698, United States

Sponsored by Southeastern Section.

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TAYLOR, KIM

Robert Kral and the History of Alabama Botany

Kral-ing Through Time: The Impact of Robert Kral on the Past, Present, and Future of Botany in the Southeastern U.S

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he history of Alabama botany is replete with heroes. Pioneers, settlers, travelers (Bartram, Royall, Lyell), academics (Gosse, Buckley, Nevius), and medical doctors contributed early efforts. Mobile pharmacist Charles Mohr dominated the late 19th century, leading to his 1901 posthumous opus, Plant Life of Alabama. Roland Harper held sway until mid-20th century, when floristic studies took hold. Such studies were established at most of the state“s universities, beginning with the University of Alabama (Thomas) and Auburn (Freeman) during the 1960s. ut no Alabama botanist stands as tall as Robert Kral. His fifty-year exporation of the backwoods and -waters of the state are truly heroic; his voluminous knowledge of Alabama“s flora has been shared in monographs, revisions, federal reports, and floristic accounts. Most importantly, his efforts led directly to the formation of the Flora of Alabama Committee, which met quarterly from 2002 to 2008, culminating in the Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Alabama. In the recordings of those meetings, Dr. Kral provides many invaluable taxonomic insights--and personal, often humorous reminiscences--for the next generation of Alabama botanists.

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his special colloquium will honor the life, career, and accomplishments of Dr. Robert Kral, former curator of the Vanderbilt University Herbarium. Dr. Kral dedicated more than a half-century of his life to documenting the flora of the southeastern U.S. and is arguably one of the greatest contributors to the knowledge of flora, rare species, and phytogeography of the Southeast. His diligent and prolific collecting has advanced the science of floristics and phytogeography of the region. His work on rare and endemic taxa laid the foundation for the conservation of the south’s most imperiled plants. This session will focus on botany of the Southeastern United States, with special emphasis on how Dr. Kral has influenced the past, present and future work in the region. Speakers will discuss Dr. Kral“s career, the herbarium that he built, his contributions to floristics, phytogeography, and plant systematics, the impact his work has had on endangered plant conservation, and how his work impacted our understanding of the phytogeography of the southeastern U.S. and our understanding of the Coastal Plain as a global biodiversity hotspot. This session will honor the life and legacy of Dr. Kral at a time when his health is failing. His pride and joy, the Vanderbilt herbarium collection is currently housed at the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, located in Fort Worth Texas a few miles from the location of the 2017 Botany conference. This Colloquium hopes to honor an icon and pass the torch to the next generation of field and taxonomic botanists. A focus on the past, present and future state of botany of the Southeastern US is particularly appropriate now as the Coastal Plain was just named the world’s 36th biodiversity hot spot.

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SAMFORD UNIVERSITY, Department Of Biology, 800 Lakeshore Drive, BIRMINGHAM, AL, 35229-2234, USA

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KEENER, BRIAN

Robert Kral's Legacy: Botanical Diversity, Conservation, and New Taxa

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obert Kral (1926-) has had a prolific career in plant taxonomy, especially in the discovery of previously unrecognized vascular plant species. Over the course of a 52-year span, (1958-2010), Kral has published descriptions and names for 128 new taxa including 117 species, nine varieties, one subspecies, and one hybrid. Demonstrating Kral’s diverse interests, these new entities spanned 21 genera and 12 families. Of the novelties, he was sole or lead author on 114 of the 128 total, and second author on the remaining 14. Remarkably, most of Kral“s new taxa descriptions were accompanied by his own exquisite artwork in the form of illustrative line-drawings. His impact on conservation is greatly felt in the southeastern United States, where of the 31 North American taxa of which he is an author, 24 are on the tracking list of at least one state, while seven have been federally listed as endangered or threatened. An

Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, TX

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DAVENPORT, LAWRENCE J

CARTER, J. RICHARD

Robert Kral's Development as a Botanist and his Role as Teacher and Mentor

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ith roots in the Midwestern states of Iowa and Illinois and family ties to plants and plant science, Robert Kral developed an early interest in botany and natural history and went on to make profound and lasting contributions to knowledge of the flora of the southeastern United States. He was also a dedicated and engaging teacher for more than 40 years. His career culminated at Vanderbilt University where he taught field-oriented courses in plant taxonomy, local flora,

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additional three taxa from Central and South America are of conservation concern as listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Internationally, Kral“s most notable area of contribution has been his work in the monocot family Xyridaceae, where he has described 83 taxa, including 79 in the genus Xyris and 4 in Abolboda. University of West Alabama, Biological and Environmental Sciences, Station 7, Livingston, AL, 35470, USA

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REHMAN, TIANA

The Vanderbilt University Herbarium: Honouring the Past, Looking to the Future

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he Vanderbilt University Herbarium (VDB) was founded in the 1930s at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America. In 1965, the collection consisted of 20,000 specimens and over the following 32 years, observed a >1300% increase in its holdings through the exchange, gift, and deposit of specimens, coordinated by curator Dr. Robert Kral. In 1997, the VDB was transferred to the herbarium of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas (BRIT), where it remains today, recognized as a separate collection within BRIT’s holdings. The VDB herbarium continues to represent an essential resource for botanists working in the southeastern United States, with over 200,000 specimens collected from that region. The top ten families (in order of decreasing numbers: Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Xyridaceae, Rosaceae, Brassicaceae, Ericaceae, and Scrophulariaceae) contribute more than 150,800 specimens to the collection. Current efforts to make this collection discoverable and accessible to the community will be discussed, in addition to an exploration of its rich character, history and incredible rate of growth. The BRIT Herbarium (BRIT-SMU-VDB) will be open for visiting researchers, before, during, and after the Botany 2017 conference, by appointment: http://brit. org/herbarium. Botanical Research Institute Of Texas, Herbarium, 1700 University Drive, Fort Worth, TX, 76107-3400, USA

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WEAKLEY, ALAN

Dr. Kral’s work as a foundation for a new era of taxonomic research, plant diversity documentation, and conservation in the botanically rich Southeastern United States.

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hrough a long and active career, Dr. Robert Kral collected, taught, researched difficult plant genera, named new species, and published. Certainly one of the most important botanists working on the Southeastern United States (SEUS) flora in the last half of the twentieth century, Kral built a foundation that serves modern students of the diverse SEUS flora. His extensive collections, concentrated at VDB-at-BRIT but also extensively exchanged to many other institutions in the SEUS region, will continue to serve as intellectual fodder for botanical research for generations to come. For Alabama and Tennessee, his collecting forms an especially critical and dominant contribution to our understanding of the floras of those states. His monographic treatments of genera such as Xyris, Eriocaulon, Rhexia, and others form a foundational basis for ongoing work. Notably, many of the new taxa he named were rare endemics of unusual and often poorly explored SEUS habitats, and often in difficult or “technical” genera that had received inadequate careful attention from previous botanists. As younger botanists explore the SEUS flora, this pattern has proven a fruitful one in sussing out new taxa - rare and endemic habitats support rare and endemic species, if one takes the care to look carefully. As we approach the third decade of the 21st century, there appears to be no slacking off of additions to the SEUS flora - if anything, new species are being discovered at an increasing pace, by seeking oddities in rare habitats and studying them critically through traditional and new methods. The bounty of new and highly imperiled species in the rich SEUS flora represents a conservation challenge and crisis, with SEUS habitats under numerous threats. In this regard, too, Kral broke new ground in 1983, cataloging imperiled species and the land management threats to them in an under-appreciated 1305page agency report (plainly and descriptively titled “A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forestrelated vascular plants of the South”) that remains a useful source of information more than a third of a century later. CB 3280, UNC Herbarium / NC Botanical Garden, UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-3280, USA


Symposia and Colloquia 65

ESTES, LARRY DWAYNE

A botanist without borders: Robert Kral's contributions to our modern knowledge of vascular plant endemism and phytogeographic patterns in the southeastern U.S

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r. Robert Kral“s contributions to southeastern U.S. botany are matched only by a few other Southern botanists such as J.K. Small, R.M. Harper, A. Radford, and R.D. Thomas. He is one of the most prolific plant collectors in U.S. history with nearly 100,000 specimen numbers. These collections were amassed over 60 years beginning with his early collections as a student, first in Texas and later in Florida. From the outset, Kral worked in imperiled communities such as east Texas hillside seepage bogs and Florida Panhandle pinelands where he began to develop an encyclopedic knowledge of rare species and narrow endemics. It was then that he described his first narrow endemics (e.g. Vicia ocalensis). Kral“s early career included a stint at Virginia Tech before moving to Nashville, TN where he became curator of the Vanderbilt University Herbarium where he began working on the Flora of Alabama and Middle Tennessee project. His work was supplemented by grants and contracts, one of which he received from the US Forest Service to prepare a report on rare forest-related vascular plants of the South. This project carried Dr. Kral into nearly all of the ecoregions of the South, from the Edward“s Plateau of Texas to the Ridge and Valley shale barrens of Virginia. As a result of this work, he discovered numerous undescribed and narrowly endemic species, including Blephilia subnuda, Clematis morefieldii, C. socialis, Delphinium alabamicum, Hydrophyllum brownei, Minuartia cumberlandensis, Rhexia salicifolia, Rhynchospora thornei, Sagittaria secundifolia, and X. tennesseensis, among others. His prolific collections and exchange led to the rapid expansion of the VDB Herbarium. In the mid- to latter half of the 20th century, few other botanists covered as much territory as Dr. Kral with most tending to focus on a particular state or region. His collections and the distribution maps he generated for his report on rare forest-related vascular plants of the South helped clarify the county-level distribution of most of the rare and endemic species of the South decades before the first multi-state atlases of vascular plants were available (e.g. USDA Plants website). Prior to his work, distributional data for so many rare species had not been published in any single document. His work allowed conservationists to better understand species rarity and endemism and no doubt has greatly influenced the current list of rare species protected under the Endangered Species Act as well as those tracked by various Southern states. Botanical Research Institute of Texas, & Austin Peay State University, 1700 University Dr, Fort Worth, TX, 76107

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15,000 km modern distance. Boundaries of many types and scales shaped these remarkable modern distributions. The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary extinction (K-Pg) set the stage for all subsequent biogeographic history, and accumulating evidence suggests greater survival of Mesozoic lineages in Gondwana than in the Northern Hemisphere. The extant distributions can then be understood in terms of ecological conservativism and habitat tracking through the Cenozoic to meet edaphic requirements (boundaries). Many of the Patagonian fossil lineages are restricted today to everwet environments, and several of the fossil podocarps even preserve the extremely drought-sensitive foliar transfusion tissues seen in their living relatives. The first-order boundaries set by plate tectonics, climate, and sea-level change determined the changing distributions of suitable moist habitats through time that the plants followed. After the final separation of Antarctica from Australia and South America starting in the middle Eocene, Australia’s northward movement sheltered many formerly trans-Antarctic lineages from Cenozoic cooling (i.e., Ceratopetalum, Eucalyptus, Araucaria Section Eutacta) and sourced the diversification of many on smaller, sometimes emergent land masses. Subsequently, Australia collided with SE Asia beginning ca. 25 million years ago and delivered diaspora taxa that diversified in Wallacea (i.e., Agathis, bird-dispersed Dacrycarpus, Gymnostoma). Whereas Australia acted as museum and life raft, Patagonia became a death trap of environmental restrictions. Regional extinction of the ancient rainforest flora came from a combination of increasing aridity and cooling, marine incursions, and the barriers to northward escape posed by the persistent subtropical arid zone and Neotropical heat and insolation regimes. The Miocene principal onset of Andean uplift eventually provided suitable mesic rainforest habitats, many millions of years too late but for a few survivors (e.g., Podocarpus, Retrophyllum, Physalis). Thus, the paleo-Patagonian diaspora flora responded to changing boundary conditions through massive range shifts and diversification in new areas but suffered drastic extinctions in South America, especially in Patagonia itself.

The Role of Boundaries in Plant Diversification Sponsored by Developmental and Structural Section, Genetics Section and Paleobotanical Section.

66

BARTLETT, MADELAINE 1 and SPECHT, CHELSEA* 2

The Role of Boundaries in Plant Diversification

A

boundary can be defined as the limit to a subject or a sphere of activity, or a point or limit that indicates where two things become different, marking where one area ends and another begins. Boundaries, or the lack thereof, influence how plants form new species, differentiate, diversify and evolve. These boundaries can emerge as limitations to gene flow, as borders for migrations of individuals or of variation in space and time, and as delineations for organ development through regulation of gene expression and cellular growth. In this symposium, we are bringing together researchers who are each in their own right taking an interdisciplinary approach to explore the emergent properties of boundaries and their influences on the diversification of plants and their ecosystems. Looking into historic boundary formation from the cellular and developmental to the organismal and ecosystem level, we can start to understand how boundaries have influenced variability in species interactions and developmental processes that are required for the evolution and diversification of plant form and function. We will further discuss how future changes at the global scale will likely impact the formation and flux of boundaries into the future, and how these fluxes will impact the processes underlying plant diversity and diversification. 1

University Of Massachusetts, 611 North Pleasant Street, 108 Morrill 3, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA, 510-459-76602University Of California Berkeley, 111 Koshland Hall, MC 3102, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA, 510-642-5601

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Penn State Univ., 537 Deike Bldg., UNIVERSITY PARK, PA, 16802, USA

WILF, PETER

68

Tectonic, Climatic, and Mass Extinction Boundaries and the Paleo-Patagonian Diaspora Flora of Australasia, Southeast Asia, and the Neotropics

BARTLETT, MADELAINE

Boundaries between organs and organ identities in floral development and evolution

O

nce you start looking, you can“t help but see boundaries everywhere in floral development and evolution. There are boundaries between organs, boundaries and sliding boundaries between one organ identity and another, and boundaries between domains in the proteins that regulate flower development. I will present work from my lab that explores some of the boundaries in floral evo-devo that we have started to notice in our system (maize), and that we are working to understand. I will talk about variation in organ identity, the interaction between neighboring organ series in floral development, and a genetic mutant of maize where the boundaries between organs are blurred. I will also

A

wealth of new paleobotanical discoveries is emerging from the early Paleogene fossil biotas of Laguna del Hunco and other well-dated sites in Patagonian Argentina. These assemblages provide novel data from the terminal phase of Gondwana, coinciding with early Paleogene warmth that allowed diverse, mesic rainforest vegetation to flourish across the Antarctic. Today, the fossils’ far-flung diaspora of living relatives is frequently still associated, primarily in mesothermic, lower montane rainforest environments of Australasia and SE Asia and to a much lesser extent in the Neotropics. Sumatran orangutans feed on genera known as Eocene fossils at

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Symposia and Colloquia explore some of our work exploring protein-protein interaction hotspots between domain boundaries in the transcription factors that regulate flower development, and how variation in protein-protein interactions might affect sharp boundaries between organ identities. Our work is helping to elucidate the genes and gene networks that regulate floral development in maize and the grass family more broadly, and how these developmental processes have changed over the course of evolution.

ing model of homeotically shifting meristem identities has become accepted in the literature. I argue that this shifting meristem model does a poor job of explaining the existing developmental genetic data on grass inflorescences, which are better understood from a novel framework of competing signaling centers localized at morphological boundaries that regulate meristem determinacy. Recent work from my lab on maize branching and bract mutants will be presented that further support the signaling center model. These inflorescence signaling centers appear to be morphological novelties of the grass family and suggest that constraints created by signals from morphological boundaries were crucial to the evolution of the complex inflorescence architectures of the grass family.

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Biology, 611 North Pleasant Street, 374 Morrill IV South, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA

69

FRIEDMAN, JANNICE

Evolutionary divergence between annual and perennial life history strategies

1

Brigham Young University, Biology, 4102 Life Sciecnes Building, Provo, UT, 84602, USA2Brigham Young University, Biology, 4102 Life Scieces Building, Provo, UT, 84602, USA3Brigham Young University, Biology, 4102 Life Sciences Building, Provo, UT, 84602, USA

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he timing of individualsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; growth, reproduction, and death are fundamental to their fitness and represent striking adaptive differentiation. In flowering plants, one of the main differences between annuals and perennials is the switch from vegetative growth to flowering. In annuals this transition occurs once and is followed by death, while perennials cycle repeatedly through vegetative and reproductive phases. Using a combination of field and controlled growth experiments we are identifying the key genetic and ecological differences between annuals and perennials within a single species, Mimulus guttatus. Using naturally occurring genetic variation, we are asking how seasonal variation in temperature and photoperiod contribute to the timing of germination, growth and flowering, and allocation to sexual and clonal reproduction. Using QTL mapping and quantitative genetic analyses, we have identified shared genetic pathways, and constraints on adaptive evolution due to genetic correlations between fitness components. Our research sheds light on how selection has shaped allocation strategies in annual and perennial populations, and how plants may continue to evolve as the relative benefits of sexual and clonal growth change.

71

ARNOLD, A. ELIZABETH

Interactions across boundaries promote symbiotic modulation of plant phenotypes

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icrobial symbionts of plants respond to and modulate plant phenotypes in ways visible to selection and relevant to diversification. Fungal associates of plants, including diverse pathogens, mycorrhizae, and endophytes, influence plant physiology from seed germination to the onset of senescence, and with saprotrophs shape the processes of nutrient cycling and release that drive ecosystem function. Increasingly it is clear that these fungi themselves harbor endosymbiotic bacteria. Interactions between fungi and their bacterial endosymbionts ultimately shape the extended phenotypes that result from fungal-plant interactions, modulating plant traits relevant to physiology, stress tolerance, reproduction, and survival. Here I will focus on endosymbiotic bacteria that occur within fungal endophytes to highlight how interdomain and interkingdom interactions can shape plant biology in natural systems. Ultimately such symbiont-mediated modulation of plant phenotypes has the potential to contribute directly to the diversification of the microbial, fungal, and plant associations on which human sustainability depends.

Syracuse Univesrity, Department of Biology, 107 College Place, Syracuse, NEW YORK, 13244, United States

70

WHIPPLE, CLINTON* 1, THAYER, RACHEL 2 and GUO, JINYAN 3

University of Arizona, School of Plant Sciences/Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 1140 E South Campus Drive, Forbes 303, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA

Constraining branch meristem determinacy in the grasses: boundaries as novel signaling centers

U

nderstanding the genetic mechanisms that underlie morphological novelty requires a well-supported theoretical framework. The homeotic ABC model provides a strongly supported framework to investigate both the origin of flowers as well as floral diversification. Compared to this paradigm of plant development, inflorescence development in the angiosperms is poorly understood. While models have been proposed for simple inflorescence architectures in the eudicots, they cannot fully explain complex inflorescences as seen in the grass family. In order to make sense of the intricate and stereotyped branching events of grasses, a work-

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72

HUSBANDS, AMAN* , SKOPELITIS, DAMIANOS and TIMMERMANS, MARJA

Molecular mechanisms that position the adaxial-abaxial boundary and drive the production of flat leaf morphology

L

eaves are the primary photosynthetic organs of land plants and their innovation was crucial to the enormous success of this lineage. In keeping with their role as â&#x20AC;&#x161;biological solar panelsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, the leaves of most species have a flat, thin shape which maximizes their photosynthetic efficiency. Flat leaf architecture is not the default state, however, as leaves initiate from the stem cell niche as radially symmetric bulges. Once primordia initiate, their growth is driven - essentially - in two dimensional space, flattening into long and wide, but shallow, structures. This directional growth must be tightly coordinated and precisely oriented, as even minor errors lead to dramatic defects in leaf shape. Leaves accomplish this by orienting the direction of growth along the sharp boundary between their adaxial and abaxial (or top and bottom) sides. Flat leaf morphology thus depends on a properly-patterned adaxial-abaxial axis, which must be carefully regulated to avoid fitness consequences. I will present our efforts to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that confer robustness to adaxial-abaxial patterning and permit the uniform, stable positioning of the adaxial-abaxial boundary. These mechanisms include mutually antagonistic behavior of adaxial and abaxial determinants, intercellular signaling by mobile small RNAs, and switch-like regulation of an evolutionarilyconserved family of transcription factors. Flat leaf production thus reveals some of the biological solutions that enable boundaries between cell fates to be reproducibly and uniformly positioned, even in organs as dynamic as developing leaves. These findings may also have implications beyond the plant kingdom, as organisms across the tree of life are known to similarly drive outgrowth along their developmental boundaries. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Rd, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 11724, United States


Anatomy and Morphology Anatomy and Morphology

74

COCOLETZI-VÁZQUEZ, ELIEZER* 1, ANGELES, GUILLERMO 2, GREGORIO, GLENN 3, ARACELI, PATRÓN 4 and JUAN FRANCISCO, ORNELAS 5

ORAL PAPERS

Bidirectional anatomical effects between the mistletoe Psittacanthus schiedeanus and its evergreen and deciduous hosts

73

CARVALHO, MONICA* 1 and NIKLAS, KARL 2

Leaf hydraulic architecture of Populus and Ginkgo

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arasitism among plants involves a series of modifications in metabolism and morphology. Parasitic plants may tap from its hosts xylem amino acids, organic acids, ions, and water; while from the host’s phloem, they may obtain sugars, ions and amino acids. The hemiparasites are photosynthetic and obtain their resources from the host xylem. The anthropocentric connotation of parasitic plants is that they have negative impacts in hosts of economic importance. By the above the aim of this research was determine the effects caused by Psittacanthus schiedeanus on the morphology and structure of phloem of Liquidambar styraciflua and Quercus germana, two native species of the cloud forest in Mexico. The anatomical interpretations of structure and morphology of phloem in several sections of parasite-host pairwise was made on haustorium and stem samples, which were analyzed quantitatively with optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The secondary phloem of P. schiedeanus was composed of sieve element-companion cell complexes, radial and axial parenchyma fibers and sclereids. In addition, L. styraciflua presented clusters of sclereids in the phloem, while Q. germana had sclereids arranged in tangential bands sometimes disposed parallel to the cambium. The longitudinal axis of the P. schiedeanus forms a right angle with respect to L. styraciflua and Q. germana causing a re-arrangement of phloem and xylem in haustorial zone. In the contact zone, the bark is reduced until be interrupted by transfer cells of the parasite. The sieve elements-companion cells complexes in the parasite are located at one cm from the haustorium forming together with the xylem structures similar to vascular bundles. The interface between the parasite and its host is composed of transfer cells which were characterized by the presence of abundant primary pit fields that may allow the symplasmic continuum among both species. Bidirectional effects are variations in phloem structure of the parasite caused by the host species, as well as changes in phloem structure of the hosts caused by the parasite.

A

major obstacle in understanding phloem hydraulics is the difficulty of quantifying sieve cell pressure potential, sugar translocation rates, and hydraulic conductivity in vivo. One approach to this limitation is to draw biophysical inferences based on a detailed anatomical diagnosis of leaf phloem and how it is physically and metabolically linked to the xylem. Here, we describe and compare the leaf phloem-xylem hydraulic architecture of two topologically distinct leaf-types, i.e., Ginkgo biloba and Populus x canescens used as examples of open-dichotomous and reticulated venation patterns, respectively. Using a combination of electron and light microscopy, we compare the conductive cross-sectional areas and lengths of sieve cells and xylary elements across all vein classes in fully expanded leaves. We show that the conductive area of phloem scales one-to-one with that of xylem in both leaf-types. Sieve cell and xylary conductance volumes also increase toward the base of Ginkgo and Populus leaves, thereby increasing the efficiency of basipetal sugar export. However, in Populus, the total phloem conductive area of minor veins in poplar exceeds that of the major veins and the petiole, whereas the phloem conductive area in the petiole of Ginkgo leaves exceeds that of the total phloem conductive area of the collecting veins near the margin of the leaf. Thus, despite the characteristic fan-shape of the Ginkgo leaf blade, the total phloem conductive area of decreases from the leaf base towards the leaf margin. Our data show that the hydraulic architecture of both leaf-types is consistent with Münch’s pressure-flow hypothesis for phloem export. Using measured parameters, we present a spatially-explicit model for phloem transport to estimate translocation and infer the xylemphloem interconnectivity required for sugar export. Our model indicates that the functional distinction between major and minor veins in Populus leaves is more redundant and more efficient for export compared to the hydraulic architecture of Ginkgo leaves.

1

Instituto De Ecologia, A.C., Posgrado, Carretera Antigua A Coatepec 351, El Haya, Xalapa, Veracruz, 91070, Mexico2Instituto de Ecología A. C., Ecología Funcion, Carretera Antigua A Coatepec 351, El Haya, Xalapa, VERACRUZ, 91070, Mexico3Universidade de São Paulo, Dept. de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, 05508-9004Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Biología Molecular, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, SLP, 78216, Mexico5Instituto de Ecología, AC,, Red de Biología Evolutiva, Carretera Antigua A Coatepec 351, El Haya, Xalapa, Veracruz, 91070, Mexico

1

Cornell University, School of Integrative Plant Science, 412 Mann Library Building, Ithaca, NY, 14853, United States2Cornell University, Plant Biology, 412 Mann Library, ITHACA, NY, 14853-5908, USA

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75

KWON, SARAH* 1 and HAYDEN, W. JOHN 2

Floral Anatomy and Morphology of Acalypha setosa (Euphorbiaceae)

A

calypha setosa is a weedy herbaceous plant native to the New World tropics and found sporadically through the southeastern United States. This species produces three distinct flower forms: staminate flowers on short axillary spikes, pistillate flowers on terminal spikes, and allomorphic pistillate flowers at the distal extremity of staminate or pistillate spikes, and in leaf axils, adjacent to bases of staminate spikes. While some previous literature exists on anatomy of pistillate flowers in Acalypha, internal structures of staminate and allomorphic flowers have received little attention. We studied all three flower forms via light and scanning electron microscopy. Staminate flowers consist of eight stamens enclosed by four sepals; filaments arise from a central column. Anthers are elongate, convoluted in bud, and helically coiled during the brief early morning period of anthesisâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a detail not noted in previous literature; tapetum is amoeboid; endothecium dominates mature anther walls; and stomium consists of paired large and small cells on each side of the opening. Pistillate flowers consist of three small sepals nearly hidden beneath the three-carpellate gynoecium. Ovaries are superior and styles are divided. Each locule bears a single pendulous, anatropous, ovule; at anthesis the nucellar beak extends beyond the outer integuments and inner integuments extend only to the midpoint of the megasporangium; further the two integuments are well-separated from each other and from the outer surface of the megasporangium. We interpret allomorphic pistillate flowers to originate as a three-carpellate gynoecial primordium from which only one carpel expands via an allometric pattern of growth. The axial portion of the developed carpel does not expand while the dorsal midline (carpel midvein) does, ultimately causing that carpel to assume a cylindrical outline, which is enhanced by growth of cells adjacent to the dorsal midline. Mature allomorphic flowers consist of a central crest (the dorsal midvein) flanked by a pair of toothed, crown-like, projections, with styles emerging from the base of the crest. We observed embryos within fruits developing from allomorphic flowers. Staminate sepals and styles of both pistillate and allomorphic flowers possess distinctive crystal-bearing papillae. We hypothesize that our allometric model for allomorphic flower development in A. setosa may also be a significant component of the ontogenetic processes found in allomorphic flowers of other species in the genus. 1

University of Richmond, Department of Biology, 28 Westhampton Way, Department of Biology, Richmond, Virginia, 23173, United States2UNIVERSITY OF RICHMOND, DEPT OF BIOLOGY, 28 WESTHAMPTON WAY, RICHMOND, VA, 23173, USA

76

COX, MONICA* 1, HORNER, HARRY T 2, GALLAHER, TIMOTHY 3 and CLARK, LYNN 1

Grass Roots (Poaceae) at Work: Uncovering their Anatomy and Functional Roles

A

survey of transectional root anatomy in the Poaceae, by sampling over 80 species representing all 12 subfamilies from herbarium specimens, has been completed. These species are a subset of over 150 for which plastomes, and leaf shape and leaf anatomical data are available. Quantitative and qualitative characters, including endodermal cell depth, number of endodermis and pericycle layers, stele area and metaxylem vessel diameter, were measured or scored. Some ratios, such as total metaxylem area to stele area, were calculated. More variation than expected from relatively sparse reports in the literature was uncovered and two unique features, internal phloem and a multiple endodermis, were documented. Internal phloem was confirmed for a few species in Micrairoideae, whereas a multiple endodermis (of up to five layers) was found in a number of species in several subfamilies. These characters have been coded and their evolution is being explored using character state optimization and ancestral state reconstruction based on the plastome phylogeny for these taxa. Functional root anatomy is being explored through correlating these root anatomical characters with photosynthetic type (C3 vs. C4), life cycle (annual vs. perennial), light regime (open vs. shaded), and climate variables. Preliminary results indicate correlation between photosynthetic type and several anatomical characters. Furthermore, there is evidence of a significant correlation between habitat and the number of pericycle layers, as well as stele diameter. Light regime and various metaxylem characteristics also seem to be correlated, but most interesting is the significance between habitat and the extent of thickening present in the innermost endodermal cell wall. This character, in turn, affects the ratio of endodermal cell depth to endodermal cell wall thickening. Relationships to life span are still under analysis, in addition to phylogenetic optimizations. 1

Iowa State University, Department Of Ecology, Evolution, And Organismal Biology, 251 Bessey Hall, Ames, IA, 50011-1020, USA2Iowa State University, Department of Genetics, Development, and Cell Biology, 2200 Osborn Drive, 3A Bessey Hall, Ames, IA, 50011-4009, USA3University of Washington, Department of Biology, 24 Kincaid Hall, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA


Anatomy and Morphology types was described. Vegetative branching terms were defined through a review of the literature, and branching types were described from these reviews and from field observations at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden and Montgomery Botanical Center, both in Coral Gables, FL. In total, 1903 species out of 2501 species in the family (76% species coverage) drawn from all 181 palm genera were included. Five vegetative branching types were found: lateral axillary branching, shoot apical division, false vivipary, abaxial branching and leafopposed branching. In addition, two combinations of branching types occurred: lateral axillary branching + shoot apical division and lateral axillary branching + false vivipary. To determine the most abundant branching type, the number of species with each branching type was counted. Ancestral branching was predicted using the most parsimonious approach in the Mesquite software package (Mesquite, Inc.). The distribution of branching types among palm subfamilies varied from subfamilies. Ceroxyloideae and Nypoideae were each characterized by a single branching type (lateral axillary and shoot apical division, respectively). Corphoideae exhibited two branching types: lateral axillary and shoot apical division. Arecoideae and Calamoideae both exhibited four branching types; lateral axillary, shoot apical division, false vivipary and abaxial in the Arecoideae and lateral axillary, shoot apical division, false vivipary, and leaf-opposed in the Calamoideae. Most species exhibited no vegetative branching type (1043 species, 55% of observed species). Lateral axillary was the most common branching type, described in 646 species (34% of observed species). Lateral axillary branching and shoot apical division were identified as the earliest-evolved branching types. This study suggests that branching types have different evolutionary histories in the Arecaceae, and it is likely that the solitary habit is more common now than when palms initially diverged from commelinid relatives.

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GALLAHER, TIMOTHY* 1, KLAHS, PHILLIP 2, ATTIGALA, LAKSHMI 3 , WYSOCKI, WILLIAM 4, BURKE, SEAN 4, DUVALL, MEL 5 and CLARK, LYNN 2

The effect of light regime, climate and photosynthetic pathway on the distribution of vascular bundles in the grasses

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e investigated the role of the grass leaf as an adaptive macroevolutionary structure. Specifically we evaluated vein density [inter-venal distance (IVD) and inter-bundle distance (IBD)], the number of higher order veins per primary vein and the radius of veins and associated bundle sheaths and their relationships with leaf shape, light regime, climate and photosynthesis pathway over a well resolved time-calibrated phylogeny of the family. There is substantial variability in inter-veinal and inter-bundle distance among C3 taxa with much of the variation associated with light regime and solar radiation levels. Open habitats and higher solar radiation levels are associated with lower IVD and IBD. Among C4 taxa, this variability is reduced and not significantly associated with climate and habitat variables. Models of evolution indicate stabilizing selection towards an optimal state achieved by two main strategies: an increase in the number of higher order veins (particularly in C4 Panicoideae lineages) or an increase in bundle related tissues (primarily in C4 ACMAD lineages). We propose that the relative strength of these two strategies is influenced by the habitat history of the lineage through effects on leaf shape, particularly leaf width. 1

University of Washington, Biology, 24 Kincaid Hall, Box 351800, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA2Iowa State University, Department Of Ecology, Evolution, And Organismal Biology, 251 Bessey Hall, Ames, IA, 50011-1020, USA3Iowa State University, 2220 Osborn Dr., Room 251 Bessey Hall, Ames, IA, 50011, United States4Northern Illinois University, 1425 W. Lincoln Hwy, DeKalb, IL, 60115, United States5 NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY, Department Of Biological Sciences, 1425 W Lincoln Hwy, DEKALB, IL, 60115-2861, USA

78 ARDS, J.

Florida International University, Department of Biological Sciences, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL, 33199, USA

79

ELY, FRANCISCA* 2, FERNÁNDEZ, JOSƒ DAVID 2, KIYOTA, SAYURI 3 and CLARK, LYNN 4

EDELMAN, SARA* and RICH-

Comparative leaf anatomy of 10 Venezuelan Andean species of Chusquea Kunth (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)

Distribution of Vegetative Branching Types in the Palms (Arecaceae)

V

egetative branching is common in the palms (Arecaceae), creating a diversity of architectures, from the iconic solitary palms to the horticulturally-common clumping palms. Current branching terminology describing vegetative branching diversity, however, is not consistent and does not accurately describe the range of palm branching types. Branching is a developmental process that entails initiation of a new shoot, determination of that meristerm as vegetative or sexual, and subsequent outgrowth of that meristerm. Historically, vegetative branching types have been distinguished at all levels of this process. In this study, (1) vegetative branching types in the palms were identified and defined based on the first two stages in the process, and (2) the phylogenetic distribution of palm branching

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37

ith approximately 175 described species, Chusquea is the most diverse genus among the American woody bamboos, with representatives in Central and South America, distributed from Mexico to Argentina and Chile. The tropical Andes are a hotspot of the genus, where a great diversity of species occur between 2,500-3,000 m asl, associated to cloud forests and high altitude tropical grasslands known as páramos. The aim of this study was to compare the leaf anatomy of Venezuelan Andean species of Chusquea associated to these ecosystems along a broad altitudinal gradient, from 1,750 to 4,000 m asl, in order to include as many cloud forest and paramo bamboo species as possible. A total of 10 species were studied: 7 scandent cloud


forest bamboos, Chusquea aurea, C. fendleri, C. maculata, C. multiramea, C. purdieana, C. serrulata and C. uniflora and 3 shrub-like paramo ones, C. angustifolia, C. guirigayensis and C. spencei. Plant material used for this study consisted of fresh leaves, collected in the field and fixed in FAA. Fixed leaves were then used for free hand, cross sections of the median portion of the leaf blade and epidermal peels. All of the preparations were stained with alcian-blue-safranine 0.5% (7:3), mounted in aqueous glycerin (50% glycerin, 50% water) and examined with light microscopy. All of the species were hypostomatic with exception of C. fendleri which was amphistomatic, and they shared anatomical characteristics typical of Chusquea: a mesophyll of 3-4 layers of arm cells, with deep invaginations in the inner walls, and papillae on the subsidiary cells of the stomatal complex. Epidermal characters such as prickles, long and short hairs and silica bodies varied greatly among species. However, these variations did not appear to be related to life-form, habitat, or the altitude at which these species grew. In contrast, other anatomical characters such as the dimensions of the bulliform cells, cuticle thickness, length of the abaxial epidermal papillae, number and arrangement of the midvein vascular bundles, as well as the development and dimensions of the mesophyll fusoid cells did vary consistently between cloud forest and paramo bamboos, and became more accentuated along the gradient. We hypothesize that these differences could be related to variations in the air temperature and the quality of the incident radiation along the cloud forest - paramo gradient sampled. 1

Universidad de Los Andes, Avenida Alberto Carnevali, Núcleo Pedro Rincón Gutiérrez La Hechicera, Facultad de Ciencias 3cer piso Laboratorio de Anat, Mérida, Mérida, 5101, Venezuela2Universidad de Los Andes, Avenida Alberto Carnevali, Núcleo Pedro Rincón Gutiérrez La Hechicera, Facultad de Ciencias 3cer piso Laboratorio de Anat, Mérida, Mérida, 5101, Venezuela3Université de Sciences Montpellier , Herbarium, Montpellier, France4Iowa State University, Department Of Ecology, Evolution, And Organismal Biology, 251 Bessey Hall, Ames, IA, 50011-1020, USA

80

1

HORNER, HARRY T* , YOON, HANA 2 and MEKALA, DIVYA 3

Crystal density and size variations in leaves of two variegated and one pseudo-variegated species of Peperomia (Piperaceae)

A

number of low-land, partially-shaded species of Peperomia display variegated and differentiallythickened leaves that have variable regions being green and the remaining regions being yellow or white. Several older and more recent studies suggest leaf crystals may be light gathering or reflecting units, among other possibilities, to either enhance or deflect light to protect the leaf photosynthetic organelles. To anatomically test this idea, a hypothesis was developed that leaf tissues and cells containing crystals with chloroplasts (green regions) should display larger and more abundant crystals per unit area than leaf tissues containing crystals without chloroplasts (yellow regions). Two available variegated species (P. obtusifolia variegata [Pov] and P. scandens variegata [Psv]), and one ‚pseudo-variegated’ species

(Peperomia prostrata [Pp]) from two ISU greenhouses were chosen for this study. Whole leaves or punches from both green and yellow/white leaf regions were either cleared or vibratome sectioned to identify the types of crystals present with bright-field and polarizing light optics, and scanning electron microscopy, and to statistically measure crystal sizes and their densities per selected leaf region. Both Pp and Pov have only druses in their palisade parenchyma (PP), whereas Psv contains druses in its PP and raphide bundles in its spongy parenchyma (SP). Of the three species, pseudo-variegated Pp has dimorphic leaves with one leaf type being lens shaped and the other leaf type being flat (similar to the other two species). In the flat-shaped leaves the concentration of druses in the PP associated with the main and lateral veins (white) is more pronounced giving the pseudo-variegated appearance, compared to the interveinal regions (areoles), and overall more pronounced than in the lens-shaped leaves. The results of the study of the two true variegated species indicate the number of crystals, druse diameters and densities of both types of crystals vary between the green and yellow leaf regions, and between the PP and SP layers of Psv. The trend for the variegated Pov and Psv species is for more druses covering a larger percentage of the green regions (with the exception of a higher number of raphide bundles occurring in PsvYellow regions). These results suggest that higher druse density favor green photosynthetic regions, not yellow regions, and supports our hypothesis of the `potential involvement in enhanced photosynthesis in these species, due to higher light gathering and reflection, and possibly in leaves of other unrelated taxa. The results for Pp are under further study. 1

Iowa State University, Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, 2200 Osborn Drive, 3A Bessey Hall, Ames, IA, 50011-4009, USA2Iowa State University, Freshmen Honors Program, Ames, IA, USA3Iowa State University, Freshmen Honors Program, Ames, IA, 50011, USA

81

WILLIAMS, JUSTIN KIRK

Petiole length in Boerhavia (Nyctaginaceae) approximates the Golden Ratio

T

he leaves of Boerhavia exhibit anisophylly. It is here hypothesized that the scale of the uneven leaves exhibits a determined pattern, rather than an arbitrary difference in size. To test for this, the opposite petioles of Boerhavia diffusa and B. erecta from both regional and local populations were measured and the ratio of the measurements were compared to the Golden Ratio. One-paired T-tests for a critical mean indicate that the ratios of paired petioles for both species are not statically different from the value 1.6180339887... These tests indicate that petiole length in Boerhavia approximates the golden ratio. The significance of this observation is that the Golden Ratio is here expressed as a line segment rather than as a spiral, which is how the Golden Ratio is typically expressed in plant growth. It is here, proposed that the petioles conform to the Golden Ratio in order to circumvent the apical dominance of lateral branching. Sam Houston State University, Biological Sciences, p.o. 2116, Huntsville, Tx, 77320, usa


Anatomy and Morphology 83

82

LOSADA, JUAN M* 1 and LESLIE, ANDREW B 2

WILLIAMS, JOSEPH H.

Ancient angiosperm pollen biology: conflicts between pollinator rewards, dispersal biology and germination timing?

Functional Morphology, Morphological Disparity, and Heterochrony in Conifer Seed Cone Evolution

A

ngiosperms have markedly different pollen ecology than other seed plants, but little is known about the functional biology of pollen of extant ancient angiosperm lineages. Such knowledge might help us to reconstruct early features of angiosperm reproduction not available from fossils. Early-divergent angiosperm species, within Amborellales, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales (ANA grade), and Chloranthales/Eumagnoliids, have stigmas that support larger pollen loads with faster pollen germination times than in almost all extant gymnosperms. Germination speed depends on the rate of hydration on the stigma and the speed at which the pollen tube synthesis apparatus can be mobilized, which are afected by the water content and type of energy reserves of mature pollen. Here we report on the hydration status and the energy storage mechanisms of mature pollen from 21 species of early-divergent angiosperms from field collections and the greenhouse. For hydration status, volumes of oven-dried (D), fresh (F) and fully hydrated (H) pollen were compared to construct a hydration index: HI = (F-D)/(H-D), where higher values indicate higher water content. Various stains were used on fresh and glycol-methacrylate embedded pollen to detect starches, dissolved polysaccharides, DNA and lipids in the cytoplasm of immature and mature pollen and lipids in the exine. All species had hydration indices of < 30%, except for Brasenia schreberi (66%), Hedyosmum brasiliense (64%) and Illicium parviflorum (44%). Mature pollen of Amborella trichopoda, some Nymphaeales, all Austrobaileyales and a few magnoliids/ chloranthoids did not stain for starch but were positive for dissolved cytoplasmic polysaccharides. Storage oils were present in the pollen cytoplasm of A. trichopoda, Trithuria bibracteata, most Nymphaeales, and several magnoliids/chloranthoids. Most pollen had lipids in the exine and was sticky, including partially (A. trichopoda) or fully (B. schreberi and H. brasiliensis) wind-pollinated species. Pollen dispersal states in these deeply-divergent lineages were diverse, but almost all show signs of insect-pollination, such as pollen clumping, exine-embedded lipids, and oils as a common storage reserve (a rich reward for pollen-eating insects). Pollen is a known reward in all insect-pollinated ANA grade angiosperms. Pollen with high inferred water content is metabolically active and short-lived, and was only found in two windpollinated species, where successful dispersal is rapid. These facts suggest wind-pollination is multiply derived within ancient angiosperm lineages. We conclude that early angiosperms dispersed somewhat dormant, dehydrated, bicellular pollen with a lifespan matching the longer presentation and dispersal schedules of insectpollinated flowers.

C

onifer seed cones perform a series of discrete functions over their ontogeny, first facilitating the capture of windborne pollen, then protecting maturing seeds, and finally aiding in the dispersal of mature seeds. Cones perform these functions with the same basic structure, meaning that specific patterns of growth and development in different parts of the cone are crucial for changing its shape in order to meet these different demands. Observed disparity among conifer seed cones then presumably reflects differences in growth patterns, which generate different specific morphological solutions to the same general functional demands of pollination, protection, and dispersal. We investigated this by focusing on two species in the Pinaceae clade of conifers, Abies koreana and Picea jezoensis, which differ significantly in their cone morphology at pollination. Both species produce pollination-stage cones that look superficially similar and likely function in the same way, but which are built differently: in Picea cones consist of elongated ovuliferous scales while in Abies the bracts that subtend the ovuliferous scales are much longer and better developed. We used traditional sectioning and staining techniques, as well as confocal microscopy, to track the development of the bracts and ovuliferous scales from bud initiation through pollination in order to identify shifts in the timing and location of cell expansion and cell proliferation within the context of their function. Both Abies and Picea follow the same developmental sequence: bracts development first but then cease growing, at which point ovuliferous scales rapidly enlarge and expand. The taxa differ, however, in the relative rate of this process: in Picea, development occurs quickly and pollination occurs during the initial expansion of the ovuliferous scale, while in Abies, development occurs more slowly and pollination occurs during the maximum development of the bract but prior to the expansion of the ovuliferous scale, which only occurs following pollination. These results show how slight heterochronic shifts in the same basic developmental sequence can lead to very different morphologies, which nonetheless perform a basically similar function (i.e., facilitating wind pollination). Differences in the timing and location of cell expansion and proliferation, therefore provide a mechanism to explain broader patterns of morphological disparity among conifer seed cones.

1

Brown University, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 80 Waterman St., Providence, RI, 02912, USA2Brown University, 80 Waterman St., Providence, RI, 02912, United States

University of Tennessee, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA

39


84

TSAI, TIM , DIGGLE, PAM , FRYE, HENRY and JONES, CYNTHIA*

Spectacular receptacular nectar tubes of Pelargonium (Geraniaceae): Development, length variation, and histology

P

ollinator mediated selection is recognized as a critical driver of the morphological evolution of flowers. Floral nectar tubes are often interpreted as key morphological traits associated with diversification because they enhance specialized relationships of flowers with distinct pollinators. The predominantly South African plant genus Pelargonium is one of the large Cape radiations in which pollinator shifts have been hypothesized to drive diversification. Within Pelargonium, nectar tube lengths range from less than 0.5 mm to over 100 mm. While developmental mechanisms generating such diversity are of inherent interest, a further motivation for investigating nectar tube development in Pelargonium was to explore homology of the tube itself, which has been variously described as a “sepal spur adnate to the pedicle,” “hypanthial,” or “receptacular.” We used SEM, growth analysis, histology and epidermal peels to characterize nectar tube development in two closely-related species of Pelargonium that differ threefold in nectar tube length. We found that nectar tubes are initiated at the same developmental stage in both species, when buds are less than 1 mm in length. At this stage, all floral whorls have been initiated. The dorsal antisepalous stamen is displaced centripetally, creating an enlarged space between the two dorsal antipetalous stamens. The nectar tube originates as a slight concavity in this enlarged space on the receptacle, centripetal to the dorsal sepal. Subsequent formation of the tube occurs though intercalary elongation of the receptacle at similar rates in both species until just before anthesis, when the longer-tubed species experiences a burst of elongation that persists for up to four days following anthesis. At maturity, epidermal cells on the dorsal surface of the nectar tube are twice as along in the long-tubed species. Histological sections emphasizing vascular patterns show divergence of petiole bundles directly from the petiole acropetally to the dorsal surface of the nectar tube. We see no vascular evidence that supports a hypothesis of a sepal spur adnate to the pedicle.

University Of Connecticut, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, U 3043, 75 N. Eagleville Rd., Storrs-Mansfield, CT, 06269, USA

85

SEAGO, JAMES L

Polystely and Monostely Revisited

W

hile Van Tieghem and Douliot (1886a, 1886b, 1886c) produced the first major framework for the concept of polystely and monostely in plant stems, De Bary (1877), Schenck (1886) and others had also produced evidence of stems of ferns and flowering plants in which the vascular tissues were enveloped in an endodermis which delimited vascular tissues from fundamental tissues. Then, Jeffrey (1899), Brebner (1902), Arber (1920), Ogura (1972), Beck et al. (1982), Schmid (1983), and others elaborated upon, defined, or utilized the concepts, although most dismissed the importance of the endodermis to the concept. With assistance from others, I have examined many species from more than 35 families whose primary habitat is aquatic or wetland to determine what kinds of barriers can be found between their shoot vascular and fundamental tissues. The vast majority of sampled species has an endodermis with Casparian bands delimiting vascular tissues. Wetland or aquatic ferns always have an endodermis delimiting vascular tissues. In basal angiosperms, Hydellataceae have monosteles, Cabombaceae have polysteles in stolons, and Nymphaeaceae generally have polysteles, while the Sauraceae of the magnoliids have monosteles. Most monocots - from the Acoraceae through Araceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Potamogetonaceae, and Iridaceae to the Typhaceae, Cyperaceae, Poaceae, Pontederiaceae, and Marantaceae - have monosteles, although vascular traces in the cortex are surrounded by endodermis in a few; many species of these families have additional endodermal cell wall structures beyond Casparian bands. Eudicots have much variation from the Ceratophyllaceae with a monostele and Ranuculaceae with or without polysteles to the basal core eudicots, Gunneraceae, which are distinguished by a progression from simple monostele to complex polysteles, where even leaf lamina may have vascular bundles surrounded by endodermis. Other examples with various stelar patterns include members of Haloragaceae, Primulaceae, Lythraceae, Plantaginaceae, Acanthaceae. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Menyanthaceae, and Araliaceae; some of these are even characterized by having emergent stems and leaves with endodermis enveloping vascular bundles. In eudicots, endodermis almost always has Casparian bands only.

Seago Botanical Consulting, Minetto, NY, 13115-0316, USA


Anatomy and Morphology ent, but this is not the case for the development of the stylar cells. At anthesis, the corolla and stylar cells of the LS morph are longer than those of the SS morph.

POSTERS 86

PALE, FATIMATA

1

Kettering University, 1700 University Avel., Flint, MI, 48504, USAKettering University, Applied Biology, 1700 University Ave., Flint, MI, 48504, USA

Campus plants'leaves Stomata survey

2

T

he College is on an ongoing campus landscape change, and new plant species are replacing the traditonal plant species. Identifying the campus plants by the number of the stomata would provide an information about them through an interactive online map to support decisions making. Species with the highest open stomata would be the most to absorb CO2,and would be the most cleaner of the atmosphere CO2, and would be recommended to the Thiel College maintenance department for a cleaner environment campus.

88

CHERY, JOYCE* 1 and SPECHT, CHELSEA 2

Evolution of Vascular Cambial Variants in Paullinia (Sapindaceae)

T

his study aims to investigate the evolution of vascular cambial variants in aphylogenetic context in the large neotropical genus of woody vines Paullinia(Sapindaceae). All ca. 220 members of this genus are woody climbers and present aâ&#x20AC;&#x161;normalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; simple wood type or one of the following vascular cambial variants: compound or corded as well as various undescribed variants. The compound and corded variants originate at different times during development however, they converge on the same phenotype and putatively function the same. This apparent parallel evolution raises the question of the evolution of development of these variant stem morphologies. Silica dried samples and herbarium specimens representing at least 89% of the species diversity and all stem morphologies will be sampled. A targeted enrichment approach using a custommade MiBaits of 500 bioinformatically selected nuclear loci will be carried out on a Illuminia HiSeq 4000 platform. Reads will be assembled and used to construct phylogenetic trees for the genus. All stem morphologies will be mapped on the phylogenetic tree to investigate the distribution and evolution of vascular cambial types. Statistical tests will be run to determine if phylogenetic signal, developmental trajectory or environmental constraints are important in the presence and phylogenetic distribution of variant stem morphologies. The objectives of this study are to 1) resolve the species level relationships in the speciose genus Paullinia; 2) Describe vascular cambial types in the genus that have not been formally characterized and explore the evolution of vascular cambial types on the phylogeny and; 3) determine the important associations with the presence and distribution of variants across the tree.

THIEL COLLEGE, 75 COLLEGE AVENUE, GREENVILLE, PA, 16125, USA

87

HUTCHESON, HOLLY 1 and COHEN, JIM* 2

Comparative floral development of Oreocarya crassipes (Boraginaceae), a heterostylous species

B

otanists have been interested in heterostylous flowers for over 150 years, with much of the early details described by Darwin in his book Different Forms of Flowers. Much research has focused on the ecological and genetic differences between the two morphs. In the present study, floral developmental patterns of two morphs of Oreocarya crassipes (Boraginaceae), an endangered species endemic to West Texas, were examined at macroscopic and microscopic levels. At the macroscopic level, it is hypothesized that the differences in anther and stigma heights are due to the growth rate of the shorter organ slowing down, and at the microscopic level, it is hypothesized that the cause of the differences between the anther and stigma heights of the two morphs is due to a combination of different cell lengths and cell numbers in the organs. For macroscopic patterns, flowers at various stages of development were dissected, and the corolla length and the heights of the anthers and stigmas were measured. For microscopic patterns, inflorescences and individual flowers were prepared for histological examinations, and this was followed by measurements of cell lengths of the corolla and style in flowers at various stages of development. For anther height development, the short-style (SS) morph has a faster rate of development than the long-style (LS) morph. For style length, the styles of the LS and SS morphs develop at approximately the same initial rate of growth, but the style of the LS morph continues to elongate for a longer period of time compared to that of the SS morph, in which growth slows when the floral bud is approximately 25% of its mature length. At the microscopic level, the LS flowers had a larger range of cell sizes compared to the flowers of the SS morph. Standard least squares models, implemented in JMP, provide evidence that the development of the corolla cells, between morphs, is statistically significantly differ-

1

USA2University Of California Berkeley, 111 Koshland Hall, MC 3102, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA, 510-642-5601

89

MARTINEZ-GOMEZ, JESUS* 1 and SPECHT, CHELSEA 2

Early Inflorescence Development in Allium: Its Umbel-ievablly

T 41

he organization of flowers along the axis of angiosperms strongly influences aspects of life history and is therefore a critical element of plant form and function. Umbellate inflorescence architecture is typically described as all flower shoots (pedicles) arising from a single point. However, high-resolution 3D imaging (SEM) and sections of early developmental stages of


inflorescences in the garlic genus Allium (Amaryllidaceae) show a remarkable diversity in both the sequence of floral primordia initiation and phyllotactic organization. This study aims to characterize the ontogenetic inflorescence architecture in Allium and to investigate the developmental mechanism(s) underlying the diverse organization of early umbel development across the genus. Currently, four different umbel organization patterns have been described and placed into an evolutionary context based on our understanding of phylogenetic relationships. We take a candidate gene approach to characterize the spatial expression patterns of meristem maintenance genes, Wuschel, Clavata3 and Knox1 by in situ hybridization among species of Allium that show distinct umbel organization. These genes have been implicated in influencing primordia initiation in model organisms, thus influencing phyllotaxy and ultimately branching architecture. This study will provide insight into the genetic underpinnings of inflorescence architecture diversity, as well as present a novel model system in which to study developmental system drift.

chamber over the stomatal pore, and in O. latifolia the papillae are absent from the subsidiary cells. The papillae on the long cells are simple in most species, being absent in O. latifolia and O. longifolia and branched in A. costaricensis. In addition to the papillae, the species analyzed possessed bicellular microhairs, long unicellular trichomes and prickle hairs, with the bicellular microhairs being most common. O. humilis was the only species that did not have any of the three microstructures. We did not observe informative characters at the generic level, but at least in principle, several species were characterized by the data presented, confirming the utility of these characters in taxonomic studies in this group. On the other hand, their usefulness to explain the relationships recovered in molecular phylogenies cannot yet be inferred, as greater sampling within each genus is still needed. We thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq/Brazil) for support by Doctorate scholarship to JFL (Process 23038.014005/2016-63). 1

State University of Feira de Santana, Av. Transnordestina s/n, Novo Horizonte, Feira de Santana, BA, 44036-900, Brazil2Federal University of Bahia, Biology Institute , Street Barão de Geremoabo, 147 Campus de Ondina, Salvador, BA, 40170-290, Brazil3Iowa State University, Department Of Ecology, Evolution, And Organismal Biology, 251 Bessey Hall, Ames, IA, 50011-1020, USA

1

University of California Berkeley, Integrative Biology, 431 Koshland Hall, MC3102, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA2University Of California Berkeley, 111 Koshland Hall, MC 3102, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA, 510-642-5601

90

LIMA, JAMILE FERNANDES* 1, LEITE, KELLY REGINA BATISTA 2, CLARK, LYNN 3 and OLIVEIRA, REYJANE PATRICIA DE 1

91

MORELLO, SANTIAGO , SASSONE, AGOSTINA and LOPEZ, ALICIA*

Evolution of leaflet shape in endemic Oxalis sect. Alpinae: an integrative approach using phylogeny and geometric morphometrics

Foliar epidermal micromorphology of representatives of Olyra and related genera in Olyrinae (Olyreae, Bambusoideae, Poaceae)

O

xalis secc. Alpinae includes 17 species distributed along the Andes. This section constitutes a monophyletic group according to molecular data. In the present work, the morphological variation of leaflets assigned to 12 species of Oxalis is analyzed. Here we present an integrative approach to elucidate the evolution of leaftet shape in species of Oxalis, with the following aims: 1) to analyze the morphological variation; 2) to determine if morphological traits of the leaflet can be used as diagnostic characters; 3) to further test the monophyly of the section; and 4) to assess the genetic and environmental processes involved in the evolution of the leaflet of species of Oxalis. Leaflets were scanned and 262 contours were obtained. A total of 312 outline coordinates were extracted from the binary images and two landmarks were used to align samples. Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA) was performed on these outlines. Further methods were carried on R using Momocs package, and we chose a number of eight harmonics. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to summarize the information. In order to study the phylogenetic relationships in the section, Bayesian inference was performed from ITS sequences. EFA allowed us to characterize the shape of analyzed leaflets and to distinguish 3 groups of species from their morphological similarity. PCA analysis revealed more than 99% of total variation is absorbed by the first 6 PCs. More than 90% of the leaflets shape variance, represented by PC1 and PC2, is influenced by width and the incision.

T

he epidermal microcharacters on leaves show important taxonomic characters in members of Poaceae, at several hierarchical levels. These characters also have been useful in the delimitation of representatives of Bambusoideae and evolutionary relationships have been inferred based on these data. In this study, we present information about the foliar micromorphology of members of herbaceous bamboos (tribe Olyreae), subtribe Olyrinae. We emphasize species of Olyra, the biggest and most heterogeneous genus of Olyrinae, and related genera (Arberella, Cryptochloa and Lithachne), which together form one of the four clades recovered in the molecular phylogenies in progress in this group. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the characters that can be useful to explain the taxonomy and/or the evolution of this group. We prioritize species that include different macromorphological patterns in Olyra (7/23 spp.) and the greatest number possible of members of the other genera [Arberella (1/7spp.), Cryptochloa (4/8 spp.) and Lithachne (2/4spp.). In all species analyzed of Cryptochloa, A. costaricensis, L. pauciflora, O. humilis and O. filiformis have hypostomatic leaves, the others being amphistomatic. Most of the species exhibit a pair of simple papillae on the subsidiary cells, except Cryptochloa capillata and C. variana, which have lobed papillae. In each subsidiary cell of O. ciliatifolia four papillae with bilobed extremities occur, forming a

42


Anatomy and Morphology PCA shows that species are loosely grouped but there is a continuous of leaflet shape variation. Negative values of PC1 and PC2 represent typical heart shapes of Oxalis leaflets like those found in O. micrantha. Positive values of PC2 distinguish leaflets with shallow or null incision, like leaflets of O. holosericea and O. hypsophylla. Phylogenetic branches in morphospace did not tend to radiate. Instead, they crossed one another repeatedly, and distantly related terminals were often found in close proximity in morphospace, and sister clades are often found in opposite regions. Geometric morphometric data corroborated the subjective impression that there is an overlap in leaflet shape among species of the section Alpinae. Leaflets shape does not always reflect phylogenetic relationships. These results contribute to the understanding of the patterns of morphological variation of Oxalis secc. Alpinae.

93 STACEY

2

DUPIN, JULIA* 1 and SMITH,

Evolution of fruit type in Datureae (Solanaceae)

T

ransitions between fleshy and dry fruits are common in many families of flowering plants, e.g. Gesneriaceae, Solanaceae and many monocot families. In Solanaceae, transitions between the different types of fleshy and dry fruits appear to be frequent, five shifts in each direction. In this study, we examine the anatomical and developmental changes associated with one of these transitions from fleshy to dry fruits in the tribe Datureae. Datureae, a small tribe in Solanaceae, presents both types of fruits and includes the only example of a reversal from fleshy fruits to the family ancestral state, capsules. We characterized the anatomy and development of fleshy and dry fruits in Datureae and interpreted developmental patterns in the context of the phylogeny to identify ancestral and derived states. At the end of the fruit development, capsules (dry fruits) and berries (fleshy fruits) mainly differ in the rate of increase of cell layers in the fruit wall, the presence of lacunae and the amount of collenchyma tissue. Berries presented a constant increase in the number of cells layers, no lacunae and significant number of collenchyma cells, while capsules had reduced collenchyma tissue, the cell layers stopped being produced towards the end of fruit development and the number and size of lacunae in the fruit wall increased. Our results also showed that, even though features are distinct at the end of the development of the two types of fruits in Datureae, up to the first half of fruit development, these fruits have a great overlap of anatomical features - capsules present several features of berries when they start developing. Our comparison of the two different types of capsules in Datura, regularly and irregularly dehisced, showed that the main anatomical differences between them is the accumulation of sclerenchyma cells around vascular bundles, and the organization of such bundles in the fruit tissue. In the regularly dehisced capsules those bundles are positioned closer to dehiscence zones, a pattern that likely plays a mechanical role in the opening of the fruit as it dries out.

Instituto de Botanica Darwinion - CONICET, Labarden 200, San Isidro, Buenos Aires, 1642, Argentina

92

MACK, JAIMIE-LEE K. 1 and DAVIS, ARTHUR RALPH* 2

Studies of the growth pattern, anatomy, ultrastructure, and nectar composition of the petal spur of Centranthus ruber (Valerianaceae)

C

ertain angiosperm families contain species whose flowers form spurs - hollow, tubular outgrowths of the calyx or corolla that usually conceal nectar. In this way, a mutualism exists between plants with spurred flowers and their primary pollinators, commonly based on tongue length. However, spurs of only a few species have been examined for their patterns of growth. In Centranthus ruber, a species visited frequently by butterflies, each flower bears a short spur that initiates from a zone of cells at the abaxial base of the tubular corolla. After an inaugural period of cell division, cellular elongation (anisotropy) dominates almost exclusively to account for the spur’s final length (4.5 mm). Although the spur’s external surface is smooth - lacking trichomes and stomata - internally the spur possesses both secretory and non-secretory trichomes. The former are unicellular and secrete nectar along the abaxial surface of the spur’s entire length, whereas the non-secretory hairs may help ward off small, nectar-robbing insects. The unicellular secretory trichomes, plus the companion cells of the spur’s phloem supply, exhibit wall ingrowths but each represents a different type of transfer cell. Nectar secretion begins at anthesis and its carbohydrate composition (ca. 70% sucrose) remains constant as the flower ages.

1

University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Campus Box 334, Boulder, Colorado, 80309, USA2University Of Colorado-Boulder, School Of Biological Sciences, Campus Box 334, Boulder, CO, 80309-0334, USA

1

University of Saskatchewan, Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2, Canada2UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN, Department Of Biology, 112 Science Place, SASKATOON, SK, S7N 5E2, Canada

43


Biodiversity Informatics & Herbarium Digitization 94

1

WIENS, DANIEL J. and DAVIS, ARTHUR RALPH* 2

Comparative structure and function of the extrafloral nectaries on stipules of Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae) cultivars

E

xposed droplets of nectar on vegetative surfaces can play a significant ecological role by attracting beneficial insects such as predatory and parasitic wasps, plus ants, which otherwise are challenged physically to reach floral nectar in many instances. However, production of extrafloral nectar is uncommon in plant species of agricultural importance. Here, we explored potential differences in extrafloral nectary (EFN) structure (light and scanning electron microscopy), nectar yields (wicks, microcapillaries, refractometry), and nectar-carbohydrate composition (HPLC analysis) in growth-chamber studies of four cultivars of faba bean (Vicia faba) obtained from our institutionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Crop Development Centre. Our primary goal was to determine whether cultivars of this agricultural species vary substantially in the structure and function of their EFNs. Each stipular EFN possessed multicellular secretory trichomes (4-8 head cells above a stalk and basal cell) and interspersed, elongate, non-secretory trichomes often extending beyond the height of the former. EFNs varied significantly in their average area, as well as the definition of their boundaries. And whereas mean total trichome density varied little and exceeded 1,000 hairs per square mm, the proportions of secretory to non-secretory trichomes were extremely variable, EFNs sometimes completely lacking the non-secretory hairs. Extrafloral nectar consistently was dominated by hexoses (glucose, fructose), whereas the volumes and carbohydrate quantities of extrafloral nectar per stipule varied significantly among cultivars. Accordingly, these studies suggest that the ecological role of EFNs in this species of agricultural settings may be cultivar dependent, and warrants investigation in the field.

1

University of Saskatchewan, Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2, Canada2UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN, Department Of Biology, 112 Science Place, SASKATOON, SK, S7N 5E2, Canada

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Biodiversity Informatics & Herbarium Digitization 96

Biodiversity Informatics & Herbarium Digitization

Rapid enhancement of biodiversity occurrence records using unconventional herbarium specimen data

ORAL PAPERS 95

PEARSON, KATELIN D.

T

he ability of herbarium specimens to expand our understanding of biodiversity has not yet reached its full potential. Herbarium specimen labels not only contain data on the collected specimen, but often document the presence of associated species as well. Associated species records can be considered reliable observational occurrence data recorded by experienced professionals: specimen collectors. If harnessed, these records could significantly improve our knowledge of species distributions from the past and into the present. Using the Global Names Recognition and Discovery tool API and the R programming environment, I developed an automated method to aggregate and clean associated species datasets from “habitat” data fields of digitized herbarium specimen records. Pilot studies using fullfamily datasets of Robert K. Godfrey (FSU) herbarium specimens reveal that my method increases existing occurrence records by 12-27%. I will explore the results of my pilot studies in this talk and show the extent to which my method can improve our knowledge of where and when species occur.

THIERS, BARBARA

Index Herbariorum Gets an Upgrade

I

ndex Herbariorum contains information about the world’s herbaria and the plant and fungal scientists and collections professionals associated with these collections. The effort began in 1935 and between 1952 and 1990, eight hardcopy editions of Index Herbariorum were published. Since that time, the index has been available only in electronic form, updated through email messages to the editor. A recent grant from the National Science Foundation represents the first external funding for the Index Herbariorum effort in almost 30 years. These funds are being used to expand and revise the information captured for the index, to revise the website so that institutions can create and edit their own entries, and to reach out to all currently registered herbaria to seek updates. The revised data structure will allow the capture of more specific information about herbarium holdings, e.g., how many specimens are held of vascular plants, algae, bryophytes and fungi; the digitization status of the herbarium, and where digitized data are shared, e.g., GBIF, iDigBio, etc. The options for downloading data from Index Herbariorum will be expanded as well. Related to the upgrade, The New York Botanical Garden initiated an Index Herbariorum annual report in 2016 (called “The World’s Herbaria 2016”). The purpose of the report is to provide an annual snapshot of Index Herbariorum data to facilitate tracking change over time. Participating institutions can use these data to put their own collection in a global perspective and to understand how they contribute to the worldwide effort to document plant and fungal biodiversity. The basic statistics provided in this report include the following: There are 2962 active herbaria in the world, containing 381,308,064 specimens. These herbaria are found in 176 countries. Associated with these herbaria are 11,548 staff members. The report includes a summary of herbaria by region and country, a list of the 100 largest herbaria in the world, a list of herbaria newly added in 2016, and a list of those herbaria that were reported as closed or inactive in 2016. The annual report can be downloaded from the Index Herbariorum website, where all future annual reports will also be available.

Florida State University, Biological Sciences, Tallahassee, FL, 32306,

97

BEACH, JAMES (JIM)

Options for Supporting the Biological Collections Community with Specify Software for the long run

T

he Specify Software Project produces and supports Specify, a biological collections data management platform for curation, digitization and data publishing. The Project is a descendent of the MUSE Project which together have been funded since 1987 by the US National Science Foundation. About 500 collections around the world use Specify for specimen data processing and, in recent years, the number of collections adopting Specify has increased by about 15% per annum. Our latest generation is Specify 7, a web application hosted by the Specify Cloud server, or by institutions themselves. All Specify 6 and 7 software is open source licensed. During 2017, we are undertaking a process to identify a sustainable revenue model, and actual sources of financial support, for the ongoing software engineering of Specify and its helpdesk support as well as associated data management services, without US NSF grant funding. The development of a sustainable revenue model for Specify software is an open, community process and the presentation will discuss various options for collections community governance and support of the software in the future. During 2017 we are engaging with various groups and segments of the international biological collections community to envision a sustainable path toward community-supported collections cyberinfrastructure. We enthusiastically solicit ideas and feedback.

The New York Botanical Garden, Herbarium, 2900 Southern Blvd., Bronx, NY, 10458, USA

45

University of Kansas, 1345 Jayhawk Boulevard, Lawrence, KS,66044s


98

WILLIAMS, TANISHA* , SCHLICHTING, CARL and HOLSINGER, KENT

approach will be discussed in the context of stacked distribution models for assessment of plant biodiversity.

Predicting Plant Responses to Climate Change in a Biodiversity Hotspot

American Museum of Natural History, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, Central Park West & 79th St., New York, NY, 10024, United States

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limate change is affecting species composition and diversity across the globe. Phenological changes could provide the most sensitive and best indicators of changes in climate, yet there are relatively few longterm phenological data available to analyze such patterns. Herbarium specimens are a valuable resource for understanding how species have responded to climate change in the historic past, and past responses are likely to be a good indicator of how they will respond in the future. Recent studies in Europe, Japan, and North America have shown changes in phenological events in response to varying climate conditions, such as warming temperatures, chilling winters, and photoperiod. Unfortunately, few such studies have been carried out in the southern hemisphere. We examined changes in peak flowering time from 1850-2005 in South Africa in the widespread, diverse genus Pelargonium. We combined records from more than 8,100 herbarium specimens with historical weather data on temperature and precipitation to examine the impact of climate change on flowering phenology. Records from more than 120 Pelargonium species throughout South Africa were analyzed. We combined data from 2,400 weather stations in South Africa with a high-resolution map of current climate to estimate historical climate conditions for each of the 4,600 geographic sites included in our sample. Our analyses examine the extent to which clades or life forms show different patterns of change in phenology. This study is the first to assess large-scale climate and phenological patterns throughout a highly diverse African genus, and it illustrates that herbarium records provide an effective method for detecting effects of climate change on flowering phenology across large geographic scales.

100

SOLTIS, DOUGLAS E.* 1, SOLTIS, PAMELA S. 2, BEACH, JAMES 3, STEWART, AIMEE 3, THOMPSON, ALEXANDER 4 , CAVNER, JEFFERY 3, GRADY, C.J. 3, SMITH, STEPHEN 5, FORTES, JOSE 6, FOLK, RYAN 1 and GITZENDANNER, MATTHEW 7

Biotaphy: Mobilizing and integrating big data in studies of spatial and phylogenetic patterns of biodiversity

T

he current global challenges that threaten biodiversity are immense and rapidly growing. These biodiversity challenges demand approaches that meld bioinformatics, large-scale phylogeny reconstruction, use of digitized specimen data, and complex post-tree analyses (e.g. niche modeling, niche diversification, and other ecological analyses). Recent developments in phylogenetics coupled with emerging cyberinfrastructure and new data sources provide unparalleled opportunities for mobilizing and integrating massive amounts of biological data, driving the discovery of complex patterns and new hypotheses for further study. These developments are not trivial in that biodiversity data on the global scale now being collected and analyzed are inherently complex. To assist with this linkage we have developed BiotaPhy, linking Open Tree of Life, Life Mapper and iDigBio. The ongoing integration and maturation of biodiversity tools discussed here is transforming biodiversity science, enabling what we broadly term “nextgeneration” investigations in systematics, ecology, and evolution (i.e., “biodiversity science”). New training that integrates domain knowledge in biodiversity and data science skills is also needed to accelerate research in these areas. Integrative biodiversity science is crucial to the future of global biodiversity. We cannot simply react to continued threats to biodiversity, but via the use of an integrative, multifaceted, big data approach, researchers can now make biodiversity projections to provide crucial data not only for scientists, but also for the public, land managers, policy makers, urban planners, and agriculture

University of Connecticut, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 75 N. Eagleville Road, U-3043, Storrs, CT, 06269, USA

99

HARBERT, ROBERT S

Efficient data mining of global primary biodiversity data using SQL database mirrors

B

iodiversity data available online through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and others (e.g., Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation — BISON, and iNaturalist) are growing every day as more data are mobilized and/or collected. For largescale projects involving data for thousands of taxa and millions of individual observations, one bottle-neck for computation is data access and reproducibility. In an attempt to resolve the access problem we present a roadmap for the democratization of big-biodiversity-data through distributed or local mirrors of large biodiversity databases that make use of SQL storage architecture and efficient database search algorithms to provide up-todate and rapid access to biodiversity data. Performance gains under this model will be presented and prospective work leveraging data at scales appropriate for this

1

University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, United States2University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO BOX 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611-7800, USA, 352/273-19643University of Kansas, 1345 Jayhawk Boulevard, Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA4University of Florida, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 339 Larsen Hall, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, United States5University of Michigan, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 830 North University, 830 North University, MI, 48109, USA6University of Florida, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, United States7University of Florida, Biology, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, United States

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Biodiversity Informatics & Herbarium Digitization 101

102

An adaptive prioritization system for digitizing small herbaria and alleviating plant blindness at the institutional level

Plant Species Checklist for Fish Lake Field Station (Eastern Michigan University)

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E

STOUGHTON, THOMAS* 1 and JOLLES, DIANA 2

BUNKER, MARGUERITE* 1, MCDERMOTT, AMBER 2 and HANES, MARGARET MAE 3

astern Michigan University owns a field station in Lapeer, MI called Kresge Environmental Education Center at Fish Lake. The 240 acre property is located in the tension zone and comprises unique components of the northern and southern limits of many plant species. The field station encompasses nine unique plant communities including a 10,000 year old bog, several vernal pools and wet meadow. We present a publically available, vouchered, imaged and georeferenced checklist for the property. A total of 412 species (in 234 genera and 91 families) have been recorded and are represented by 526 vouchered specimens at EMC. The most wellrepresented families are Asteraceae and Cyperaceae. Six new county records have been uncovered and updated in the Michigan Flora. Sixty species have a Coefficient of Conservation score of five or higher (eight species have a score of 10). Six species are listed as plants of special concern, threatened, or endangered and three are DNR defined invasives. Adjacent to the Fish Lake property is the Lapeer State Gaming Area (LSGA), a 9,000-acre property run by the state. Comparisons between the two properties demonstrate that they share 68.4% of species and 76.2% of families though additional species are found only at the field station and absent from the LSGA. The field station is home to 57.2% of species and 73.4% of families in Lapeer County and 14.5% of species and 52.3% of families in the state. For more than 50 years, the field station at Eastern Michigan University has provided Biology students and faculty with a wide variety of plant communities to explore biodiversity, learn field skills, conduct long-term research and collaborate across disciplines. As the only field station in southeastern Michigan it stands as an important resource for school children and other Universities to explore a diversity of pristine habitats.

he herbarium at Plymouth State University (PSU) in New Hampshire consists of five cabinets of primarily marine algae and Angiosperm specimens, ranging in age from the mid nineteenth century to the late twentieth century. Like other neglected natural history, “teaching” collections at many small colleges and universities, this amazing resource has been “hiding in plain sight” for many years in a multi-use space. Challenges to the preservation of herbaria include inter-departmental “space wars”, infrequency of use, and lack of herbarium literacy among faculty. Departmental reorganization coupled with faculty rotation can also result in the loss of institutional memory regarding how the herbarium can be leveraged. At PSU, we’ve developed a plan to educate community members about the importance and use of herbaria to garner support for effective, long-term preservation of our collection. Our approach is trifold: first, we use the herbarium in (a) teaching labs, where specimens are carefully examined for trait variation, and (b) independent projects, where students use specimens to investigate questions about biogeography, vegetation assemblages, phenological change, reproductive biology, and taxonomic revision. Part two involves cataloging and digitizing the collection for the first time using multiple passes, the first documenting the number of genera and families and updating the taxonomic organization, the second recording the number of species and historic collections, etc. Part three involves reaching out to faculty interested in archival studies, history of science, environmental science and policy, and others to make the herbarium an “open lab” under PSU’s new integrated cluster model of education. We found that botany students are eager to use herbarium specimens, especially historic collections, for a diversity of research projects. We also found that multiple passes through the entire collection allowed us to elicit support and action for proper herbarium curation (including space) from the university at large in a timely way. Generating baseline information about the herbarium holdings via this “adaptive prioritization system” before complete digitization of the entire collection allows university partners to envision their own involvement in using the collection and participating in the digitization effort. In this talk we will describe the strategy we are using, what has worked, what hasn’t worked, and how our project relates to (a) combating plant blindness at the institutional level and (b) successful herbarium preservation.

1

Eastern Michigan University, 401M Mark Jefferson Science Complex, Ypsilanti, MI, 48197, USA2Eastern Michigan University, 401M Mark Jefferson Science Complex, Ypsilanti, MI, 48197, United States3Eastern Michigan University, 441 Mark Jefferson Science Complex, Ypsilanti, MI, 48197, USA

1

Plymouth State University, Center for the Environment, 17 High Street, MSC 63, Samuel Read Hall 217, Plymouth, NH, 03264-1595, USA2Plymouth State University, Biological Sciences, 17 High Street, MSC 48, Boyd 226, Plymouth, NH, 03264-1595, USA

47


POSTERS

104

103

Improvements to the Georgia Southern University Herbarium through an NSF CSBR Grant

SCHENK, JOHN J.* 1, EVANS, COLLEEN R. 2 and DEVITT, JESSICA 3

HACKETT, RACHEL A 1, PETERS, SHAUNANN* 2, HENRY, KRYSTAL 2, GILBERT, EDWARD 3, NELSON, GIL 4, CUTHRELL, DAVID 5, MONFILS, MICHAEL J 5, HENDRICK, LILLIAN 2, CAHILL, BLAKE C 1, BELITZ, MICHAEL W 2 and MONFILS, ANNA K 6

T

he Georgia Southern University (GSU) Herbarium is a regional herbarium with a focus on the Georgia Coastal Plain, one of the most understudied yet biologically diverse ecosystems in Georgia. Sixty percent of the GSU collection is from Georgia, and about a quarter is from Bulloch County, where GSU is located. The collection currently consists of over 21,000 accessioned specimens, which are in the process of being digitized as part of the SouthEast Regional Network of Expertise and Collections (SERNEC) Project. In addition to the accessioned collection, the GSU Herbarium also houses 26,500 uncatalogued specimens, which consists of two orphaned collections and a sizeable backlog of unmounted material. A recent Collections in Support of Biological Research (CSBR) grant was awarded by the National Science Foundation to process, digitize, and integrate the orphaned and uncatalogued specimens; replace non-archival folders that have degraded with age with archival folders; and update nomenclature, especially at the family and genus levels. The project, which is in its first of two years, has employed one graduate and six undergraduate student workers to mount specimens or digitize records. We have processed and digitized the two orphaned collections and are in the process of mounting, digitizing, and integrating the remaining specimens. When the project is complete, we estimate having approximately 48,000 specimens that are digitally archived and accessible through the SERNEC and iDigBio Portals.

Research and management applications of online collection data: a case study of prairie fen biodiversity

P

rairie fen wetlands are globally vulnerable wetlands that provide habitat for over 35 state (i.e., Michigan) and federally listed species and function at the headwaters for several major watersheds. These at risk habitats are of high conservation concern and are heavily managed at the local, state, and federal level. Since 2012, the Prairie Fen Biodiversity Project (PFBP) has collected baseline plant diversity data in prairie fens to investigate drivers of biodiversity in these diverse systems. One priority for PFBP has been to manage our digital biodiversity data in support of research pipelines. Digitized plant specimen data collected as part of this project (including vouchers and associated field images), and an annotated species list by individual site, are now available through the Central Michigan University Collection on the Consortium of Midwest Herbaria portal (http://midwestherbaria.org). We illustrated how we have integrated our research, data usage, and digitization workflows and how we assessed this as the project grows and incorporated insect biodiversity data. We illustrated how the species checklists facilitate communication among collaborators (including US Fish and Wildlife Service, the Nature Conservancy, Michigan Department of Natural Resources and land managers associated with specific prairie fens) and fostered research opportunities that use digitized biodiversity data within the ecological sciences. The PFBP data and checklists have multiple potential uses (e.g., generating training lists using the interactive keys and associated linked field images, identify species of interest and areas sensitive to or requiring management, creating watch lists for invasive species, identifying species associations, and monitoring change and effects of management) and we anticipate that our PFBP can use the portal to add, update, or pool data in new ways as the collaboration grows and new tools become available. Online digitized data gives us unprecedented access to biodiversity data and facilitates data accessibility, current data updates, and a broader use of the specimen and research data both within our research team and with associated partners.

1

Georgia Southern University, Department of Biology, 4324 Old Register Road, Biological Sciences Building, Statesboro, GA, 30458, United States2Georgia Southern University, Department of Biology, 4324 Old Register Road, Statesboro, GA, 30460, USA3Georgia Southern University, Biology, 4324 Old Register Road, P.O. Box 8042-1, Statesboro, GA, 30460, USA

105

BRINDLEY, JOSH* 1 and HUFFORD, LARRY 2

Floral diversity of Eucnide (Loasaceae)

E

ucnide is a small genus of flowering plants in the family Loasaceae consisting of 11-17 species distributed in the southwest United States, Mexico, and Guatemala. While a relatively small genus, Eucnide has a wide range of flower colors and architectures. Thompson & Ernst (1967) have suggested that the floral diversity in Eucnide is associated with adjustments to specific pollination syndromes, but no extensive pollination studies have been performed. Other studies of the genus used morphological data in phylogenetic studies to infer relationships among species of Eucnide, however, those studies did not result in well supported clades (Hufford 1988a, 1988b, 1988c). Our goal is to use DNA sequence data to test those earlier results and to search for more robust support for clades. Using the phylogeny inferred from our preliminary results we provide ancestral state

1

Central Michigan University, Earth and Ecosystem Science, 1455 Calumet Court , Bioscience Building 2100, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48859, USA2Central Michigan University, Department of Biology, 1455 Calumet Court, Bioscience Building 2100, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48859, USA3Arizona State University, Global Institute Of Sustainability, 2831 E. 18th St, Tucson, AZ, 85716, USA4Florida State University5Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Michigan State University Extension, PO Box 13036, Lansing, MI, 48901-3036, USA6Central Michigan University, Biology, 2401 Biosciences, Mt. Pleasant, MI, 48859

48


Biogeography reconstructions of two floral characters - petal color and floral architecture - to examine the evolution of floral diversity in Eucnide. Maximum-likelihood ancestral state reconstructions of floral traits suggests that ancestral Eucnide was likely yellow and narrowly cylindrical with imbricate petals, but poor resolution along the backbone of the phylogeny may adversely affect these findings. Additionally, both floral characters analyzed exhibit substantial homoplasy with white flowers, as well as funnel form and rotate corollas, all arising multiple time. Moving forward, additional molecular markers need to be sequenced to provide more resolution to the phylogeny.

Biogeography ORAL PAPERS 106

STUBBS, REBECCA* , FOLK, RYAN , SOLTIS, DOUGLAS E. and CELLINESE, NICO

Investigating the Sierra Nevada-Rocky Mountain disjunction in Micranthes (Saxifragaceae) with a target enrichment approach

1

Washington State University, School of Biological Sciences, PO Box 644236, Pullman , Washington , 99163, USA2Washington State University, SCHOOL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 312 Abelson Hall, PULLMAN, WA, 99164-4236, USA

M

icranthes (Saxifragaceae) provides a unique system for investigating the poorly known Sierra Nevada-Rocky Mountain disjunction in both a systematic and biogeographic context. Within Micranthes, two divergent taxa, M. bryophora and M. tolmiei, show this pattern though they differ phylogenetically, morphologically and ecologically. Micranthes tolmiei has a widespread distribution covering the Sierra Nevada through the Cascade ranges plus also occurring in the northern Rocky Mountains. It grows exclusively above tree line and is morphologically unique as the only species in Micranthes with truly succulent leaves. Micranthes bryophora, by contrast, is a narrow endemic restricted to the Sierra Nevada and also a few populations, found within a 35 km radius of each other, in the Rocky Mountains of Idaho. This taxon is found in midto high-elevations in temperate forests and shares many morphological similarities with other taxa throughout Micranthes. The diversity of this system along phenotypic and geographic axes therefore allows us to address multiple facets of this disjunction. Why do these two taxa show this disjunction although they are distantly related within this clade, morphologically distinct, and show overall different distribution patterns? Could this be explained by different mechanisms of vicariance or different times of dispersal for these congeneric taxa? Is this an example of biogeographical congruence (result of a common process) or pseudocongruence (result of different processes and/or times)? To address these hypotheses, we used 596 putatively single copy nuclear loci and the majority of the plastome to detect population structure among multiple accessions of both taxa. In the nuclear phylogeny, within both M. tolmiei and M. bryophora we recover Rocky Mountain and Cascades/ Sierra Nevada accessions as reciprocally monophyletic groups. In the plastid dataset, the relationships in M. tolmiei are congruent with nuclear data, yet Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada clades are not recovered in M. bryophora. Our dated phylogeny shows that the M. tolmiei disjunction is older than the M. bryophora disjunction, and ecological niche modeling suggests differences in habitat suitability between plants found in the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains. With this research we will provide new insight into this lesser-known disjunction and demonstrate the use of Next Generation Sequencing for investigating population-level questions. University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, 1659 Museum Road, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, United States

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107

NIETO-BLAZQUEZ, MARIA ESTHER* 1, ANTONELLI, ALEXANDRE 2 and RONCAL, JULISSA 3

108

SALINAS, NELSON R.* and WHEELER, WARD C.

Statistical Modeling of Areas of Endemism: a Markov Random Field approach

Historical Biogeography of endemic seed plant genera in the Caribbean: did GAARlandia play a role?

A

statistical framework to infer areas of endemism from geographic distributions is proposed. This novel method is based on Hidden Markov Random Fields, a type of undirected graph model commonly used in computer vision. This framework assumes areas of endemism are the states of the hidden layer of the model, whereas taxon distributions are emitted values in the observed layer. Taxon distributions are associated to the observed layer through a clustering procedure based on the extent of overlap. Observations are emitted by the hidden layer according to a Gaussian distribution, whereas the joint distribution of the hidden layer follows a Potts model. State and parameter inference of the maximum a posteriori configuration is performed through a modified version of the Expectation-Maximization algorithm. The optimal number of areas of endemism in the dataset is estimated through the Pseudolikelihood Information Criterion, a model selection procedure that uses an approximation to likelihood. The performance of the new algorithm was assessed on simulated data, and compared to the most popular methods for delimitation of areas of endemism: Biotic Element Analysis, Parsimony Analysis of Endemism, and Endemicity Analysis. Hidden Markov Random Fields efficiently recovered the true pattern across a wide range of uncertainty values. Additional analyses on empirical data were conducted on a dataset of Neotropical Blueberries (Ericaceae: Vaccinieae) distributed mainly on the Andean Cordillera.

T

he aim of this study was to better understand the historical assembly and evolution of endemic seed plant genera in the Caribbean, by first determining divergence times of endemic genera to test whether the GAARlandia landbridge played a role in the archipelago colonization, and second by testing South America as the main colonization source as expected by the position of landmasses and recent evidence of an asymmetrical biotic interchange. To accomplish this we gathered DNA sequences from four loci (18S rDNA, atpB, matK and rbcL) for 610 species, including 41 seed plant genera endemic to the Caribbean (out of 180 in total). We reconstructed a dated molecular phylogeny using Bayesian inference and ten calibrations. To estimate the range of the ancestors of endemic genera we performed a model selection between a null and a more complex biogeographical model that included timeframes based on geological information and dispersal probabilities among regions. Divergence times for endemic genera ranged from Early Eocene (53.1 Ma) to Late Pliocene (3.4 Ma). Only the origin of three endemic genera occurred within the GAARlandia timeframe (35 to 33 Mya), whose ancestors derived from the Old World. Our data set shows that over half of the endemic genera and sister taxa had their ancestors distributed in the Antilles. Central America, South America and the Old World ancestors contribute almost equally as sources of colonization for the rest of endemic genera. In contrast with recent patterns shown for vertebrates and other organisms, GAARlandia did not act as a main colonization route for plants between South America and the Antilles. Divergence of endemic genera occurred mostly during the Miocene, i.e. after the proposed existence of GAARlandia. According to our expectations, the origin of endemic genera exhibited a mixed pattern of colonization from continental masses and in situ radiations within the islands, where South America did not play a particular major role as source of island colonization. A species-level synthesis on Caribbean plant dispersal will be required to reveal finer-scale patterns and mechanisms

American Museum of Natural History, Division of Invertebrate Zoology, Central Park West at 79th street, New York City, New York, 10024-5192, United States

109

JOBSON, PETER

The biogeography of the flora of arid central Australia: a preliminary study

C

ontrary to what you would expect, the flora of central Australia is not poor in species number, but rather it consists of over 2300 species. This is due, in part, to the diverse landscape and soil types within this region. Sand dunes, claypans, salt lakes, gibber plains, river floodouts, gorges - both deep and shallow, hills and mountain ranges all make up the landscape of central Australia. The most speciose part of central Australia is the MacDonnell Ranges region, housing well over 1300 species, with the highest level of endemism as well as providing a refuge to species more often associated with wetter climates. When looking at the floristics of the region, what is immediately obvious are the absences or poor representation of notable and iconic Australian genera. So, if the species one normally thinks of as iconically Australian are missing, but there are still large numbers of taxa present, what is the likely origin of the central Australian plants? The answer is a complex, three-pronged one. The three prongs are: temperate origin, tropical origin, and refugia from a wetter time. This presentation is a preliminary study leading to a

1

Memorial University of Newfoundland, Biology, Elizabeth Ave, St.John´s, NL, A1B 3X9, Canada2University of Gothenburg, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg Botanical Garden, Carl Skottsbergs Gata 22A A, 413 19, Gothenburg, PO Box 461, 405 30, Sweden3Memorial University Of Newfoundland, 232 Elizabeth Avenue, St. John\'s, N/A, A1B 3X9, Canada

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Biodiversity Informatics & Herbarium Digitization more detailed analysis of the biogeography of the flora of arid central Australia.

111 JOHN J. 2

Northern Territory Herbarium, Alice Springs, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, PO Box 1120, Alice Springs, Northern Territory, 0870, Australia

LONG, JIM* 1 and SCHENK,

Comparative Floristic Studies of Georgian Sandhill Ecosystems Reveals a Dynamic Composition of Endemics and Generalists

110

WICKELL, DAVID A. 1, WINDHAM, MICHAEL D. 2 and BECK, JAMES BENJAMIN* 3

S

andhill habitats are characterized by sandy, xeric soils that contain a unique assemblage of plants and animals. Similar to the broader long-leaf pine (Pinus palustris) and wire grass (Aristida stricta) ecosystem that sandhills are a subset of, agriculture, development, and habitat modifications have caused sandhill ecosystems to become degraded and fragmented, putting many species at risk of extinction. Previous studies have focused on species diversity within individual sandhill sites, leaving us with an incomplete understanding of how these communities form, what species are sandhill endemics, whether endemic species are widespread across sandhills, and how species have evolved and adapted to these communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of how these ecosystems assembled, we sampled four Georgian Coastal Plain sandhills and compared species occurrences as well as life history patterns. We identified 301 species from 70 families that occurred on sandhills, and as expected, species diversity was positively correlated with sandhill area size. The proportion of endemic taxa, however, was not influenced by area, as all four sites contained approximately the same number of endemics regardless of size. Endemic species differed from generalists in that the majority of species were herbaceous perennials. Sandhill generalists were seldomly widespread across sites and mostly occurred on one or two sites. The majority of species that occurred on sandhills were non-endemic species that opportunistically colonized these habitats from the surrounding areas. Colonization occurred at a rate that was proportional to the habitat area, but species composition did not significantly correlate with the distance between sites (P = 0.57). Despite the large number of generalists, we identified only a small proportion of non-native species. Taken together, our results provide the first opportunity to observe the dynamic nature of sandhill ecosystems. The Georgian sandhills we investigated were quite different from one another due to endemic and generalist species turnover, but were consistent in being inhabited by a subset of taxa. Among the 27 species that occur on all sites, the sandhill endemics Eriogonum tomentosum, Liatris tenuifolia, Licania michauxii, Paronychia herniarioides, Polygonum pinicola, Quercus laevis, Quercus margarettae, and Sabulina caroliniana are particularly abundant taxa that help define these habitats. Given the area effects to species diversity, our results also suggest that additional decreases in sandhill habitats will have a negative effect on plant species diversity, which could lead to the loss of the small, but important endemic sandhill community.

Does asexuality confer a short-term evolutionary advantage? The case of the widespread apomictic fern Myriopteris gracilis (Pteridaceae)

A

lthough asexual reproduction is generally seen as an evolutionary dead end, this strategy appears to have provided a short-term benefit in some taxa. For example, a short-term advantage to asexuality has been considered an important component of “geographical parthenogenesis”, a common pattern in which asexual taxa display a wider distribution than their sexual relatives. However, these seemingly broad distributions may be an illusion created by multiple, morphologically cryptic, asexual lineages that each occupy a relatively small area. Myriopteris gracilis is a North American asexual triploid fern species with a particularly large range. We ask: 1) is M. gracilis exclusively asexual? and 2) does M. gracilis comprise a single wide-ranging asexual lineage, or multiple, more geographically restricted lineages? Sexuality was assessed by counting spores/sporangium in 573 specimens from across the species range, and lineage structure was assessed with both plastid DNA sequence and Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS) SNP datasets. Spore counting identified no sexual populations, establishing that the sexual diploid progenitor of M. gracilis is either extinct or so limited in its distribution that it does not contribute to the extensive range of the species. The plastid data estimated the crown age of M. gracilis at ca. 2.5 mya and identified two morphologically distinctive lineages exhibiting minimal geographic overlap. These groups were further subdivided by the GBS data, revealing at least seven asexual lineages of varying distributions, none of which approached the total size of M. gracilis’ range. The total M. gracilis distribution therefore overstates the success of any one asexual lineage, and by extension, the potential short-term benefit of asexual reproduction in this species. 1

Wichita State University, Biological Sciences, 1845 Fairmount, 537 Hubbard Hall, Wichita, KS, 67260, USA2DUKE UNIVERSITY, Department Of Biology, BOX 90338, DURHAM, NC, 27708, USA3 Wichita State University, Biology, 1845 Fairmount, Box 26, Wichita, KS, 67260-0026, USA

1

Georgia Southern University, Biology, P.O. Box 8042-1, Statesboro, GA - Georgia, 30460, USA2Georgia Southern University, Department of Biology, 4324 Old Register Road, Biological Sciences Building, Statesboro, GA, 30458, United States

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112

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HELLQUIST, C. ERIC* 1, HELLQUIST, C. BARRE 2 and ANDERSON, HEIDI 3

COLLINS, ELIZABETH SALISBURY* 1 and WEEKS, ANDREA 2

Using low-copy nuclear markers to study the phylogeography of Neotropical Palo Santo trees in the Galápagos (Bursera graveolens; Burseraceae)

The aquatic macrophytes of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks: Floristic diversity and distribution patterns associated with water chemistry

B

ursera graveolens (Kunth) Triana & Planch. (Burseraceae), or palo santo, is an economically and ecologically important tree species found throughout the seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) of southern Mexico south to Peru. No study to date has evaluated the relationship among the many disparate island and continental populations of B. graveolens, which are among the most widespread in the genus and rivaled only by those of B. simaruba, a distantly related species of B. subg. Bursera. We seek to determine whether 91 low-copy nuclear markers designed for Bursera simaruba can be used to study population-level variation and structure in this species. These primers were designed for microfluidic PCR-based target enrichment and have been used successfully to resolve species-level phylogeny of its sister genus, Commiphora, and to amplify regions from taxa throughout Sapindales. Our pilot study uses 100 individuals of Bursera graveolens that were collected from the Galápagos archipelago to 1) understand population genetic diversity of Bursera graveolens among these islands, 2) evaluate whether we will be able to expand the project using additional continental populations of Bursera graveolens for a phylogeographic study using this method, and 3) determine whether DNA extracted from herbarium specimens will be sufficient for future phylogenomic analyses. Our research will address the deficit in our knowledge about historical construction of the flora of Neotropical seasonally dry tropical forests and the population genetic diversity of its inhabitants.

A

quatic vascular plants (hydrophytes including the Potamogetonaceae, Haloragaceae, Hydrocharitaceae etc.) provide habitat structure and food that is critical for wildlife in Yellowstone (YNP) and Grand Teton (GRTE) National Parks. Despite their importance to aquatic ecosystems and food webs, aquatic plant diversity is typically understudied. Since 2008, we have been surveying the aquatic vascular flora of YNP and GRTE. We have located over 75 hydrophyte species in GRTE and over 100 species in YNP at more than 300 sites in both parks. We have yet to find any invasive aquatic species in either park. We have located over 175 sites for state listed species of concern or species new to state floras. We have also collected over 3000 specimens for regional herbaria. In addition, we have been examining relationships of aquatic plant abundance to water chemistry parameters that include alkalinity, conductivity, pH, and trace metals. In general, Northern Range and Hayden Valley sites of YNP have some of the greatest aquatic plant diversity. Northern Range sites were more basic (ca. pH 8.0 or greater) and had higher ranges of alkalinity (typically > 125 mg CaCO3 l-1) and conductivity (typically > 200 mS cm-1) compared to other areas of YNP. Many of the rare aquatic plants in YNP were found in Northern Range waters that also had high concentrations of trace metals. To date, ranges (ppb) of trace metals prominent in Northern Range waters included Rb (2-10), Sr (76-546), Ba (31-179), Fe (27105), Ni (0.2-9), Zn (1-33), and As (2-5). As expected, the composition of macrophyte communities shifted as water chemistry changed. For example, compared to the Northern Range, the concentrations of trace metals (ppb) in Yellowstone Lake and vicinity were less variable, e.g. Rb (5-7), Sr (35-45), Ba (6-7), Fe (5-8), Ni (0.40.5), and Zn (0.6-3). Although floristically diverse and chemically distinct, many of the YNP Northern Range sites show evidence of prolonged drying including constricting shorelines, low water levels, and remnant aquatic and wetland plant communities. Similar patterns of habitat constriction due to drought have been observed in GRTE as well. Our herbarium collections, in combination with our ecological data, help provide a comprehensive understanding of aquatic macrophyte distributions as aquatic habitats in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are impacted by a climate projected to become increasingly arid.

1

George Mason University, Environmental Science and Policy, 4400 University Drive, MSN 5F2, Fairfax, VA, 22030, USA2George Mason University, Department of Biology, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3E1, Fairfax, VA, 22030

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PARK, DANIEL* 1 and DAVIS, CHARLES 2

Invasions and migrations: A comprehensive evaluation of the implications of climate change on the native and introduced ranges of Asteraceae species

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he question of how plant species and communities respond to climate change has emerged a central problem across biogeography, ecology and conservation biology. Studies have shown that several native plant species’ range and abundance are likely to decrease in the future. Others have hypothesized that biological invasions may become more extensive with climate change. However, few have considered whether these changes in distribution are achievable within the relatively short timeframes considered. Also, such studies often focus on certain parts of either species native

1

State University Of New York Oswego, Biological Sciences, 324 Shineman Science Center, Oswego, NY, 13126, USA2Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts, Biology, 375 Church St., North Adams, MA, 01247, USA3Yellowstone National Park, Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY, 82190, USA

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Biodiversity Informatics & Herbarium Digitization or invaded ranges, leading to a lack of comprehensive information on what is likely to happen across species’ entire distributions. Here, we model the present and future (2050, 2070) distributions of over a thousand species in the sunflower family, Asteraceae, and examine changes in habitat suitability across their entire ranges at multiple geographic scales. First we compare predicted increases and decreases in habitat between species’ native and invaded ranges under multiple scenarios of climate change. Second, we quantify the movement and dispersion of suitable habitats in species native ranges in the near future. Third, we examine the degree of climatic niche shift required by species to retain their current distributions in the face of an increasingly changing climate. We find that a significant proportion of species are predicted to lose suitable habitats in their native range while gaining them in their invaded range. Suitable climatic conditions were predicted to increase overall for the majority of species. However, we demonstrate that habitats with favorable climatic conditions will shift over 1000 km, and also become more fragmented across species ranges. Furthermore, we find that while the amount of niche shift required for species to maintain their current ranges is relatively small, it is beyond what these species have exhibited over the last two centuries. Finally, we demonstrate that even species with large current geographic ranges do not necessarily possess the niche breadth or adaptability necessary to adjust to changes in climate. Together, our results provide an unprecedentedly comprehensive view of future plant biodiversity change, and illustrate the need to consider invasive populations, dispersal capabilities, and adaptive ability in conservation efforts.

change and investigated genetic divergence and outlier SNPs. Analysis shows main effect among population phenotypes (height, width, biomass, and chlorophyll absorbance p<0.001). PCA analyses show a phenotypic cline across populations that can be mainly explained by rainfall. The model for 2070 predicts that short-statured, dwarfed phenotypes found in the present-day dry shortgrass prairies of the west will become favored ~800 km eastward while robust, tallgrass phenotypes of current core will become favored ~700 km northeastward. We identified 7,318 SNPs and evidence for genetic groups (Western Plains, Ohio Valley, Upper Midwest, Northern Plains). The greatest genetic diversity currently occurs in the Central Great Plains where genetic groups converge, but is likely to be diminished under future climates. Outlier analysis identified 197 SNPs under divergent selection and were associated with various aspects of precipitation. These results portend large future shifts in genotypes and phenotypes. Sourcing plant material for grassland and rangeland restoration should anticipate changes favored under future climates. 1

Kansas State University, Division of Biology, Ackert Hall 116, Manhattan , KS, 66506, USA2Kansas State University, Biology, Ackert Hall Rm 232, Manhattan, KS, 66506-4901, USA34604 Foothill Dr, Hutchinson, KS, 67502, USA4Kansas State University, Department of Agronomy, Throckmorton Hall, Manhattan, KS, 66506, United States5Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, MO, US

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SAGHATELYAN, ANNA

Geographical relationships and comparative analysis of three natural floras in South Texas

1

Harvard University, Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Ave, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA2Harvard University, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology / Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Ave, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA

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115

ALSDURF, JACOB 1, JOHNSON, LORETTA C.* 2, GALLIART, MATT 3, KNAPP, MARY 4 and SMITH, ADAM 5

Predicting phenotypic and genotypic response of the dominant prairie grass Andropogon gerardii to climate in Central US Grasslands

A

ndropogon gerardii is an ecologically dominant grass in the Midwest. With its wide distribution across climate gradients,it becomes urgent to understand phenotypic and genetic variation to predict response to current and future climates. We characterized phenotypes and genotypes of 30 populations across precipitation (40-119cm/yr) and temperature gradients (15-5oC/yr) and incorporated intraspecific variation into species distribution models (SDM) of current and predicted response under climate change. We grew plants from seed in greenhouse and measured blade width, height, biomass, and chlorophyll absorbance and genotyped to assess genetic diversity and divergence. We used phenotypes as input into SDMs to predict current and future phenotypes under climate

53

outhernmost tip of Texas is a part of Tamaulipan Province which some authors consider in the Madrean Subkingdom of Holarctic Kingdom, while others in the “Xerofitica Mexicana” of Neotropical Kingdom. To shed more light on this question a natural flora of fourteen counties in S TX Plains ecoregion, South Texas Plains flora (STX), was studied from a biogeographical perspective and compared with two adjacent southern Texas floras: Edwards Plateau (EP) and Big Bend (BB). I will present the final analysis, which was based on the species and genera distribution outlines and phylogenetic literature searches to find relationships and patterns of migration of species of major clades. STX with 1268 species of 554 genera, being on the crossroads of migration routes, has multiple connections with adjacent floristic centers. Tamaulipan endemism is not particularly high in comparison with twice higher Chihuahuan endemism in BB. Largest families show much higher numbers of tropical-subtropical, Tamaulipan, Gulf Coast, and Mesoamerican species in STX in comparison with those in EP. To the contrary, North temperate, EN American, and Chihuahuan species are much more numerous in EP than in STX. Majority of the BB differential species are in Chihuahuan, SW N American, Sonoran/Apachian, and Madrean geoelements. Geographical spectra of all genera in the three floras show prevalence of species of tropic-subtropical genera: 51.5% in STX; 40% in EP and BB. Temperate genera have 25.4% in EP, 20.4% in BB, and only 16.5% in STX. Western/southwestern N American genera


have 21% in BB, 13.4% in EP, and 11.5% in STX. The geographical spectra of species show higher numbers of Neotropical, Gulf Coast-Caribbean, and other tropical/ subtropical geoelements in STX. The species of Holarctic Subkingdom/N American Atlantic Region comprise 36% in STX, which is four times more than those in BB. They show closer affinity of STX to EP, which has 47% of its species in this group. Many differential among the three floras genera, especially of the largest family Asteraceae, underscore importance of Mexican centers of diversity in the assembly of the STX flora. The generic and specific geographical spectra of STX illustrate its transitional position-an ecotone between the Western (Madrean) and Eastern (Atlantic and Gulf Coast) N American Regions, with a very high influence of various tropical elements and a higher affinity to the EP flora than to that of BB.

118

MERRITT, BEN* 1, YADAV, SUNITA , CULLEY, THERESA M 3, WHITSELL, THEO 4 and KEPHART, SUSAN R 5 2

Can we be defined by our niche? Using ecological niche modeling to differentiate taxa of the wild hyacinth (Camassia spp.) in the eastern United States

S

pecies are deeply rooted within their environments such that it is possible to use biotic and abiotic variables to describe habitat suitability and potentially even differentiate species according to their unique habitat types. The plant genus Camassia is a taxonomically complex group that provides an excellent opportunity to test the use of ecological niche modeling (ENM) in differentiating closely related species. This genus consists of a number of taxa found across North America that inhabit diverse environments, ranging from open prairies to wet fields to shaded forests. In this study a GIS-based approach was utilized to compare the environmental niche distributions of three different taxa within the Camassia genus: C. angusta, C. scilloides, and a putative new â&#x20AC;&#x161;gladeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; taxon found in the southern glades of the eastern United States. We took three approaches utilizing ENMs to differentiate taxa, including (1) a principle component analysis to parse out each species according to the unique attributes of each environmental variable used in the analysis; (2) a Niche Identity test to statistically test for differences in ecological niche distributions between each taxon; and (3) ensembles of small models (ESMs) to characterize the distribution of each species qualitatively. Here we present preliminary results from these approaches that suggest that each of these taxa are different according to ecological niche modeling. These results are the first of a larger project that includes genetic and morphological analyses to better characterize species in the complex Camassia genus, through integrative taxonomy.

McMurry University, McMurry Station Box 368, Abilene, TX, 79697, USA

117 STACEY 2

DUPIN, JULIA* 1 and SMITH,

Historical biogeography of Datureae (Solanaceae) and the influence of range dynamics on the evolution of environmental niche

A

main goal in biogeography is to understand patterns of clade distribution, that is, why different lineages have dispersed and established populations in some areas and not in others. Distribution patterns are shaped by abiotic factors such as climate, biotic factors such as competition, and historical aspects such as dispersal limitation. In this study, we estimate historical events and aspects of the environmental niche evolution in Datureae (Solanaceae) to explain the current geographical distribution of this clade. Datureae is a tribe in the Solanaceae family, with an estimated age of ca. 35 million years and it is composed of 18 species divided into three genera, Brugmansia, Datura and Trompettia. Maximum likelihood ancestral area reconstructions showed that Datureae originated in Andean regions and subsequently expanded its range to North America and non-Andean regions. Moreover, our analysis of environmental niche evolution that searched for significant shifts in environmental trait space and estimated niche overlap between genera showed that the ancestral environmental niche in the tribe is dry and that there has been a significant shift along the Brugmansia branch towards a more mesic type of environment. The longdistance dispersal to North America represented a range expansion into a familiar type of environment, a dry one. Over time, Datura and Brugmansia continued to expand their realized niche towards different areas of the niche space creating a niche shift, with Brugmansia occupying a significantly different and more mesic niche region than the rest of Datureae.

1

University of Cincinnati, Department of Biological Sciences, 614 Rieveschl Hall, Cincinnati, OH, 45221, USA2University Of Cincinnati, Dept. Of Biological Sciences, 614 Rieveschl Hall, Cincinnati, OH, 45221, USA3University Of Cincinnati, Department Of Biological Sciences, 614 Rieveschl Hall, Cincinnati, OH, 45221-0006, USA4Arkansas National Heritage Commission, Arkansas Heritage Program, 1100 North Street, Little Rock, AR, 72201, USA5WILLAMETTE UNIVERSITY, Department Of Biology, SALEM, OR, 97301, USA

1

University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Campus Box 334, Boulder, Colorado, 80309, USA2University Of Colorado-Boulder, School Of Biological Sciences, Campus Box 334, Boulder, CO, 80309-0334, USA

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Biodiversity Informatics & Herbarium Digitization first step to uncover some of the driving forces in speciation on Madagascar. Using georeferenced distribution records from the herbaria of MO and P as well as personal field collections, the range of 27 species were determined and adjusted with environmental niche modeling using climate data for each of the 19 BIOCLIM variables downloaded from the WorldClim data set. The resulting maps were used to calculate species richness and endemism rates throughout the group.

POSTERS 119

FRAWLEY, EMMA* 1, CANTLEY, JASON and MARTINE, CHRISTOPHER T 2 1

Biogeography in the Australian Monsoon Tropics: Using niche modeling to determine evolutionary relationships with climate for a clade of Solanum.

1

Eastern Michigan University, 401M Mark Jefferson Science Complex, Ypsilanti, MI, 48197, USA2Eastern Michigan University, 441 Mark Jefferson Science Complex, Ypsilanti, MI, 48197, USA

T

he Australian Monsoon Tropics (AMT) is an undisturbed tropical biome that makes up the upper third of Northern Australia. The AMT is home to many endemic lineages of angiosperms, whose floristic evolution and evolutionary relationship to geoclimatic conditions is poorly understood. One of these lineages is a monophyletic clade of andromonoecious Solanum, many species of which are located across three major sandstone formations in the region. This makes their habitats particularly complex and sporadically distributed, a pattern that potentially follows climate fluctuations during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). It is presumed the AMT last underwent periods of hyper-aridity during the LGM, making the study of the Solanum clade during this time period of particular importance. By combining geospatial data from Australian databases with our field data, the current study will produce ecological niche models (MaxENT) for each taxon at their current distribution and for their predicted distribution at the LGM in order to make inferences about biogeographical divergences in the lineage. Models of predicted future distributions will also be generated in order to estimate species stability and areas of potential habitat loss or gain. These results provide preliminary data for a larger study of the biogeographic patterns of ten other angiosperm linages in the AMT that will provide new insight into floristic evolution in the region and how it may correlate to habitat distributions along sandstone escarpments.

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LOPEZ, ALICIA* 1 and BONASORA, MARISA 2

Phylogeography, genetic diversity and population structure in Oxalis sect. Palmatifoliae, a Patagonian endemic group

O

1

Bucknell University, 1 Dent Drive, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, 17837, United States2Bucknell University, Biological Sciences, 203 Biology Building, Lewisburg, PA, 17837, USA

120

CRIST, CLARISSA* 1 and HANES, MARGARET MAE 2

Building Geographic Distribution Models for Five Plant Genera on Madagascar

T

he processes driving species radiations of plants on Madagascar remain inadequately explored. The wide variety of climates on Madagascar and the remarkable contrast between the eastern and western sides of the island have been long been invoked to explain the extraordinary degree of microendemism. Recent patterns of speciation identified in the islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rich fauna are complicated and suggest that many processes have contributed. Many speciation hypotheses have been put forth though relatively few have been explicitly tested in Malagasy plants. We reconstruct the geographic distribution of species in the Hibiscus tribe (Malvaceae) as a

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xalis section Palmatifoliae is a monophylletic clade, endemic to southern Argentina that includes five species: O. adenophylla, O. enneaphylla, O. laciniata, O. loricata and O. morronei. The distribution of this section includes the high Andean mountains, up to 2200 meters, growing even on the sea coast, in both Patagonian ecoregions: High Andes and Steppe according to Cabrera. The goals were (1) to analyze the genetic diversity and its distribution within and among populations (2) to model its extant distributions to contrast with the phylogeographical patterns recovered for each species; and (3) to analyze the behavior of the section as a unit regarding the same parameters considered for the species level. We analyze 236 individuals of 27 natural populations for the five species. The resulting data matrix was analyzed using GenAlEx. Genetic diversity within and among populations were measured by the percentage of polymorphic bands, the effective and observed number of alleles, Shannonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s information index, and frequency-down-weighted marker. A hierarchical cluster analysis of genetic distance values was performed using the UPGMA, and a Discriminant Analysis was also carried out. In addition, an AMOVA procedure was performed. All the statistical analyses were carried out using InfoStat. PCoA was used to explore relationships among population in FADM. Based on ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) markers and distribution modelling as implemented in Maxent, we performed two different analyzes. The first analysis included all the populations of each of the five species; and the other one grouping all the individuals of the section but not taking in consideration the separation in species. Ours results allows us to hypothesize that there is a pattern of differentiation within and among populations of the five species considered at the genetic level that can be test assessing the genetic structure and diversity. Distribution modelling is in agreement with the present distribution of all the species of the section but also suggests the possibility of occurrence in the High Andes regions where no one of this species were ever found. Then, we proposed that Chubut River acts as a natural barrier to species dispersion and colonization. Further investigations are necessary to test whether genetic structure and genetic


variation within and among populations resulted from random population genetic processes or are the result of historical processes. 1

Instituto de Botanica Darwinion - CONICET, Labarden 200, San Isidro, Buenos Aires, 1642, Argentina2Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomia, Catedra de Botanica Sistematica, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 1417, Argentina

122

DIETRICK, ALEXANDER

Factors affecting the geographic distribution of Drosera (Droseraceae) species in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa and implications of global climate change

T

he Cape Floristic Region of South Africa is known for both its high biodiversity and high number of endemic species. Among such species are sundews in the genus Drosera, which are small, herbaceous, and carnivorous flowering plants. Of the 34 species of Drosera in Africa and Madagascar, 21 of them are endemic to South Africa. Drosera in South Africa can be grouped into two categories: generalist species that are widespread in their distribution, and specialist species with highly restricted ranges, often known from only a few sites. The high diversity and variety of life history strategies of Drosera makes the genus an excellent model system for the study of species distribution through the lens of global change. For this project, occurrence data was sourced from citizen science platforms iNaturalist and iSpot, as well as from herbarium and biodiversity databases. Using MaxEnt niche modeling software, occurrence data for Drosera in South Africa were used in combination with geographic and climatic data from WorldClim to create a niche occupancy model, which predicted the distribution of these species. This model was used in combination with future climate estimates from WorldClim to predict changes in the distribution of Drosera species in South Africa in response to climate change. Factors that most strongly affected the current ranges of the Drosera species studied included average monthly precipitation and average monthly maximum temperature. When the effects of climate change were estimated, results from this study suggested that generalist species are less susceptible to climate change than specialist species with already highly restricted ranges. Several species, including those restricted to the upper elevations of montane habitats, were found to have no projected suitable habitat. When phylogeny was considered, species that were more closely related had more similar responses to climate change estimates than those that were more unrelated. Understanding how species respond to global climate change is crucial for the success of long-term conservation initiatives. Seattle Central College, 1701 Broadway , Seattle, WA, 98122, USA

123

HOOKER, MARCUS* 1 and HUFFORD, LARRY 2

Evolution of the paleo-endemic sister species Synthyris platycarpa and S. schizantha (Plantaginaceae) in the Pacific Northwest

R

ange fragmentation has been implicated in the origin of paleoendemics. In the Pacific Northwest, the Cascade orogeny, which led to aridification of the inland Northwest beginning around 2-3 mya, has been implicated in species range disjunctions and vicariant speciation. The sister species Synthyris schizantha and S. platycarpa are geographically restricted endemic species known from few populations with S. schizantha located in the Cascade and Olympic Mountains of Washington and coastal range of Oregon and S. platycarpa located in the Northern Rocky Mountains of Idaho. both species are now geographically restricted and each is known from few populations. Great similarities in morphology and habitat between the two species have been noted since the discovery of S. platycarpa; these similarities may be due to phylogenetic niche conservatism, but as the Northern Rocky Mountains are drier than areas in and west of the Cascade Mountains, a niche shift in S. platycarpa to drier climates may be possible. Our phylogenetic divergence time estimation for the genus shows these species diverged approximately 3 mya, a time consistent with vicariant speciation mediated by the Cascade Mountains orogeny. We test whether the spatial distribution of genetic diversity in this species pair indicates whether each species harbors relatively high genetic diversity refugial populations or whether the vicariance and population restrictions have resulted in a demographic bottleneck. Preliminary results show these species to be highly divergent genetically but with exceptionally low intraspecific genetic diversity, possibly due to a bottleneck event. Ecological niche modeling accurately reconstructs the fragmented distribution of S. platycarpa but it over predicts the range of S. schizantha, which indicates factors other than climate restrict its distribution. As ENM results also differentiate between the niches of the two species, the degree of niche conservatism between them may not be particularly strong and the drier climate of the northern Rocky Mountains may have lead to a niche shift for Synthyris platycarpa. 1

Washington State University, School of Biological Sciences, PO Box 644236, Pullman, WA, 99164, USA2Washington State University, SCHOOL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 312 Abelson Hall, PULLMAN, WA, 99164-4236, USA

124

BARFIELD, KERI* 1, WILLIAMS, DEAN 2 and KROH, GLENN 3

Phylogeographic study of Pinus ponderosa & P. jeffreyi

P

inus jeffreyi (Grev. & Balf.) is a high elevation pine found from Oregon to northern Baja California in Mexico. This species is morphologically similar to Pinus ponderosa (Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) which occurs at lower elevations, although some molecular and biochemistry work have placed P. jeffreyi in the Sabinianae group rather than the Ponderosae group.

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Biodiversity Informatics & Herbarium Digitization P. jeffreyi and P. ponderosa often come into contact at the margins of these species distributions and there is some morphological and molecular evidence for introgression between these species. We sampled P. jeffreyi throughout much of its range as well as nearby P. ponderosa var. ponderosa and a few distant P. ponderosa var. scolpulorum populations. Samples were sequenced at the chloroplast (cpDNA) rpl132F - trnL(UAG) and sized at a repetitive region in the mitochondrial (mtDNA) Nad1 region to compare population genetic structure and determine if there is evidence for hybridization between these taxa. For both species, variation at mtDNA was higher between populations than variation at the cpDNA locus consistent with inheritance patterns in Pinus. P. jeffreyi exhibited stronger population differentiation at both cpDNA and mtDNA loci than P. ponderosa. Genetic diversity was also lower for P. jeffreyi than the two P. ponderosa varieties consistent with its more limited geographic range. Some cpDNA haplotypes were widely shared between P. jeffreyi and P. ponderosa var. ponderosa but none were shared with the more distant P. ponderosa var. scolpulorum populations. One mtDNA haplotype was shared between all three taxa while one was shared between the two Ponderosa varieties and one was shared between P. jeffreyi and P. ponderosa var. ponderosa. Our results suggest P. jeffreyi and P. ponderosa var. ponderosa may often hybridize and could potentially be an important source of genetic diversity for P. jeffreyi.

length has the smaller variance but the range was 22 mm wide. The results from the spatial analyses indicate that in P. albidus, corolla mouth width, tube width, and throat width sizes increase as individuals move from East to West and from South to North. In P. fruticosus, larger flowers are concentrated at the center of the distribution. As for P. whippleanus, the Rocky Mountains played an important role in the distribution of floral characters. In particular, west of the Rockies, individuals are larger than in the East for most characters. This trend is less obvious in the corolla length and tip leaf length. The three species investigated show strong correlation between spatial distribution and flora morphology. Further study will determine the role of pollinators on the geographic structure of this three species. 1

The Ohio State University, Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology , Aronoff Laboratory 456, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA2The Ohio State University, Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology , Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA3Ohio State University, Department Of Ecology, Evolution, And Organismal Biology, 318 W. 12th Avenue, COLUMBUS, OH, 43210-1293, USA

126

VANDERPLANK, SULA* 1, TALLEY, DREW 2 and ZATARAIN GONZALEZ, JESúS 3

Rooted in the Islands: Documenting changes in the flora of the archipelago of Bahía de Los Ángeles, Mexico

1

Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USATexas Christian University, 2800 S. University Dr, Fort Worth, TX, 76129, USA3Texas Christian University, Biology, 2800 S. University Drive, Fort Worth, TX, 76129, USA

2

T

he archipelago of Bahía de Los Àngeles (BLA), an International Biosphere Reserve and UNESCO World Heritage Site, comprises some of the floristically least-studied islands of the Baja California peninsula. In 2002, the floristic diversity and abundance on these islands was documented extensively by P. West. Working with a group of underrepresented minority high school students in the BAHIA program of Ocean Discovery Institute (ODI), we re-surveyed abundance data and assessed floristic change in the summer of 2016. Abundance was calculated using the ordinal abundance scale used by West for all perennial plant species of nine small islands in the archipelago. Island biogeographical patterns were assessed for island size and percentage of guano (which significantly affects floristic composition). Two of the islands have experienced significant losses in perennial species diversity over the last 14 years, but species such as the Cardón (Pachycereus pringlei) had increased in abundance on several islands. The number of non-native taxa on the islands was also assessed and has been seen to decline, thanks to the efforts of the Mexican National Park Service (CONANP). Ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) was only recorded on one of the islands visited. This study is part of a series of monitoring projects that demonstrate the role high-school students can play in conservation-based field botany.

125

RODIGUEZ, ROSA* 1, VANDECARR, MORGAN 2 and WOLFE, ANDREA D

3

Geographic variation in floral traits in three species of Penstemons

P

ollinators are one of the major selective agents in the evolution of flower morphology. Numerous studies have shown that changes in floral morphology are related to changes in pollinators. To test the Grant-Stebbins pollinator-driven divergence hypothesis we investigated the geographic variation of traits in three species of Penstemons. We used 1037 digital herbarium specimens to measure nine characters indicative of pollinator specificity (plant height, basal leaf length, mid leaf length, tip length, corolla length, corolla tube width, corolla throat width, corolla mouth width, and inflorescence length) in Penstemon albidus P. fruticosus and P. whippleanus. To assess the level of correlation for geographic distribution and morphological data, we used several R software packages (gstst, lattice,spatial,sp,rgdal). Corolla length was the most variables character in P. albidus while corolla tube width was the least variables. Only in P. albidus floral traits were as variables as vegetative traits; in the other two species vegetative traits were more variable. In P. whippleanus the most variables floral trait was corolla tube width. Even though corolla length is one of traits with the smaller variance, the size of the corolla in P. whippleanus ranges from 8 to 23 mm. We found similar trend in P. fruticosus. In this species corolla

1

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Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 1700 University Drive, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, United States2University of San Diego, Environmental and Ocean Sciences, 5998 Alcala Park, San Diego, CA, 92110, USA3Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas, Reserva Islas del Golfo de California, Bahía de los Angeles, Bahía de los Ángeles, Canales de Ballenas y Salsipuedes, Bahia de Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico


127

KLIGMAN, BEN* 1, JORDONTHADEN, INGRID EASTMAN 1, MARTINE, CHRISTOPHER T 2 and FREYMAN, WILLIAM 3

Ancestral area reconstruction of population-level sampling of an alpine species, Draba oligosperma (Brassicaceae)

D

raba oligosperma Hook. (Brassicaceae), a largely apomictic species, is found in alpine habitats from an extensive range within the North American Cordillera. D. oligosperma exhibits several characteristics that make it an interesting subject for Ancestral Area Reconstruction, including a wide range spanning much of the of the North American Cordillera, many geographically isolated populations, large population sizes, largely apomictic reproduction, and unusual habitat niches compared to other members of its genus. Thirty-three populations of this species were sampled, with 10 to 25 individuals per population, from locations throughout its range, including sites in the Yukon Territory, Alberta, Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Nevada, and California. Using ddRADtag sequencing methods, and the bioinformatics pipeline, pyrad, a multiple sequence alignment was compiled. A Bayesian MCMC analysis of this data set was performed in BEAST using secondary calibration points, resulting in a time calibrated phylogeny with divergence time estimations. The Ancestral Area Reconstruction software, for example BioGeoBEARS, and Migrate-n, will be used to test biogeographical hypotheses of where this species originated and how it spread throughout its present range. We aim to infer the migration patterns of D. oligosperma within the context of Pleistocene and Holocene geological events in North America. 1

University of California Berkeley, University and Jepson Herbaria, 1001 Valley Life Science Building, Berkeley, CA, 94706, USA2Bucknell University, Biological Sciences, 203 Biology Building, Lewisburg, PA, 17837, USA3U.C. Berkeley, Integrative Biology, 3040 Valley Life Sciences Building #3140, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3140, USA

58


Botanical History Botanical History 129

HARVEY, MONIQUE* 1 and BURKE, JANELLE 2

ORAL PAPERS 128

FRIEDMAN, WILLIAM E* 1 and ENDRESS, PETER K 2

Alexander Moritzi, a botanist and preDarwinian evolutionist from Switzerland

The Life and Legacy of Dr. Charles S. Parker

C

harles S. Parker PhD., botanist and former head of the Department of Botany at Howard University, made tremendous contributions to the botanical community. Parker collected over 2,000 specimens which included over 900 different species. His extensive collections were referenced extensively in comprehensive publication by Harold St. John’s: “Flora of Southeastern Washington and of Adjacent Idaho (1937)”. Parker’s collections contributed greatly to St. John’s flora, to such great extent that he named a variety of legume, Lathyrus nevadensis, after Parker. Three of Parker’s collected specimens are currently designated as type material in Washington State University“s Marion Ownbey Herbarium. From 1923-1924, Parker worked as a plant pathologist of the Western District of North Carolina under appointment of the US Bureau of Plant Industry. Throughout his life, Charles S. Parker valued education. He received his master and Ph.D. in plant pathology and he taught in high schools and at various colleges. In 1932, after teaching at Howard University for one year, Parker was promoted to Chair of the Department of Botany. He served as Chair for 16 years, developed Howard University’s the Masters program within the Department of Botany program, which has educated over 300 botanists of color. One of Parker’s most notable graduate students was Marie Clark Taylor, who later went on to become the first woman to receive a PhD in a STEM field at Fordham University.

B

etween 1748 and 1859 (first edition of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species), more than 50 authors published papers and/or entire books on evolution. Evolutionary ideas can be found emerging in France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Russia, England, Scotland, Ireland, and in a single instance, the United States. With a few exceptions (e.g. Erasmus Darwin, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Robert Chambers), most of these early evolutionists have essentially been lost to history. Alexander Moritzi (1806-1850) is perhaps one of the most obscure figures in the early history of evolutionary thought. Best known for authoring a flora of Switzerland, Moritzi also published Réflexions sur l’espèce en histoire naturelle (1842), a remarkable book about evolution with a clearly materialist (and antitheological) viewpoint. In this work, Moritzi describes species as ideally being defined as all descendants of a common stock, argues that the (then) generally accepted line between species and varieties is artificial, and that deep time and turnover of species in the fossil record clearly support an evolutionary interpretation of biodiversity. In contradistinction to Lamarck, Moritzi viewed the genealogical relationships of species as a branching tree (rather than a strictly linear set of transformations). Although it is currently unclear precisely how Moritzi came to his evolutionist views, it is apparent from his botanical and taxonomic work that he was keenly aware of both extensive variation within species (he was antitypological) and the role that environment can play in determining the expressed forms of plants (phenotypic plasticity). He strongly opposed the reductionist approach to classifying species from individual or limited herbarium sheets. Moritzi’s views of the importance of environment on plant form in many ways anticipate those of the classic reciprocal transplant studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey in the early twentieth century.

1

Howard University, Biology, 415 College St. NW, Just Hall Room 328, Washington, DC, 20059, USA2Howard University, 415 College St. NW, Dept. Of Biology, Washington, DC, 20059, USA

1

Harvard University, Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, 1300 Centre Street, Arnold Arboretum, Boston, MA, 02131, USA2UNIVERSITY OF ZURICH, BOT GARTEN & INST FUR SYS BOT, ZOLLIKERSTRASSE 107, ZURICH, CH-8008, Switzerland

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POSTERS 130

DIAZ, AMALIA* 1, WIGLEY, JESSICA and YATSKIEVYCH, GEORGE 2 2

An interdisciplinary project to integrate a classic work of historical and botanical importance into modern collections and public platforms: The Flora of Forfarshire

W

illiam Gardiner (1809-1852) spent his life in the Dundee region of Scotland. He was born into a humble family and received a basic education, but his passion for botany and exploration brought him recognition from other botanists including William Jackson Hooker. His collections became popular among benefactors and botanical societies, who paid him for volumes of dried plants illustrative of the Scottish Flora. One of his most important works is The Flora of Forfarshire (Scotland), published in 1848, which comprises an annotated catalog of plants documented during his years of traveling the local countryside. The book is one of the most detailed snapshots of plant diversity in a local area in the mid-1840s. In order to help fund his field work and the publication of the book, Gardiner produced a limited number of supplementary volumes containing pressed specimens of selected species. One of the remaining copies of this plant folio is accessioned at the University of Texas Libraries. Given the historical and botanical value of this work, The UT Plant Resources Center initiated a project with the main goal of making it available to the scientific community and the public. This project also provides a student enrichment opportunity through the new Museum Studies Certification Program. The project consists of four main components: -Digitizing the book and the accompanying specimen folio. -Updating the botanical nomenclature and checking and correcting possible botanical misidentifications in the accompanying volume. -Introducing the updated information and the images into the herbarium database. -Making the book and botanical information available online through the Texas Scholar Works repository through the University of Texas Libraries. The supplementary volume contains specimens and information on 59 species of angiosperms, 17 ferns and allies, 37 bryophytes, 11 algae, and 10 lichens, collected at 36 total localities in Forfarshire (Forfar, or Angus, County) in Scotland. We have generated digital images of each page, and high quality prints with barcodes for each species. These data and links to image files are included in a database. To accomplish the last stage of the project, the images and a series of metadata that include collector, locality, date, and plant name will be compiled and uploaded to the Texas Scholar Works repository. A link to the images and the information will also be included in the Plant Resources Center herbarium website.

1

The University of Texas at Austin, Plant Resources Center, Main Building, Room 127, 1 University Station F 0404, Austin, TX, 78712, USA2The University of Texas at Austin, Plant Resources Center, Main Building, Room 127, 1 University Station F0404, Austin, TX, 78712, USA

131

LINDON, HEATHER LYNN 1, GARDINER, LAUREN M. 1, BRADY, ABIGAIL 2 and VORONTSOVA, MARIA* 1

Women's contribution to plant species discovery: a new use of historical botanical nomenclature data

H

ow has women“s contribution to science developed over multiple generations? We present the first quantitative analysis of the role played by women in publishing botanical species names, and the first complete analysis of women“s contribution to any field of science with a timeframe of more than 260 years. Full data from the International Plant Names Index and The Plant List, up until the end of 2013, were used to analyze the contribution of female authors to the publication of land plant species names. Authors of land plant species were automatically assigned as male or female using Wikipedia articles associating binary gender to names. This was followed by manual research for authors marked as female for all those who have authored over 100 new plant species names. The number of new species names published per author were calculated based on the proportion of authorship. Female authors make up 12.05% of the total number of all authors of plant species names, and together they have published 2.59% of all new names. Female contribution has accounted for more than 1% of new species names each decade since 1900, and had increased to 11.99% by the first half of the current decade. The difference in productivity between male and female authors has declined over time, and female authors are now 80% as productive as their male counterparts in terms of plant naming output. We determined that Elizabeth Blackwell was the first woman to publish a plant name, Amomum verum Blackw., in the 1750“s. The most prolific female plant author was Harriet Margaret Louisa Bolus, and one of the top 10 most prolific women, Dr. Charlotte M. Taylor, is still working today. There are only 28 women authors of plant names before 1900, accounting for about 176 plant species names. In spite of botany“s traditional image as a more “feminine“ pursuit, women“s contribution to the field was not significantly reflected in species authorship until the twentieth century, around the same time as in other branches of science. This study illustrates how large and highly comprehensive datasets of people, dates and taxon names can be used to answer questions beyond their original intent and scope. Studies such as these illustrate the great strides and contributions women have made in science over the past 260 years and will hopefully will inspire the current generation of taxonomists to narrow the gender gap in species publication.

1

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Science, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AB, UK279B Mill Street, Oxford, OX2 0AL, UK


Bryology and Lichenology pared to the control group, whereas cover of unoccupied space was significantly greater in treatment groups compared to the control group (58-64% vs. 32%). In 2016, control plots had 6% cover of Cladina, 6% other lichens, 32% unoccupied space, and 48% feather mosses. Comparatively, treatment plots had 8% cover Cladina, 10% other lichens, 61% duff, and 11% feather mosses. Overall between 1997 and 2016, lichen cover increased 6%, feather mosses, as expected have decreased markedly, and unoccupied space was double that of the controls. Despite these changes in abundance, species richness (gamma) largely remained the same for vascular plants, lichens, and bryophytes. We conclude that bryophytes have not recovered after harvest, Cladina and other lichens have had a modest increase in cover, but after 19 years there remains large unoccupied areas of ground. Harvesting had little or no effect on species richness of either bryophytes or lichens.

Bryology and Lichenology ORAL PAPERS 132

RAJI, RASAQ OLADOJA* 1 and ARIYO, OLUSESAN AYODELE 2

Epiphytic Bryoflora from Southwest Nigeria

T

he epiphytic bryoflora from southwest Nigeria has been reported.The host specificity was shown by the recorded species in which the bark structure and bark chemistry of the host tree has an important influence on the number and composition of epiphytic bryophyte. Isopterygium sericifolium showed the highest species richness. All epiphytic bryophyte collected were found growing on rough barks. Generally the studied bryophyte showed a considerable preference to different host tree. This suggests the need for careful management of the tree species growing in southwestern Nigeria which will help in conserving the local epiphytic bryophytes community for enhanced biodiversity richness.

1

Southern Illinois University, Department of Plant Biology, Carbondale, IL, 62901, usa2fRI Reaearch, 1176 Switzer Drive, Hinton, AB, T7V 1V3, Canada

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1

CRANDALL-STOTLER, BARBARA

University of Lagos, Botany, Faculty of Science2UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, BOTANY & MICROBIOLOGY, AKOKA, LAGOS, LAGOS, 100001, Nigeria

Notes on wetland and riverine species of the liverwort Fossombronia Raddi

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M

ost of the currently recognized species of Fossombronia form small rosettes or loose mats on moist, open to shaded soil, often in seasonally dry habitats, where they may survive as short-lived annuals, i.e., they produce sporophytes seasonally, and then temporarily "disappear" from the landscape. In contrast to this life strategy, there are a few perennial, more persistent species that are restricted to the continuously wet environs of the Andean parámos (2 species), low elevation wetlands of Australia, New Zealand and subantarctic islands (1 species), and disjuncted riverine habitats of North and South America (3 species). With expanded exploration of such habitats in Latin America, two new species of Fossombronia have been discovered, one from the high elevation Venezuelan parámo and one from the low elevation Río Anzu Reserve in the Pastaza Watershed of Ecuador. A combination of phylogenetic and morphological studies have shown that the parámo species is phylogenetically related to F. peruviana, a widespread element of the Andean parámos; that extend from Colombia to Argentina, but differs morphologically from it in several androecial and sporophytic characters. The Río Anzu taxon has not been included in molecular phylogenetic studies, but has a unique assemblage of morphological characters and to date, is the only riverine species described from South America; in its restriction to a limestone, riverine habitat, it is ecologically similar to F. texana, a common species of the Texas Hill Country, and F. wrightii, a species known only from its Cuban type. The diagnostic features of the two new species will be discussed, with a review of related taxa in similar habitats. Future explorations of similar wetland and riverine habitats, worldwide, will doubtless expand our knowledge of species-level diversification in Fossombronia.

VITT, DALE* 1, FINNEGAN, LAURA 2 and HOUSE, MELISSA 1

The responses of lichens and bryophytes to forest thinning regimes in montane forests of Alberta, Canada

P

inus contorta-dominated montane forests of western Canada with relatively dense tree canopies have ground layers covered by abundant bryophytes, especially feather mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens), while those with more open canopies are dominated by species of fruticose lichens, especially Cladina mitis and C. rangiferina. Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are a threatened species and prefer open, Cladina-dominated forests for winter food supply. This study investigated if opening the forest canopy through a series of selective cutting regimes of mature montane forests of the Canadian Rocky Mountain foothills would result in an increase in the abundance of lichens in order to provide a better food supply for woodland caribou. Forests were thinned in 1997 by removing 20, 40, and 60% by volume. Plant and lichen responses were assessed by the establishment of 180 42.25 m2 plots equally placed in each of the thinning treatments, plus control plots in uncut forests. A subset of 97 plots were surveyed in 2016, 19 years after treatment, for vegetative cover and species richness. The survey found that control plots were different from all three canopy cover groups, and the three canopy cover groups were intermixed within NMDS ordination space. The control set of plots were dominated by feather mosses, whereas the canopy cover (treatment) groups were dominated by unoccupied space. In all three canopy cover groups, feather mosses decreased between 31 and 47% com-

61

Southern Illinois University, Department Of Plant Biology, 1125 Lincoln Avenue, CARBONDALE, IL, 62901-6509, USA


135

ALLEN, JESSICA

Testing lichen transplant methods for conservation applications in the southern Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina

T

hree experiments were conducted to test new and established methods for lichen transplantation. First, small fragments of Graphis sterlingiana, Hypotrachyna virginica, and Lepraria lanata were placed on medical gauze attached to each of the species most common substrate to test the feasibility of transplanting narrowly endemic species. Second, burlap, cheesecloth, medical gauze, and a plastic air filter were directly compared for their use as artificial transplant substrates with Lepraria finkii as the test lichen. Third, transplants of Usnea angulata were established to test its amenability to transplantation via hanging fragments on monofilament. The first two experiments were established on Roan Mountain, North Carolina and the third experiment at Highlands Biological Station, North Carolina. In the first two experiments medical gauze did not withstand local weather conditions and nearly all gauze fell from the trees within 6 months. The plastic air filter and burlap performed best as artificial substrates for transplants, with a 100% and 80% success rate, respectively. Cheesecloth remained attached to the trees, but only 20% of lichen fragments remained attached to the substrate after one year. In the third experiment U. angulata grew 3.5±1.4 cm in 5 months, exceeding previously reported growth rates for this species. These results advance methods for conservation-focused lichen transplants, and expand established methods to a new region and new species. The New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, NY, 10458, USA

136

ST CLAIR, LARRY L* 1 and LEAVITT, STEVEN 2

Using Lichens to Document the Effects of Human-related Disturbance to Natural Landscapes

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ir quality biomonitoring efforts, spanning more than 25 years in the Intermountain Western United States, are being used to document air pollution-related impact on USDA Forest Service managed wilderness areas. Sources of air pollution range from fossil fuel processing and combustion to landscape level disturbance in conjunction with extraction and processing of mineral resources to increasing levels of wildfire activity. Elevated levels of Copper (≥ 34 ppm) and Aluminum (≥ 2500 ppm) as well as high Cu/Zn ratios (≥ 0.60) based on the analysis of two sensitive lichen indicator genera Usnea spp. and Xanthoparmelia spp., collected in 2014 from the Gila and Blue Range wilderness areas in New Mexico, suggest impact from local open-pit Copper mining and ore processing activity in southwestern New Mexico. The two wilderness areas are located northwest of the mining operations with prevailing wind patterns moving air from west to east. However, late afternoon monsoonal storms, from July through October, result in seasonal wind patterns that

move air and moisture from the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf of California across the open-pit Copper mines in southwestern Mexico into both the Gila and Blue Range wilderness area airsheds. Differences in air pollutant accumulation patterns between fruticose (Usnea spp.) and foliose (Xanthoparmelia spp.) lichen growth forms suggest that, where possible, use of both growth forms for accurately documenting a more robust pattern of air pollutant accumulation is advisable. 1

Brigham Young University, Biology and M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, 1115 M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 84602, USA2Brigham Young University, Department of Biology & M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, 4143 Life Science Building, Provo, UT, 84602, USA

137

PASICHE LISBOA, CARLOS JOSE* , BELLAND, RENE 2 and PIERCEY-NORMORE, MICHELE D. 3

1

Survival of fragments from three boreal mosses to extreme temperatures

M

oss propagules must survive and establish populations after dispersal, but little is known about the effects of temperature and other factors on the survival of fragments of different sizes and species. The goal of this study was to examine the ability of moss fragments to begin growth after exposure for one to six months to abrupt or gradual temperature changes. Three boreal forest mosses were studied, Dicranum polysetum Sw., Orthotrichum obtusifolium Brid., and Pleurozium schreberi (Bridel) Mitten. For each species, gametophyte stem fragments of different sizes (0.5 and 1.0 cm) were exposed directly (abrupt) or gradually to one to four changes in temperatures (43, 22, 6, -18, -40, -80 °C) for time periods of exposure (1 to 6 months). Fragments were cultured in vitro and at six weeks these were assessed for survival (green or brown) and growth (production of protonemata/branches from the gametophyte). Logistic regression analyses evaluated the association between survival and growth to the four predictors (temperature type, temperatures, time, and size of fragments). The logistic regression suggests that survival and protonemata production significantly increased when species were exposed to gradual rather than abrupt temperatures, lower than higher temperatures, and when the fragments had larger than smaller sizes. Only O. obtusifolium’s survival and protonemata production significantly increased with time of exposure. Gametophyte branches increased in gradual as opposed to abrupt temperature, decreases at higher temperatures, increased with time exposed, and increased when the fragments were larger than small sizes. However, O. obtusifolium producing branches neither increased nor decrease with temperature type, and P. schreberi decreased in gradual temperatures. Although most of the predictors and combinations were significant, regression models including the four predictors best explained the survival and growth response for the three moss species. Our study suggests that temperature type, temperature, time of exposure, and fragment size all influence survival and growth of moss species after dispersal, with species-specific survival and growth responses that allows for adaptation in a habitat. These


Bryology and Lichenology adaptations may include clonal growth via the production of growth gametophyte branches and protonemata, or mostly protonemata (D. polysetum and P. schreberi, respectively), even when high temperatures negatively affect growth. In addition, these adaptations may aid with population maintenance for species that compete similar for substrata (D. polysetum and P. schreberi). Further studies including humidity and light would provide better insight on survival and growth responses of moss species in the boreal biome.

139

SCHARNAGL, KLARA* and PRATHER, ALAN

Using collections data to explore patterns of lichen diversity across the North American landscape

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ichens are small but terrestrially ubiquitous organisms that serve as biological indicators of ecosystem health and global change. Mapping lichen distributions can help inform the role of lichens from the ecosystem to the regional scale, and collections data from lichen herbaria are a critical resource for the creation of robust distribution maps. As a component of my dissertation on the latitudinal gradient of lichen diversity, I am querying data from the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH) to determine whether collections data support a North American latitudinal gradient of lichen diversity, and to investigate potential drivers thereof. Previous research of both opportunistic field sampling, and collections data in the western region of the United States provided a baseline for assessing latitudinal patterns of North American lichen diversity. In this study, I built upon this baseline by determining patterns of diversity for multiple fungal families using geo-referenced herbarium data from CNALH. I then compared these data to geo-referenced sequence data available on MycoBank and GenBank, and used a niche modeling approach in R to map lichen diversity across the North American landscape, determine effects of land use change, and predict lichen ranges based upon a combination of records data and niche modeling. I made corrections based upon taxonomic revisions, removed implausible locations data, and scanned for potential sampling bias in determining patterns of diversity across the landscape. This study supports the use of collections data for large-scale ecological and evolutionary studies in lichens.

1

University of Manitoba, 66 Chancellors Cir, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2, Canada2University of Alberta, 775 General Services, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2H1, Canada3Memorial University of Newfoundland, School of Science and Environment, Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of NL, Corner Brook, NL, A2H 5G4, Canada

138

SLATE, MANDY* 1, CALLAWAY, RAGAN 2 and PEARSON, DEAN 3

Soil crusts, vascular plants and disturbance in Northern Rocky Mountain grasslands

B

iological soil crusts are well recognized for their ecological importance in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. Soil crusts are associations of lichen, cyanobacteria, fungi, green algae, moss, and soil particles that differ greatly in species composition and dominance between locations. Soil crusts physically stabilize soils, regulate water and chemical cycling, and buffer soil temperatures. These physical attributes can then positively influence vascular plant nutrient uptake and survival. Soil crusts generally only facilitate native plants, however, while providing a protective barrier against invasive species. Once crusts are disturbed, resistance to invasion appears to be lost. This is important because depending on environmental conditions, it can take from two to two hundred years for soil crusts to fully recover from disturbance providing a lengthy opportunity for invasion. In intermountain grasslands, interspaces between native bunchgrasses and forbs are often covered by diverse soil crusts communities of moss and lichen. Previous work has found that this type of crust community generally facilitates native plant recruitment while inhibiting exotic species. We combined field and greenhouse experiments to investigate the influence of soil crust disturbance (minimal disturbance or removed crust) and watering conditions (daily or every three days) on native and exotic plant recruitment. Our greenhouse results suggest that intact soil crusts promote earlier germination but decrease germination overall for native and exotic species. We will present these findings in conjunction with data from a two year field trial to improve our understanding of how these same treatments influence overall survival of native and exotic species in intermountain grasslands.

Michigan State University, Plant Biology, 612 Wilson Rd, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA

140

RAHMATPOUR, NASIM* 1, GOFFINET, BERNARD 2 and WEGRZYN, JILL 3

Significant unsuspected genomic innovation in Funaria: is ecophysiological selection driving the evolution of the Funariaceae?

F

1

University of Montana, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA2University Of Montana, Division Of Biological Sciences, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA3Rocky Mountain Research Station , USDA Forest Service, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA

63

unaria hygrometrica and Physcomitrella patens (Funariaceae) share nearly identical vegetative bodies and differ most conspicuously in their sporophyte generation. The species occur in similar general habitats although are not ecologically sympatric. We sought to assess whether ecological and gametophytic similarities would be matched by genomic similarity or if 60 million years of divergence may be marked by ecophysiological adaptations and reflected by genomic signatures or innovations. We sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of three replicates of vegetative tissue (i.e., rhizoids, stem and leaves) of Funaria hygrometrica. We then screened the Physcomitrella genome for othologs of the Funaria transcripts to estimate their genomic


the internal transcribed spacer region from meta-community samples were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. These results were compared to the initial, traditional inventory, and DNA sequence data generated from vouchered specimens. Based on our results, we discuss the strengths and limitations (including cost, time, and consistency of results) of using a community metabarcoding approach for assessing biodiversity for lichen-forming fungi.

divergence. Specifically, we mapped reads, transcript and protein sequences to the Physcomitrella genome. In addition, Funaria hygrometrica proteins were subjected to 21 model plants from PLAZA by all-vs-all BLASTp search and alignment were passed to TRIBE-MCL to create clustered network used for protein family determination. Finally, we contrasted ortholog pairs to assess the nature of the selection governing their evolution. Our inferences reveal low degree of reads and transcript mapping of Funaria hygrometrica to the Physcomitrella patens genome. Furthermore the TRIBE-MCL analysis reveals that 12 gene families are unique to Funaria hygrometrica. Altogether, substantial genomic divergence characterizes Funaria and Physcomitrella, a result in contrast with their high gametophytic similarity, suggesting that the evolution of the genome is shaped by selection of metabolic traits perhaps linked to ecophysiological rather than structural adaptation .

1

BYU, Exercise Science and ML Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, USA2Brigham Young University, Department of Biology & M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, 4143 Life Science Building, Provo, UT, 84602, USA3Brigham Young University, Biology and M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, 1115 M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 84602, USA

142

ALLEN, JESSICA* 1, MCKENZIE, SEAN 2, SLEITH, ROBIN 3 and ALTER, ELIZABETH 4

1

University of Connecticut, 75 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, Connecticut, 06268, United States2University Of Connecticut, Department Of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 75 N. Eagleville Road, U-3043, STORRS, CT, 06269-3043, USA3University of Connecticut, 75 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT, 06269, United States

Population Genomics of the Rock Gnome Lichen (Cetradonia linearis) Characterized by Low Rates of Recombination and Strong Isolation by Distance

141

WRIGHT, BENJAMIN* 1, LEAVITT, STEVEN 2 and ST CLAIR, LARRY L3

O

bligate symbioses are some of the most threatened organisms globally. Population genetics in obligate symbiotic organisms is challenging, often requiring axenic isolates to develop species-specific markers. The burgeoning field of population genomics provides tools to circumvent these traditional demands by allowing detailed investigation of symbiont population structure without isolating symbionts and developing species-specific markers. Here the results of a population genomics study based on whole genome shot gun sequencing of Cetradonia linearis, an endangered, lichenized fungus, are presented. These data were used to 1) assemble and annotate a reference genome, 2) characterize the mating system, 3) test for isolation by distance (IBD) and isolation by environment (IBE), and 4) investigate the biogeographic history of the species. Nineteen and a half Mb of the genome (approximately 70%) was assembled, and only the MAT 1-2-1 idiomorph was located, suggesting the species could be unisexual. There was strong evidence for both low rates of recombination and for IBD, but no evidence for IBE. The hypothesis that C. linearis had a larger range during the last glacial maximum, especially in the southern portion of its current extent, was supported by hindcast species distribution models and the spatial distribution of genetic diversity. Given the findings here, it is recommended that C. linearis continues to be protected by the U.S. Endangered Species Act and listed as Vulnerable on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red-List.

Next-Gen Sequencing for Next-Gen Biomonitoring: Using a Community Metabarcoding Approach to Assess Species Diversity for Lichen-forming Fungi

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ichens are commonly used in bio-monitoring research to assess ecological health under a range of different strategies, e.g., assessing elemental accumulation patterns, investigating the presence or absence of indicator species, and comprehensive floristic inventories, etc. Comprehensive lichen inventories at biomonitoring reference sites can provide important insights into potential impacts of disturbances by documenting overall diversity and the presence of indicator species (e.g., pollution-tolerant or pollution-sensitive lichens), in addition to providing important information concerning community structure and species distribution patterns. However, generating comprehensive lichen inventories is time and labor intensive, often requiring specialized professional researchers with diverse backgrounds and multiple sampling attempts. Due to the limited number of specialists and challenges with generating objective species inventories, investigating alternative sampling strategies for compiling lichen inventories for biomonitoring research using lichens may improve efficacy and objectivity. The aim of our study is to determine if a community DNA meta-barcoding approach can provide an objective cost- and time-effective alternative for generating reliable, comprehensive sitespecific inventories for lichen-forming fungi. We tested this strategy at a previously-established lichen biomonitoring reference site in the Great Basin, Nevada. Here, we compare data from individual meta-community sampling efforts and different DNA extraction methods to the previously-established lichen inventory for this site. Libraries from PCR amplicons of the ITS2 region of

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The New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, NY, 10458, USA2Rockefeller University3New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, NY, 10458, USA4York College

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WIDHELM, TODD* 1, BERTOLETTI, FRANCESCA 2, ASZTALOS, MATT 2 , MONCADA, BIBIANA 3, LÜCKING, ROBERT 4, SERUSIAUX, EMMANUEL 5, GOFFINET, BERNARD 6 and LUMBSCH, THORSTEN 2

SIMON, ANTOINE* 1, GOFFINET, BERNARD 2, MAGAIN, NICOLAS 3 and SERUSIAUX, EMMANUEL 1

Macroevolutionary patterns of an unsuspected species-rich lichen radiation: insights from the genus Sticta

Miocene radiation and drivers of diversification in the genus Sticta (Lobariaceae)

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apid and potentially adaptive radiations characterize various lineages across the tree of life. Although lichenization may have been a key innovation in the diversification of fungi, rapid radiations and in particular insular radiations remain poorly known at best among lichen-forming fungi. Here we tested whether populations of Sticta in the Mascarenes and Madagascar arose from a unique shared ancestor and if they phylogenetically segregate in distinct insular endemics. We extensively sampled Sticta populations in montane forests on Mauritius, Reunion and Madagascar and produced the fungal ITS barcode sequence for 148 specimens of Sticta. We inferred the relationships among Sticta populations and species from a 4-loci data matrix assembled with 68 exemplars representing the diversity and geographical distribution of ITS haplotypes. Using a phylogenetic framework, bolstered by morphological assessment, we addressed the evolutionary relationships within this group, established species boundaries, and estimated the date of the most recent common ancestor. Our results provide evidence that a major clade of Sticta restricted to the Western Indian Ocean underwent a dramatic diversification following a single colonization event (c. 11 Mya). Phylogenetic inferences resolve indeed a diverse and robust clade comprising 31 endemic species of Sticta, albeit with highly homoplasious features, contrasting the five morphospecies previously recognized in this region. This study represents the first scenario where a local radiation of this magnitude is observed in lichens. The strong incongruence between the diversity of morphotypes and of molecular phylogenetic species, as well as the scattered distribution of specific morphotypes across the phylogeny suggest significant constraints or limits to the exploration of the morphological space to construct a stable lichen symbiosis within Sticta.

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he genus Sticta includes foliose lichens with green algal and/or cyanobacterial photosynthetic partner and is widely distributed in tropical and oceanic habitats. Recent studies indicate a high species diversity and restricted geographical ranges. We assembled a data set of 224 samples and five molecular markers to study the diversification of the genus. Using secondary fossil calibrations and rates of molecular evolution, we estimated divergence times in Sticta. Our analyses suggest that Sticta and Pseudcyphellaria diverged from a common ancestor in the Oligocene, nearly 30 million years ago and diversified into five major clades during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs. Binary state speciation and extinction (BiSSE) analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of primary photobiont on the diversification of the major clades in Sticta. The BiSSE analysis found higher rates of speciation in taxa that primarily associate with Nostoc (state "0"; 92 species) compared to taxa mostly associating with green algae (state "1"; 23 species). However, the BiSSE results were misleading, as 500 iterations of randomized state assignments (maintaining the same ratio of 92 Nostoc to 23 green algae) found the 118-tip tree and the large tip ratio bias confounding to the results. Each iteration recovered higher speciation rates in Nostoc-associating species no matter the state assignment on the tips of the phylogeny. Furthermore, transition rates between states were found to be equal (q01 = q10), which may be due to the presence of photosymbiodemes in Sticta. Further sampling throughout the range may discover that Sticta has more photosymbiodemic species than we currently estimate. 1

Field Museum, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 60605, United States2The Field Museum, Science & Education, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL, 60605, USA3Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Herbario, Bogotá, Colombia4Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum, Herbarium, Königin-Luise-Straße 6-8, Berlin, 14195, Deutschland5University of Liège, Evolution and Conservation Biology, Liège, Belgium6University of Connecticut, ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Storrs, CT, USA

1

University of Liège, Evolution and Conservation Biology, InBIOS research center, University of Liège, Quartier Vallée 1, Chemin de la Vallée 4, Liège, B-4000, Belgium2University of Connecticut, Department Of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 75 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT, 06269, United States3Duke University, Department of Biology, Box 90338, Durham, NC, 27708, United States

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LINDGREN, HANNA* 1, MONCADA, BIBIANA 2, LUECKING, ROBERT 3, MAGAIN, NICOLAS 4, SIMON, ANTOINE 5 , SERUSIAUX, EMMANUEL 5, GOFFINET, BERNARD 6, WIDHELM, TODD 7 and LUMBSCH, THORSTEN 8

PARKER, DINAH* and GOFFINET, BERNARD

One fungus-two lichens: Dendriscocaulon intricatulum is the cyanomorph of the Eastern North American endemic Ricasolia quercizans (Lobariaceae)

Species in the lichenized fungal genus Sticta (Lobariaceae) associate with green algae from multiple genera in the family Trebouxiophyceae

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ichens are typically bipartite symbiotic associations involving a fungal partner, the mycobiont, and a photosynthetic partner, the photobiont, which is either a green alga or a cyanobacterium. However, a subset of lichens within the order Peltigerales form tripartite associations, where the fungus recruits both a green alga and a cyanobacterium to form the lichen, with both partners being photosynthetically active. Some tripartite lichens are unique in their ability to form photomorphs, or independent thalli with either both partners (chloromorph) or only with the cyanobacterium (cyanomorph). Dendriscocaulon is recognized as a cyanomorph form group of fruticose bipartite symbiotic associations formed by lichenized fungi typically developing foliose tripartite thalli with a green alga and Nostoc. Two species of Dendriscocaulon have been identified in North America: D. umhausense and D. intricatulum. Dendriscocaulon umhausense is widely accepted as the free-living form of the cephalodia of Ricasolia amplissima that may grow into shrubby outgrowths on the green thallus. Dendriscocaulon intricatulum is a dendriscocauloid cyanomorph from Eastern North America, but the corresponding chloromorph has yet to be identified. Phylogenetic inferences of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rDNA and the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB1) sampled for several thalli of Dendriscocaulon from North America, and five candidate members of Ricasolia reveal that D. intricatulum and R. quercizans share the same mycobiont. Furthermore, analysis of the 16S rRNA region was used to determine patterns of cyanobacterial strains used in forming a Dendriscocaulon morph or the cephalodia of Ricasolia quercizans. Based on the identity of the mycobiont, the free-living Dendriscocaulon form in Eastern North America is considered to be developed solely by the endemic R. quercizans, and primarily towards the edge of the geographic distribution of the chloromorph. The name, D. intricatulum should be treated as the taxonomic synonym of R. quercizans.

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he lichen genus Sticta is a group of foliose macrolichens in the family Lobariaceae with cosmopolitan distribution, reaching the greatest species diversity in tropical montane regions. Species in this genus associate with either green algae or cyanobacteria, but some species can form tripartite associations or photosymbiodemes with both partners. Previous studies have shown that while Sticta associate mostly with green algae in the genus Symbiochloris, other algae such as Heveochlorella are potential photosynthetic partners for Sticta. We examined the diversity and the selectivity of green algae associated with species in genus Sticta. We used rbcL and 18S rDNA sequence data from multiple individuals collected in South America, Madagascar, Reunion, Mauritius and New Zealand to infer maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies for the algal partner using RAxML and MrBayes. Our results show that in addition to Symbiochloris, Sticta also associates with green algae from the genera Heveochlorella and Elliptochloris. In addition, we found that algal partners of six Sticta specimens grouped in the same clade with algae from genera Chlorella and Chloroidium, suggesting that Sticta might also associate with algae from these genera. Our results also show that species in the genus Sticta have different preferences for algal partners in different geographical regions as Sticta from Madagascar, Reunion and Mauritius associated exclusively with Heveochlorella algae, whereas Elliptochloris was only found in Sticta collected in Australasia. In contrast, all Sticta specimens originating from South America associated with Symbiochloris. 1

The Field Museum, Integrative Research Center, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL, 60605, USA2Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Herbario, Bogotá, Colombia3Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum, Königin-Luise-Straße 6-8, Berlin, Germany4Duke University, Department of Biology, Durham, NC, USA5University of Liège, Evolution and Conservation Biology, Liège, Belgium6University Of Connecticut, Department Of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 75 N. Eagleville Road, U-3043, STORRS, CT, 06269-3043, USA7Field Museum, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 60605, United States8The Field Museum, Science & Education, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL, 60605, USA

University of Connecticut, Department Of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 75 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT, 06269, United States

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Bryology and Lichenology 147

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COOK, MEGAN* 1, LEAVITT, STEVEN 2 and ST CLAIR, LARRY L 3

LEAVITT, STEVEN* 1, WESTBERG, MARTIN 2, SOHRABI, MOHAMMAD 3, ELIX, JOHN 4, ST CLAIR, LARRY L 5 and LUMBSCH, THORSTEN 6

Disjunct intercontinental populations of lichen-forming fungi - relicts of past continuous distributions or the result of long-distance dispersal?

Biogeography in a common, cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal component of biological soil crusts, Psora decipiens (Psoraceae, Ascomycota)

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loristic similarities in widely disjunct geographic regions have long fascinated biologists. In North America, striking examples include Asa Gray’s famous connections between eastern North America and eastern Asia and the Altai-Rocky Mountain floristic connections. More recently, botanists have examined compelling examples demonstrating disjunct distribution patterns between the Intermountain West of North America and Central Asia for many species. These similarities are especially apparent in alpine, subalpine, and desert-steppe floras. However, due to limited information on the temporal scale of divergences and genetic population structure for most lineages, the origin of widely disjunct populations in the intermountain western region of North America (Intermountain West) and Central Asia remains unclear. Two general explanations prevail: 1) Species with disjunct populations had more contiguous distributions during the Tertiary period, with connections between North America and Asia, e.g., via Beringia or the North Pole by way of Greenland. In fact, the Rocky Mountain flora has been characterized as “a microcosm of its rich Middle Asiatic counterpart,” with the present disjunctions representing relictual populations of a once widely distributed Oroboreal flora. The alternative explanation: 2) Is that disjunct populations are a result of long-distance dispersal events or migration into ecologically similar, disjunct regions. Using a number of lichen-forming fungal species common to western North America and Central Asia, we have investigated the hypothesized roles of long-distance dispersal vs. relicts of past continuous distributions for explaining contemporary distribution patterns. In many cases, molecular sequence data support broad, intercontinental lineages of lichen-forming fungal lineages with no evidence of phylogeographic differentiation among populations. Furthermore, divergence time estimates indicate that a number of disjunct species of lichen-forming fungi share a most recent common ancestor well after the end of the Tertiary period. Taken together, these results suggest that effective long-distance dispersal/migration during the Pleistocene played an important role in creating these impressive disjunct populations in the Intermountain West and Central Asia.

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ultiple drivers shape the spatial distribution of species, including plate tectonics, climatic transitions, orographic barriers, species’ dispersal capacity, etc. However, biogeographic patterns of lichens commonly do not fit conventional expectations based on studies of animals and plants. For example, a number of lichens are known to occur across impressively broad, intercontinental distributions, including some important components of biological soil crust communities (BSCs). The lichen-forming fungal species Psora decipiens (Hedw.) Hoffm. is found on all continents, except South America and Antarctica. This lichen occurs in BSCs in diverse habitats, ranging from hot, arid deserts to alpine steppe/tundra communities. In order to better understand factors that shape population structure in widespread lichen-forming fungal species, we investigated biogeographic patterns in the cosmopolitan taxon Psora decipiens, along with the closely related taxa Psora crenata (Taylor) Reinke, Jb. wiss. and P. saviczii (Tomin) Follmann & A. Crespo. We sampled worldwide populations of these taxa, generated a multi-locus sequence data set to reconstruct evolutionary relationships, and explored phylogeographic patterns. Our results reveal extensive phylogenetic structure in both P. crenata and P. decipiens. Striking phylogeographic patterns were observed for P. crenata, with populations from distinct geographic regions (e.g., western North America, South Africa, and the Middle East) belonging to well-separated monophyletic lineages. In addition, South African populations of P. crenata were recovered in three well-supported sub-clades. While well-supported phylogenetic substructure was also observed in P. decipiens, nearly all lineages were comprised of specimens collected from intercontinental populations. However, all Australian populations of P. decipiens were recovered within a single well-supported monophyletic clade. The taxon P. saviczii was recovered as a well-supported monophyletic group nested within the core group of P. decipiens. Here we discuss biogeographic patterns and potential factors driving the spatial distribution of lineages within the P. crenata and P. decipiens groups. Given that arid and semiarid areas, the predominant environments for BSCs, occupy approximately one third of the Earth’s total land area, our study has important implications for understanding factors influencing the distribution of lichens in these important communities.

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Brigham Young University, Exercise Sciences and ML Bean Life Science Museum, 1115 mlbm , Provo, UT, 84602, USA2Brigham Young University, Department of Biology & M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, 4143 Life Science Building, Provo, UT, 84602, USA3Brigham Young University, Biology and M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, 1115 M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 84602, USA

1

Brigham Young University, Department of Biology & M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, 4143 Life Science Building, Provo, UT, 84602, USA2Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany,, Stockholm, Sweden3Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Department of Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran4Australian National University, School of Chemistry, Build-

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ing 137, Canderra, Australia5Brigham Young University, Biology and M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, 1115 M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 84602, USA6The Field Museum, Science & Education, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL, 60605, USA

WILL-WOLF, SUSAN* 1, JOVAN, SARAH 2 and AMACHER, MICHAEL C. 3

Lichen elemental content bioindicators for air quality in Eastern USA: lessons from the Midwest

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DISTEFANO, ISABEL* 1, CLEMENT, WENDY L 2, ESSLINGER, THEODORE 3, LEAVITT, STEVEN 4 and LUMBSCH, THORSTEN 5

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ur development of lichen elemental bioindicators for air pollution in the USA upper Midwest generated recommendations for large-scale programs in the rest of Eastern United States (E USA). Lichen data for 20 elements including Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, N, and S from combustion and ICP-OES were validated. Values from five species were successfully converted for equivalence. Conversion models between species were clearly both scale- and context-dependent. The common and widespread macrolichen Flavoparmelia caperata (Flacap; easily distinguished by non-specialists) is recommended across E USA. The small macrolichens Physcia aipolia and P. stellaris combined (Phyaip; also easily distinguished) are, despite greater cost, the second recommended bioindicator for the upper Midwest (common), New England (less common), and Midatlantic states (less common). Local forest cover better predicted the complementary distribution of Flacap (more forested) and Phyaip (less forested and urban) collections than did local air pollution. This unexpected conclusion suggests environmental factors like local land cover should be routinely considered in bioindicator development and interpretation. Fruticose Evernia mesomorpha, the most efficient species tested, is recommended for secondary use in northern or higher elevation areas of upper Midwestern and New England states (limited distribution because pollution sensitive). The macrolichens Parmelia sulcata and Punctelia rudecta, successful in other studies, were notably less reliable when collected by non-specialists. From minimal evaluation, Ramalina americana was a poor accumulator of metals and is not recommended, but Punctelia missouriensis gave reasonable data. It might be a useful secondary target species in less forested parts of central USA after thorough evaluation.

Phylogeny informs evolutionary classification of Physcia (Physciaceae), a diverse genus of foliose lichens

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olecular data have dramatically increased our understanding of evolutionary relationships and species delimitation of groups of organisms distinguished by few defining morphological features, including lichen-forming fungi. Physcia (Physciacese) is a foliose genus of rosette lichenized fungi with a cosmopolitan distribution. Historically, Physcia species have been difficult to circumscribe due to both morphological similarities and plasticity of traits. For example, since many species are largely indistinguishable in growth morphology and chemical components, reproductive strategies are instead commonly used to distinguish numerous species. Recent studies have utilized genetic data to better understand species boundaries in Physcia and uncovered previously overlooked species-level diversity in the genus. Consequently, number of described species within Physcia has increased from 50 to over 70 in the past decade alone. However, the North American Physcia species remain poorly studied, with many open questions regarding species diversity and relationships. Here, we present an expanded phylogeny that now includes an additional 150 accessions of 25 species of North American Physcia. Eurasian Physcia accessions from Genbank were also included to investigate the potential of phylogeographic patterns within the genus. Using this, the most comprehensive Physcia dataset to date, we infer evolutionary relationships among described taxa and study the evolution of the morphological characters often used to delineate Physia species. We recovered seven major clades. Few species were recovered as monophyletic, and our results indicate that robust species delimitation studies and taxonomic revisions will be required to adequately characterize diversity in this group. Furthermore, our results cast doubt on the utility of using reproductive patterns and morphology to distinguish species. Our phylogeny provides an important foundation to assess species boundaries, phylogeographic patterns, character evolution, and taxonomy of North American Physcia species.

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University of Wisconsin-Madison, Botany, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, USA2USDA Forest Service, Portland Forestry Sciences Lab, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR, 97205, USA3USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Logan Forestry Sciences Lab, 860 n 1200 e, Logan, UT, 84321, USA

1

The College of New Jersey, Department of Biology, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ, 08628, United States2The College Of New Jersey, Biology, 2000 Pennington Road, Department Of Biology, Ewing, NJ, 08638, USA3North Dakota State University, Biology, 201 Stevens Hall, Fargo, ND, 58102, USA4Brigham Young University, Department of Biology & M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, 4143 Life Science Building, Provo, UT, 84602, USA5The Field Museum, Science & Education, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL, 60605, USA

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Bryology and Lichenology sessment by the IUCN. However, the Mid-Atlantic endemic macrolichen lacked population size data or up-to-date distribution information, with many historical sites not revisited in several decades. As a result, the assessment was tabled until such data could be obtained. Described here are the results of population surveys for C. submitis in the Pinelands of Southern New Jersey, a region that constitutes approximately half of the known range of the rare species. This project hybridized conservation research with the important act of community outreach, employing the assistance of volunteers from the Boy and Girl Scouts of America to jointly survey historical recorded sites with researchers for the rare macrolichen. The aim of this research is to gather population data to inform an IUCN risk assessment for the species, and involve the community in conservation efforts in their environment.

POSTERS 151

AROMIN, ALESSANDRA* 1, SLATE, MANDY 2, RYAN, HEGSTAD 3 and CALLAWAY, RAGAN 4

The effects of moss-dominated soil crusts on the native forb Gaillardia aristata

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iotic soil crusts often cover the ground surface between grasses, shrubs, and forbs in dryland systems. Soil crusts are tight knit associations of moss, lichen, algae, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophic microorganisms that differ greatly in species composition and dominance. Soil crusts have strong positive and negative ecological effects on vascular plants, but plant-crust interactions appear to vary depending on which taxa are dominant in the crust. For instance, cyanobacteria-dominated crusts, located in very dry regions, often inhibit seedlings from establishing. Conversely, lichen-dominated crusts can facilitate native species while resisting colonization of exotic invasive species until disturbed. This same pattern has been reported for moss-dominated crusts but has received little attention in the literature. Moss-dominated soil crusts are common in intermountain prairie and we found that the native forb, Gaillardia, occured on moss-dominated soil crusts more frequently than bare ground. We combined common garden and field experiments to investigate this relationship and evaluate the effects of soil-crust disturbance on G. aristata. We will present initial results from these experiments on the ecological impacts of moss-dominated soil crusts on G. aristata in intermountain grasslands.

New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern Blvd, Bronx, NY, 10458, USA

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ARIYO, OLUSESAN AYODELE

Bryophytes of Okomu National Park, Nigeria

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he present study assesed the diversity of bryophytes in Okomu National Park in Nigeria. Collections of bryophytes were made from five different compartments through opportunistic survey method. The collected bryophytes were classified and described according to their morphological and taxonomic characters based on habitat, sporophytes characters were used to identify the plants to family, genus and species. A total of 68 species of bryophytes were collected only 15 species of liverworts were recorded while no species of hornwort was recorded.

1

4625 Bordeaux Blvd., Missoula, MT, 59808, USA2University of Montana, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA3University of Montana, Biological Sciences, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA4University Of Montana, Division Of Biological Sciences, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA

UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, BOTANY & MICROBIOLOGY, AKOKA, LAGOS, LAGOS, 100001, Nigeria

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HOFFMAN, JORDAN* and LENDEMER, JAMES

Combing for Beach Broccoli: Surveys of the Endemic Lichen Cladonia submitis in the New Jersey Pinelands using Citizen Science

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he considerable biodiversity of lichens, their ecological value, and their sensitivities to pollution and habitat degradation, are well known and understood. However, little conservation-related work has been done in lichens outside of Europe, and the vast majority of species remain poorly studied in terms of their population sizes, genetics or conservation management. To date, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list of threatened species only lists eight lichen species, only two of which are protected under the endangered species act (ESA). Many lichen species are data deficient, and cannot be properly assessed without further study. One such species, Cladonia submitis (or Beach Broccoli), was recently proposed for risk as-

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Classical Genetics

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SMITH, TYLER WILLIAM* 1, MARTIN, SARA 1 and KRON, PAUL 2

ORAL PAPERS

flowPloidy: An R Package for determining Genome Size and Ploidy from Flow Cytometry Histograms

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GALLIART, MATT* 1, JOHNSON, LORETTA C. 1, ST. AMAND, PAUL 2, POLAND, JESSE 2, BELLO, NORA 2, KNAPP, MARY 2, BAER, SARA G. 3 and MARICLE, BRIAN R. 4

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low cytometry (FCM) is a key technology for assessing genome size and ploidy in plants. Where cytology was once limited to time-consuming and laborious chromosome squashes, we can now process dozens of FCM samples in a single day. Determining DNA content relative to a co-chopped standard is an intuitive process. In practice, however, extracting accurate DNA estimates from FCM data in a rigorous and repeatable way is a difficult task. Several widely used programs rely on users to manually select peaks, a process that is inherently subjective. Alternative model-fitting approaches are not widely used in botany, in part due to their limited availability in inexpensive software packages. To address this issue, we have developed flowPloidy, an R package that provides a robust, non-linear regressionbased procedure for determining DNA content from FCM histograms. It offers several features that distinguish it from available alternatives: - non-linear regression analysis for FCM histograms, with automated extraction of DNA ratios, CV values and other parameters - a graphical interface for interactively reviewing analyses - simple gating for dealing with high-debris samples, while retaining the power of model-fitting to extract parameter estimates - part of the R programming environment, allowing results to be seamlessly integrated into downstream analyses - open-source, providing users with complete access to study and extend the code - cross-platform and freely available

ExperImental natural selection of big bluestem grass ecotypes across the Great Plains Climate Gradient

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ndropogon gerardii is the dominant grass of the Great Plains, representing ~70% of biomass. It has wide geographic distribution across the Great Plains precipitation gradient from western Kansas (dry) to Illinois (wet). Ecotypes (xeric, mesic, wet) were reciprocally planted as ecological communities in Colby, Hays, and Manhattan, KS, and Carbondale, IL. It is crucial to understand bluestem responses to climate for conservation, restoration, and agricultural cattle production. We tested for evidence of local adaptation over 5 years using single ecotype plots (community plots seeded with other prairie plants) and plots with all three ecotypes mixed together (community plots containing all three ecotypes and other prairie plants). Planting of ecotypes as a community and over multiple years is rarely done, but offers the most realistic test of local adaptation. We utlized Genotyping-By-Sequencing to identify SNP markers in both plants of known ecotypes and unknown plants from mixed ecotype plots. Principal Component Analyses and population structure show strong genetic differentiation between xeric and wet ecotypes. Outlier analysis in Bayescan identified 64 markers under divergent selection, including GA1 (a gene known to control internode length and height in plants), in which we observe strong ecotype differences between xeric and wet ecotypes. Single ecotype community plots suggest local adaptation to drought with the plants from central KS having higher cover in Hays, KS and plants from Illinois having greater cover in its home site of Carbondale, IL. To analyze the genetic composition of the mixed ecotype community plots, we used the GBS genotype information from plants of known ecotype, then will use this to train a random forest model that allows us to assign unknown individuals from the mixed plots to one of three ecotypes. These multi-year, community plantings show evidence of local adaptation of dry and wet grass ecotypes in reciprocal gardens across the Great Plains. Ultimately these results will provide recommendations to land managers on which climate-adapted source populations of big bluestem is best suited for conservation and restoration planting in future warmer and drier climates.

In direct comparisons, flowPloidy recovers parameter estimates that are very close to or indistinguishable from those from commercial model-fitting programs. We now use flowPloidy for all of our FCM analyses, allowing us to forego costly software licenses, without sacrificing analytical rigour. 1

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Science and Technology, 960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0C6, Canada2University Of Guelph, Department Of Botany, GUELPH, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada

1

Kansas State University, Division of Biology, 315 Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS, 66506, United States2Kansas State University3Southern Illinois University4Fort Hays State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 600 Park St., Hays, KS, 67601-4099, USA

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Classical Genetics 156

157

ROBINSON, DANA 1, COATE, JEREMY , DOYLE, JEFF* 3 and ROEDER, ADRIENNE 1

FINCH, KRISTEN* 1 and CRONN, RICHARD 2

2

Source identification of western Oregon Douglas-fir using wood molecular abundance data and SNPs

Endopolyploidy and whole-genome duplication similarly affect cell size in the Arabidopsis thaliana sepal

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ell size variation in Arabidopsis is largely driven by endopolyploidy, a system in which cell ploidy (2C-32C) and cell size are strongly correlated. Whereas endopolyploidy (EPP) occurs in single cells during differentiation, stable whole-genome duplication (WGD) constitutively increases the ploidy of all cells. Here we ask whether these distinct forms of polyploidy (EPP and WGD) have comparable effects on cell size. The Arabidopsis sepal epidermis is patterned with endopolyploid cells and is amenable to imaging. We manipulated WGD and EPP in the sepal to explore the relationships among cell ploidy, cell size, and organ size. We first assessed the relationship between nuclear and cell size. Paired measurements of cell area and nuclear volume were made for roughly 700 cells per sepal. Nuclear volume was positively correlated with cell area (R2=0.78). The karyoplasmic ratio (KR) was calculated as cell area/ nuclear volume. Average KR was ca. 4.0 in diploid and tetraploid sepals, indicating remarkable consistency in the scaling of cell and nuclear size. Average nuclear volume increased linearly with WGD ploidy. Cell area also increased with genome duplication, 1.76-fold between diploid and tetraploid and 1.71-fold between tetraploid and octoploid. Patterns of endoreduplication were near-identical in diploid, tetraploid, and octoploid plants. WGD also had a significant, but less pronounced effect on total organ size: sepal area increased 1.28-fold between diploid and tetraploid and 1.26-fold between tetraploid and octoploid. In contrast, changes in level of endopolyploidy have a very minor effect on organ size. Such changes can be made by misexpression of the CDK inhibitor LGO, which affects entry into endocycles. Loss of LGO expression reduced average cell area by 1.24-fold, whereas overexpression increased average cell area by 3.28-fold; total sepal area changed by only 1.07-fold. These data suggest a strong organ-level mechanism compensating for changes in endopolyploidy and a weaker compensation method for changes in WGD. Together, these results suggest that the scaling relationship between cell ploidy and cell size is conserved between EPP and WGD; this offers a cell-level mechanism that may partially explain observed size differences between polyploid lineages and their diploid progenitors. We are performing genome-normalized RNA-Seq to determine how transcriptome size scales with ploidy and to identify candidate genes involved in regulating cell size response to ploidy. Preliminary estimates in leaf tissue indicate that transcriptome size is ca. 1.5-fold larger in a synthetic Arabidopsis tetraploid than in its diploid parent; we hypothesize that transcription scales predictably with cell size.

1

Cornell University, Plant Biology Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA2Reed College, Plant Biology, 3203 SE Woodstock Blvd., Portland, OR, 97202, USA3Cornell University, Plant Breeding & Genetics Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA

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e investigated if wood metabolite profiles from Direct Analysis in Real Time (Time of Flight) Mass Spectrometry (DART-TOFMS) and genetic markers could be used to determine the geographic origin of Douglas-fir wood cores originating from two regions in western Oregon, USA. Three annual ring mass spectra were obtained from 188 adult Douglas-fir trees, and 141 trees from the same populations were genotyped for 16,000 SNPs using an Affymetrix array. We separately analyzed both wood chemical profiles and ten principal components based on genotypes using random forest models to determine whether samples could be classified to geographic origin via wood molecules or genetics alone, and we combined datasets to quantify the geographic classification accuracy obtained with a combination of wood metabolite data and genotypic data. Specific wood molecules and genotypes that contributed to the geographic discrimination were identified. Douglas-fir mass spectra could be differentiated into two geographic classes with an accuracy of 76%, and principal components of genotypes could distinguish Douglas-fir trees to locations with an accuracy of 80%. Combining molecular data and genetic data improved upon genetic classification accuracy by only 1%. We identified thirty-two molecules and 50 SNPs as key for classifying western Oregon Douglas-fir wood cores and individual trees to geographic origin. DART-TOFMS is capable of detecting minute but regionally-informative differences in wood molecules over a small geographic scale, and these differences make it possible to predict the geographic origin of Douglas-fir wood with moderate accuracy using wood chemistry alone. Genetic information provides greater classification accuracy and spatial resolution, but requires more resources for development. Studies involving DART-TOFMS, alone and in combination with other technologies, will be relevant for identifying the geographic origin of illegally harvested wood.

1

Oregon State University, Botany and Plant Pathology, 2082 Cordley Hall, 2701 SW Campus Way, Corvallis, OR, 97331, United States2USDA Forest Service, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR, 97330, USA


fourth in Japan (T. japonica). Plants may grow in bogs with other carnivorous plants, such as sundew and butterwort, and capture insects using sticky glandular hairs on infloresence stalks. Enzymatic tests of phosphatase activity are positive for their trichomes, supporting the possibility that they may be carnivorous. We sequenced the plastid genomes of two species (T. glutinosa and T. occidentalis) and found that one or more of 11 plastid ndh genes (which code for subunits of the plastid NADH dehydrogenase-like complex, NDH-1) have been lost or pseudogenized. A similar phenomenon has been observed in some members of carnivorous Lentibulariaceae. We also performed a population-level survey of ndh genes in Triantha across North America, and find that the degree of gene loss varies among different populations in a manner that is inconsistent with current species boundaries.

158

HAWKINS, ANGELA* 1, GARZA, ELYSSA 1 and PEPPER, ALAN 2

Molecular signatures of selection, drift, introgression, and gene duplication in the serpentine endemic plant Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae (Brassicaceae)

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erpentine endemic plants are excellent models for the study of molecular evolution as they provide extreme examples of adaptation to environment. Serpentine outcrops are derived from ultramafic rock and have extremely low levels of essential plant nutrients (e.g. N, P, K, Ca), as well as toxic levels of heavy metals (e.g. Ni, Cr, Co), and very poor moisture availability. These outcrops provide habitat to the endemic plant species, Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae (J. Howell) Munz (â&#x20AC;&#x153;Cabâ&#x20AC;?). Its sister species, C. amplexicaulis var. amplexicaulis S. Watson (Caa), is found predominately on granite soils and is intolerant to serpentine soils. Comprehensive reference transcriptomes of both Caa and Cab were assembled and annotated for use in protein coding gene comparisons. Reciprocal best Blast hit (RBH) orthologs between Caa and Cab reveal high genome-wide dN/dS ratios between the two taxa. We show that elevated dN/dS results from the composite effects of genetic drift, positive selection, and the relaxation of negative selection. Also, paralogs within each taxon revealed signatures of two periods of elevated gene duplication. In addition, distribution of the synonymous substitution rate, dS, is strongly bimodal indicating two distinct divergence events between the taxa, and suggesting that introgression may have contributed to serpentine adaptation. Further, both common garden and reciprocal transplant experiments on natural granite and serpentine soils were performed using Caa, Cab, and a F1 hybrid. RNA-seq analyses were implemented to calculate global expression patterns and identify differentially regulated genes that may play a role in serpentine adaptation. Results from these analyses depict the complex evolutionary history of the molecular basis of the adaptation to serpentine soil.

University of British Columbia, Botany, 3200-6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC, V6K 1Z4, Canada

1

Texas A & M University, Department of Biology, 3258 Tamus, College Station, TX, 77843, USA2Department Of Biology, Texas A&M University, TAMUS 3258, College Station, TX, 77843, USA, 979845-2518

159

LIN, QIANSHI , ROSS, GREGORY , KE, FUSHI and GRAHAM, SEAN W*

Molecular evolution of plastid ndh genes in a possible new carnivorous plant

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t least nine independent origins of carnivory are known in five angiosperms orders. Most of these are in the eudicots: there are only four species known to be carnivorous in monocots, all in the order Poales. Here we report a possible new instance of carnivory in the monocot order Alismatales (Triantha, Tofieldiaceae), the first report in this order. Triantha has four recognized species, three of which occur in North America (T. glutinosa, T. occidentalis and T. racemosa), with a

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Classical Genetics 161

GENDRON, JAKE* 1, PABUAYON, ISAIAH , KITAZUMI, AI 2, KARAMPUDI, BHUSHAN 2, PAL KAUR, PUSHPINDER 2 , CUSHMAN, KEVIN 2, SINGH, R.K. 3, GREGORIO, GLENN 3 and DE LOS REYES, BENILDO 2

POSTERS 160

2

MAJOR, CATHERINE KENDALL

Development of Microsatellites for the Genus Trillium

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Understanding the molecular basis of transgressive phenotypes in rice: A case study on novel dehydration stress tolerance mechanisms in recombinant inbred lines derived from dehydration-sensitive parents

he genus Trillium is widespread across both the United States and Asia, with 39 species found in the United States. It is characterized as a perennial herb that grows directly from rhizomes, often producing red, white or yellow flowers. Composed of more than 45 species, there is considerable diversity within this genus. Some species are rare such as Trillium pusillum and Trillium regulii, putting them at risk for extinction. As an understory plant, Trillium is essential in maintaining the structure and the function of the forests in which it inhabits. Due to a lack of resolution, the systematics of Trillium is uncertain and researchers are unsure of the relationships of the species within the genus. The purpose of this research project is to test current Trillium recurvatum microsatellites in order to determine if they will amplify across the genus, including in species such as Trillium tennesseense, Trillium ovatum, and Trillium undulatum. This project will test the transferability of the microsatellites between the species, giving us an insight as to the relationships of the species within this genus. Ideally, the use of these microsatellites will clarify these relationships and allow us to better construct a phylogenetic tree for the genus Trillium. Currently there are only two studies (one of which is in review) demonstrating the use of SSRs for this genus, indicating that there is much work to be done. Additionally, the data obtained with this project can also be extrapolated to conservation efforts across the genus Trillium.

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n order to address the â&#x20AC;&#x161;ten billion people questionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, the mechanisms behind genetic network rewiring and how they contribute to novel stress tolerance phenotypes in transgressive segregants produced by conventional breeding must be elucidated. Such an effort represents the marriage of the classic paradigms of plant breeding and the modern paradigms of genome biology, towards climate-resilient rice varieties for the 21st century. We reexamined the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from IR29 (salinity-sensitive) x Pokkali (salinity-tolerant) within the context of responses to dehydration (i.e., 10% PEG8000 in hydroponics). Capitalizing on the quantitative physiological variation for salinity stress that we revealed in this population, of which some parameters appeared to be relevant also to dehydration, we pose the question of whether transgressive dehydration tolerance might exist in this population although neither of the parents was drought tolerant. To this end, using this simple experimental system, we are testing the hypothesis that physiological factors responsible for salinity tolerance in Pokkali may be recombined with various cryptic but complementary or enhancing attributes of IR29, to reconfigure the dehydration response mechanisms. Our results suggest that recombination between IR29 and Pokkali led to novel combinations of cryptic physiological attributes from each parent, creating positive effects in certain RILs. Transgressive phenotypes for salinity and dehydration segregated independently, implying distinct network configurations in the transgressive RILs for each trait. We present the results of our initial efforts to dissect the rewired regulatory and physiological networks among transgressive RILs at the levels of mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes.

University of Memphis, Biological Sciences, 3700 Walker Avenue, Memphis, TN, 38152, USA

1

Texas Tech University, Plant and Soil Sciences, Box 4212, Lubbock, Texas, 79409, USA2Texas Tech University, Box 4212, Lubbock, Texas, 79409, United States3IRRI, DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila 1301, Philippines

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ORAL PAPERS

666303, China3Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500 N. College Ave., Claremont, CA, 91711, USA4West Virginia University, Department of Biology, 53 Campus Drive, Life Science Building, Morgantown, WV, 26506, USA5Penn State University, Department of Biology, 405B Life Sciences, University Park, PA, 16802, USA

162

163

Comparative Genomics/ Transcriptomics

RUSSELL, SCOTT D* 1, ANDERSON, SARAH 2, JONES, DANIEL 3, CHESNUT, JOSHUA 3, JOHNSON, CAMERON 2, KHANDAY, IMTIYAZ 2, SUNDARESAN, V 2 and GOU, XIAOPING 4

RANDLE, CHRISTOPHER P.* 1, YU, WEN-BIN 2, MORAWETZ, JEFFERY 3 , BARRETT, CRAIG 4 and DEPAMPHILIS, CLAUDE 5

Patterns of plastome degradation in the Aeginetieae clade of Orobanchaceae mirror those in mycorrhizal heterotrophs of Orchidaceae

Transcriptional Profiles of In Vivo Fertilized Rice Gametes (Oryza sativa L)

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icrodissected mature, newly-fertilized egg cells and early zygotes were isolated to assay transcriptional changes during maternal to zygotic transition (MZT) in the early zygote. In animal models, expression is essentially exclusively material for >10 mitotic cycles, but MZT is poorly described for plants. Rice (Oryza sativa) was chosen as a model system because gametes and zygotes can be directly isolated and because of the amount of genomic information available. Expression profiles were examined prior to and during early post-fertilization stages at 1.5 hours to 9 hours after pollination. Egg-cell/zygote expressed genes displayed that some genes showed signal intensity increases in the newly-fertilized egg cell, whereas many showed decreases. Paternal transcripts were found in zygotes at all stages examined but at lower abundance than maternal transcripts. This is expected as the volume of the egg cells exceed that of the sperm cells by up to a 1:1000 difference and suggest that sperm transcripts may not be detected early stages of the fertilized zygote. Newlyexpressed transcripts were detected in transition from unfertilized to fertilized egg cells while other transcripts became undetectable. Initial expression relative to zygote activation presumably mainly concerns changes in expression relating to early zygotic changes in expression relating to early stages in the zygote in polarization, the completion of the cell cycle and initiation of S-phase and ultimately zygotic division.

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ultiple losses of photosynthetic ability have been reported in Orobanchaceae, a large family of parasitic plants: in the Orobancheae lineage, in Lathraea (toothwort), and in an obscure clade of tropical/ subtropical species, the Aeginetieae. Aeginetieae includes four genera, Aeginetia and Christisonia of southeast Asia, and Harveya and Hyobanche from tropical/ subtropical Africa. Aeginetieae demonstrate hallmarks of holoparasitism, most notably the reduction of structures and functions associated with photosynthesis and nutrient acquisition, including leaves reduced to scales, a lack of chlorophyll, and the absence of roots. With the evolution of holoparasitism, lack of functional constraints is thought to result in degradation of the plastome. However, Harveya retains a functional copy of the photosynthetic gene rbcL with evidence of purifying selection, indicating essential function. We have obtained plastomes for three species of Harveya, and one each from Hyobanche, Christisonia, and Aeginetia, and closely related species that are not thought to be holoparasitic. Results demonstrate a range of degradation within the genus Harveya; plastomes of Harveya huttonii and H. squamosa show little degradation (limited to pseudogene formation and loss of ndh loci), the H. scarlatina plastome also exhibits loss and pseudogenization of genes associated with photosynthesis (excluding ATP synthase genes), as well as genes encoding RNA polymerase. Gene loss and pseudogenization in Hyobanche atropurpurea exhibit similar patterns to those observed in H. scarlatina; phylogenetic analysis indicates that these changes were derived convergently. Plastomes of Christisonia and Aeginetia are severely reduced, at 51% and 37% the size of the plastome of hemiparasitic Alectra capensis, respectively. Furthermore, they exhibit pseudogenization and loss of genes important for basic expression and housekeeping functions in addition to genes associated with photosynthesis. These findings invite comparison with the general hypothesis of plastome evolution first put forth by Barrett and Davis (2012), based on patterns evident in mycorrhizal parasites of Orchidaceae.

1

University Of Oklahoma, Department Of Microbiology And Plant Biology, 770 Van Vleet Oval, Norman, OK, 73019-6155, USA2University of California, Department of Plant Biology, Davis, CA, 95616, USA3University Of Oklahoma, Department of Microbiology & Plant Biology, Norman, OK, 73019, USA4Lanzhou University, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou, Ganzu, China

164

BARRETT, CRAIG* 1, BACON, CHRISTINE 2, ANTONELLI, ALEXANDRE 2 and MCKAIN, MICHAEL 3

Genome Evolution and Diversification in Palms

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rocesses contributing to genome size variation in plants include polyploidy (genome doubling/merging), tandem duplication, expansion/contraction of repetitive regions such as transposable elements, illegitimate/intramolecular recombination, fractionation/

1

Sam Houston State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 1900 Avenue I, Huntsville, TX, 77340, USA2Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, CAS, Center for Integrative Conservation, and Southeast Asia Biodiversity Research Institute, Mengla , Yunnan,

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Comparative Genomics/Transcriptomics diploidization, and selection for smaller genomes. The palms (family Arecaceae) are diverse, widespread, and ecologically successful components of tropical ecosystems, with >2,500 species. Based on available data across the family, genome size and chromosome number vary immensely. Modal haploid chromosome numbers are 16 and 18 within the species-rich subfamilies Arecoideae and Coryphoideae, respectively, while patterns of genome sizes based on C-values are less clear. Recent studies demonstrate strong correlations between genome size variation and species diversity, suggesting that polyploidy or other mechanisms of genome size change potentially confer selective advantages due to the introduction of genomic novelty. Here we aim to test that hypothesis in palms and their close relatives, the commelinid monocots (grasses, gingers, dasypogonoids, etc.). We address potential correlations between chromosome number and C-value across the family, accounting for phylogenetic relationships, and reconstruct ancestral chromosome numbers and genome sizes. We use available genomic and transcriptomic data to investigate evidence for polyploidy among the commelinids and within the palms (at the subfamily level) by comparing the divergence distribution of paralogous sequences, and by the use of species/gene tree methods. Lastly, we investigate the mechanisms of genome size variation by exploring repeat type and content based on ‚genome skim’ data. Disentangling the causes of genome size variation in palms will help us understand the genomic conditions facilitating adaptive radiation and ecological success in other important clades.

scriptomes had 92.6%, 92.8%, and 75.9% of the 1440 orthologs queried, respectively. Comprehensive transcriptome annotation was carried out with Trinotate. These annotated assemblies provide insights into gene content and expression differences among the different reproductive types. University Of Central Arkansas, Department Of Biology, Lewis Science Center 180, Conway, AR, 72035, USA

166 JEFF 2

COATE, JEREMY* 1 and DOYLE,

The Effect of Polyploidy on Transcriptome Size and Dosage Responses in Natural and Synthetic Polyploids

Genome downsizing” is a commonly observed phenomenon in polyploid evolution, in which the size of the polyploid’s genome is smaller than would be expected given the genome size of its diploid progenitor(s). Much less is known, however, about the response of the overall transcriptome to polyploidy. We have shown previously that Glycine dolichocarpa, an allopolyploid (2n = 80) relative of soybean (G. max, 2n = 40) shows “transcriptome downsizing”, having a leaf transcriptome that is around 1.4x the size of its two diploid progenitors (i.e., 0.7x per genome), both of which have similar transcriptome sizes. We have extended this observation to the leaf transcriptomes of other Glycine allopolyploid species, and also to the root transcriptome of G. dolichocarpa, all of which show an approximately 1.5x larger size in polyploids. Because these natural Glycine allopolyploid species are all several hundred thousand years old, it is unclear whether this downsizing is an immediate effect of allopolyploidy, or a function of parallel divergence in these independently formed polyploids. To explore the earliest stages of polyploidy, we have measured transcriptome size in a synthetic Arabidopsis thaliana polyploid. As in Glycine, the Arabidopsis autotetraploid exhibits leaf transcriptome downsizing (0.8-0.9x expression per genome). Estimates of transcriptome size per cell are complicated by the fact that, unlike in Glycine, Arabidopsis leaf tissue includes endopolyploid cells, and the degree of endopolyploidy varies between accessions. Allowing for endopolyploidy, average transcriptome size on a per cell basis is only about 1.1-1.2x larger in the tetraploids than in their diploid parents. In both Glycine and Arabidopsis approximately 20% of genes are dosage compensated (no change in expression following a doubling of copy number), and these are enriched for genes functioning in translation. Approximately 20% of genes in Glycine and 34% of genes in Arabidopsis show a 1:1 dosage effect (a doubling of transcription following a doubling of copy number), and these are enriched for GO terms relating to signal transduction and transport. The fact that a doubling of gene content does not produce a doubling of transcription, even in the first generations after genome duplication, indicates that less than doubled gene expression is an immediate effect of genome duplication, and perhaps an emergent effect of polyploidy.

1

West Virginia University, Biology, 53 Campus Drive, Morgantown, WV, 26506, USA2University of Gothenburg, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Carl Skottsbergs gata 22B, Göteborg, 41319 , Sweden3The Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, 975 North Warson Rd., St. Louis, MO, 63132, USA

165

VIRE, JAMES* and NOYES, RICHARD DAVID

Transcriptome analysis of sexual, apomictic, and parthenogenetic genotypes in Erigeron (Asteraceae)

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rigeron (Asteraceae) serves as a model for the study of different modes of plant reproduction. In addition to sexual reproduction, there are members within the genus that are capable of asexual seed reproduction via apomixis. This experiment develops rnaseq resources for Erigeron including transcriptome assembly, annotation, and functional characterization for closely sexual, apomict, and parthenogenetic genotypes. Multiple transcriptome assemblies were constructed for each reproductive type through de novo, genome-guided, or hybrid assembly approaches using Trinity and PASA. Quality metrics were obtained from RSEM. Analyses estimated a total gene count of 99702 (apomict), 90864 (parthenogen), and 47235 (sexual), which had 90341, 73350, and 24388 isoforms respectively. The N50 contig size was 1877 (apomict), 1958 (parthenogen), and 1595 (sexual), with 91.84%, 98.26%, and 97.72% of reads mapping to the transcriptomes as proper pairs respectively. Transcriptomes analyzed with BUSCO, revealed that the apomict, parthenogen, and sexual tran-

1

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Reed College, Plant Biology, 3203 SE Woodstock Blvd., Portland, OR, 97202, USA2Cornell University, 412 Mann Library Building, ITHACA, NY, 14853-4301, USA


expression in plant development.Methods: We analyzed and compared the transcriptome results of three separate spaceflight studies withArabidopsis thaliana using the same Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) flight hardware duringSpace Shuttle mission STS-131. Three commonly used bioinformatics methods were used to process thedata: RMA (Robust Multi-Array Average), MAS5 (Microarray Suite 5.0), PLIER (Probe LogarithmicIntensity Error Estimation). Glycome profiling further clarified differences observed in cell wallcomposition between spaceflight and ground control samples. Key Results: These comparative studies demonstrated that, even with similar hardware, biologicalmaterials, and environmental conditions, differences in results in gene expression patterns were foundamong the experiments. However, in all three spaceflight experiments, we noted expression changes ingenes that are involved in hypoxia, heatshock, DNA repair, and cell wall structure are different inspaceflight samples vs. the ground controls. In addition, glycome profiling supported our expressionanalyses in that there was a difference in cell wall structural components between ground control andspaceflight-grown plants.Conclusions: A common theme from these three space experiments was the down-regulation of waterstress response genes in spaceflight. In addition, all three studies found the differential regulation ofgenes associated with cell wall remodeling and stress response between spaceflight-grown and groundcontrol plants.

POSTERS 167 JOHN J.

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DEVITT, JESSICA* 1 and SCHENK,

De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Annotation of Mentzelia Section Bartonia (Loasaceae)

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espite the potentially lethal consequence of drought stress, some plants thrive in arid regions that experience annual drought. Plants have evolved multiple adaptive responses to arid environments, including metabolic, cellular, and physiological processes, in order to cope with the stress of limited water. Responses to drought stress are likely regulated through gene expression, which can vary across species due to evolutionary history, morphological adaptations, and the position along the cascade of drought responses. Species of Mentzelia section Bartonia (Loasaceae) are a good example of plants that thrive in arid habitats; however, we know very little about how they deal with drought stress. Species have morphological adaptations associated with living in arid environments that include leaves with reduced surface area and high trichome density; however, nothing is known about how these plants physiologically cope with drought stress, or the genetic responses that regulate the responses. Measuring the differences in gene expression in Mentzelia will give insight into how they are able to tolerate stressful environments. Before we are able to measure the level at which genes are being differentially expressed when the plants are exposed to drought conditions, we need to have a baseline understanding of what genes are typically expressed when the plants are not stressed. In this study, we generated a reference transcriptome of Mentzelia. We extracted RNA from plantlet, leaf, stem, root, flower, and fruit tissues. cDNA libraries from the RNA samples were sequenced on an Illumina NextSeq and the RNA-Seq data were analyzed using the Trinity package of tools and annotated using Trinotate. Once the transcriptome is fully assembled and annotated, it will serve as a reference transcriptome for a differential gene expression study that explores the genetic responses to drought.

1

Miami University, Botany, Oxford, OH - Ohio, 45056, United States2Miami University, Oxford, OH - Ohio, 45056, United States3 Mascoma, LLC, 67 Etna Road, Lebanon, NH, 03766, USA4University Of Florida, PO Box 110570, Gainesville, N/A, 32611, USA5University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Biology, Greensboro, NC, 27412, USA

169

CENTENO, CHRIS* 1, JESSUP, RUSSELL 2, HATCH, STEPHAN 3 and STELLY, DAVID 4

Development of PCR-based Transposable Element Assays for Verification of Pearl Millet-Napiergrass Hybrids

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exas Pearl Millet-Napiergrass (PMN) (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br (AA genome; 2n=2x=14) x Pennisetum purpurem Schumach. (A’A’BB genome; 2n=4x=28)) is a sterile triploid hybrid (2n = 3x = 21 chromosomes; AA’B genome). Constructing molecular verification methods using marker assays is crucial for distinguishing PMN hybrids from their parents and other hybrids, as morphological traits overlap significantly, nearly equivalent nuclear genome sizes between the parents prevents utilization of flow cytometry, and cytological chromosome determination is laborious. The reciprocal hybridization is also fertile, with P. purpurem x P. glaucum referred to as Kinggrass (KG). PMN produces more biomass than the parents but less than KG. Both KG and PMN have larger seed than parents and are morphologically similar to Naipergrass.Development of rapid marker assays will focus on variation of transposable elements within the parents then compared to PMN. Distinguishing hybrid species by the use of general taxonomic characteristics is very time con-

1

Georgia Southern University, Biology, 4324 Old Register Road, P.O. Box 8042-1, Statesboro, GA, 30460, USA2Georgia Southern University, Department of Biology, 4324 Old Register Road, Biological Sciences Building, Statesboro, GA, 30458, United States

168

JOHNSON, CHRISTINA* 1, SUBRAMANIAN, ASWATI 2, PATTATHIL, SIVAKUMAR 3, CORRELL, MELANIE 4 and KISS, JOHN 5

Comparative transcriptomics indicate changes in cell wall organization and stress response inseedlings during spaceflight

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remise of the study: Plants will play an important role in the future of space exploration as part ofregenerative life support. Thus, it is important to understand the effects of microgravity and spaceflighton gene

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Comparative Genomics/Transcriptomics suming and meticulous but will be a secondary method of verification for generating uniform hybrids from the parents. Hybrid inflorescences will be examined for morphological differences and to verify seed sterility.

genome, increases faster than exponential growth. 1

Kettering University, Applied Physics, 1700 University Ave., Flint, MI, 48504, USA2Kettering University, 1700 University Ave., Flint, MI, 48504, USA3Kettering University, Chemical Engineering, 1700 University Ave., Flint, MI, 58504, USA4Kettering University, Applied Biology, 1700 University Ave., Flint, MI, 48504, USA

1

Texas A & M University , Ecosystem Science and Management , 2138 tamu, College Station, Texas, 77843, usa2Texas A & M University, Soil Crop Science , 431C Heep Center, College Station, Texas, 77843, United States3Texas A & M University, Rm. 131B University Services Bldg. tamu, College Station, Texas, 77843, United States4Texas A & M University, Beasley Laboratory Bldg. 965, Agronomy Rd. tamu, College Station, Texas, 77843, United States

171

ANDERSEN, ETHAN* 1, NEPAL, MADHAV P. 1, ALI, SHAUKAT 2, YEN, YANG 1 and NEUPANE, SURENDRA 1

Genome-wide identification of disease resistant genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; Poaceae)

170

RYAN, GILLIAN 1, ASHWAL, ELI 2 , TURGMAN-COHEN, SALOMON 3 and COHEN, JIM* 4

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rowing wheat cultivars resistant to yield-reducing pathogens provides a relatively cheap and environmentally friendly method for combating wheat diseases. Recently available complete genome sequences of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its progenitors (T. urartu and Aegilops tauschii) allowed us to study evolution and diversity of disease resistant genes (R genes) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Coiledcoil, Nuceotide-binding-site, and Leucine-rich repeat (CNL) genes. In this study, we identified and analyzed the CNL gene orthologs in the genomes of T. aestivum, T. urartu, and A. tauschii. We identified 609, 318, and 392 CNL genes in T. aestivum, T. urartu, and A. tauschii, respectively. Consistent with our previous studies, we found that all three monocot genomes lack Clade D which is present in the genomes of dicot species. Selection pressure analyses showed that CNL genes experienced purifying selection and exhibited evolutionary patterns similar to other grass species. Implementation of a duplication-loss model shows numerous instances where one or two of the three species experienced gene duplication or species-specific loss of their orthologs. Homology to many previously characterized resistance genes such as RPM1, RPP13, RPS2, Lr21, Yr10, MLA etc was observed, providing a basis for functional characterization. Future studies should aim at functional characterization of these genes and understand their roles in signaling pathways.

Intraindividual genomic variation and mutation in apple (Malus x domestica)

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ue to the modular nature of plant growth, plants can develop the same type of organ independently and at different times during their lifetime. This development leads to intraindividual genetic variation that can influence 1) the diversity of gametes (sperm and egg) and offspring (seeds and spores) from a plant, 2) herbivore and pathogen resistance within a plant, and 3) environmental adaptation in different parts of a plant. Despite its utility in crop production and selection, genomic intraindividual variation within a single plant has yet to be empirically investigated. Using a combination of genomic sequencing and modeling, intraindividual variation within one apple tree (Malus x domestica Baumg.) was investigated. Eight leaf samples from across one ca. 35-year-old apple tree were collected and DNA isolated, which was subsequently sequenced with 100 bp paired-end reads using an Illumina HiSeq 2000. The resulting reads were mapped to the apple genome (ca. 750 Mb), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. Depending on the genome version and the mapping and SNP calling criteria, 600,000 SNPS to 1,800,000 SNPs were identified as variant among the eight samples, resulting in ca. 0.01-0.025% variation across the genome of the apple tree. Five of the samples showed little genetic variation from each other, while the other three demonstrated more variation. Interestingly, ca. 50% of the mutations were missense mutations, and the other ca. 50% were silent mutations. Most of the mutations are in non-coding regions of the genome, but ca. 10% are in coding regions. A stochastic model of tree growth is developed to further investigate the influences of the modular plant growth and of the accumulation of individual mutations on the overall genetic variation across the tree. Although simple theoretical predictions of the expected numbers of mutations and branches in any tree may be inferred from average mutation and branching rates, stochastic simulations allow for the sampling of the variation in these values. Preliminary results from the model indicate that variation in the number of total mutations per branch across a population of clonal trees grown under identical conditions decreases with age, consistent with the Central Limit Theorem. However, as the number of mutations increases with age, the number of permutations, or unique ways to distribute those mutations across the

1

South Dakota State University, Biology and Microbiology, McFadden Biostress Laboratory, Brookings, SD, 57007, USA2South Dakota State University, Plant Science , Brookings, SD, 57007, United States

172

ANDERSEN, ETHAN 1 and NEPAL, MADHAV P.* 2

Evolution of the NB-ARC Protein Domain as a Major Signaling Component of the Plant Defense Response

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ost of the plant disease resistance proteins are NB-LRR proteins, which are part of the NB-ARC domain (Nucleotide binding, apoptotic protease-activating factor-1, R proteins and CED-4 (Caenorhabditis elegans death-4 protein) in proteins across diverse segments of the tree of life. Animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria utilize proteins with NB-ARCs in signaling pathways for various cellular responses. Such proteins

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are highly diversified among plants, playing a major role in the detection of pathogen effectors in order to trigger a defense response. In this study, we aim to elucidate details of NB-ARC evolution across major plant lineages. The NB-ARC sequences were found in Ananas comosus, Amborella trichopoda, Physomitrella patens, Selaginella moellendorffii, Spirodela polyrhiza, Zostera marina, members of the genus Anabaena (cyanobacteria), and various other bacterial species. Highly conserved motifs within the NB-ARC, especially the Ploop and Kinase-2 motifs, are very similar even among distantly related species, indicating nonsynonymous substitutions in the amino acid sequence are selected against across diverse groups of organisms. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome contained no NB-ARC protein-encoding sequences while there are dozens of NB-ARC proteins in the A. trichopoda, which likely are ancestral to the vast numbers of NB-ARC protein-encoding genes in grass genomes. Few NB-ARC-encoding sequences were found in cyanobacteria. We will discuss data revealing intriguing patterns of NB-ARC evolved for defense surveillance across plant lineages. 1

South Dakota State University , Biology and Microbiology , McFadden Biostress Laboratory, Brookings , SD, 570072South Dakota State University, Biology and Microbiology, McFadden Biostress Laboratory, Brookings, SD, 57007, USA

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Conservation Biology Conservation Biology ORAL PAPERS 173

KENNEALLY, KEVIN FRANCIS

Kimberley Rainforests of Western Australia: A Focus Of Biological Diversity

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any rainforests and their associated faunal assemblages across northern Australia face environmental threats from intense wildfires, feral animals, introduced ants, weed invasion, disturbance to rainforest aquifers, climate change and the invasion by cane toads. Management and conservation of these remote and naturally fragmented patches of monsoon rainforest in the Kimberley is not an easy task. Just recognising their value in the landscape is not sufficient. They need legislative protection to ensure their conservation and survival. Using the ‚precautionary principle’ we need to balance rainforest conservation with present and emerging uses in the Kimberley. Many fruit-eating birds and mammals are responsible for the movement of seeds between patches and they require many patches to maintain their populations. Consequently, every patch has value and we cannot afford to lose these ‚Jewels in the Crown’ scattered throughout the savanna woodlands of the Kimberley. Significantly, many plant species found in the Kimberley monsoon rainforests have been traditionally utilised by Aboriginal people in the Kimberley and by other cultures in south-east Asia for their food potential as well as the multiple pharmaceutical and medicinal compounds they contain. We have not yet investigated the potential that these plants may hold. In this paper I will review what we know of Kimberley monsoon rainforests and why we need to appreciate their value, not only to the biodiversity of northern Australia but also in terms of their traditional use by Aboriginal people.

University of Western Australia, School of Agriculture & Environment, M004, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, W. Australia, 6019, Australia

174

AMOROSO, VICTOR* 1, RUFILA, LILIBETH 2 and CORITICO, FULGENT 2

Plant Diversity in Mt. Malindang, Southern Philippines: From Research to Development

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espite the recognized value of Mt. Malindang Natural Park as a major biodiversity refuge, little has been done to conserve and protect its flora. The commercial and social demand for floral resources has resulted in biodiversity loss. Thus, Malindang Natural Park is one of the hotspots in the Philippines needing high priority for protection and conservation. It is therefore important that plants be inventoried and assessed so that strategies for their sustainable use can be effectively implemented. Site selection, establishment of sampling plots and inventory were done with the local researchers. Using TWISPAN analysis, floristic classifi-

79

cation, vegetation types and maps were produced and assessed to determine the status of biodiversity. Participatory inventory and assessment of the forest and agroecosystems delineated nine types viz., mossy forest, montane forest, dipterocarp forest, almaciga forest, two types of mixed dipterocarp forest, lowland dipterocarp forest, plantation forest and agroecosystem. Each forest type is characterized by a specific combination of plant species. The forest ecosystems showed a total of 1,284 species: 873 angiosperms, 20 gymnosperms, 280 pteridophytes, 85 bryophytes, and 26 lichen species. It also revealed 56 endangered and locally threatened species. Among the vegetation types, the almaciga forest appeared with the most number of endemic species, followed by the montane forest and the mossy forests. The lowest species richness and endemism were found in the plantation forest. In general, the forest types scored high on species diversity index. It is expected that this species diversity index may increase when forest will be protected and properly managed by the local people inhabiting the park. The forests in Malindang Natural Park are still rich in biodiversity and endemic species. However, threatened species were likewise high due to land conversion and resource utilization. The knowledge gained on plant diversity and conservation status was used by the Subanens to establish their community economic garden and reforest degraded mountains as part of the in situ conservation. 1

Central Mindanao University, Biology, University Town, Musuan, Bukidnon, N/A, 8710, Philippines2Central Mindanao University, Center for Biodiversity Research and Extension in Mindanao (CEBREM), Musuan, Bukidnon, 8710

175

NACZI, ROBERT

Documenting Floristic Change in the Northeastern U.S.A., and its Implications for Conservation

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loristic change is the increase or decrease in numbers of populations and/or individuals of plant species relative to a historic baseline. Previous studies in eastern North America have investigated relatively small geographic areas and often targeted rare species. This study focused on common native flowering plant species in a large region of the northeastern U.S.A.: Connecticut and southern New York south to southern Maryland. In this project, I tested the hypotheses that 1) floristic change has occurred in common species, and 2) both increases and decreases in numbers of populations have occurred. Herbarium specimens provided data to test these hypotheses. To investigate levels of collection effort, I studied six herbaria to compare numbers of specimens for each of seven species collected during two different time periods of the same duration. Four herbaria had even collection effort across the time periods, based on no statistically significant difference in numbers of vouchered populations for 1930-1949 vs. 1990-2009. These four herbaria provided geographic coverage for investigating floristic change in a set of taxonomically, morphologically, and ecologically diverse species common and widespread in northeastern North America---84 species belonging to 42 families, including herbs, vines, shrubs, and trees that grow in sunny, shady, wet, and dry habitats. The majority of the studied


species (61 of 84 species, 73%) showed no statistically significant difference in population numbers across the region between the two time periods. Of the remainder, population numbers for 2 of 84 species (2%) significantly increased relative to the earlier time period, and 21 of 84 species (25%) significantly decreased. For decliners, decreases in the numbers of collections during the recent time period are 61â&#x2C6;&#x2019;88% (mean = 71%) relative to the earlier time period. Currently, only 20% of the decliners are considered of conservation concern by the focal states. Decliners are geographically, ecologically, phylogenetically, and morphologically widespread and variable, making it unlikely that land-use changes or maladaptive traits are responsible for declines. Results of this study indicate floristic change, mostly decrease in population numbers, has occurred in a significant proportion of common flowering plant species native to the northeastern U.S.A over a recent 60-year time period. This study underscores the importance of conservation strategy that assesses and monitors status of plant species perceived as common, before their survival becomes questionable.

177

Hidden Lake bluecurls Trichostema austromontanum subsp. compactum (Lamiaceae): conservation success for a diminutive annual

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richostema austromontanum subsp. compactum (Hidden Lake bluecurls) is a diminutive annual herb in the mint family (Lamiaceae); it was listed as threatened by the Federal Government in 1998 due to trampling and small global population size. Plants of this species are restricted to the margins of Hidden Lake in the San Jacinto Mountains, Riverside County, California and the entire known range for this taxon is an area of 0.8 hectares or 2 acres. The standing population (plants present versus seeds in soil) fluctuates widely from year to year depending on the amount of winter precipitation and the extent of suitable habitat along the margins of the lake. Population monitoring indicates that the standing population can range from 243,000 individuals (2012), to as few as 50 individuals (2000). Conservation actions and recovery efforts taken in the last 15 years include: 1) population monitoring and visitor monitoring at Hidden Lake, 2) establishing fencing to restrict access to the plantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; habitat along Hidden Lake; 3) new regulatory mechanism to enforce the policy of no off-trail visitation, 4) the establishment of Hidden Divide Natural Preserve within Mount San Jacinto State Wilderness which provides the greatest protection available in the California State Park system, 5) development of a floristic inventory of the vascular plants at Hidden Lake to establish baseline information to gauge future change, 6) establishment of a multi-year ex-situ conservation seed collection at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 7) establishment of a long term protocol for seed banking and use of seeds for recovery efforts, 8) development of a conservation strategy that outlines a long term management plan for the taxon. In 2017, based on the success of these efforts, this taxon was proposed for removal from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Plants. A post-delisting monitoring plan has also been developed, including future research that will enhance these plantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; chances for long-term conservation. I will discuss the results of population monitoring and conservation actions that have taken place. Finally I will outline future research and monitoring efforts that will support the long term conservation of Trichostema austromontanum subsp. compactum.

The New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern Blvd., Bronx, NY, 10458, USA

176 KYRA

FRAGA, NAOMI

WILSON, ADAM* and KRAKOS,

A study of bee diversity and resources in St. Louis, MO and the socioeconomic patterns revealed

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sclepias spp., the milkweeds, are known for their specialized relationship with monarch butterflies. In 2015, fifty gardens were installed in North, Central, and South St. Louis, Missouri with the purpose of attracting monarch butterflies along their migratory route and to connect the citizens of St. Louis to urban natural resources. Our study focused on the plant and pollinator diversity of thirty-five of the gardens. Using GIS, we mapped the demographic and income data for these areas and tested for relationships between demographic variables, garden size, and diversity. Our results show the number of monarch butterflies in the migratory path of St. Louis Missouri increased greatly in early fall and declined in November. We found that garden size is the variable that best predicts bee diversity (p<.05). This study and its integration of natural diversity and human demographics can help inform city planning resources. Maryville University, College of Arts and Sciences, 650 Maryville University Dr, St. Louis, MO, 63141

Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500 North College Avenue, Claremont, CA, 91711, United States

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Conservation Biology Additionally, cell length differences were investigated between the two morphs, and long-style morph corolla and stylar cells are longer than those of the short-style morph. Along with floral measurements, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified using tunable genotyping-by-sequencing (tGBS) and microsatellite loci were sequenced. Genetic diversity, population structure, loci under selection, genetic bottlenecks, and patterns of migration and demographic history were examined using various methodologies. In general, FST values of the populations range from 0.5 to 0.1, and FST values are greater for microsatellite loci than SNP data. These FST values suggest little differentiation across the sampled populations. Additionally, FIS values for the populations range from slightly greater than 0 to 0.15, providing evidence that inbreeding occurs within the sampled populations. As the number of SNPs increases, along with a greater amount of missing data, FST and FIS values increase as well. Results of population structure analyses suggest that the sampled individuals comprise two genetically structured groups, although population structure is also observed should the sampled individuals be divided among three groups. Analyses of migration and demographic history provide evidence of migration among the four populations, although some populations have exchanged more migrants than others. Indeed, a unidirectional model of migration from the more southern population to the more northern populations is to be preferred over other models of migration for the four populations.

178

CANNON, BRANDI* 1, FRANGOS, SAMANTHA 2 and RAY, JESSICA 3

Genetic diversity, habitat dynamics, and demography: The conservation of endangered American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana)

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merican chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) is, a monotypic, root hemi-parasite that parasitizes the root of a host plant. It procures nutrients through a specialized organ called the haustorium, through which the water and nutrients are siphoned from the host plant. It is both rare and endangered in the United States, a consequence of construction, land development, low genetic diversity, and fire suppression. Schwalbea has been documented as being extirpated in 72% of its historic range. Currently, the northern population is of utmost concern because the only extant population is found in New Jersey out of 18 historical occurrences. For fire-dependent organisms like American chaffseed, increased fragmentation, a lack of genetic diversity, and reliance on ecosystem dynamics are compounded by the exclusion of fire, making conservation of this species difficult. Understanding how to manage the preservation and health of population of species that are known to encounter these obstacles is vital to developing robust conservation programs. Herein, the analysis of genetic variation patterns throughout Schwalbea’s historic and extant range using both herbarium samples and extant living tissue will be discussed, followed by an assessment of the root dynamics of Schwalbea’s typical hosts. This will focus on host plants’ responses to fire disturbance in greenhouse and field experiments. Finally, the correlation between root density and successful haustorial connections by planting seedlings onto treated hosts both in greenhouse and field experiment settings will be evaluated.

Kettering University, Applied Biology, 1700 University Ave., Flint, MI, 48504, USA

180

ONUMINYA, TEMITOPE* , OGUNDIPE, OLUWATOYIN and OSUNDINAKIN, MICHAEL

Genetic Conservation of Neglected and Underutilized Leafy Vegetables in SouthWest Nigeria

1

Columbia University, Ecology, Evolution, Environmental Biology New York Botanical Garden3Rutgers University

2

179

I

ndigenous leaf vegetables and fruits play a key role in income generation and subsistence, they generate high economic returns per unit input be it land, water or labor. Despite these values, these vegetables have been neglected for many years by researchers, policy makers and funding agencies and they are currently threatened with extinction. This project therefore aims at securing the genetic resources base of the neglected and underutilized leafy vegetables in south-west Nigeria. Local communities in the south-west region of Nigeria were explored for sample collection representing eco-geographical distribution within the target area. Samples were identified using manuals and flora and further authentication was done at the University of Lagos Herbarium. Total Genomic DNA will be isolated from all collected samples following the CTAB procedure with minor modifications. A total of 23 leafy vegetables were collected, of these 18 species are indigenous to the study area while 5 species are indigenous to the south-south region of Nigeria. The most abundant were members of the family Amaranthaceae. Voucher specimen of collected samples was deposited at the University of Lagos Herbarium, Lagos, geospatial referenced distribution data were recorded for all samples and photographs

COHEN, JIM

The conservation biology of Oreocarya crassipes (Boraginaceae), the Terlingua Creek Cat’s-Eye

O

reocarya crassipes (Boraginaceae) is an endangered species endemic to Brewster Co., Texas in the area just north of Big Bend National Park. O. crassipes is a heterostylous species known from a small number of populations along the Fizzle Flat Lentil, and the species has edaphic specialization within the area. While aspects of the ecology of the species are known, the breeding system, genetic and genomic diversity, and population structure have not been examined. Four populations of O. crassipes were visited during 2014 and 2015, and flowers and leaves were collected. Using measurements of anther and stigma height from mature flowers, the extent of heterostyly was quantified between morphs and among populations. These measurements demonstrated that heterostyly is well established in the species.

81


taken. Extraction process yielded quality DNA samples which have been deposited in the DNA Bank at the University of Lagos. This study can be seen as a basis upon which further research on the plants can be based. This research is funded by University of Lagos Central Research Committee (CRC/2014/09).

182

MORRIS, ASHLEY B.* 1, TROSTEL, KEVIN 1, SCALF, CASSANDRA 2, BURLEYSON, AUSTIN 1 and ALBRECHT, MATTHEW 3

Genetic variation, demographic structure, and reproductive ecology of the federally endangered Astragalus bibullatus (Fabaceae)

University of Lagos, Department of Botany, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Lagos, 23401, Nigeria

181

ALLPHIN, LOREEN* 1, LI, FAYWEI and WINDHAM, MICHAEL D. 3

C

2

onservation efforts in rare plant species are increasingly informed by genetic data, but these data are potentially most useful when integrated with long-term demographic studies, particularly in long-lived perennials. In extremely rare taxa with limited numbers of extant populations and apparently low levels of genetic diversity, demographic data have the potential to reveal genetic structure that is otherwise masked in standard population genetic analyses. Astragalus bibullatus is a federally endangered legume endemic to the limestone glades of the Central Basin of Tennessee. Most natural populations occur within a five-mile radius of one another. Molecular studies have suggested limited genetic structure that is not consistent with geographic structure, and long-term demographic data have indicated that reproductive success is dependent on microsite variation in canopy cover. In the present work, we used novel nuclear microsatellite loci to genotype permanently tagged individuals in an ongoing longterm demographic study to further inform reproductive ecology in this system. Seven nuclear loci were used to genotype 302 individuals from five naturally occurring populations and three reintroduction populations in Rutherford County, Tennessee. Population pairwise FST values across all populations ranged from 0.007 to 0.056, with reintroduced populations being more similar to each other and known source populations, as expected (pairwise FST = 0.010 - 0.033). PCoA results suggest high levels of admixture across populations. Structure analysis revealed three possible clusters, although probability of individual assignment to one of these clusters was often less than 0.85. These combined results lead us to conclude that genetic drift has played a significant role in these geographically close, but somewhat reproductively isolated populations. Future analyses will include assessment of correlation between measures of genetic diversity by population (number of effective alleles, expected and observed heterozygosity, and inbreeding coefficient) and measures of individual plant fitness by population (number of flowers per plant, number of fruits per plant) using linear regression. By integrating genetic data and measures of individual fitness within and among populations, we expect to obtain a more sophisticated view of the factors impacting reproductive success and long-term viability in this extremely rare species.

Systematics and conservation status of the Hells Canyon rock cress (Brassicaceae)

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oechera hastatula (Greene) Al-Shehbaz, the Hells Canyon rock cress, is a critically imperiled plant species known only from the rim of Hells Canyon in the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest of Wallowa County, Oregon, USA. Originally described as a new species of Arabis based on a single plant collected in 1907, similar plants were not collected again until 1952. Harvardbased brassicologist Reed Rollins encountered the latter specimen while working on his 1993 synopsis of North American Cruciferae, and he concluded that it did, indeed, represent a distinct species. Intent to learn more about this rare plant, botanists from the Oregon Natural Heritage Program and U.S. Forest Service conducted a field survey in 1996 that identified ten “occurrences” of the species, amounting to fewer than a thousand individuals “along a single band of cliffs.” The taxon is currently globally ranked as G2 (globally imperiled) and as S1 (state critically imperiled) according to the Natural Heritage Program in Oregon. The taxon is also maintained on the US Forest Service sensitive species list. Despite its rarity, the few available specimens of B. hastatula suggest that the species, like many other members of the genus, exhibits variation in both ploidy level and reproductive mode. To investigate the sources of this diversity, we conducted morphological, palynological, cytogenetic and microsatellite DNA analyses on all available herbarium specimens as well as a new series of collections from more intense sampling obtained during the 2012 field season. Our studies reveal that B. hastatula, as currently defined, includes three genetic entities: a sexual diploid, an apomictic diploid, and an apomictic triploid. Microsatellite data indicate that both apomictic entities arose through hybridization involving the sexual diploid taxon and the widespread species now known as B. retrofracta (Graham) Löve & Löve. The type specimen of Boechera hastatula belongs to the triploid entity, which contains two genomes of the apparently unnamed sexual diploid and one of B. retrofracta. Based on these results, we propose to circumscribe B. hastatula as a hybrid nothospecies, encompassing the two apomictic entities, and recognize the newly discovered sexual diploid as a new species. Regardless of the taxonomic approach taken, however, B. hastatula sensu stricto appears to be considerably rarer than previously anticipated.

1

Middle Tennessee State University, 1301 E. Main Street, SCI 2044, Murfreesboro, TN, 37132, United States2Western Kentucky University, Department of Biology, 1906 College Heights Blvd., Bowling Green, KY, 42101, USA3Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO, 63166, USA

1

Brigham Young University, Department of Plant and Wildlife Sciences, Provo, Utah, 84602, United States2Cornell University, Boyce Thompson Institute, Ithaca, NY, 14850, USA3DUKE UNIVERSITY, Department Of Biology, BOX 90338, DURHAM, NC, 27708, USA

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Conservation Biology 183

LAWSON, DAWN 1, VANDERPLANK, SULA* 2, FALCONE, ERIN 3, JACOBSEN, JEFF 4 and EZCURRA, EXEQUIEL

184

5

Assessing vegetation recovery after the removal of non-native herbivores on Isla Clarión

Impact of Phragmites autralis control on Utah Lake water quality

P

CADET, EDDY 1 and EVENSEN, ARTHUR* 2

hragmites australis (common reed) is an invasive species that has some negative ascetic traits in Utah Lake. The Division of Natural Resources is combating Phragmites australis by indiscriminately spraying herbicides and smashing the roots and remaining rhizomes into the lake sediment. Phragmites australis is known to sequester trace metals in their roots and rhizomes. We hypothesize that this method of removal of the common reed will have an adverse impact on water quality in Utah Lake due to the release of trace metals from their roots and rhizomes during decomposition. Phragmites australis, sediment and water samples will be collected from sixteen sites selected at random surrounding Utah Lake, including both treated and untreated areas for a period of 5 months. Five replicate samples will be taken at each site. The samples will be processed in UVU Environmental laboratory, microwave digested in concentrated HNO3 using EPA Method 3015 and analyzed with the ICP-OES to measure their trace metal (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb and Cu ) content. The rate of release of trace elements will be determined for each site and compared with non-treated areas. An increase in trace metal concentration in the sediment and water over time will indicate a negative impact on Utah lake water quality. To determine factors which may potentially impact trace metal concentration in the lake water and sediment, pH, redox reaction, particle size distribution and organic matter contents will be measured. Results from each sites will be compared and potential reasons for any variations observed will be discussed.

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larión Island is a remote island, 700 km (436 mi) from the Mexican mainland (and 314 km (195 mi) from the nearest island, Socorro). The island is almost 20 square kilometers in area (8 mi2), and reaches a maximum elevation of 335 m (1,100 ft) at Monte Gallegos. It was first discovered in 1542; rabbits and sheep were introduced in 1979, and pigs in 1991. The flora of Clarión Island today includes more than 50 species with 4 single-island endemic taxa. In 1999 the vegetation of Clarión Island was systematically surveyed using 0.10 acre circle plots, along transects of regular interval across the entire island, for a total of 48 vegetation plots. The rabbits remain on Clarión island, but Island Conservation Group and the Mexican Government worked together to successfully eradicate the sheep and pigs in 2002. In February of 2017, 56% (27/48) of the plots were re-surveyed using the same methodologies. While there appear to be significant increases in cover over the past 18 years, the non-native buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliare) accounts for a large portion of the increase and the non-native puncture vine (Tribulus cistoides) was the most abundant species in the plots resampled. However, the most abundant natives, Brickellia peninsularis and Waltheria indica, were dominant in many of the plots sampled. Despite high beta diversity, the landscape is dominated by habitat patches of low diversity. A vegetation map of the island was created from the 2017 data and additional observation points. A new vegetation map for Clarión Island is here presented, and it is hoped that the vegetation can again be re-surveyed when the non-native rabbits are also removed. These results highlight the detrimental impact of non-native herbivores on island ecosystems, and the recovery that ensues when they are removed. Non-native plant taxa continue to threaten the biodiversity of Clarión Island, particularly buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliare), and puncture vine (Tribulus cistoides).

1

Utah Valley University, Earth Science, 800 W University Parkway, Orem, Utah, 84058, USA2Utah Valley University, Botany, 800 W University Parkway, Orem, Utah, 84058, USA

185

HUFFT, REBECCA* , DEPRENGER-LEVIN, MICHELLE , LEVY, RICHARD and ISLAM, MELISSA

Using herbarium records to assess shifts in phenology in alpine plants and select indicator species for climate change

1

San Diego State University, Biology Department, 5500 Campanile Dr, San Diego, CA, 92182, USA2Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 1700 University Drive, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, United States3 Marine Ecology and Telemetry Research, 2420 Nellita Rd NW , Seabeck, WA, USA4Humboldt State University, Biological Sciences, CA, USA5University of California, Riverside, Institute for Mexico and the United States, Riverside, CA, USA

V

ariation in plant response to climate change can help us predict future changes in plant communities that can aid in the development of effective management plans. Phenology is one of the best indicators to observe such plant responses. Combining plant phenology from herbarium records with ongoing monitoring efforts, we can better understand phenological responses as they relate to environmental change over longer periods. We studied herbarium data from Colorado’s alpine region, as alpine areas are predicted to be especially sensitive to climate change. We assessed phenological patterns in relation to temperature and precipitation for 467 species. We found average low temperature, average GDD accumulation, and average precipitation

83


increased over the study period. As temperature and GDD accumulation increased, phenology advanced but as precipitation increased, phenology was postponed. Even with this variability of environmental responses, we still found a significant trend of earlier flowering when all species were analyzed together. Of the species that showed significantly earlier flowering dates, they advanced an average of almost 34 days over the 61 years of the study. When assessing only species monitored in a national program (USA National Phenology Network), we found that these species showed similar trends to the entire dataset, suggesting that choosing species with good historical data to use in ongoing monitoring efforts will improve our understanding of phenological drivers. Denver Botanic Gardens, 909 York Street, Denver, CO, 80206, USA

186

MACDONALD, BRANDON W.S.* 1, WRIGHT, JESSICA W. 2, GUGGER, PAUL F. 3 and SORK, VICTORIA L. 4

Valley oak seedlings show phenotypic plasticity in growth and architecture across two common gardens

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limate change will increasingly become a major concern for the conservation of long-lived, slowly dispersing tree species such as Californiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Valley oak (Quercus lobata). Climate niche modeling has predicted that for some populations of Q. lobata, range displacement will be large and gene flow through pollen and seed dispersal is unlikely to allow the tracking suitable sites. Phenotypic plasticity may be an important mechanism in tolerance of climate change. Using two common gardens established in 2012, we will address the following specific objectives. First, we will identify traits and genotypes from the same family and provenance (i.e. locality) that show plasticity. Second, we will identify the regional or climatic variables associated with the sites of genotypic origin that affect trait values. Acorns from valley oak trees of 95 provenances were sampled throughout the species range, germinated in a greenhouse, and outplanted as seedlings into two common gardens administered by the US. Forest Service, according to the following design: 5-8 families per provenance, and 10 seedlings per family, totaling 650 families and 3000 seedlings in the experimental stations at Chico and Placervile, California. All provenances and families are represented in both common gardens. We found strong differences in growth between the two environments with bigger plants at the Chico, the lower elevation site. We also found a significant effect of the genotype (on the provenance and family level) on trait variation. A significant interaction effect (environment * genotype) has also been identified, indicating that there is differentiation between genotypes in environmental response. Climate variables associated with the site of maternal origin predicted differences in growth and branching architecture in the common garden located in Placerville, CA, where the plants recieve less water. It appears as though local adaptation has an important effect on the growth of trees in more stressful environments. Climate variables associated with the site of maternal origin did not predict differences in growth in the common garden located in Chico, CA. These findings may indicate that it is more difficult to detect population differences in some traits when grown in less stressful environments. Analysis of the genetic basis of other traits

84

including specific leaf area, thickness, dry mass, lobedness, length-width ratio, area, and trichome density will be presented. Results from this study reveal that seedling populations from different parts of the species distribution exhibit different levels of phenotypic plasticity. 1

University of California Los Angeles, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 4140 Terasaki Life Sciences Building 610 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-7239 , USA2Institute Of Forest Genetics, 1100 West Chiles Road, Davis, CA, 95618, USA3University of Maryland , Center for Environmental Science, 301 Braddock Road, Frostburg, MD, 21532, USA4UCLA, ECOL & EVOL BIOL, Box 957239, LOS ANGELES, CA, 90095-7239, USA


Conservation Biology POSTERS

188

RYLANDER, HALEY* 1 and TAYLOR, KIM 2

187

REED, JENNIFER* 1 and MARSICO, TRAVIS 2

Status, Habitat, and Distribution of Schoenoplectiella hallii (Cyperaceae) in Texas

Don’t doubt the Delta: Collection biases may skew plant species richness measurements in Poinsett County, AR

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choenoplectiella halli (Gray) S.G. Sm. is an annual sedge in the Cyperaceae family with a rounded conservation status of G2 occurring in very sparse and scattered populations across the Eastern and Midwestern United States. Schoenoplectiella hallii is typically found in ephemeral ponds or other fluctuating shorelines with little perennial competition, and entire populations are known to disappear for decades at a time only to reemerge in staggering numbers. There is only one known population in Texas in the Lyndon B. Johnson National Grasslands. Unlike other populations, this population remains year after year and occurs in quite a different climate than all other known sites. At the LBJ site we recorded population size, GPS coordinates, and the state (fertile, sterile, dead) of each plant and performed habitat surveys. This data was used to further characterize the habitat and associates of S. hallii and to assess the current conservation status of the species in Texas. We also compared our data to information on the species in other states and determined what makes Texas an ideal habitat for S. hallii and what the national outlook for the species may be in the future.

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ollection biases, including species bias, infrastructure bias, and the botanist effect, can lead to misrepresentations of species richness and distribution, which can complicate conservation planning. These collection biases, when paired with areas that are already thought to have poor species richness, can mean that certain regions are poorly studied, leading to misrepresentations of known species richness. One such area is the Mississippi Alluvial Plain or “Delta” region of Arkansas, which has undergone drastic vegetation and land-use changes at the hands of settlers and modern residents. Poinsett County is located within the Delta region, and it is dominated by row crop agriculture, yet it offers protected areas such as Lake Poinsett State Park and Bayou De View Wildlife Management Area, which provide a diversity of wetlands, riparian areas, and uplands, including a variety of Crowley’s Ridge forest habitats and remnant prairies. As a result, Poinsett County should have a high species richness of vascular plants. Yet previous specimen collection effort has been poor. A preliminary plant species survey was conducted in the 1960s, and only 363 species were identified. The objectives of this study are to: 1) create a complete list of vascular plant species in Poinsett County, Arkansas, 2) map all previous plant collections in Poinsett County, Arkansas, and 3) determine which type(s) of collection bias have affected plant species richness measurements in Poinsett County, Arkansas. To achieve this, we have identified all habitats in Poinsett County, which has elevational changes, a variety of soil types (including Loring, Brandon, and Memphis associations), as well as six level IV ecoregions designated by the US EPA. We will also collect voucher vascular plant specimens during two entire growing seasons and identify specimens to the species level. After our first field season, we collected 1,169 specimens over the course of 20 field trips. Of these specimens, so far we have found six new species records for Poinsett County, including Acer negundo, Carex typhina, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Heuchera americana, Neottia bifolia, and Taraxacum officinale. Based on our preliminary observations, it appears as though Poinsett may have diminished species richness possibly due to the botanist effect, infrastructure bias, and species bias. Because of the potential for underexplored areas of Poinsett County and the lack of specimen collections, we expect to nearly double the known species occurrences in the county, and for the first time generate a list of species by habitat.

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Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Research, 1700 University Dr., Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA2Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 1700 University Dr., Fort Worth, TX, 76107, United States

189

WEBER, JUSTINE E.* 1, LEOPOLD, DONALD J. 1 and WILEY, JR., JOHN J. 2

Greenhouse germination trials with federally-listed Houghton’s goldenrod: Evaluating factors associated with population persistence

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1

Arkansas State University, Department of Biological Sciences, PO Box 599, State University, AR, 72467, USA2Arkansas State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, PO Box 599, State University, AR, 72467, USA

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oughton’s goldenrod (Oligoneuron houghtonii) is a Great Lakes endemic that is often locally abundant but is limited to a small region along the Niagara Escarpment. Approximately 80 populations occur in Michigan and Ontario, and one population occurs in western New York. This species is federally-listed as threatened, state-listed as threatened in Michigan and endangered in New York, and is a species of concern in Canada. While the species is generally uncommon, there may now be enough protected O. houghtonii populations to meet the federal recovery criterion, and it may be appropriate to consider the species for delisting from federal protection. However, more data are needed regarding long-term trends within and across populations. As part of a broader study on fecundity, germination, and population stability of Houghton’s goldenrod, greenhouse germination trials were performed to evaluate the effects of substrate and moisture on germination success. Seeds were collected with permission from 27 populations (26 in MI and 1 in NY), and cold-moist stratified for approximately 120 days. For germination


trials, each population was exposed to six substrate treatments (control [potting soil], sand, marl, gravel, litter, moss) and four moisture treatments (volume [high and low] x frequency [high and low]). Binomial mixed models were used to test for differences in germination rates between treatments, while accounting for probable differences between populations by using population as a random effect. Germination rates on smoother substrates (marl, sand, and control) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than germination rates on rougher substrates (moss, gravel, and litter). The effects of water volume and frequency were not independent (interaction significant, p < 0.001), and the simple effects of low volume and infrequent moisture drove significantly lower germination rates. These results will be combined with field data to estimate population stability (i.e. likelihood of persistence) across O. houghtoniiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s range.

from the endangered species list. 1

Middle Tennessee State University, Department of Biology, 1301 E Main St., Murfreesboro, TN, 37132, USA2U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Chicago Illinois Field Office, 230 South Dearborn St., Suite 2938, Chicago, IL, 60604, USA3Middle Tennessee State University, Department of Biology, 1301 E Main St, Murfreesboro, TN, 37132, USA

191

WARD, ALEX 1, STONE, BENJAMIN* and WOLFE, ANDREA D 2 1

Penstemon caryi: Conservation genetics in a rare endemic species

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enstemon caryi (Plantaginaceae) is a rare species endemic to the Pryor and Bighorn Mountains of north-central Wyoming and adjacent Montana. P. caryi is listed as a vulnerable species both in Wyoming and Montana, and inhabits sparsely vegetated talus slopes and limestone outcrops at montane elevations. The fragmented distribution of P. caryi may inhibit gene flow between populations and lead to low levels of genetic diversity, which could potentially further endanger the species. This study analyzes ten populations of P. caryi near the Tensleep Preserve in Wyoming and the Pryor Mountains in Montana using a combined in a conservation-genetic setting. We used a combined molecular dataset of seven microsatellite markers and 111 AFLP loci to estimate levels population genetic diversity, population differentiation, and gene flow between populations. We found pairwise FST values ranging from 0.013-0.11, suggesting some admixture of populations via gene flow; previous genetic studies of P. caryi corroborate our findings of significant gene flow between some populations. Despite these findings, two of the high-altitude populations (Top oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; the World and Margarite Mesa) and the Pryor Mountains population appear to represent distinct groups using genetic clustering analyses. We found evidence for significant inbreeding within these populations (Rhois = 0.20670.5514), which may decrease heterozygosity (Ho=.664). Our results suggest that although most populations of P. caryi exhibit connectivity via gene flow, several populations have become increasingly genetically isolated; in these populations, genetic drift is likely an important mechanism explaining the observed decrease in genetic diversity. These findings, combined with our estimates of heterozygosity and inbreeding, indicate that at-risk populations should be given conservation priority, while the other populations in and around the Tensleep preserve should continue to be monitored and protected.

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SUNY-ESF (State University of NY, College of Env Science & Forestry), Environmental and Forest Biology, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY, 13210, USA2U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, NY Field Office, 3817 Luker Road, Cortland, NY, 13045, USA

190

WATKINS, SHELBY L.* 1, POLLACK, CATHY 2 and MORRIS, ASHLEY B. 3

Assessing microsatellite genetic diversity in reintroduced and augmented populations of Dalea foliosa in Illinois

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onservation and ecological restoration are exceedingly important as the human population continues to grow and disturb ecosystems. One method used to counteract extinction is to reintroduce plants to areas where they were extirpated, with the goal being for plants to establish new self-sustaining populations. It is clear that both reproductive ecology and population genetic structure, among other factors, are key players in determining reintroduction success. Dalea foliosa (leafy prairie-clover; Fabaceae), is a federally endangered perennial herb known primarily from Middle Tennessee, with more limited disjunct populations in Illinois and Alabama. The number of populations of this species are thought to have declined by 45% due mainly to habitat loss. Previous work based on allozymes suggested that D. foliosa generally exhibits low levels of genetic variation, with Tennessee populations being more diverse than either Illinois or Alabama populations. As a result, Illinois and Alabama populations were proposed to have experienced historical bottlenecks, possibly as a result of glaciation in the north. The Illinois populations have been the focus of an intensive restoration effort, with both reintroduction and augmentation of natural populations taking place. In the present study, we used recently developed novel nuclear microsatellite loci to evaluate genetic variation within and among these restored populations. Eleven loci are being used to genotype 114 individuals from 5 populations. These results will be compared to those of a broader study of natural populations from across the species range, which included 396 individuals from 19 populations across three states. Comparing the genetic diversity of the natural populations to the augmented and reintroduced populations may help understand the history of these plants and also help determine the best way to focus conservation efforts to maximize survival and possible removal

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Ohio State University, EEOB, 318 W 12th Ave, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA2Ohio State University, Department Of Ecology, Evolution, And Organismal Biology, 318 W. 12th Avenue, COLUMBUS, OH, 43210-1293, USA

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Crops and Wild Relatives Crops and Wild Relatives Saint Louis, MO, 63108, USA2Saint Louis University, Biology, 3507 Laclede Ave , Saint Louis , MO, 63103, USA3University of Colorado - Boulder, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 1900 Pleasant St, Boulder, CO, 80302, USA4Saint Louis University, Biology, 3057 Laclede Ave, Saint Louis, MO, 63103, USA

ORAL PAPERS 192

KLEIN, LAURA* 1, O'HANLON, REGAN , PRETZ, CHELSEA 3, ZANDER, TRACY 4 and MILLER, ALLISON 2 2

193 EGAN, ASHLEY N. 1, LIM, H.C.* 2 and MILLER, THERESA L. 3

Genotyping-by-sequencing suggests species boundaries are maintained in co-occurring Vitis species in central North America

Assessing genomic diversity via whole genome resequencing in bean cultivars (Phaseolus L. spp.) from Brazil, a putative secondary center of diversity

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he European grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) is the most economically important berry crop in the world, but challenges associated with abiotic (temperature, precipitation) and biotic (pest, pathogen) stress necessitate the use of hardy, disease-resistant native North American Vitis species in grapevine breeding. Various North American Vitis species have been used to generate unique scions (stems producing fruit) and rootstocks (lower stems and roots) that are then cloned and cultivated on global scales. Of these, the riverbank grape (Vitis riparia) and the rock grape (V. rupestris) have been particularly important in the development of rootstocks, with the bulk of the cultivated grapevines now grafted to just a handful of V. riparia/V. rupestris cultivars. Interspecific hybridization is widely used in viticulture to produce more vigorous plants and is well documented in nature; however, the extent of gene flow among North American Vitis congeners within natural populations remains underexplored. The goal of this study was to investigate patterns of genetic structure and differentiation in two closely related species, V. riparia and V. rupestris, and their co-occurring congeners. Sampling occurred at seven field sites in the Midwest United States. We utilized genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), yielding a dataset of 81,467 SNPs for 178 individuals. In our assessment of genetic structure, we detected six genetic clusters. Some genetic clusters were restricted to single sites, where as other genetic clusters occurred in multiple sites. We observed evidence for some genetic admixture, but in general clusters represented distinct genetic groups in multi-dimensional scaling plots and hierarchical clustering analysis. This pattern of genetic differentiation is coherent with existing Vitaceae phylogenetic relationships and morphological species descriptions for six taxa. These data support evidence for the role of species maintenance in the presence of interspecific gene flow and advocate for the examination of complex evolutionary histories through multiple means. Current research efforts in evolutionary botany such as work presented here can partner with agricultural communities to conserve and use crop wild relatives to advance food and ecosystem security. As concerns mount about the future of food in a changing climate, refocusing attention on native species like North American Vitis as valuable sources of crop improvement can create stronger, more sustainable food production, and form the foundation of future projects examining the genomic and environmental bases of variation in plants.

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ulse crops, such as the lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), are critical components of human health and the global economy. With the designation of 2016 by the United Nations as the International Year of Pulses, much research has centered on understanding the evolutionary, nutritional, and agronomic impacts of beans. Both the common bean and lima bean were domesticated by indigenous peoples of the New World and are said to each have two centers of domestication: a Mesoamerican origin and an Andean origin. However, genetic studies have suggested Brazil as another center of diversity. This is supported by anthropological studies of the Canela indigenous culture of northeast Brazil who cultivate an astonishing diversity of beans, with over 60 vernacular-named varieties. To assess the genetic diversity within Brazilian cultivars, we re-sequenced the complete genomes of 29 P. lunatus and 17 P. vulgaris accessions as well as the wild species P. filiformis collected from Mexico and P. polystachios collected from Virginia. All lunatus and vulgaris accessions were from small garden plots or local markets, with the exception of one proximately collected wild accession of P. vulgaris. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were called against the P. vulgaris complete nuclear genome. Genetic diversity of Brazilian accessions was compared against SNPs from each speciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; two gene pools that represent centers of domestication and population structure as examined for each species. Brazilian germplasm presents a high level of genetic diversity and should be considered for preservation and conservation to help mitigate loss of genetic diversity.

1

National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, MRC 166, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC, 20013-7012, USA2Smithsonian Institution, Vertebrate Zoology, P.O. Box 37012, Washington , DC, 20013, USA3Smithsonian Institution, Anthropology, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC, 20013, USA

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Saint Louis University, Department Of Botany, 3507 Laclede Ave,

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195

CUSHMAN, KEVIN* 1, HINZI, LORI 2, PABUAYON, ISAIAH 3, SWEENEY, MEGAN 4 and DE LOS REYES, BENILDO 1

194

HERRON, STERLING* 1, CIOTIR, CLAUDIA 1, MILLER, ALLISON 1, VAN TASSEL, DAVID 2, CREWS, TIMOTHY 2 and SCHLAUTMAN, BRANDON 2

Accessing Stress Physiological and Morphological Diversity in the Tetraploid Cultivated Cotton Germplasm through the Gossypium Diversity Reference Set

Comparative analysis of germination, firstyear growth, and biomass allocation among annual and perennial congeners in Glycine, Lupinus, Phaseolus (Fabaceae)

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he Gossypium Diversity Reference Set (GDRS), a subset from the National Cotton Germplasm Collection, captures the total spectrum of geographical and morphological diversity within diploid and tetraploid Gossypium species collected worldwide, as well as within land races and obsolete cultivars of the commercial tetraploid species, G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. Our goal is to mine a representative sample based on previous analysis of 105 polymorphic SSR loci distributed across the G. hirsutum genome for various physio-morphometric traits that contribute to quantitative variation for abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms. Subsequently, we aim to create reference physiological, transcriptomic, genomic, and epigenomic resources for representative genotypes that could serve as donors for each morpho-physiometric trait in genomicsassisted cotton breeding programs. Here we present the initial set of data showing the spectrum of stress physiological variation across this smaller diversity panel (50 accessions). Accessing the range of potential stress tolerance or avoidance mechanisms associated with morphological and developmental traits, we have begun to conduct preliminary morpho-developmental comparisons with half the diversity panel grown under greenhouse condition. We measured 27 morphological characters intended to capture habit, reproductive, developmental, and phenotypic variation. Trends revealed by regression and multivariate analyses indicate that morphological diversity in a small sample of the GDRS is inconsistent with diversity predicted from SSR data. We are further examining the lack of congruence between the morpho-developmental and SSR data in order to discover some unique attributes with potential significance to stress tolerance and/ or avoidance mechanisms not predicted by variation on repetitive DNA sequences.

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erennial grain crops pose a potential alternative to traditional annual agricultural systems, due to their increased retention of soil and nutrients via extensive root systems. However, perennial herbaceous plants have rarely been domesticated for seed production, and little is known about how selection for increased seed yield and size will affect other plant traits. The legume family (Fabaceae) is an appropriate model system to address these questions due to its long domestication history as a global protein source for humans and livestock and as a source of nitrogen fixation to improve soil fertility. Domestication traits in annual legumes include increased germination rate (decreased seed dormancy) and increased seed size. This study compares congeneric annual and perennial herbaceous legume species within the genera Glycine (soybean; 2 annuals,12 perennials), Lupinus (lupine; 3 annuals, 8 perennials), and Phaseolus (common bean; 2 annuals, 5 perennials). We compared seed size, germination, and first year growth traits to understand variation 1) between wild annual and perennial congeners, 2) between domesticated annual and domesticated perennial congeners, and 3) tradeoffs in root/shoot resource allocation within both annual and perennial domesticates under selection for increased reproductive output. A total of 5900 seeds (representing 303 USDA accessions from different geographic locations) were germinated, and a subset of 1500 germinant seeds were grown out at The Land Institute in Salina, KS from June to September 2016. Seeds were assessed for lateral area, weight, and germination percentage. Plants were assessed for growth rate, stem width, height, node number, aboveground biomass, and belowground biomass. Preliminary results indicate a somewhat higher germination percentage (when scarified) among perennials than annuals, as well as a greater increase in seed size during domestication for some perennials over annuals. Still, higher shoot growth rate in Lupinus and Glycine annual wild species and annual domesticates was typically found when compared to perennials. Multi-year growth trials will need to be established to fully understand the temporal component of yield and growth potential in perennial grain legume candidates.

1

Texas Tech University, Plant and Soil Science, 2911 15th St. , Mail Stop 2122, Lubbock , TX, 79409, USA2United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2881 F & B Road, College Station, TX, 77845 , USA3Texas Tech University, Plant and Soil Science, Lubbock, TX, 79409, USA4Bayer, CropScience Division , 407 Davis Drive, Morrisville, NC, 27560, USA

1

Saint Louis University, Department of Biology, 3507 Laclede Avenue, St Louis, MO, 63103-2010, USA2The Land Institute, 2440 East Water Well Road, Salina, KS, 67401, USA

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Crops and Wild Relatives 196

QI, XINSHUAI* 1, AN, HONG , RAGSDALE, AARON 3, HALL, TARA 4, GUTENKUNST, RYAN 5, PIRES, J. CHRIS 6 and BARKER, MICHAEL 7

197

Genomic inferences of domestication events are corroborated by written records in Brassica rapa

Greatly reduced phylogenetic structure in the cultivated potato clade of Solanum section Petota

SPOONER, DAVID* 1, RUESS, HOLLY 2, ARBIZU, CARLOS 2, RODRêGUEZ, FLOR 3 and SOLIS-LEMUS, CLAUDIA 4

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emographic modeling is often used with population genomic data to infer the relationships and ages among populations. However, relatively few analyses are able to validate these inferences with independent data. Here, we leverage written records that describe distinct Brassica rapa crops to corroborate demographic models of domestication. Brassica rapa crops are renowned for their outstanding morphological diversity, but the relationships and order of domestication remains unclear. We generated genome-wide SNPs from 126 accessions collected globally using high-throughput transcriptome data. Analyses of more than 31,000 SNPs across the B. rapa genome revealed evidence for five distinct genetic groups and supported a European-Central Asian origin of B. rapa crops. Our results supported the traditionally recognized South Asian and East Asian B. rapa groups with evidence that pak choi, Chinese cabbage, and yellow sarson are likely monophyletic groups. In contrast, the oil-type B. rapa subsp. oleifera and brown sarson were polyphyletic. We also found no evidence to support the contention that rapini is the wild type or the earliest domesticated subspecies of B. rapa. Demographic analyses suggested that B. rapa was introduced to Asia 2400-4100 years ago, and that Chinese cabbage originated 1200-2100 years ago via admixture of pak choi and European-Central Asian B. rapa. We also inferred significantly different levels of founder effect among the B. rapa subspecies. Written records from antiquity that document these crops are consistent with these inferences. The concordance between our age estimates of domestication events with historical records provides unique support for our demographic inferences.

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he species boundaries of Solanum section Petota are complicated by interspecific hybridization, introgression, allopolyploidy, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, and possible recent species divergence. Every taxonomist who approaches the taxonomy of the group has provided different hypotheses of the number of species and their interrelationships. A recent taxonomic conspectus in 2014 recognized 107 species in section Petota, less than half as many as a treatment in 1990 that recognized 232 species. The group has been studied by morphological and molecular techniques from isozymes, a variety of DNA markers types, and most recently by the use of multiple nuclear orthologs. We here report a phylogenetic analysis of 131 diploid species accessions, using 12 nuclear orthologs, distributed on six of the 12 linkage groups, producing an aligned dataset of 14072 DNA characters, 2171 of which are parsimony informative. The results quantify relatively good phylogenetic structure (as assessed by high bootstrap values and well-resolved branches) in clades traditionally referred to in the potato literature as clades 1+2, 3, and an additional “basal” clade, but drastically reduced phylogenetic structure (as assessed by polytomies, low bootstrap support, and the failure of all species to resolve in species-specific clades) in the clade 4, containing cultivated potatoes and their immediate and close wild relatives. We are using a concordance analysis and goodness-of-fit test in order to investigate whether hybridization is the cause of the taxonomic problems in clade 4. 1

USDA Agricultural Research Service, Horticulture, Univ. Wisconsin, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, USA2USDA Agricultural Research Service, Univ. Wisconsin, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, United States3International Potato Center, P.O. Box 1558, Lima 12, Peru4University of Wisconsin, Botany, Madison, WI, 53706, USA

1

University of Arizona, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Tucson, AZ, 85716-4831, United States2University of Missouri, Columbia, Division of Biological Sciences, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA3University of Arizona, Program in Applied Mathematics, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA4University of Arizona, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA5University of Arizona, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA6University Of Missouri, 371 Bond Life Sciences Center, 1201 Rollins Street, Columbia, MO, 65211-7310, USA7University Of Arizona, Department Of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, P.O. Box 210088, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA

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198

MEYER, RACHEL* 1, GROSS, BRIANA 2, FLOWERS, JONATHAN 3 and PURUGGANAN, MICHAEL 4

199

ADE-ADEMILUA, OMOBOLANLE ELIZABETH* 1, OGUNDIPE, OLUWATOYIN 2 and OKPOMA, MARIAN 3

Did two rice species go through parallel domestication via changes to the same genes?

Cultivation of Peperomia pellucida, for food and medicine

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wo species of Oryza (Poaceae) underwent gradual domestication to become a staple food: O. sativa L. in China, and O. glaberrima Steud. in sub-Saharan West Africa. Recent studies have revealed a surprisingly parallel story to both species. The wild progenitors of both crops were widespread. In both, domestication was protracted, beginning early in the Holocene, and requiring thousands of years to fix key mutations. Crop domestication literature often points to Vavilov’s Law of Homologous Series of Evolution, stating that related species will often undergo parallel genetic change as the environment (including humans) selects on phenotype. In cereals, several QTL and genes have orthologs in multiple species that all were implicated in playing a role in the domestication process that altered, for example, seed shattering, seed color, early germination, and determinacy. AIM: We tested the extent of parallelism in domestication genes and in whole genome patterns of selection, hypothesizing that over half of the loci would be under selection or show functional change of the same effect, whilst not requiring the same particular mutations. The null hypothesis is that few or no genes show parallel selection or functional change, which would defy Vavilov’s law. METHODS: We made whole genome alignments and SNP maps of 102 accessions of O. glaberrima and 17 accessions wild progenitor O. barthii, using the O. glaberrima reference genome. We did the same for 101 accessions of O. sativa subsp. tropical japonica and 16 accessions wild progenitor O. rufipogon, using the tropical japonica reference genome. We mined the literature for 42 functionally characterized domestication genes that show evidence of selection in O. sativa, found their ortholog in O. glaberrima, and explored genetic diversity, SNPs, and INDELS of these genes and 5kb flanking either side. We used ANGSD to calculate genome wide diversity statistics and sliding window selection patterns including Fst and XP-CLR. We examined parallel patterns in O. sativa domestication loci against the background parallelism of ‚neutral’ loci. RESULTS: While some parallelism occurs on the genome-wide level, evidence of homologous evolutionary patterns from domestication affecting the 42 genes were not extensive. While methylation and regulatory patterns affecting transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes cannot be ruled out, it appears the mechanism of achieving parallel phenotypic change in the two rice species has only scantily stemmed from orthologous genetic change, rather, parallel pathways may be the level of the homologous feature Vavilov’s law should point to. 1

University of California Los Angeles, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 610 Charles E Young Drive E, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA2University of Minnesota Duluth, Biology, 207 Swenson Science Building, 1035 Kirby Drive, Duluth, MN, 55812, USA3New York University, Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, 12 Waverly Place, New York, NY, 10003, USA4New York University, Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, 12 Waverly Place, New York, NY, 10003, United States

90

lanting procedure for Peperomia pellucida, a weed, that can be eaten as a salad to treat many ailments including arthritis is being developed, in a quest to domesticate the plant in Nigeria. The plant was found to thrive better in the wild than in regular cultivation. The plant is usually found growing on near solid medium such as walls and close to streaming water. The fibrous roots appear to have been modified for attachment to a solid substrate. Soil type and watering conditions are being combined to determine the best medium for growing P. pellucida. Tissue cultured plants versus seed cultured plants are compared for better source of filial generations.

1

University Of Lagos, Botany, Akoka-Yaba, Lagos, N/A, 2341, Nigeria2University of Lagos, Department of Botany, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Lagos, 23401, Nigeria3University of Lagos, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science,, Akoka-Yaba, Lagos, 2341, Nigeria


Crops and Wild Relatives

POSTER 200

KHADIA, SATISH

Conservation and sustainable use of crop wild relatives

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onservation of crop wild relatives (CWRs) is a difficult interdisciplinary process that is being addressed by various national and international initiatives, including two Global Environment Facility projects (‚In situ Conservation of Crop Wild Relatives through Enhanced Information Management and Field Application’ and ‚Design, Testing and Evaluation of Best Practices for in situ Conservation of Economically Important Wild Species’), the European Communityfunded project ‚European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum (PGR Forum)’ and the European ‚In situ and On Farm Network’. The key issues that have arisen are: (1) the definition of what constitutes a CWR, (2) the need for national and regional information systems and a global system, (3) development and application of priority-determining mechanisms, (4) the incorporation of the conservation of CWRs into existing national, regional and international PGR programmes, (5) assessment of the effectiveness of conservation actions, (6) awareness of the importance of CWRs in agricultural development at local, national and international levels both for the scientific and lay communities and (7) policy development and legal framework. The above issues are illustrated by work on the conservation of a group of legumes known as grasspea chicklings, vetchlings, and horticultural ornamental peas (Lathyrus spp.) in their European and Mediterranean centre of diversity.

S. D. Agricultural University, Genetics and Plant Breeding, S.K. Nagar, Dantiwada, Gujarat, 385506, India

91


Ecology

202

ORAL PAPERS

An experimental approach to understanding the role of flooding in riparian plant community composition

201

PALMQUIST, EMILY* 1, RALSTON, BARBARA 2, MERRITT, DAVID 3 and SHAFROTH, PATRICK 4

ROLLINSON, EMILY

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iparian plant communities are often stated to be highly diverse. There are many potential drivers of this diversity, one of which is the hydrological dynamics of the habitat, including the role of flood events and disturbance in governing community dynamics and assembly. A flood event has many simultaneous effects on riparian vegetation. Plants experience submergence under water and associated oxygen deprivation, and may be damaged or uprooted due to scouring from fast-flowing water. They may also become coated in or buried under any sediments deposited under the floodwaters. At the same time, sediment deposition may also introduce nutrients to the riparian zone and aid the growth of riparian vegetation. In the field, it is difficult to untangle how each of these simultaneous effects of a flood affect riparian plant communities, or to identify whether any of them are the primary mechanism in determining the composition of these communities by excluding species that cannot tolerate flooding conditions. To examine the individual effects of multiple aspects of a flood event, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the effects of submergence, burial under sediments, and nutrient addition on the survival and growth of six herbaceous plant species. Species were chosen based on field observations of plant communities in the northeastern United States; three species were selected that were common in riparian zones, and three that were common in nearby upland areas but rarely or never observed in riparian zones. Riparian and upland species were chosen to represent pairs from each of three plant families: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Polygonaceae. All but one of these species demonstrated increased growth in the nutrient addition treatment. Each of the riparian species had a high rate of survival under submergence conditions, but differed in their responses to burial under sediments. All upland species, conversely, performed poorly under burial conditions. The results of this experiment suggest that burial under sediments may play a primary role in excluding these three upland species from nearby riparian habitats, as they are unable to tolerate those conditions. Additionally, the three riparian species largely appear to tolerate rather than thrive under submergence and burial conditions, generally not demonstrating higher growth or survivorship in those treatments than in a control treatment experiencing only daily watering. These results provide initial insights into the mechanisms by which floods may influence riparian plant community composition and excluding some species that cannot tolerate those conditions.

Landscape-scale processes influence riparian plant composition along a regulated river

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t is important to consider both landscape-scale factors (elevation, geography, climate) and local scale factors (hydrology, channel geomorphology, microhabitat) when trying to explain and predict patterns of vegetation in riparian areas. In areas with steep environmental gradients and high habitat heterogeneity, riparian vegetation turnover can be high along a riverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s course. To assess how landscape-scale factors change the structure of riparian vegetation, we determine if riparian vegetation composition substantially changes along the Colorado River through Grand Canyon, determine which factors more likely explain the change, identify how richness and functional diversity change, and identify the implications of these changes to river management. We identified three divergent floristic groups that are distributed longitudinally along the river. These groups correlated with changes in elevation, temperature and seasonal precipitation, but not with annual precipitation or site-scale factors. Species richness decreased as a function of distance downstream, and functional composition differed among floristic groups, showing that changing landscape-scale factors result in changes to these ecosystem characteristics and functioning. Although riparian vegetation location and amount is closely tied to river regulation, the composition remains closely linked to seasonal precipitation and temperature and will therefore change over time in response to climate change, independent of climate effects on streamflow. These patterns and changes in floristic composition inform present day management and provide insights into potential changes in riparian ecosystems as a result of climate change and flow management.

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USGS, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, 2255 N Gemini Dr, Flagstaff, AZ, 86001, USA2UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, GCMRC, 2255 N. GEMINI DR, Flagstaff, AZ, 86001, USA3USDA Forest Service, Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air, and Rare Plants Staff, 2150 Centre Ave., Bldg A., Suite 368, Fort Collins, CO, 80526, USA4USGS, Fort Collins Science Center, 2150 Center Ave., Bldg. C, Fort Collins, CO, 80526, USA

Applied Biomathematics, 100 North Country Road, East Setauket, NY, 11733, United States

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Ecology ties has been largely ignored. We used a phylogenetic framework to examine plant communities from the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) to test the importance of ploidy in structuring communities of Brassicaceae and Rosaceae families across the United States. Specifically, we tested (i) if species within these communities exhibit similar chromosome number, (ii) are species with higher ploidy levels more abundant within and across sites, and (iii) is there a correlation between non-native status and ploidy within communities? Within select communities, we found that chromosome number is more similar than expected by chance, which may be due to species being closely related at these sites having similar chromosome numbers. We identified that there is no significant association between ploidy level and relative abundance within both families, suggesting that species with higher ploidy may not outcompete diploid community members. When investigating native status, abundance, and ploidy level we found that in the Rosaceae community, there are significantly more native polyploids than non-native polyploids. Additionally, from instances of closely related, co-occurring species of the same ploidy exhibiting significant phylogenetic clustering, we can infer that these species may have similar traits allowing them to exploit similar habitat. Overall, our results suggest that genome duplication may contribute to, but is not the only factor influencing, co-occurrence within Brassicaceae and Rosaceae communities.

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HACKETT, RACHEL A* 1, HEUMANN, BENJAMIN W 2 and MONFILS, ANNA K 3

A remote sensing approach to delineation of floristic zones within wetland communities

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emote sensing has been used to map land cover data for several decades. As the technology advances, we are looking to not only distinguish trees from buildings and roads but to identify different floristic zones within larger natural systems. Mapping of floristic zones within a larger natural system can be a useful tool for researchers and managers searching for distinct or unique habitats, creating floristic zone based management areas, studying within wetland landscape ecology, monitoring management treatments, or monitoring change over time. Some of the obstacles faced by researchers and managers wanting to incorporate remote sensing into their work has been attributed to 1) cost of imagery, 2) access to imagery of appropriate resolution(s), and 3) a knowledge and communication gap between experts. To bridge this gap, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy and accessibly to map floristic zones within prairie fen wetlands among three imagery sources: unmanned aerial system (i.e., drone), National Agricultural Imagery Program (i.e., manned aircraft), and Worldview-2 satellite. These image sources each had different spectral resolution, spatial resolution, and accessibility. The imagery was classified using eCognition 8.9.1 software with object-based image analysis and supervised classifying algorithms. Each classification map was evaluated for accuracy using ground-truthed floristic zone classification data. The results illustrated which type of imagery was most accurate overall in classifying the floristic zones within a wetland, which was most accurate in identifying individual zones, and which was most effective given the accessibly and cost of the different sources. With this research, researchers and managers can better determine their investment needs into acquiring the best imagery for their objectives for classifying floristic zones within a high diversity wetland.

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University of Central Florida, Department of Biology , 4110 Libra Drive, Orlando, Fl, 32816, USA2University of Colorado Boulder, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Campus Box 334, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA

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JANTZEN, JOHANNA* 1, WHITTEN, MARK W. 2, NEUBIG, KURT M. 3, MAJURE, LUCAS CHARLES 4, SOLTIS, DOUGLAS E. 5 and SOLTIS, PAMELA S. 2

Patterns of phylogenetic diversity based on alternative taxonomic sampling and tree reconstruction strategies: a case study from Florida

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Central Michigan University, Earth and Ecosystem Science, 1455 Calumet Court , Bioscience Building 2100, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48859, USA2Central Michigan University, Institute for Great Lakes Research, Department of Geography, Dow Science Complex 279, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48859, USA3Central Michigan University, Biology, 2401 Biosciences, Mt. Pleasant, MI, 48859

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204

GAYNOR, MICHELLE* 1, NG, JULIENNE 2 and LAPORT, ROBERT 2

The Influence of Genome Duplication on Brassicaceae and Rosaceae Communities Across the United States.

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enome duplication is often associated with changes in traits like flower structure, reproductive factors, and fruit size. This may in turn affect patterns of species co-occurrence within communities, yet the role of genome duplication in structuring plant communi-

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he phylogenetic diversity in a community is often used to draw inferences about the local and historical factors affecting community assembly and can be used to prioritize communities for conservation. Because measures of phylogenetic diversity (PD) are based on the topology and branch lengths of phylogenetic trees, which are affected by the number and diversity of taxa that are included in the tree, these analyses may be sensitive to changes in taxonomic sampling and tree reconstruction methods. As a case study to investigate the effects of taxonomic sampling on measures of phylogenetic diversity, we investigated the community phylogenetics of the Ordway-Swisher Biological Station (OSBS) at the University of Florida. We used barcoding sequences (rbcL and matK) from 572 vascular plant taxa, representing approximately 95% of the estimated 600 species of vascular plants found at the site, to reconstruct community-level phylogenies for the OSBS. Each taxon was assigned to one or more communities for calculating the PD of individual communities


within OSBS, and each taxon was also designated as either woody or herbaceous. We used these data to test a number of hypotheses related to taxonomic sampling and tree reconstruction methods. We studied the effects of 1) calculating PD on trees reconstructed using molecular data, trees pruned from a larger reconstructed tree, or taxonomy-based trees from the Open Tree of Life (tree.opentreeoflife.org); 2) changing the number of taxa included in the tree by either randomly selecting subsets of taxa, or by targeting taxa based on proportional or equal representation at a family level; and 3) calculating PD on trees that include only taxa with specific growth forms (i.e., woody or herbaceous) or from specific taxonomic groups (e.g., Asteraceae, Poaceae). These analyses revealed which of these factors are most important to consider when designing community phylogenetic studies due to their potential to affect measurements of PD, and therefore their potential to alter the conclusions that may be drawn from these studies. By identifying potential biases that taxonomic sampling and tree reconstruction can introduce into the analysis of phylogenetic diversity, this study will inform taxon sampling for future community phylogenetic studies and will allow for more accurate interpretation of results from these types of studies.

that should be described as distinct species (north and south lineages, respectively). To test the correspondence of morphological variation across the range of R. integrifolia with the current phylogeny, and potentially to develop corresponding taxonomic keys, we are analyzing R. integrifolia herbarium specimens. We described twelve groups across the range of R. integrifolia based on biogeography and taxonomy and obtained 904 specimens from ten herbaria in the US, Canada, and Russia. Of these, we selected 287 specimens with well-preserved leaves and digitized them (300dpi). We identified seven leaf landmarks (i.e., features along the leaf margin and prominent venation) for shape analysis using geometric morphometric methods, and eight traditional morphological features (e.g. leaf length/width ratio) for standard measurements. Our preliminary landmark analysis of 178 plants from nine of the groups suggests shape variability is greatest in Alaska and that four groups have shapes unique to the regions. Our preliminary analyses of the traditional morphological data do not identify diagnostic features that would be useful in a taxonomic key, but preliminary Principal Components Analysis of the geometric morphometric shape coordinates suggests that the morphological differentiation broadly corresponds with the molecular phylogeny. The patterns of morphological variation may result from plant responses to local environments and may make the development of taxonomic keys problematic for this taxon.

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University of Florida, Department of Biology, Dickinson Hall, 1659 Museum Rd, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA2University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO BOX 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611-7800, USA, 352/273-19643Southern Illinois University, Plant Biology, 1125 Lincoln Dr., LSII, room 420, MC6509,, Carbondale, IL, 62901, USA4Desert Botanical Garden, Research, Conservation, and Collections, 1201 N. Galvin Parkway, Phoenix, AZ, 85008, USA5University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, 1659 Museum Road, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, United States

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Northeastern Illinois University, Biology, 5500 North St. Louis, Chicago, IL, 60625, United States2Northeastern Illinois University, 5500 North St. Louis Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60625, USA

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AKIN-FAJIYE, MORODOLUWA

Phenotypic plasticity at different life history stages of the invasive spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)

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AGOGLOSSAKIS, KALLIOPI M.* 1 and OLFELT, JOEL 2

Leaf Shape, Morphometrics, and Taxonomic Boundaries Within the ArcticAlpine Succulent Rhodiola integrifolia (Crassulaceae)

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s most studies of biological invasions have been carried out post-invasion success of the organism, our understanding of biological invasions may be advanced by the study of organisms on the cusp of invasion success. Centaurea stoebe is an emerging invader in New York State already invasive in Midwestern and North-western USA. This early stage invasion provides a rare opportunity to study the distribution of a naturalized alien species with a high potential to become invasive. In 2014, I established a field experiment in which I manipulated disturbance and density in order to understand how these factors influenced spotted knapweed growth. I also quantified the plasticity of spotted knapweed biomass across the different life history stages: juvenile and early reproductive, in response to these factors, and tested for significant differences between juvenile and reproductive plasticity within years and between plasticity of the same life history stages across years. I found that plants generally survived and performed better under the disturbance and when there was adequate spacing between plants. I found that both juveniles and adults displayed phenotypic plasticity in response to both disturbance and spacing. Juvenile leaf length and leaf number were plastic in response to disturbance in 2015 and 2016, while juvenile leaf length responded to disturbance in 2015 alone. The adult stem length of spotted knapweed responded to disturbance and spacing in 2015, but to only disturbance in 2016. Overall, the plasticity of juvenile biomass was significantly higher

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nowledge of patterns of morphological variation across a taxonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s range, coupled with molecular phylogenetic data, can provide the power to describe both the taxonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s evolutionary history, and its current taxonomic subgroups in ways that are useful to systematists, field botanists, and plant conservation biologists. We are studying patterns of variability within Rhodiola integrifolia, which ranges from arctic-alpine habitats of eastern Russia, northern Siberia, and Alaska, along the highest altitudes of the western mountains of North America, down to the sky islands of New Mexico and Arizona. Disjunct populations, far from the main range, occur in South Dakota, Minnesota, and New York (subspecies leedyi). These populations are protected under state and federal endangered species acts. Another distinct subspecies occurs on Sierra Blanca, New Mexico (subspecies neomexicana). The current nomenclature for R. integrifolia is based on early morphological studies using plants from a limited portion of the range. This nomenclature does not correspond well with current phylogenetic analyses of the taxon, which were constructed using samples from across the range, and suggest the taxon contains at least two lineages

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Ecology than that of adults within years, but there was significant difference in plasticity within life history stage across years. These results suggest that the amount of phenotypic plasticity in a population of invasive species can vary with life history stage. For both disturbance and density treatments, juveniles generally displayed more plasticity than adults. This suggests that plasticity may be important at certain life history stages than at others. The greater plasticity of the juveniles may help the invader adjust to the new environmental conditions. Understanding of the life stages at which phenotypic plasticity is important may have implications for management and control of invasive species.

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TRAVESET, ANNA

Mutualistic networks in the Galápagos Islands and how alien species modify their structure

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slands harbor much of the world’s threatened biodiversity, most of which is endangered by habitat degradation, over-exploitation and the introduction of alien invasive species. Increasing evidence confirms that it is not the decline of species diversity per se that scientists, conservationists, and restoration managers should be most concerned about, but rather the extinction of the interactions between organisms that ultimatly breathe life into ecosystems. Consequently, research on species interactions patterns has increased dramatically in recent years, mostly thanks to the implementation of network theory which facilitates the representation and interpretation of such complex Interaction networks. In this talk, I will present our findings on the dynamic structure of mutualistic (pollination and seed dispersal) networks in the Galapagos archipelago, and the mechanisms underlying the observed patterns. I will also deep into the mechanisms whereby alien species infiltrate the mutualistic networks, and discuss the potential cascading effects of invasive alien plants and insects on the native species and interactions.

stony brook university, ecology and evolution, 650 life sciences, Stony Brook, NEW YORK, 11794, United States

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MARSICO, TRAVIS* 1, REED, JENNIFER 2, CUNARD, CHELSEA 3, WHITEHURST, LAUREN 4, BURGESS, KEVIN 5 and LUCARDI, RIMA 6

International shipping ports as zones of inquiry for the release and maintenance of exotic plant species

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nternational shipping trade is an accelerating industry, and global commerce has the potential to continually homogenize global and regional phytodiversity through the introduction of non-native plant species. We sampled four times (2015-2016 in February, May, August, and November) for vascular plant species richness in necessary drainage zones, which are small and long disturbed greenspaces, on the container terminal at the Port of Savannah, Georgia, USA. The effort resulted in the discovery of over 130 species, of which 35% are non-native. When compared with other regional floristic inventories, the proportion of non-native taxa collected in our project is double to three times greater than in other studies. We found a few county records of non-native taxa or species with only one previous record from Chatham County, Georgia: for example, Macroptilium lathyroides and Portulaca amilis. Explanations for the high proportion of non-native taxa include the result of new introductions directly related to shipping and a heavily disturbed industrial environment that favors disturbance-tolerant species. Species identity is important in sites of international commercial distribution, such as seaports and intermodal sites, as new introductions may be federal noxious weeds or exotic species with the potential to become invasive. Our floristic inventory provides evidence that seaports are probable sites for these novel, non-native plant introductions.

Spanish Research Council, Imedea, C/ Miquel Marques 21, Esporles, 07190, Spain

210

RAMSEY, ADAM JOSEPH* 1, BALLOU, STEVEN MIKE 1 and MANDEL, JENNIFER R. 2

The Presence of a Non-native Alters Pollinator Activity of a Native Plant Species on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts ueen Anne’s Lace (Daucus carota, QAL) is a nonQ native plant species that was introduced to North America from Europe, and its presence on Nantucket

Island, Massachusetts has been documented since at least the nineteenth century. Research in other plant systems has investigated whether native pollination was affected by the presence of a non-native, and the results are mixed. A native may be negatively affected, may not be affected or may be positively affected by the presence of the non-native. A population survey was performed on QAL, and a pollinator observation study was performed on QAL and a native species, Toothed Whitetop Aster (Sericocarpus asteroides, TWTA). Pollinators were observed for three hours per day and five days each for the 2 species individually and both species cohabitating together. Additionally, a removal treatment was performed on sites where both species cohabitate. The sites were first observed as described on day one. QAL umbels were then removed from the site and pollinators were observed on TWTA as described the following day. Finally, TWTA populations from a range of distances from QAL were assayed for the presence and degree of heterospecific pollen. We had four hypotheses: 1) QAL would be present across Nantucket Island; 2) The pres-

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Arkansas State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, PO Box 599, State University, AR, 72467, USA2Arkansas State University, Department of Biological Sciences, PO Box 599, State University, AR, 72467, USA3Arkansas State University, Department of Biological Sciences, PO Box 599, State University, AR, 72467, United States4 Columbus State University, Department of Biology, Columbus, GA, 31907, USA5Columbus State University, Biology, 4225 University Ave., Columbus, GA, 31907, USA6USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Athens, GA, 30602, USA

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ence of QAL would increase pollinator visitation rates and diversity indices on TWTA; 3) The removal of QAL would restore pollinator visitation rates and diversity indices to those found on sites with only TWTA; 4) Higher levels of heterospecific pollination would be found on TWTA in populations located close to QAL. We found QAL to be abundant across the island. While both plant species are generalist-pollinated, QAL attracted 15 insect families and TWTA attracted only 8, with the majority being flies and bees. Each removal treatment received at least 50 % fewer pollinator visits after QAL was removed.

ANDERSON, ROGER C* 1, ANDERSON, M. REBECCA 1, BAUER, JONATHAN T. 2, LOEBACH, CHRISTOPHER 3 and SLATER, MITCHELL A. 4

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212

Extreme climate events affect density of the invasive garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and disrupt years of alternating abundance of first and second year plants

University of Memphis, Department of Biological Sciences, 3700 Walker Ave, Memphis, TN, 38152, USA2University Of Memphis, 3744 Walker Ave, Memphis, TN, 38152, USA

arlic mustard, a strict biennial plant in North America, has alternating years of high abundance of 1st-yr and 2nd-yr plants. We monitored changes in abundance of 1st-yr and 2nd-yr plants in permanents plots from 2004 to 2016, and examined years when high abundance of 1st-yr plants was not followed by high abundance of 2nd-yr plants. Second-year plants had high abundance in 2004 and 2006 and 1st-yr plants in 2005 and 2007. However, beginning in 2008 the alternating yearly cycle of abundance was disrupted; 1st-yr plants had high and 2nd-yr plants had low abundances. High abundance of 1st-yr plants in 2008 was most likely due to soil seed bank germination. This unexpected change in abundance of 1st- and 2nd-yr plants could occur with a small proportion of 1st-yr plants in 2007 transitioning to 2nd-yr plants in 2008. Our data showed three times (2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2013-2014) when years of high abundance of 1st-yr was not followed by a year with high abundance of 2nd-yr plants. Garlic mustard declines have been attributed to reductions of secondary defensive compounds, soil microbial community alteration, and loss of genetic diversity; however, we investigated factors likely to cause sharp declines in expected abundance of 2nd-yr plants in single year. We concluded that Extreme Climate Events (ECE), events deviating from long-term climatic data norms and causing negative organism responses, probably played a role in disrupting alternating abundances of 1st-yr and 2nd-yr plants. We searched long-term climate data (1951-2015) from a nearby (15 km) NOAA weather station, for deviation from monthly and daily norms of temperature and precipitation, and focused on events occurring in the 10th or 90th percentile, and/or two or three standard deviations (SD) from the mean. September 2007 had unusually high temperature and low precipitation, whereas, January 2009, and February and March 2014 had the lowest daily minimum temperature on record. We used Z-scores, SD, percentile, and PCA to test for differences in total precipitation, number of rainy days, contiguous days without precipitation, days with maximum temperatures > 30 C, and mean monthly temperature between 2007 and years 2004-2014 for September. We tested for differences in daily minimum temperature in January 2009, and February and March 2014 separately compared to all other years (2004-2015). Our results indicate ECE’s could be responsible for overall decline in garlic mustard and disruption of annual alternating abundance of 1st-yr and 2nd-yr garlic mustard.

211

SCHULZ, ASHLEY* 1, LUCARDI, RIMA 2 and MARSICO, TRAVIS 3

The Forgotten Fourth Trophic Level: Natural Enemies Influence the Success or Failure of Non-Native Invaders and Biological Control Agents

U

nderstanding the role of natural enemies in the success and failure of invasive species is a fundamental challenge for biological invasion and biological control scientists, with increasing focus in these areas since the 1980s. Almost too many hypotheses have been proposed in an effort to explain the dynamic relationships between invading species and their natural enemies, those from their native range, as well as generalist and specialist enemies that are encountered in the introduced range. We identified ten, key hypotheses addressing the role of enemies in understanding biological invasion: biotic resistance, enemy inversion, enemy of my enemy, enemy reduction, enemy release, enemy resistance, enemy tolerance, evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA), new associations, and resource-enemy release hypotheses. We suggest the enemy release hypothesis may serve as an overarching hypothesis that branches into the other, more specific sub-hypotheses. Of these sub-hypotheses, the enemy inversion hypothesis is the only to address the vulnerability of biological control agents -organisms anthropogenically and purposefully introduced to control invasive species - to enemies from their native and introduced ranges. Records of intentionally or inadvertently non-native hyperparasitoids, and other enemies of typical insect biological control agents, are few. Furthermore, little research has experimentally evaluated the role of these fourth trophic level enemies on the success or failure of biological control agents, and the feedbacks, positive or negative, on invading species. We suggest additional effort devoted to studies that: 1) synthesize and unify the many hypotheses in invasion ecology, including “enemy” hypotheses, 2) consider the role of multiple, concurrent mechanisms (i.e., top-down, bottom-up, competition, etc.) in the establishment and success of invading species, and 3) experimentally expand enemy hypotheses to assess role(s) and impacts(s) of the fourth trophic-level enemies in biological control success and failure impacting the success or failure of invasive species in natural ecosystems.

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Arkansas State University, Department of Biological Sciences, PO Box 599, State University, AR, 72467, USA2USDA Forest Service - Southern Research Station, 320 Green Street, Athens, GA, 30602, United States3Arkansas State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, PO Box 599, State University, AR, 72467, USA

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Illinois State University, School of Biological Sciences, Campus Box 4120, Normal, IL, 61790-4120, USA2Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA3Kapur & Associates Inc, North Port Wash-

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Ecology 214

FLANDERS, NICHOLAS* 1, WALTERS, ERIC 1, RANDLE, CHRISTOPHER P. 2 and MUSSELMAN, LYTTON 3

ington Road, Milwaukee, WI, 53217, USA4USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 1831 Highway 169, Grand Rapids, MN, 55744, USA

The Role of Generalist Avian Frugivores in Determining the Distribution of the Mistletoe Phoradendron leucarpum

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HUEBNER, CYNTHIA* 1, NILSEN, ERIK 2 and BAO, ZHE 2

Using Soil Seed Banks to Define Historic and Future Vegetation Composition of Paired Invaded and Uninvaded Forest Stands

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he oak mistletoe (Phoradendron leucarpum) is a stem parasite found across the southern United States (US) that is dependent on avian frugivores for seed dispersal and serves as the sole larval host plant for the great purple hairstreak (Atlides halesus) lepidopteran in the eastern US. Because most mistletoes are restricted to a narrow range of suitable recruitment sites and avian frugivores are more visible than other guilds of seed dispersers, mistletoe-frugivore systems offer good opportunities for the study of seed dispersal and the effect of frugivores on plant distributions. Mechanisms driving observed oak mistletoe habitat relationships are unclear, and we sought to use similarities in estimated habitat relationships of the mistletoe and its avian dispersers to infer the role of frugivores in determining mistletoe distributions. We collected presenceabsence data on oak mistletoe shrubs and avian seed dispersers from forested habitats in eastern Virginia and North Carolina during winters (Jan-Mar) 2016 and 2017. This data was analyzed using occupancy models, and the resulting detection probability estimate of 0.216 (SE = 0.177) for the cedar waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), a focal avian frugivore, suggests an observer has a less than 0.25 probability of detecting the presence of this species given its use of a site. This finding emphasizes the need to account for imperfect detection when estimating distributions of avian seed dispersers. Similarities between regional distributions of oak mistletoe and avian frugivores coupled with results from a field planting experiment suggest that seed dispersal patterns are more important than local environmental conditions in determining oak mistletoe habitat relationships.

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oil seed banks provide a history of colonization of a site, and such colonization is the product of several disturbance events over time. Seed banks also enable us to predict the future vegetation composition of a site. Years of overbrowsing by deer and non-sustainable forest harvesting in some eastern forests have resulted in species-depauperate understories incapable of regeneration. Deer browse also reduces sexual reproduction of many understory plants, eventually leading to a depleted seed bank. Many studies show a lack of correspondence between the existing vegetation and the seed bank. Though several species are recalcitrant and not likely to be found in a seed bank, many non-weedy often shade-tolerant species should be present and have been documented in more pristine forests. We compared the soil seed bank composition of sites that were (1) disturbed within the past 45 years and invaded by an exotic tree (Ailanthus altissima -- AA), (2) disturbed within the past 45 years and dominated by a native tree (Robinia pseudoacia -- RP), (3) disturbed within the past 45 years and containing both AA and RP, and (4) not disturbed in the past 90 years and composed of a mixture of native trees. Two WV locations where these four forest types were found in close proximity to each other were selected. We sampled soil under 10 AA trees at each AA site, 10 RP trees at each RP site, 5 AA and 5 RP trees at the sites dominated by both species, and 10 mixed native trees at the control sites. Significant differences among the different seed bank species compositions were determined using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and one and two-way permutationbased non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. We found that the sites with both AA and RP had seed banks with the most species and the control seed banks had the fewest species. The sites with both AA and RP seed banks had the highest density of individuals, while the control sites had the lowest density. The AA-dominated sites had the highest exotic:native species ratio, while the RP-dominated sites had the lowest. Rather disconcerting, however, is the fact that none of the seed banks differed significantly compositionally. Indeed, the mature forest seed banks contained about the same number of AA individuals as the AA-dominated sites. If ever cut, these forests appear likely to follow a successional trajectory similar to that of the AA sites.

1

Old Dominion University, Biological Sciences, 110 Mills Godwin Building, 5115 Hampton Blvd., Norfolk, VA, 23529, USA2Sam Houston State University, Department Of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 1900 Avenue I, Hunstville, TX, 77340, USA3Old Dominion University, MARY P HOGAN PROF OF BOTANY, Department Of Biological Sciences, Norfolk, VA, 23529-0266, USA

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BURGE, DYLAN 1, STOUGHTON, THOMAS* 2 and JOLLES, DIANA 3

Soil chemistry patterns in an edaphic endemism hotspot: the pebble plains of the San Bernardino Mountains, California

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ebble plains are a unique edaphic environment known only from the high valleys of the San Bernardino Mountains, California. The pebble plains have long been celebrated for the high vascular plant diversity they support, including at least six taxa endemic to the San Bernardino Mountains. Past research has shown that pebble plains soils differ most notably from nearby non-pebble plains soils in terms of their high

1

Northern Research Station , USDA Forest Service, 180 Canfield St, Morgantown, WV, 26505, USA2Virginia Tech, Department Of Biology, 2119 Derring Hall, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA

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clay content and loose, stony structure, especially in their upper-most horizon and on the soil surface. The stony upper horizon is probably the result of frost-heaving and erosion of soil particles by wind; the resulting accumulation of stone fragments at the soil surface is what inspired the name ‚‚pebble plains.’’ The combined effects of a friable, rocky surface, heavy lower horizons, frost heaving, high solar insolation, and desiccating winds are thought to limit recruitment of shrubs and trees and foster the persistence of a unique pebble plains flora consisting of herbaceous annuals and low-growing perennials. Despite decades of research involving the pebble plains and their unique flora, the soil chemical properties of pebble plains versus surrounding (non-pebble plains) soils has not been thoroughly investigated. This study investigates the chemistry of pebble plains soils to determine if they are chemically divergent from adjacent non-pebble plains soils. To answer this question, we collected soils from nine pebble plains areas, sampling from both the pebble plains themselves and from surrounding, non-pebble plain forests or shrublands. These samples were subjected to analyses for 13 soil chemical properties. Multivariate analyses of these data indicate that habitat type (pebble plains versus nonpebble plains) is the single most important factor explaining the variation in soil chemical properties. Although only Zn concentration is significantly divergent between the habitat types, pebble plains soils are generally deficient in major- and micronutrients compared to adjacent nonpebble plains soils. Our results suggest that while physical factors such as frost heave may be the primary agents responsible for the original formation and persistence of the pebble plains flora, the soils of the pebble plains are chemically unique, which may reinforce physical constraints on floristic composition in these areas.

upper slope location we crossed the OTC treatment with a supplemental watering treatment. On the cooler, more productive, lower slope location, we crossed the OTC with grazing. We examined changes to the community composition as a whole and also changes to particular plant groups: generalist species found at both slope locations, specialists found at one location only, graminoids, and forbs. OTCs affected plant community composition, but the magnitude differed at the two slope locations as shown by Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP). At the community level, the response to warming was greater at the more productive lower slope compared to drier upper slope and was especially pronounced in the last year of the experiment. On the upper slope, the warming effect was increased by water addition; plots with warming and watering showed a greater difference from controls than plots with warming only. Generalists and forbs decreased with warming on the upper slope; graminoids decreased and forbs increased with watering. On the lower slope, both warming and grazing affected community composition, but the effect of warming was greater. Generalists increased and specialists decreased with grazing. Warming by itself did not affect any particular plant group, but warming and grazing interacted to affect the abundance of specialists. Our results show the importance of taking landscape-scale variation into account in climate change studies and that warming will interact with changes in precipitation and land use to affect the relative abundance of species, and hence community composition. 1

University of Pennsylvania, Biology, Philadelphia, PA, 19104-6018, USA2Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Botany, Trebon, Czech Republic

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Southern Oregon University, 1250 Siskiyou Boulevard, Ashland, OR, 97520, USA2Plymouth State University, Center for the Environment, 17 High Street, MSC 63, Samuel Read Hall 217, Plymouth, NH, 032641595, USA3Plymouth State University, Biological Sciences, 17 High Street, MSC 48, Boyd 226, Plymouth, NH, 03264-1595, USA

HALMY, MARWA WASEEM A.

Assessing the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the floristic quality of the northwestern coastal desert of Egypt

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RONK, ARGO 1, LIANCOURT, PIERRE , PETRAITIS, PETER 1 and CASPER, BRENDA* 1

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orthwestern costal desert of Egypt is under pressure of human-induced changes due urban sprawl and agricultural practices leading to changes in land-use and negative impacts on existing natural habitats. Determining the impact of land-use changes on the natural habitats is important as it can have management and conservation implications within this region. Floristic Quality Assessment Index (FQAI) is an important bio-assessment tool that can be used to evaluate how these changes may influence vegetation quality, species composition and ecological integrity of plant communities in the region. The method is based on plant species composition at the study area and the individual species habitat affinity and disturbance tolerance. The objectives of this study were to: 1) study the changes in the natural habitats in the region due to developmental activities and land use change using Landsat remotely-sensed data, and 2) determine the relationship between the changes in land use and the floristic quality of the natural habitats over the period between 1984 and 2014. Stands representing the main six habitats in the study area were surveyed during 2011 through 2014 and data were compared to historic data collected before the developmental activities. The results revealed an increase in urban area and agriculture land cover over the study period, especially over the last ten years. A trend

2

In the Mongolian steppe, plant community response to warming depends on precipitation, grazing and landscape location

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lobal climate change in concert with other anthropogenic drivers is affecting biodiversity by causing shifts in species ranges and abundances. Continuing climate change will shape local plant community compositions, but the magnitude of change may well vary with location, even within the same region, and depend on interactions among climate change factors and with land use. We set up a four-year field experiment to examine how climate change will affect the semiarid, northern Mongolian steppe, which supports pastoral nomads as it has for millennia. This region is predicted to experience an above average temperature increase, but it is not certain how the precipitation regime will change. We first wanted to determine if passive warming created by open top chambers (OTCs) had similar consequences at two locations within the landscape that differ in aspect, ambient conditions, and species composition. Then, on the warmer, more arid,

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Ecology towards fragmentation of the natural habitats was detected particularly in the coastal dunes and the nonsaline depression habitats. Index values were lower for areas close to agricultural or urban land use. The stands with lower FQAI values tended to be dominated by plants that are typical of cultivated landscapes or urban regions. Although FQAI has been developed and used in assessing vegetation quality of wetland plant communities, the current study revealed that it can be employed successfully for assessment and monitoring changes in vegetation quality and ecological integrity of different ecosystem types.

strongly in graminoids, (c) the impact of the hemiparasite was independent of light or fertilizer, but (d) fertilizer increased growth of the hemiparasite, non-legume forbs, and especially, graminoids. In this talk we present results after 7 additional years of hemiparasite removal and fertilizer treatment of experimental plots. We again sampled dry biomass to determine if the previous conclusions still held. In addition, we evaluated cover in the 48 non-removal plots and calculated community metrics (Shannon-Weiner, Evenness, Floristic Quality Index) as an alternative means of evaluating the hemiparasite’s effects on the prairie. Results/Conclusions: In 2015, community productivity no longer responded to hemiparasite removal. Pedicularis canadensis had disappeared from 24 of the 48 non-removal plots, and thus its influence on community productivity diminished. Fertilizer still increased productivity but now non-legume forbs responded most strongly. Mean hemiparasite biomass declined in fertilized plots but not in control plots, although this effect varied spatially. Hemiparasite decline was associated with diminished light due to increased growth of surrounding vegetation. Hemiparasite cover significantly affected the community indices, with diversity (Shannon-Wiener) responding most strongly and positively. The Floristic Quality Index, a measure of “floristic integrity” of a site, was not significantly associated with hemiparasite cover. These observations indicate that hemiparasites have strong effects on the community and respond to abiotic factors. The distribution and impact of this keystone species can be significant but also temporally dynamic.

Alexandria University, Environmental Sciences, Moharram Bek, P.O. Box: 21511, Alexandria, 21511, Egypt

218 ROBERT

TAYLOR, KIM* and O'KENNON,

The Vascular Flora of Enchanted Rock State Natural Area, Llano and Gillespie Counties, Texas, U.S.A

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vascular plant survey of Enchanted Rock State Natural Area, Gillespie and Llano counties, Texas, was conducted from 1984 through 1994 and 2014 through 2015. The property sites near the southern edge of the Llano Uplift, a primarily granite region. A total of 450 additional taxa were documented during the study, bringing the total for the park to 948 taxa. Twenty-eight taxa are considered rare at the state or global level, including 2 state-tracked taxa. Non-native taxa comprise 12.4% of the total flora with 118 taxa, 88 of which are new additions. An overview of the plant communities in the park, as well as conservation implications will be discussed.

Illinois State University, School of Biological Sciences, Campus Box 4120, Normal, IL, 61790-4120, USA

220

Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 1700 University Dr., Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA

BROWN MARSDEN, MARGARET

Seasonal variation, soil associations, and geographical distribution in Hexalectris orchids

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BOROWICZ, VICTORIA A. , WALDER, MORGAN and ARMSTRONG, JOSEPH E.*

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exalectris is a genus of mycoheterotrophic orchids found primarily in the southwestern United States and Mexico with a limited range and some species considered of conservation concern within the state and globally. Details on the evolutionary relationships between Hexalectris and symbiotic fungi are known, but relatively little is understood about the ecological factors that affect geographical distribution and seasonal variation in populations. Past studies of Hexalectris indicated a possible role between spring rainfall and orchid numbers, as well as broad descriptions of prospective orchid habitat. Over a ten-year period a research team supported by local master naturalist volunteers conducted a detailed study of the relationship between Hexalectris numbers and annual rainfall and between documented orchid locations and pedological/geological characteristics. However, during this ten-year period Hexalectris census numbers showed a strong relationship to previous year’s total rainfall rather than spring rainfall. This relationship suggests a possible link between inflorescence numbers and carbon sequestration during wet years. Targeted searches informed by knowledge of soil

Coming Undone: Hemiparasite effects and presence in a prairie diminish over time

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oot hemiparasites, like Pedicularis canadensis, are green plants that tap into neighbors’ vascular systems to extract resources and this parasitism strongly reduces host growth and depresses community productivity. Hemiparasites can exert keystone effects if parasitism differentially depresses dominant species. Hemiparasite effects are predicted to be strongest in habitats where hosts are nutrient-stressed, resulting in light levels adequate for low-lying hemiparasites. In 2006, we began a field experiment testing whether hemiparasite effects on communities are context dependent. Three years of hemiparasite removal and nutrient manipulation in plots on a reconstructed prairie demonstrated: (a) the clonal, perennial hemiparasite Pedicularis canadensis significantly reduced productivity, (b) that effect of hemiparasitism was expressed most

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type were highly successful, and helped to locate ten new Hexalectris populations in Dallas County. Targeted searches also led to a range expansion in H. grandiflora, a species previously unknown outside of western Texas. Hexalectris diversity is correlated with preserve area, demonstrating that a larger preserved site could help conserve more Hexalectris species. Soil surveys, geological data and known Hexalectris locations in Texas helped to identify 64 counties with soil and geological conditions that could be associated with Hexalectris. Many of these counties have no records of Hexalectris, showing the potential need for and value of targeted searches during wetter, more productive years to aid in identifying new populations to help fill in Hexalectris distributions and direct future conservation efforts. A conservation plan guided by climate and soil/geological data could assist in ensuring possible Hexalectris sites might be protected prior to development to ensure population persistence. Midwestern State University, College of Science and Mathematics/ Biology Department, 3410 Taft Boulevard, Wichita Falls, TX, 76308, United States

221

RICE, STANLEY

A twelve-year phenological record of earlier budburst in Oklahoma deciduous trees

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henological responses provide an indicator of global climate change that integrates many factors and is biologically relevant. Warmer winters and earlier spring budburst are indicated by comparisons of current budburst with historical budburst dates, and by satellite imagery of spring greening. I provide a twelve-year record (2006-2017) of budburst dates for over 350 individuals of 22 deciduous tree species in southern Oklahoma. Budburst occurred in many species three weeks earlier in 2017 than in 2006. Species with early budburst, such as sweetgum and post oak, showed a much greater phenological shift than did species with later budburst, such as pecan. In some species, budburst date may be determined more by cumulative chilling than by warm spring temperatures. This three-week phenological shift is much greater than that observed in other parts of North America.

Southeastern Oklahoma State University, Biological Sciences, 425 W. University Blvd, Durant, OK, 74701-3347, USA

222

VALDES, IMENA* 1, NUSRAT, MAHA 2, VILLAVICENCIO, WENDY 2 and KOPTUR, SUZANNE 3

The Effects of Pollen Source on Pollination Success in Devil's Potato, Echites umbellatus (Apocynaceae): Measuring Fruit Set, Seed Number, and Seed Quality

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chites umbellatus is a tropical member of the Apocynaceae family. It is an evergreen vine found in the pine rocklands, hammock edges, and coastal thickets of South Florida, the West Indies, Southern Mexico, and Northern Central America. Echites flowering peak is in

summer where the flowers open from mid-morning to late afternoon. Pollinators (hawkmoths) are needed for reproduction as their proboscis is long enough to reach the nectar in the long floral tube. Once pollinated, boomerang shaped fruits mature around 100 to 150 days later. When the fruits brown and dry, follicles split to release wind dispersed seeds. Study plants were grown from seeds collected at two Florida pine rockland sites and one site from the Bahamas. All plants were grown in the greenhouse at Florida International University, and took almost two years to grow to flowering size. We asked the following questions: 1) Are plants self-compatible, or do they need pollen from another individual to set fruit and seed? 2) Are cross-pollinations between unrelated individuals better than crosses with relatives? 3) How does pollination type affect fruit set, seed number, and seed quality? To pollinate the flowers, fishing line was used to simulate the proboscis. Self, sibling, and cross pollinations were conducted on the greenhouse grown plants. After a pollination treatment, flowers were marked with a hanging tag and then followed until fruit formation. If a fruit did indeed form, then it was followed until maturity. Once mature it was collected and measured, then opened it to count its seeds; noting how many were healthy and which were â&#x20AC;&#x153;dudsâ&#x20AC;? which we presume to be inviable, but this has yet to be verified. We found that Echites umbellatus is somewhat self-compatible. Cross-pollinations between unrelated individuals set the most fruit with a 59% success rate, while those that were self-pollinated set the least at 9%. Cross-pollinations between related individuals was intermediate with success measuring at 32%. Self fruits have substantially more dud seeds than outcrossed fruits, with sibling crossed fruits intermediate. 1

Florida International University , Biological Sciences, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL, 33199, USA2Florida International University , Biological Sciences, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL, 33199, United States3Florida International University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 11200 SW 8th St, Miami, FL, 33199, USA

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PARRISH, JUDITH A.

Alternative strategies for plant defense: Stand and fight, or grow out of it

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n a series of experiments, we found that some plant species show significant increases in photosynthetic rates after herbivore attack, while other species do not. Four different experiments resulted in our concluding that Glycine max, soybeans, compensate for leaf area removed by herbivores. Whole plants with moderate damage from Japanese beetle herbivory significantly increased photosynthetic rates and marginally increased seed weight compared to plants with no damage. Leaflets adjacent to artificially and beetle damaged leaflets had significantly higher photosynthetic rates than leaflets at similar positions on undamaged plants, and leaflets above beetle damaged leaflets also showed significantly higher photosynthetic rates. We also observed increased photosynthetic rates in soybeans when fed on by painted lady caterpillars (Vanessa cardui). Plants fed on by two caterpillars had a significantly higher increase in photosynthetic rate than those with no caterpillars, and plants with four caterpillars had a significantly higher increase in photosynthetic rate than those with two caterpillars. A separate experiment ob-

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Ecology served increased photosynthetic rate as a plant response to lost surface area, both by painted lady caterpillar herbivory or manual hole-punch. Herbivory caused a significantly higher increase in photosynthetic rate than manual damage. However, when we performed similar experiments on Helianthus annuus (sunflower), we found that although there was a significant increase in the photosynthetic rates in all leaves over time, there was no significant difference in damage treatment that would suggest compensation. In another experiment on furanocoumarin-defended Pastinaca sativa, (wild parsnips), we found that 4 hours of feeding by Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper caterpillars) resulted in reduction in photosynthetic rates for up to 72 hours, significantly for 48 hours. There was no evidence that compensation for leaf area occurred in wild parsnip. Crop plants like soybeans have typically had distasteful chemicals bred out - moderate herbivory reduces leaf area, but may mobilize increased sugar production so the plant “combats” herbivory by regrowing. Plants with strong chemical defenses induced by herbivory may show more negative effects of moderate herbivory due to production of defensive compounds - but may be more resistant to long term or more severe feeding damage. These experiments support that there are two conflicting strategies for plants to deal with herbivores - stand and fight with chemical defenses or mobilize to grow faster after the herbivory event. Millikin University, 1184 W Main St, Decatur, IL, 62522, USA

scopulorum, and P. strobiformis) representing three subsections (Cembroides, Ponderosae and Strobus) within Pinus. We collected cores from 159 trees and used mixed effects models to test the relative influence of subsection, environmental variables, and annual climate on resin duct density and ring width. Our main findings were (1) annual resin duct density decreases with tree age, and the relative rate by which it decreased was strongest in subsection Strobus. (2) young trees tend to invest less in resin ducts in high growth years and therefore resin duct density is negatively associated with ring width in younger trees. As trees age, this relationship changes and, in older trees, resin duct investment is either proportional to ring width or older trees invest disproportionately less in resin ducts in low growth years. (3) After accounting for environmental and age effects, the pinyon pines (Cembroides) had greater annual resin duct density than did Ponderosae or Strobus. The effect of age on resin duct density has often been overlooked, but could confound investigations of resin duct density across environmental gradients when tree age structure varies across space as a result of demographic variables or past disturbance. 1

Texas Tech University, Biological Sciences, Lubbock, TX, 794093131, USA2University of Colorado, Biology, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA

225

WHITMAN, MELISSA* 1, RUSSO, SABRINA E 2 and BEAMAN, REED 3

224

Does Rapoport's rule apply to the ultramafic flora of Sabah, Borneo?

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LINDBERG, ERIK 1, FERRENBERG, SCOTT 2 and SCHWILK, DYLAN W*

Resin duct investment across space and time in west Texas pines

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leoresin is the predominant defense used by pines (Pinus) against herbivory, especially herbivory by bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). At the whole plant level, plant defense theory predicts a positive correlation between growth and defense investment under resource limitation that shifts to a negative correlation with increasing water or nutrient availability. Investment patterns may result from natural selection and life history variation across populations or from phenotypic plasticity. Resin production, however, is difficult to measure. Recent work demonstrates that resin duct density (number of resin ducts per unit cross sectional area of secondary xylem), predicts both bark beetle attack probabilities and subsequent tree survival. Assuming that resin production is proportional to supply capability, then we can use resin duct density as a proxy for defense investment. With tree xylem cores providing annual resolution of resin duct density in growth rings, we can estimate investment across individuals and within individuals over time. We conducted an exploratory analysis of how resin duct investment varied across life history, space, and time in three subsections of Pinus in west Texas. We investigated the relative influence of environmental variables, age, and annual climate on growth and resin duct density across five species (Pinus arizonica var. stormiae, P. cembroides, P. edulis, P. ponderosa var.

he island of Borneo is home to habitats with some of the highest plant species richness on Earth. Elevation gradients, at sites such as Mount Kinabalu, offer scientists the opportunity to research the ecological mechanisms that shape species richness and distribution. We tested the applicability of Rapoport“s rule (the observation that species“ range-size increases with latitude, or elevation) for flora of Borneo, Sabah. To gain insights on the relationship between species“ tolerance for edaphic stress and average elevation range-size (as a proxy for climate envelope), we contrasted assemblages of species specific to ultramafic soils, tolerant of ultramafic soil, or occurring on dominant soil types. Species of interest included all vascular plants (~100 plant families), with elevation range-size and edaphic preferences inferred from information from botanical monographs, herbarium records, and historic surveys. First, we examined range-size trends across the entire elevation gradient, and then by distinct vegetation zones (lowland tropical rainforests, montane cloud forests, and sub-alpine shrublands) using piece-wise regression, with model selection for the optimum number of breakpoints based on AIC. In addition, we used a series of null models to distinguish ecologically important trends as compared to random artifacts of the data. We found support for Rapoport“s rule when looking at general trends (positive slope) across the entire elevation gradient, however range-size trends differed within each vegetation zone, especially for species assemblages that were not specific to ultramafic soil. Our results indicate that elevation range-size patterns vary depending on

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ecological strategy, such as tolerance for edaphic stress, and by vegetation zone. 1

University of Nebraska, School of Biological Sciences, 402 Manter Hall, Lincoln, NE, 68588, USA2University of Nebraska, School of Biological Sciences, Manter Hall, Lincoln, NE, 68588-0118, USA3 National Science Foundation, Division of Biological Infrastructure, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA, 22230, USA

226

GAO, XIULIN* 1 and SCHWILK, DYLAN W 2

Are there grass flammability traits? Biomass drives grass fire behavior, but canopy species-specific architecture can control surface heating

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lants fuel wildfire and understanding how plant traits influence fire behavior is necessary for linking species ecology to prediction of fire hazard and fire effects. A growing body of work on fuel and fire behavior points to the potential complexity behind the simple term "flammability", but recently, several authors have argued that it is helpful to narrow in on the important axes of variation in flammability. Studies of leaf litter driven fire suggest that there are two important flammability axes represented by total heat release and maximum rate of heat release (de MagalhĂŁes and Schwilk 2012, Cornwell et al. 2015) and Schwilk (2015) has proposed this may be a general result across fuel types. Grasslands are among the most fire prone ecosystems on the planet and fine grass fuels are universally recognized as extremely flammable. Variation in flammability driven by species traits in grasses has generally been assumed to be minor and it is thought that fuel effects on fire behavior in grasslands is driven largely by biomass. We aimed to test the generality of the two-axis flammability model proposed by Schwilk (2015) and to explore the probability that grass traits other than biomass that may control fire behavior differences across grass species. We sampled 8 grass species (8~15 pairs of individuals per species) in shortgrass steppe and mixed grasslands in Texas and New Mexico. We measured canopy traits and conducted burning trials of grass individuals. Principal component analysis (PCA) supported the hypothesis that variation in flammability across species and individuals was largely twodimensional (first two PCA axes explained 82% of total variance) and these axes largely corresponded to total heat release and maximum rate of heat release. As expected, plant biomass was the first order control of flammability measures, especially on total heat release as that is essentially equivalent to consumed biomass. However, grass architecture expressed as the ratio of biomass above 10cm to that below 10cm had an additional effect on duration of heating which is an important fire behavior metric predicting soil heating and meristem survival. On the other hand, biomass-independent architecture had no effect on the measures associated with rate of heat release (peak temperature, biomass loss rate). These results demonstrate the potential for species-specific variation in architecture to influence local fire effects in grasses, despite broad scale fire behavior being largely driven by fuel load alone

227

OYEDEJI, AYODELE ADELUSI* , KAYODE, JOSHUA 2, BESENYEI, LYNN 3 and FULLEN, MICHAEL A. 3

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Phytoremediation: A plant-based solution for environmental problems of crude oilcontamination on soils

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he study investigates the early growth responses and vegetative establishment of selected indigenous leguminous tree species (LTS), in crude oil-contaminated soil as possible tools for phytoremediation. Replicated experiments were conducted within a greenhouse in Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Selected tree species: Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach.) W.F. Wright, Albizia odoratissima (L.F.) Benth. and Pelterophorum pterocarpum (DC.) K. Heyne, all members of the Fabaceae family, were planted in 4000 g pots filled with locally sourced loamy sand soil contaminated with different concentrations of crude oil (25, 50, 75 and 100 ml). A control experiment was also set up on non-contaminated soil. These treatments represented low, medium, high and very high contamination rates, respectively. Growth parameters - plant height, girth, number of leaves, root and shoot biomass were determined on specimens of each tree species at two week intervals for their first 16 weeks of growth. The results revealed that the early growth of these species were proportional to the concentrations of crude oil. P. pterocarpum was observed to tolerate and grow best out of these species in the contaminated soils. LTS affected soil physicochemical properties. Soil acidity decreased; soil organic matter, carbon content and exchangeable ions increased. N, P and K were altered in the LTS planted soil as compared to controls, but there were no significant (P>0.05) differences. There were increased microbial counts in the crude oil-contaminated soil planted with LTS as compared with non-LTS planted soils. Hydrocarbon removal was significantly higher (P <0.05, n = 3) in LTS planted soil than in non-planted soil. P. pterocarpum planted soils had most hydrocarbon removal and had significantly more growth in terms of plant height, girth and leaf production in the field. The results obtained tend to suggest the suitability of these species, particularly P. pterocarpum, for phyto-remediation protocols and re-vegetation of crude oil contaminated soils. However, on site field studies are recommended in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and other tropical countries. 1

Niger Delta University, Biological Sciences, P. M. B. 071, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, N/A, 084, Nigeria2Ekiti State University, Plant Science Dept, PMB 5363, Iworoko Road, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria3University of Wolverhampton, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Wulfruna Street, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, WV1 1LY, UK

1

Texas Tech University, Biological Science, 2500 broadway, lubbock, TEXAS, 79409, United States2Texas Tech University, Biological Sciences, Lubbock, TX, 79409-3131, USA

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Ecology 229

GARCêA-CANCEL, JUAN GIBERTO* 1, SWINNERTON, KIRSTY 2, ALBARRACíN, RICARDO 3, FELICIANO, ARMANDO 3, FIGUEROLA-HERNÁNDEZ, CIELO 4 and SILANDER, SUSAN 5

POSTERS 228

STERNER, SARAH* 1, PALMQUIST, EMILY 2 and RALSTON, BARBARA 3

Partial Update on the Desecheo Island Flora

Comparison of vegetation cover sampling methods for riparian vegetation

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egetation cover is a basic metric used in monitoring programs across ecosystems to assess change. The line-point intercept (LPI) and meter-square plot ocular estimates (plots) are two commonly used methods, and they are both used in long-term monitoring for riparian habitats in the southwest U.S. In some ecosystems, the LPI method has been found to have less error between observers and be more time efficient. Ocular estimate plots tend to record more species and among observer error, identified as a downfall of this method, can be reduced by initiating calibration plots among observers. We compared methods at four sample sites along the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam to determine how cover values varied by method and by observer in a particularly dense, multi-layered ecosystem. We determined that LPI measurements among observers were as variable, and in some cases, more variable than plot measurements. Taking into account all indicators, we showed that LPI plots had a higher coefficient of variation among observers than ocular plot samples in 59% (151 of 254) of all instances. PERMANOVA analysis indicated that both methods identified significant differences in cover estimates among sample sites (p < 0.05), but not among observers (p > 0.05). Among observers, cover values did not differ within each site for the combined indicators (multivariate) and four individual indicators (total live cover and three species) (PERMANOVA, p > 0.05), with only one exception (total foliar cover at one site for plots). Additionally, plot measurements recorded more species than LPI, regardless of the amount of experience of the observer. For the three observers in our study that sampled all four of the sites, on average each observer recorded nine additional species in the ocular plot samples than in the LPI samples. For riparian habitats that are known for high species diversity and high numbers of infrequent species, these results suggest that meter square plot ocular estimates may be more informative and provide robust long-term trend data for monitoring in this riparian ecosystem. 1

U.S. Geological Survey; Southwest Biological Science Center, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center , 2255 N. Gemini Drive, Flagstaff, AZ, 86001, USA2USGS, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, 2255 N Gemini Dr, Flagstaff, AZ, 86001, USA3U.S. Geological Survey , Office of Science Quality and Integrity , 2255 N. Gemini Drive, Flagstaff, AZ, 86001, USA

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he introduction of non-native organisms has caused changes in island ecosystems world-wide. Two of the main drivers of island extinctions and ecosystem changes are goats and black rats. These organisms have been documented to alter considerably the flora of island ecosystems by limiting propagule production and dispersal as well as constant herbivory. Even so, island floras can still be diverse as long as human contact is limited and removal of non-native organisms is carried out. This can start regeneration of the damaged ecosystem and begin the process of ecosystem restoration. The flora of Desecheo Island (Puerto Rico) was last enumerated by Dr. Gary Breckon in the 1990’s, which included all records before his work included to his publication in 2000. At that time, the island was occupied by a reduced goat population and a large rat population. The goal of our research was to update the flora of the island from the last 16 or more years. Plants were opportunistically observed and some collected along trails, ridges, coastal areas, and in the most accessible valleys where other restoration efforts were taking place. Each collected plant was identified in the field, photographed, described, and its GPS coordinates were recorded. A total of 69 species were observed in the field, 17 of which were collected and vouchered in the UPR-Mayaguez Herbarium. Populations of some native plants, such as Harrisia portoricensis Britton (Cactaceae) seemed to be abundant while others, such as the Mammillaria nivosa Link. (Cactaceae) were found in marginal areas with a highly restricted population. New populations of previously unknown non-natives Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae), Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae), and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae) in Desecheo are of conservation concern. Control or quick removal of these invasive species would help the restoration process of the island. 1

Texas Tech University, Natural Resources Management, Goddard Building, Texas Tech University, Box 42125, Lubbock, TX, 70409, USA2The Island Endemics Foundation, P.O. Box 320097, San Francisco, CA, 94132, USA3Envirosurvey, Inc., PR, USA4University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras, Biology Department, P.O. Box 23360, San Juan, PR, 00931-3360, USA5US Fish and Wildlife Services, US Fish and Wildlife Services at Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge , Road 301, Km. 5.1, Bo. Corozo, Boqueron, PR, 00622, USA

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230

GIBSON, J PHIL* 1 and KISTENMACHER, MICHAEL 2

Conditional dormancy and germination cueing in heterocarpic Grindelia ciliata (Asteraceae)

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eterocarpy is a reproductive bet-hedging strategy in which plants produce two or more morphologically distinct types of fruit with dissimilar dispersal and germination features. Heterocarpic members of the Asteraceae produce single-seeded fruits, achenes, vary in pericarp thickness, pappus presence or absence, and seed size. Although differences in dispersal and germination are clearly related to structural features of achenes, it is not known whether there are also differences in seed dormancy and germination characteristics that further enhance heterocarpic achene ecology. We investigated the dormancy states of the three achene morphs produced by Grindelia ciliata (Asteraceae) when fresh, and after 30-day and 60-day warm or cold dry after-ripening. Disc achenes are almost completely nondormant and their dormancy state remained unchanged after cold and warm storage. In contrast, most fresh intermediate and ray achenes were conditionally dormant with dormancy induction after exposure to winter temperatures and dormancy loss after exposure to summer temperatures. This study shows that in addition to extreme morphological differences among achenes, G. ciliata achieves additional benefits of bethedging through germination cueing.

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University of Oklahoma, Department of Microbiology & Plant Biology, Department of Biology, Norman, OK, 73019, USA2University of Oklahoma, Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Norman, OK, 73019, USA

231

SCHULZ, ASHLEY* 1, LUCARDI, RIMA 2 and MARSICO, TRAVIS 3

The Quest for Common Ground: An Evaluation of Communication Effort between the Fields of Invasion Ecology and Biocontrol Using Bibliometric Analysis

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on-native, invasive species are one of the most perturbing forces altering ecosystems on our planet today. Biological control agents are sometimes introduced into invaded ecosystems to combat these nonnative, invasive species. Frequently, biological control agents are also non-native species, so their impacts are variable with respect to efficacy and non-target effects, referred to as â&#x20AC;&#x153;fighting fire with fire.â&#x20AC;? Given the similarity between non-native, invasive species and their biological control agents, the fields of invasion ecology and biological control should have natural overlap in terms of mechanisms, processes and conceptual ideas, and, we assume, openly communicate across disciplines. For this study, we reviewed insect invasion and biological control literature from the last ten years (2006-2015) to evaluate researcher papers from both identified disciplines, and if they were communicating through shared literature. We also assessed primary literature in general invasion ecology and biological control literature with

the documented stages of invasion for non-native, invasive species and biological control agents. Through bibliometric analysis, we show that biological control literature primarily cites other biological control studies, while invasion literature primarily cites other invasion studies. It is evident that these two groups of research, with natural overlap, require improved communication between them. Therefore, we propose a new framework, incorporating the stages of invasion of non-native, invasive species and biological control agents, where biological control agents, which are also non-native species, can provide researchers an unconventional model to further improve the study of invasion biology. 1

Arkansas State University, Department of Biological Sciences, PO Box 599, State University, AR, 72467, USA2USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station, 320 Green Street, Athens , GA, 30602, USA3Arkansas State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, PO Box 599, State University, AR, 72467, USA

232 KERI L.

ENGEL, RYAN P.* and CAUDLE,

Investigating floral diversity of western Kansas grasslands to assess pollinator productivity

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volution of the specialized relationships between plants and pollinators has influenced the ecological productivity of ecosystems across the world; therefore, increasing global biodiversity. As with many biological interactions, the threat of climate change and anthropogenic stresses has increased awareness to study these relationships in nature. Drought, invasive species establishment, and transformation of native grasslands to agriculture are among the stresses exerted on plants and pollinators in Kansas. Even so, little attention has been given to assessing flora diversity in relation to pollinators in the state of Kansas. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the floral diversity of two native grassland sites in western Kansas, and relate findings to pollinator productivity. Two grassland sites were visited seven periods during peak blooming season from June through September 2016. Sixteen transects were randomly selected per site, and canopy coverage for each flowering species (i.e., herbaceous species excluding grasses) was calculated. Plant species with purple and white flowers had some of the highest canopy coverage at both grassland sites. Resinous skullcap (Scutellaria resinosa), sessile-leaf tickclover (Desmodium sessilifolium), and narrow leaf-bluets (Hedyotis nigricans) were among the most abundant plant species, which are known to be selected by pollinators. Therefore, the Kansas grassland sites in this study appeared to be suitable sources in sustaining pollinators. Results from this study can be used to shape future studies on pollinators and plant diversity. In summer 2017, we hope to expand on these findings by incorporating experiments to determine which plant species are preferred by honeybees.

Fort Hays State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 600 Park Street, Hays, KS, 67601, USA

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Ecology 233

PITTENGER, MADISON* 1, CAUDLE, KERI L. 2, BAER, SARA G. 3, JOHNSON, LORETTA C. 4 and MARICLE, BRIAN R. 5

Herbivory preferences among ecotypes of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)

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ig bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), a dominant prairie grass, exhibits a wide distribution with several genetically distinct ecotypes. Each ecotype uniquely adapts to abiotic and biotic factors within its own environment. These adaptations may prove more or less desirable to herbivores in the area. For instance, plants adapted to areas with greater rainfall tend to grow larger than those adapted to drier conditions. However, wetter conditions might result in greater numbers of herbivores, so ecotypes adapted to wetter conditions might have evolved greater herbivore defense mechanisms; therefore, a trade-off may exist between drought resistance and herbivore resistance. We hypothesized that herbivores would display a preference for plants adapted to drier conditions. We tested this with feeding preference trials involving grasshoppers and leaves from five ecotypes of A. gerardii that represented plants adapted to wet and dry conditions. Scans of leaves before and after herbivory trials indicated 53 to 77 percent of leaf area remained, with the more mesic ecotypes being favored by herbivores. We also hypothesized that leaves with more tannins would be less preferable to herbivores. This was tested with measures of leaf tannin concentration from five ecotypes of A. gerardii from four common gardens across a precipitation gradient. Leaf tannin concentrations ranged from 0.19 to 3.93% of leaf dry mass, and were not different among ecotypes. However, there were site differences among leaves, indicating environmental influences on leaf tannin concentration. Ecotypes of A. gerardii are responsive to environmental factors involving herbivory, but were not related to leaf tannin concentrations.

1

Fort Hays State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 600 Park St., Hays, Kansas, 67601, United States2Fort Hays State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 600 Park Street, Hays, KS, 67601, USA3Southern Illinois University, Department of Plant Biology and Center for Ecology, Carbondale, IL, 62901, USA4Kansas State University, Biology, Ackert Hall Rm 232, Manhattan, KS, 66506-4901, USA5Fort Hays State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 600 Park St., Hays, KS, 67601-4099, USA

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STEFFLER, NATHANIEL , HAAS, ALEXIS* and KRAKOS, KYRA

Impact of Temperature on Visitation Patterns

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ariation in pollinator patterns can be seen across habitats and can be partially due to fluctuating temperature. This study analyzes how visitation rates vary by temperature of 8 species of MO native flowering plants in glade, wetland, prairie and forest populations. From 2014-2016, visitation rates and temperatures were recorded at all study sites. The highest visitor rates were

at 15-18°C and 29-31°C, with lowest visitation rates at 9°C and 32-33°C. The habitat with the highest visitation rate was the prairie at 29-31°C. A habitat effect was seen for the Apis mellifera. The pollinator group Halictid had the highest visitation rates across all temperatures and habitats. Bombus species showed peak visitation rates at 32-33°C. Further studies on specific pollinators in a specific habitat could yield a better understanding on how change in temperature affects flowering plants at the individual level. Maryville University, 650 Maryville University Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63141, United States

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IRICK, ZACH* 1, JOHN, SHELTON and ESTES, DWAYNE 3 2

Vascular flora and plant communities of riverscour habitats in Little River Canyon National Preserve, Cherokee and DeKalb Counties, Alabama

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floristic inventory of the riverscour flora of Little River Canyon National Preserve (LRCNP) is currently underway. LRCNP is located in Cherokee and Dekalb counties, Alabama in the Cumberland Plateau physiographic province. Little River is one of the longest mountainous rivers in the Plateau with its headwaters originating atop Lookout Mountain in Georgia; it flows southwest into Alabama and descends into the Ridge and Valley, draining into the Coosa River. Riverscours are riparian communities associated with rocky or sandy substrates along high-gradient sections within Little River Canyon. Mechanical scouring from periodic high velocity flash flooding, drought stress, and intolerance to inundation of water are major factors that limit woody encroachment, preventing conversion to forest habitat. The objectives of this study are to document the vascular flora of riverscours at LRCNP by collecting voucher specimens and classifying the natural communities. Additionally, species of conservation concern and invasive species are being mapped and quantitative data are being recorded to estimate population vigor and size. Two preliminary collecting trips were made in October of 2016, resulting in 252 collections representing 153 species, 52 families, and 111 genera. Six species of conservation concern were documented during the fall of 2016 season including: Bigelowia nuttallii, Coreopsis pulchra, Diervilla rivularis, Fothergilla major, Helianthus longifolius, and Rudbeckia heliopsidi. Future directions will include systematic exploration of Little River to collect voucher specimens, the collection of quantitative data from vegetation plots, and comparison to other recently completed riverscour surveys from the Cumberland Plateau. 1

Austin Peay State University, Center of Excellence for Field Biology, 601 College Street, Clarksville, TN, 37044, USA2University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Biology, Geology, and Environmental Science, 615 McCallie Avenue, Chattanooga, TN, 37403, United States3Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 1700 University Drive, Forth Worth, TX, 76107, United States

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ADESALU, TAOFIKAT ABOSEDE

molecular data.

Freshwater diatoms diversity of National Parks in Nigeria I: Okomu National Park, South-South, Nigeria

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his study represents the first taxonomic and ecological description of the diatom flora of water and sediments in two freshwater lakes within Okomu National Park Edo State, Nigeria, using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Twenty-nine species of diatoms belonging to fifteen genera, Achnanthes, Achnanthidium, Chamaepinnularia, Cymbella, Discotella, Eolimna, Eunotia, Frustulia, Gomphonema, Luticola, Nitzschia, Pinnularia, Placoneis Sellaphora and Stauroneis were identified. The taxa were dominated by Eunotia spp. Water chemistry of 5.9-6.3 pH and surface water temperature of 28oC probably implies that the diatoms especially Eunotia spp. are exploring an ecological niche that is probably favourable for its growth. Okomu National Park appears to be a hotspot for Eunotia species diversity, and further study of the oligotrophic waters of this site is certainly recommended. University of Lagos, Department of Botany, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Lagos State, LA, NG

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DIAZ, NICOLAS* 1, CANTLEY, JASON and MARTINE, CHRISTOPHER 2 2

Examining niche divergence of cryptic species within the Hawaiian Coprosma foliosa Complex (Rubiaceae)

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he taxonomy among Coprosma spp. (Rubiaceae) in the Hawaiian Islands is complex, making it difficult to properly identify taxa in the field or even with herbarium specimens. Of particular confusion are taxa of the Coprosma foliosa Complex, which currently includes C. menziesii on Hawai‚i Island, C. stephanocarpa and C. cordicarpa on Maui, C. fauriei on Kaua‚i, C. molokaiense on Moloka‚i, and many synonymized taxa on O‚ahu and Lana‚i. Taxa of the C. foliosa Complex occur in both native and non-native dominated mesic forests and represent the lowest elevation distribution of the genus in the archipelago. Their form varies from upright trees to lianas >15 meters in length. An excursion in March 2016 helped elucidate morphological and geographic differences garnered from morphometric analyses and field observations for the two recently segregated taxa from the C. foliosa Complex: Coprosma fauriei H. Lév. and Coprosma molokaiense J. Cantley & N. Diaz. The analyses used in the description of these taxa, ecological niche modeling and morphometrics, have been applied to an expanded set of data that includes the other recognized taxa and potentially novel taxa. The niche models were produced in MaxEnt using GPS localities collected from 2010-2016 and a noncorrelated subset of the 19 BIOCLIM variables along with a DEM layer. Using ENMTools, the output of each of the models was further analyzed using a niche overlap test and niche identity test. The preliminary results of these analyses will be ground-truthed with upcoming

Bucknell University, Biology, 1 Dent Drive, Lewisburg, PA, 17837, USA2Bucknell University, 1 Dent Drive, Lewisburg, PA, 17837, United States

HAYES, DANIEL* 1, CANTLEY, JASON 1 and MARTINE, CHRISTOPHER 2

Ex situ interspecies crossing rates infer importance of geographic barriers in speciation among closely related Solanum species of the Australian Monsoon Tropics

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he 20+ taxa of the Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum “Dioicum Group” sensu Bean of northwest Australia are either andromonoecious or dioecious and closely allied with a group of hermaphrodite taxa providing one of the few examples in which these three breeding systems are present in the same group. Phylogenetic analysis has defined five distinct clades outlining breeding system evolution and answering questions on the origins of diocey within the group. These ‚spiny solanums’ populate a large portion of the Australian Monsoon Tropics (AMT), with many of the taxa split between two subregions of far northern Western Australia and the “Top End” of the Northern Territory. Population genetics work hints at the notion that these closely related Australian Solanum spp. are isolated because of geographic distance. The distribution of these taxa across the AMT supports geographic isolation as a key factor in the origins of these species and raises questions related to reproductive barriers across species and clades since hybrids can be artificially created in a greenhouse. The current study assesses the potential role of isolating mechanisms in speciation through a controlled crossing experiment encompassing sixteen species distributed across four clades and two breeding systems (dioecy and andromonoecy). The results of this study will provide valuable information on the reproductive isolation, or lack thereof, among the taxa. Findings from this study will complement and inform population genetics analyses and be used to help infer divergence times among the study taxa. 1

Bucknell University, Bucknell University, Biology Department, 1 Dent Drive, Lewisburg, PA, 17837, United States2Bucknell University, Biological Sciences, 203 Biology Building, Lewisburg, PA, 17837, United States

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ACKERFIELD, JENNIFER

Applications of Ecological Niche Modeling in North American Cirsium (“Thistle”) Species Delimitations

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cological opportunity, sufficient genetic variation to respond to ecological conditions, and the evolution of novel traits all interact to facilitate and drive ecological speciation in plants. However, the criteria used to recognize species caught in the early stages of postspeciation diversification has been controversial as well as challenging for botanists faced with making taxonomic delimitations. In these instances, while there is often high ecological diversity, morphological differ-

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ences are typically not pronounced. In particular, North American Cirsium (Compositae: Cardueae), otherwise known as the â&#x20AC;&#x153;thistlesâ&#x20AC;?, demonstrate a high rate of ecological diversification often accompanied by little morphological differentiation. In these instances, ecological niche modeling (ENM) offers much potential for use in determining species delimitations. The influence of the ecological niche on speciation is dominated by two main hypotheses: 1) niche conservatism, which predicts that closely related species will occupy similar ecological niches and thus persist in similar environments, and 2) niche divergence, which predicts that sister taxa will occupy different ecological niches and thus persist in different environments. Ecological niche modeling was used to detect niche divergence between potential species as well as provide evidence for recent parapatric speciation driven by ecological divergence. Ecological niche modeling is shown to have utility for detecting ecological speciation in rapidly radiating groups with otherwise little genetic or morphological divergence. Colorado State University, Biology, 1878 Campus Delivery, Dept. of Biology, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA

240

GRIFFIN, BRANDI MISSOURI* 1 and ANDERSON, COREY DEVIN 2

Do Pine stands act as a barrier to Spanish moss dispersion?

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ome authors have hypothesized that pine stands may act as a barrier to Spanish moss dispersion. However, no study has formally examined the spatial distribution of Spanish moss in a pine stand to determine what factors are most predictive of where it is found. The present study used logistic regression to examine predictors of the occurrence of Spanish moss in a burn-managed pine stand at the Lake Louise Research Center. Results based on 165 circular quadrats (representing 1098 trees) revealed that the distance to hardwood source populations along the edge of the stand was most predictive of Spanish moss occurrence, followed by the average age of the hardwoods and species richness. Our results support the hypothesis that pine stands may be acting as a dispersal barrier, as Spanish moss was most commonly found in ecotonal areas along the edges and rarely in the center of the stand.

1

Valdosta State University, Biology, 1500 N. Patterson St., Valdosta, Georgia, 31698, United States2Valdosta State University, 1500 N. Patterson St., Valdosta, Georgia, 31698, United States

241

MORRISON, GLEN R* 1 and QUESTAD, ERIN J 2

The effects of elevated soil phosphorus and nitrogen on the health and reproduction of African fountain grass, Pennisetum setaceum

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ennisetum setacuem (Forssk.) Chiov., commonly known as African fountain grass, is a perennial C4 bunchgrass native to Africa. The species is widely naturalized or invasive outside of its native range and is commonly found growing in habitats with characteristically high soil phosphorus availability. While fountain grass shows increased growth under nitrogen addition and increased flowering under mixed-nutrient fertilization, no previous research has directly tested the effects of elevated soil phosphorus on fountain grass. We used a nutrient addition greenhouse experiment to test the effects of elevated availability of both phosphorus and nitrogen independently and in combination. Plants treated with nitrogen grew faster and larger, had higher chlorophyll fluorescence, flowered earlier and produced more inflorescences than plants not treated with nitrogen, while plants treated with phosphorus showed no significant differences in the measured characteristics from plants not treated with phosphorus. Because we found no evidence that fountain grass strongly responds to phosphorus addition, we suggest that the affinity of fountain grass to habitats of characteristically high phosphorus availability may be coincidental or reflective of other similar characteristics between these habitats, Our results corroborate the increased growth of fountain grass under nitrogen addition found by other investigators and suggest that nitrogen may have mostly driven the effects of mixed-nutrient additions seen in previous investigations. This additional evidence that fountain grass strongly benefits from elevated nitrogen availability has possible implications for land managers seeking to prevent or mitigate the spread of fountain grass in wildlands, for whom it may prove a prudent strategy to prioritize management of fountain grass in habitats known to have high nitrogen availability. 1

California State Polytechnic University Pomona, 3801 W. Temple, Pomona, CA, 91768, USA2California State Polytechnic University Pomona, 3801 W. Temple, Pomona, CA, 91768, United States

242

AYERS, MAYLA* 1 and BASHIR, ANBREEN 2

Hydroponic Urban Gardening

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rbanization has for long posed a continuous challenge and a threat not only to the biodiversity of urban ecosystems but also the urban environment in general. The scarcity of land available for growth of flora has led the urban ecologists and scientists to engage in endeavors leading to the enhancement of green design both in terms of sustainability and urban gardening. We tried to compare the yield of plants grown in vertical planter arrangements to the plants grown in plots of land. We also tried to compare the growth of plants in hydroponic units with the plants grown in different types of soil. Greenhouse studies indicated that plants

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can be successfully grown in vertical arrangements and the yield is comparable to the traditionally cultivated designs. Also, the plants grown in hydroponic units were more robust as compared to the soil plants. With the increase in global population and the scarcity of available land for cultivation, innovative urban agricultural designs can provide food and environmental security for future generations. 1

Harris-Stowe State University, 3026 Laclede Avenue, St. Louis, MO, 63103, USA2Harris-Stowe University, Math And Sciences, 3026 Laclede Avenue, St. Louis, MO, 63103, USA

243

RODRIGUEZ, KAYLA* 1, HAYES, CHANDLER 1, DANIELL, ANTHONY 1, EAVENSON, NICOLE 1, TWANABASU, BISHNU 2 and SAPKOTA, JHAPENDRA 3

Effects of Mix Cover Crops on Colonization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

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ycorrhizal fungi, colonizing over 90% of all plants, are found in soils of almost all ecosystems including agricultural lands. This symbiotic fungus helps plants to absorb water and nutrients, primarily the phosphorus, and other immobile nutrients. Without mycorrhizal fungi, many plants would be missing out on some nutrients that make them grow larger and at a faster rate. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonize cortical tissues of the plant roots and increase the root depletion zone by extending their hyphae outside the roots. The hyphal extensions increase the surface area of the plant root system by up to 1000X. In addition to the water and nutrient acquisition, fungi also help plants to deter plant pathogens and herbivores. The use of mycorrhizal fungi became popular recently in organic cropping systems to increase the yields; however, the effectiveness of the cover crops on the mycorrhizal fungi has rarely been explored. To study the mycorrhizal fungal response to cover crops, we planted a mix of wheat, oats, rye, rapeseed, Austrian winter pea and crimson clover at Weatherford College Carter Farm Research Station, Weatherford, TX in October, 2016 as the initial. The experimental plots were used to grow winter wheat in the past and recently been invaded with Johnson grass. Rhizosphere soils were collected before and after the cover crops were planted. Plant community roots were extracted from the soil samples. Extracted roots were processed and analyzed to quantify the level of mycorrhizal colonization. Increased crop yield following cover crops might be linked to the increased soil nutrients by mycorrhizal fungi. We expected the increased quantity of mycorrhizal fungi in the experimental plots after cover crops were planted. This study would help farmers to select type of cover crops to increase mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural lands for better crop yields.

1

Weatherford College, 225 College Park Dr, Weatherford, TX, 76086, United States2Weatherford College, Science, 225 College Park Dr, Weatherford, TX, 76086, United States3Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 74078, United States

244

BIELECKI, CORAL ROSE* 1 and HAYNES, KYLE 2

Mechanisms Underlying Temperate Butterfly Diversity in Anthropogenic Habitats

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he underlying mechanisms that create and perpetuate temperate butterfly diversity are not well understood, but are particularly important for developing informed management plans. In simple correlations, past butterfly diversity studies found both positive and no relationships between plant richness and butterfly richness at multiple scales. In contrast, another study using multiple regression analysis found plant productivity, not plant richness correlated with butterfly richness. To explore the explanatory power of productivity hypothesis and the niche-assembly model, this study examined the relative importance of resource abundance, plant richness, and inflorescence abundance to butterfly diversity in two anthropogenic habitats: old field and lawn. Utilizing an information theoretical approach, we found old field habitats explained butterfly abundance and evenness, while plant richness best explained butterfly richness. Resource abundance measured as plant productivity was not explanatory. Furthermore, we found abundance of inflorescences to be negatively correlated with butterfly richness, abundance and evenness. This study suggests that butterfly diversity may be managed by habitat and plant richness, but that the floral resources available in these habitats are less important to butterfly distribution than other factors. 1

Yale University, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 295 Mansfield Street, E, New Haven, Connecticut, 06511, USA2University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, Blandy Experimental Farm, 400 Blandy Farm Lane, Boyce, VA, 22620, USA

245

KURTZ, CASSANDRA* and HANSEN, MARK

What have we learned from nearly a decade of invasive plant data covering the Central and Northeastern United States?

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nvasive plants are a global concern due to their competitive nature and widespread impacts. These plants annually cost billions of dollars to monitor and control. The Forest Inventory and Analysis crew of the USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station (NRS) has monitored forested plots for invasive plants across the 24 states of the Midwest and Northeast since 2007. During this time frame sampling intensity has changed from 20 percent of Phase 2 inventory plots (2007-2011) to 12.5 percent of inventory plots (2012 to present). On these plots the presence and cover of 40 invasive plant species (39 species and one undifferentiated genus [nonnative bush honeysuckle]) are monitored. These data are collected in addition to the standard tree (e.g., species, diameter, height) and site (e.g., road distance, physiography) variables. Currently over half of the forested plots in the NRS region have one or more of the monitored invasive plants present. We have also found that IPS tend to occur on plots that are less forested, have a lower basal area, and are closer to roads. Addi-

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Education and Outreach Education and Outreach ORAL PAPERS 249

BARKWORTH, MARY

Building A Biodiversity Program in Somaliland: a progress report

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omaliland lies along the south coast of the Gulf of Aden. It is known to have high species diversity and endemism for many organismal groups, including plants, and some areas have been identified as being Important Biodiversity Areas. The work involved, however, has been done by foreigners and the specimens documenting its biodiversity are housed in foreign institutions. If this is to change, there must be opportunities to acquire the necessary education and training and a biodiversity museum in Somaliland. In 2015, some colleagues and I formed the Somaliland Biodiversity Foundation (SBF), to help develop such resources in collaboration with the Somaliland Ministry of Environment and Rural Development, Candlelight for Environment, Education, and Health, and the University of Hargeisa, the largest public university in Somaliland. Since then, SBF has initiated a Biodiversity Museum at the University of Hargeisa, offered workshops on documenting biodiversity in a digital age, and started developing collaborations in Somaliland that will aid in achievement of the primary goal, enabling Somaliland’s citizens to learn how to study, document, monitor, and promote conservation of the country’s biodiversity without leaving the country. Our primary foci are 1) building the museum so that it can support research, education, and outreach; 2) enabling the University of Hargeisa to offer respected degree programs in the biodiversity sciences; 3) and building a teaching/research laboratory at the University of Hargeisa. The talk will summarize the progress made, the immediate goals, and the challenges in developing degree programs in the biodiversity sciences in a country where there is almost no tradition of systematics.

Utah State University, Department Of Biology, 5305 OLD MAIN HILL, Logan, UT, 84322-5305, USA

250

NEPAL, MADHAV P.* 1, ORTH, MANDY 2 and YORK, DAKOTA 1

Honors in Herbarium: Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs) for Freshman Biology Students

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ncreasing number of higher education institutes are considering “Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education” recommendations for their introductory biology curriculum transformation. One of the several proposed strategies for implementing scientific practices is integrating course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) in the course curriculum. We recently implemented a herbarium data based CUREs project in three laboratory sections of Honors freshman biology course. Pre-/Post-project surveys

showed that all students appreciated the research experiences; students’ misconceptions about plants as research organisms were addressed; and students claimed their interests toward getting involved in future plant research increased. We also identified implementation barriers, and future strategies to address them. As predicted, in the post-project survey, majority of the students suggested molecular biology based CUREs project for future integration as such project would fit better to their future medical/other health-related careers. At our presentation, we will discuss our data as well as scopes and challenges of integrating herbarium based CUREs project to our introductory biology course. 1

South Dakota State University, Biology and Microbiology, McFadden Biostress Laboratory, Brookings, SD, 57007, USA2South Dakota State University, Biology and Microbiology, Berg Agricultural Hall, Brookings, SD, 57007, USA

251

CONANT, MEAGHAN* 1 and EMRY, JASON 2

Using Science and Education to Reduce Plant Blindness

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roadly defined, plant blindness is known as the inability to recognize and/or appreciate the plants in one’s own environment. While the inability to name or recognize one’s local flora may not initially be seen as a problem, the large scale implications of societal plant blindness could lead to a severe decline in the knowledge and interest in the conservation of plants and trees. Unfortunately, this phenomenon is not restricted to non-botanists. For example, in an informal survey conducted on the first day of a General Advanced Botany course at Washburn University, the six students enrolled could collectively list only 42 plant species, with 20 of those being trees. This leads us to believe that additional knowledge on the recognition of plants could be a useful tool to the community. Washburn University is centrally located within the city of Topeka, and receives a large amount of recreational foot traffic by the general public. Our main objective with this work is to provide educational resources to both students and the public in order to reduce plant blindness in the larger campus community. To provide an initial assessment of tree diversity on campus, data were collected using iTree software and physical ground-truthing. This information was used to create a dichotomous key, written and illustrated in such a way that it could be easily used by nonbiologists and biologists alike. The campus’ accessibility allows for the opportunity to deliver these resources to a broad audience. With this in mind, the hope is to be able to distribute these keys along the walking routes on campus, encouraging citizens to further explore and acknowledge their own environment. Future goals of this project involve broadening the key to include trees along main trails within Topeka and working with the City of Topeka to include the key on its website, thereby encouraging an even larger audience to further understand and appreciate its city’s natural environments.

1

2324 SW Briarwood Plz., Apt. 207 F, Topeka, KS, 66611, United States21952 Miller Dr, Lawrence, KS, 66046, USA

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Maryville University of St. Louis, College of Arts & Sciences, 650 Maryville University Dr., St. Louis, MO, 63141, USA

at the other large site, Callaway Gardens (3rd, 2014), and was plant-specific within exhibits. Smaller botanical gardens incorporated more opportunities to learn. Analyses revealed that Lewis Ginter (2nd/ 4thplaces) weaved sustainability and Earth Systems themes within 8 garden signs. Cheekwood (6th/9th places) also systematically incorporated signage (19 signs) that focused upon plant diversity and impact. Missouri Botanical (9th/3rd places) had signage-less expanses, but systematically incorporated signage in its Children’s Garden (25 signs) and Home Gardening (6 signs) exhibits: The Children’s Garden focused upon Missouri’s history and plants (including modern threats), and Earth Systems, while its Center for Home Gardening focused upon sustainability. lthough this research documented little correlation between Readers’ Choice gardens and effective informal education, site visits revealed multiple opportunities for gardens to combat Plant Blindness (Wandersee & Clary, 2006b, 2006c) and engage visitors to improve public science literacy. Emergent themes revealed that botanical gardens can address the Earth’s complexity, reliance upon water, evolution and change of plants through time, plants’ interactions within Earth Systems, human dependence on plants, and human impact on the planet.

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Mississippi State University, Geosciences, Box 1705, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, USA

KYRA

RORK, ADAM* and KRAKOS,

The Stench of Science: Chemical Ecology Education with a Corpse Flower

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mporphophallus titanum, also known as the corpse flower, is well known in the botanical world for having the largest unbranched inflorescence and for emitting an unmistakable, putrid odor. Native only to western Sumatra, it has become increasingly popular as a cultivated specimen in botanical gardens across the world for over a century, for both display and educational purposes. Despite this and its unique ecology, we only know basic information about its thermoregulation, volatile emission, and reproductive biology. During a recent blooming event, we analyzed the floral volatile profile of the Missouri Botanical Garden“s A. titanum, Izzy, using SPME-GC-MS. Our work served to educate amateur botanists and the public about unique floral chemistry and the broader field of chemical ecology via public demonstrations, publications in a local magazine, and symposia presentations.

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CLARY, RENEE

Outstanding Botanical Gardens in North America: Does Excellence in Informal Botanical Instruction Accompany the USA Today Readers’ Choice Award Winners?

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CLEMENT, WENDY L* 1, ELLIOTT, KATHRYN T 2, CORDOVA-HOYOS, OKXANA 2, DISTEFANO, ISABEL 2, KEARNS, KATE 2, KUMAR, RAAGNI 2, LETO, ASHLEY 2, TUMALIUAN, JANIS 2 , FRANCHETTI, LAUREN 3, MENDES, PATRICE 3, ROTH, KAREN 3 and OSBORN, JEFFREY M 4

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SA Today Readers’ Choice Awards note that botanical gardens 1) study, 2) protect, 3) exhibit and 4) teach about plants. Outstanding botanical gardens “boast extensive collections and stunning presentations, making them must-visits in their respective cities.” Botanical experts identified 20 outstanding North American botanical gardens, with the top 10 finalists determined by popular vote. Using case study analysis (Yin, 2013), this research investigated 5 outstanding 2014/2016 public/botanical gardens, and determined whether exhibits correlated with effective informal education. The researched gardens ranged from larger (Callaway Gardens complex, 6500 + acres; Longwood Gardens, 1000+ acres) to the smaller botanical sites (Missouri Botanical Gardens, 79 acres; Cheekwood Botanical Gardens, 55 acres; Lewis Ginter, 50 acres). Each garden was visited, photographically documented, and researched for public opportunities to learn. Signage was transcribed and analyzed against optimum signage system guidelines (Wandersee & Clary, 2006a). Brochures and permanent displays were also transcribed, coded, and analyzed (Neuendorf, 2002). The botanical gardens differed in their styles and presentations. Classic conservatories at Longwood and Lewis Ginter inspired and attracted visitors, while Callaway Garden’s natural Azalea Bowl was a popular visitor choice. Signage also ranged in quantity and quality among the sites. Longwood, the top 2014/2016 garden, had the least signage, with the emergent dominant theme of du Pont family history. Signage was also sparse

Tasting the Tree of Life: A collaborative, campus-wide, science communication and meal event

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ommunicating science to the general public can present a number of challenges from participation to engagement to impact. In an effort to broadly communicate messages regarding biodiversity, evolution, and tree-thinking to the campus community at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ), a public primarily undergraduate institution that serves ~6,400 students, we created a campus-wide, science-themed meal, “Tasting the Tree of Life: Exploring Biodiversity Through Cuisine.” The event was held in the main campus dining hall which thousands of students, faculty, and staff visit daily. Working in collaboration with TCNJ Dining Services for eight months, we created nine meals that utilized 149 species/ingredients across the Tree of Life. Each meal was complemented with a scientific message that was communicated in the form of a poster on display near that particular meal station. To amplify this message, biology student volunteers - Field Guides - were assigned to each meal during the peak dining hall hours. These students engaged participants to help further translate the science behind the meal. Although

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Education and Outreach many branches from all three domains of the Tree of Life were highlighted, much of the scientific messaging involved plant diversity and evolution. For example, we introduced the concept of underutilized crops and discussed processes such as artificial domestication. To promote tree-thinking, we reconstructed a phylogeny of all 149 ingredients used in the meal, and this tree was displayed on all informational posters and described on the centerpieces of each table. On the posters at each food station, the branches of the ingredients of that particular meal were highlighted on the ingredient tree so participants could observe how diversity shifted from meal to meal. Further, we developed a website (tastingtreeoflife.pages.tcnj.edu) that provides a primer on tree-thinking, more information about each meal, and a clickable tree to help participants visualize evolutionary relationships with respect to common ancestry. In total, 3,262 people attended the meal and evaluations suggest that participants left with a greater appreciation for the biodiversity and evolutionary relatedness of their food. A keynote lecture and a comprehensive social media campaign enhanced the scientific messages and the excitement and participation across the campus. In this presentation, we will discuss our use of backwardsdesign to develop the meals and related experiences at Tasting the Tree of Life and achieve core outcomes and key elements of the event — including campus-wide collaboration and student involvement — that were central to an impactful outreach opportunity.

In response to these new challenges, several changes in the informal botany curriculum have been implemented to counter these negative impacts and promote botany as an academic subject of merit. These changes include (1) an honors natural science course that emphasizes plants and ecology under the umbrella of the more widely recognized and/or relatable subject of sustainability, (2) redesign of traditional lab activities to those with more focus on student centered learning and “buy-in” based on student interests and (3) greater integration of botanical sciences in other biology courses, non-academic entities, and as a component of service learning initiatives. Anecdotal evidence suggests some of these changes have been effective. These include observations of students demonstrating a higher level of engagement, ongoing cooperation among students on group projects, and more student-teacher interaction. Formal assessments such as exam and assignment scores show a trend of increasing performance. Several students exposed to botanical science research in the form of class activities have expressed interest in continuing work as undergraduate research projects. Additionally, some of the positive changes to the botany courses may serve as a model for similar adjustments in other courses or programs. The curriculum changes have also revealed areas in student learning that require additional strengthening and have highlighted a need for formal avenues of communication among academic units, facilities, and administration in order to accomplish educational goals.

1

The College Of New Jersey, Biology, 2000 Pennington Road, Department Of Biology, Ewing, NJ, 08638, USA2The College of New Jersey, Department of Biology, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ, 08628, United States3The College of New Jersey, Dining Services, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ, 08628, United States4The College Of New Jersey, School Of Science, 2000 Pennington Road, P.O. Box 7718, Ewing, NJ, 08628-0718, USA

255

Saint Xavier University, Biological Sciences, 3700 W 103rd Street, Chicago, IL, 60655, USA

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YODER, SUSAN E.

Seed Your Future — Inspiring the Next Generation to Ensure a Qualified Workforce

DERTIEN, JOSEPH R.

The evolution of a botany program in response to a new educational environment, or “please don’t let my plant class go extinct”

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cross the breadth of the horticulture industry, including botany, companies and educational institutions are struggling to recruit qualified candidates for many of their jobs. Seed Your Future is a movement designed to change that trend. Seed Your Future (SYF) is a national collaboration of leading horticulture companies, laboratories, nurseries, public gardens, universities, colleges, and affiliated organizations. SYF is focused on encouraging more young people, their families, their teachers, and their youth program leaders to embrace, get excited about, and ultimately pursue horticulture careers. We have been conducting national research to learn why youth are not pursuing careers in horticulture - including botany. Through focus groups we are testing imagery and language we will use to create a national outreach campaign to reverse the trend. We will present our research findings and explore what we can do to promote horticulture and increase horticulture workforce development.

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xternal forces such as budget constraints, enrollment statistics, and shifting student demographics create pressure to keep university and college programs engaging and relevant to the student educational experience. At Saint Xavier University, a perceived decrease of student interest in botany, and popularity of a prehealth biology program with no botany curriculum requirements have posed significant challenges to effectively recruiting students into the upper division botany course, summer session botany course, and a botany course designed for non-majors. Furthermore, under-preparedness of transfer students or low knowledge retention from the general biology sequence has contributed students failing to meet learning objectives in the upper division botany course. The low enrollment, cancelled course sections, and limited academic success and engagement has also had a direct impact on the ability to recruit students into the undergraduate research program.

Seed Your Future, 1900 Observatory Road, Martinsville, IN, USA

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257

KELLER, HAROLD W.* and BYERLEY BEST, BROOKE

Selection of students for team-building field research projects: tree canopy biodiversity in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

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trategies are presented for effective and efficient recruitment of undergraduate and masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree students for a large field research project using a case study involving Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Presentations by project leaders and former students were given at departmental seminars, student orientations, in biology courses, and at conferences, highlighting the project, research results to date, and student feedback. Informational flyers were posted around campus and distributed at annual conferences. Recruitment of students emphasized experiences beyond just research, such as travel opportunities, professional and academic networking, international collaboration, media and outreach activities, and grant-writing and fundraising experience. Student selection included review of transcripts, a written essay, letters of recommendation, and a personal interview. Questions were directed to determine student interest relative to three project phases: Adventure Phase, Laboratory Phase, and Publication Phase. In-person interviews included assessment of student ability to follow instructions and safety protocols, foster team spirit/attitude, and develop interpersonal skills essential for a large collaborative effort. Review of extracurricular activities was especially important, with interviews designed to determine relevant skills from involvement in team sports, 4-H projects, farm experience, regular chores, small business activities, art and music activities, conservation groups, collection activities, leadership positions, and special awards. Selected students were required to keep a personal journal to encourage and improve observational skills and reflection and to participate in group and individual publications. Feedback and methods assessment from former students are discussed along with additional suggestions that others may consider in their development, promotion, and support of field research.

Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 1700 University Dr, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA

258

BLAKE, JENNIFER

Using public and social media as assessment tools in undergraduate education

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sing public and social media in the classroom can serve the dual purposes of increasing student engagement and educating the public about science. In an undergraduate class at Rutgers University we used Instagram and Wikipedia as alternative assessment techniques to improve observation, research, and writing-in-the-discipline skills. Students were required to submit photos via Instagram over the course of the semester. Students wrote guided 100word captions to accompany the image and explain the phenomena, how it related to course material, and why it mattered in the bigger picture. These images

were then used as the foundation for the final exam. To fulfill a writing requirement, students wrote articles for Wikipedia. Instructor-selected gaps in Wikipedia content were provided early in the semester. Students chose a topic, researched it, and wrote a 400-word article for Wikipedia. The educational platform available through Wikied allowed students to learn the guidelines for Wikipedia as well as the computer skills needed to write and edit in the Wiki framework. Over the course of one semester, students added over 10,000 words to Wikipedia, edited 23 articles, and created four new ones. These articles have already had 970,000 views. While this class was not a botany course, plants lend themselves well to these techniques. Wikipedia, in particular, suffers from gaps in botanical content. Using these public and social media platforms is not only motivating for students, but decreases plant blindness and provides opportunities to educate the public about plants. Rutgers University, Ecology, Evolution, And Natural Resources, 237 Foran Hall, 59 Dudley Rd, Cook Campus, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901-8551, USA

259

GRUBBS, KUNSIRI CHAW

The Costs and Benefits of Field Trips in Botany Classes

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tudent field trips are essential parts of many botany classes. These trips can be as small as a walk around the campus or as complex as a trip to a foreign country. Botany instructors use these trips to introduce students to the outdoor environments where plants live. These environments range from nature preserves to botanical gardens. This presentation divides plant field trips into four categories: campus, community, regional, and national/international. I examine the costs and benefits associated with each kind of trip. Overall, short trips around campuses can be easy to prepare, but they may not be very stimulating to students. In contrast, trips to national and international destinations can provide very impactful experiences for students. However, those trips can be costly and take a lot of time to prepare. In conclusion, trips around a community or region have reasonable costs and still provide a great experience for students and reinforce classroom learning objectives. In conclusion, when botany instructors seek to include field trips in their courses, they need to do a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits so that the experience can be the most effective for the students.

Winthrop University, Department Of Biology, 202 Dalton Hall, Rock Hill, SC, 29733, USA


Education and Outreach 260

MONFILS, ANNA K* 1, LINTON, DEBRA , ELLWOOD, ELIZABETH 3 and PHILLIPS, MOLLY 4 2

Natural history collections data and Biodiversity Literacy in Undergraduate Education (BLUE)

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atural history collections (NHCs) are one of the richest sources of information for documenting earth’s biodiversity across both space and time. As collections data become more accessible through the many digitization efforts (such as NSF’s Advancing Digitization for Biological Collections Program), many new research and educational applications for specimen data are being realized. When data from NHCs are combined with emerging ecological data resources (NEON, USGS, etc.) the power to address research questions of global concern and engage students in data-based independent and guided inquiry is profound. With the publication of the NSF/AAAS document, Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology: A Call to Action, the recent American Institute of Biological Science initiative “Leadership in Biology”, and other federal reviews of STEM education in the US there is national recognition that the next generation of college graduates must be skilled in communication and collaboration, have quantitative competency, possess the ability to understand and interpret data, and be comfortable working with large databases. Specimens and data from NHCs can serve a unique role in addressing Vision and Change recommendations as museum specimens and associated digital data provide significant opportunities for authentic undergraduate research experiences, and provide a valuable resource to teach about the iterative process of science, data literacy, critical thinking, quantitative biology, communication in the sciences, and biodiversity informatics. These skills can be integrated within the context of exploring topics including climate change, spread of disease, species conservation, interspecific interactions, and invasive species. The placebased capacity of collections data combined with the social and societal relevance of biodiversity can also serve a role in creating inclusive, culturally relevant and socially conscious educational materials that engage a broad audience in biodiversity science. Biodiversity Literacy in Undergraduate Education (BLUE; biodiversityliteracy. com) is a new initiative that brings together communities of biodiversity, data, and education specialists to develop effective strategies for sustained development and implementation of biodiversity and data literacy education. Here, we present examples of activities developed by BLUE, and BLUE partners, that highlight the use of NHC data in undergraduate biology courses. We will also discuss ways one can join the BLUE network, participate in BLUE activities, and share and disseminate resources through the growing BLUE network.

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WEEKS, ANDREA

Opened cabinets, opened minds: using digitized herbaria for botany outreach and education in Virginia

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n 2014, a consortium of over 90 US herbaria, funded by the National Science Foundation, began digitizing over 4.5 million southeastern US herbarium specimens. The plan of work entitled, “The Key to the Cabinets: Building and Sustaining a Research Database for a Global Biodiversity Hotspot” includes collecting highresolution digital images for all specimens, establishing publicly accessible databases of each herbarium’s holdings, and using crowdsourcing tools to transcribe label data and georeference localities. This seminar will describe efforts in Virginia to improve botany education and outreach by using, and contributing to, these new online resources. Two case studies will be presented. One study will detail how members of Virginia Native Plant Society and Virginia Master Naturalists have been engaged as partners in building the research database through herbarium label transcription. The second study will detail project-based learning in an undergraduate plant diversity and evolution course. The semester-long project scaffold gives students hands-on and individualized experience in most aspects of systematic botany, from nomenclature and descriptive morphology to phylogeny and biogeography, as well as a primer on biodiversity informatics in R and QGIS - all while using and contributing to Virginian herbarium resources.

George Mason University, Department of Biology, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3E1, Fairfax, VA, 22030

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Central Michigan University, Biology, 2401 Biosciences, Mt. Pleasant, MI, 488592Central Michigan University, 3400 Biosciences, Mt Pleasant, Michigan, 48858, United States3Florida State University4University of Florida

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262 JACOB 2

RICE, STANLEY* 1 and DYER,

Urban island forests: a possible laboratory of human impact on nature

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ne of our botanical teaching objectives is to help students realize that we cannot “preserve nature” by fencing or walling off a little bit of it. “Nature preserves” will nearly always suffer the effects of human activity, especially small ones with significant edge effects, and ecological islands surrounded by human activity. The optimistically-named Turkey Mountain Urban Wilderness in Tulsa, Oklahoma may serve as a good example of a forest preserve in which the trees experience higher mortality than would an intact forest. If a typical tree in this forest lives 100 years and takes five years to decompose after death, an observer would expect to see five dead trees or decomposing trunks out of ever hundred trees; tree death on Turkey Mountain far exceeds this rate. Possible explanations are the edge effect due to the urban heat island; extensive recreational use; and invasive plant species. Students could use a field activity based upon a place such as Turkey Mountain not only to explore human impacts, but to examine the validity of assumptions upon which the expected baseline mortality rate is based.

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Southeastern Oklahoma State University, Biological Sciences, 425 W. University Blvd, Durant, OK, 74701-3347, USA2Oklahoma State University, Natural Resource Ecology and Management, 008 C Agriculture Hall, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA

263

GIBSON, J PHIL

Molecular analysis of the Dendrogrammaceae

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he Dendrogrammaceae is a classic exercise that uses hypothetical plants to teach priciples of phylogenetic analyses. Although the original exercise has specific procedures for their originally intended use in teaching phylogenetics, the exercise is highly adaptable for students at all levels of experience. Modifications of the exercise and inclusion of additional molecular data analysis that can allow for additional facets of phylogenetic analysis to be included in the activity and help achieve additional learning goals will be described. University of Oklahoma, Department of Microbiology & Plant Biology, Department of Biology, Norman, OK, 73019, USA

264

VALDES, IMENA* 1 and CHEN, HUAYANG 2

A Brief Study on Ficus Seed Germination: An International Collaboration Born Through the PLANTS Program

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ince 2010 the Botanical Society of America has awarded undergraduates the opportunity to travel to their annual meetings through the PLANTS (Preparing Leaders and Nurturing Tomorrow’s Scientists) Program. They are then paired with faculty, postdocs, and graduate students for mentoring and networking. It was through this program, in 2015, that I was introduced to Dr. Uromi Manage Goodale of Guangxi University (GXU) located in Nanning, Guangxi, China. This association was further nurtured through the joint collaboration between GXU and the Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program at Florida International University (FIU), of which I am a member of the 13th Cohort. Both GXU and the McNair Program provided funding for my travel to China in the summer of 2016, where I joined Dr. Goodale’s research team to work on Ficus seed bio-physiology. Species in the genus Ficus are considered keystone species that provide valuable food and habitats for wildlife. Many species’ germination processes are expected to be significantly affected by climate change. We assessed the effect of temperature and species on germination, defined as radicle emergence, in eight Ficus species and a control species also in the family Moraceae by placing seeds in controlled germination chambers set at 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C. The temperature experiments were analyzed using mixed models to test for their effect on germination. We found that with increase in temperature from 25°C to 35°C there was a significant reduction in germination for some species. All species germinated poorly in 15°C. However, none of the seed traits measured in this study correlated with the germination responses under 15°C, 25°C or 35°C. This research collaboration proved itself to be a stimulating experience for both my professional and personal growth; I was introduced to celebrated international scientists and research facilities, new research methodologies and techniques, and a vastly different culture. The challenges arose from the distinctive surroundings and customs of the Chinese, in daily life as well as in the lab.

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Florida International University , Biological Sciences, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL, 33199, USA2Guangxi University , Guangxi Key Laboratory for Forest Ecology and Conservation, Daxuedonglu 100, Nanning, Guangxi, 530005, China

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Education and Outreach POSTERS

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266

Native Fruits in Porto Alegre (RS): promoting the biodiversity with a website

HAVENS, KAYRI 1, KRAMER, ANDREA 2, SKOGEN, KRISSA* 3 and WILLIAMS, EVELYN 4

Advocacy for Native Plants and Restoration: 'Botany Bill', H.R. 1054 The Botanical Sciences and Native Plant Materials Research, Restoration and Promotion Act

Plant Blindness” is a documented phenomenon in people; it is the tendency of humans not to notice or appreciate the importance of plants. This has manifested in less funding and less protection for plants in the U.S. and other countries. We need an organized effort to advocate for support of native plant programs and restoration. We discuss how to develop and deliver a proplant message to decision makers, using the example of the “botany bill,” recently introduced legislation in the U.S. which if enacted will support plant scientists, plant funding and the use of native plants on federal lands.

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Chicago Botanic Garden, CONS SCI DEPT, 1000 Lake Cook Road, Glencoe, IL, 60022, USA2Chicago Botanic Garden, 1000 Lake Cook Road, Glencoe, IL, 60022, USA3Chicago Botanic Garden, Conservation Scientist, 1000 Lake Cook Road, Glencoe, IL, 60022, USA4 Chicago Botanic Garden, 1000 Lake Cook Road, Glencoe, Illinois, 60022, United States

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GOLDEN, ALEXANDRA* 1 and NELSON, JOHN 2

Engaging the Public in Botany Through “Treasured Trees”

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ncouraging involvement in the botanical sciences is critical to the future of botany, as well as to the future of conservation programs which rely heavily on public interest. To engage the Columbia, SC area in botany and native plants, four self-guided walking tours of notable trees in the downtown area were prepared. The Richland County “Treasured Trees” database as well as personal observation was used to locate 30 landmark trees for these tours. Included with the tours was a list of native, naturalized, and popular ornamental trees in Richland County, SC; botanical information and cultural significances were compiled and included in the list. The tree list and walking tours are made freely available to the public in PDF format and uploaded onto the City of Columbia website as well as the Richland County website. An official launch of the materials is planned for Earth Day, April 22, 2017. It is hoped that the materials will spur additional participation in the Treasured Trees program and other conservation activities around Columbia, as well as familiarize the public with Columbia’s urban forest.

K…HLER, MATIAS* 1, SANTOS, ESTELA 2 and BRACK, PAULO 1

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razil is one of the most biodiverse countries, with more than 33,000 angiosperms taxa cataloged. Despite this diversity, most of these plants remain little known to the general public. With some exceptions, the plants used for food and local gardening are basically the same globally known, with exacerbated use of alien plants. In fact, the local flora is poorly known by the non-botanists public. This phenomenon has been related with plant blindness and xenophilia, broadly defined as the inability to recognize and appreciate the plants in one’s own environment and the affection for foreign plants, respectively. This leads us to believe that additional knowledge on the local flora, especially those species useful in food, could be a convenient tool to the community. The state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the southernmost of the country, presents a significant biodiversity, and the capital Porto Alegre is a good representative of this biodiversity. Our main objective with this work is to provide educational resources to both students and the general public in order to disseminate knowledge about the biodiversity, recognizing the importance and the potential use of the local flora. The initial assessment of native fruits is based on the examination of herbarium data, bibliographic materials and fieldworks. The survey resulted in a list with more than 50 species, from which a sample of 40 were selected to be used on a website. The website contains botanical, ecological and utilitarian information from species as well as photos for illustration and identification. The website has already reached more than twenty thousand views and still continues to be shared in digital media. Future goals of this project involve the recognition and marking of matrix trees distributed in natural areas of the city, being this information available in an interactive virtual map. This information aim to further understand and appreciate the city“s natural environments.

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Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Botânica, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Instituto de Biociências, Porto Alegre, RS, 91501- 970, Brazil2Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Artes Visuais, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS, 91501- 970, Brazil

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University of South Carolina, Biological Sciences, 715 Sumter Street, CLS 401, Columbia, SC, 29208, USA2University of South Carolina, Biological Sciences, 715 Sumter Street, CLS 208, Columbia, SC, 29208, USA

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Ethnobotany ORAL PAPERS 269

HODGSON, WENDY 1, SALYWON, ANDREW* 1 and DOELLE, WILLIAM 2

A New Species of Agave (Agavaceae) found with â&#x20AC;&#x153;Rock Piles Galoreâ&#x20AC;? in preColumbian Agricultural Fields along the San Pedro River, Arizona

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n terraces along the ca. 60 miles of bajada above the San Pedro River floodplain between Benson and Mammoth, Arizona, archeologists have documented tens of thousands of acres of pre-Columbian agricultural sites consisting of rock-pile fields and non-architectural linear rock-pile features. Evidence from previous archeological work in the region suggests that these types of fields were used to cultivate agaves, which were used by Native Americans for food, fiber and beverage. Fortuitously, there are a few locations in which agaves can still be found growing within these fields today. These agaves are only associated with these agricultural features and are not found in the surrounding unmodified settings. Furthermore, they produce very little seed, reproduce readily via vegetative means, and we cannot assign these plants to any described species by morphology or molecular data. Therefore, we propose that these plants represent a putative pre-Columbian domesticate that was cultivated by the Hohokam people. Evidence suggests that the peak interval of agave cultivation in this area was from ca. A.D. 1000 to 1275 and that the impressive scope of the agricultural fields indicate that agaves were important in the Hohokam economy. The limited number of remnant agaves surviving in these field today raises concern for the conservation of this hidden domesticate without renewed human cultivation.

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Desert Botanical Garden, 1201 N Galvin Parkway, Phoenix, AZ, 85008, USA2Archaeology Southwest , 300 N Ash Alley, Tucson, AZ, 85701, USA

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KANKARA, SULAIMAN SANI

Medicinal Plants Used for the management of HIV/AIDS Opportunistic Infections in Katsina State, Nigeria

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ub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region with HIV/AIDS in the world with Nigeria alone accounting for about 9% of people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. Traditional healers and local communities use medicinal plants to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections (OIs) in those countries because of their availability and affordability. People leaving with HIV/AIDS prefer alternative medicine using medicinal plants because of the stigma associated with the disease. Despite the intense use of medicinal plants for managing HIV/AIDS OIs, this indigenous knowledge is poorly

documented and very few studies are reported from Nigeria in spite of its rich cultural diversity vis a vis the human and natural factors affecting the plant biodiversity. In this study, an attempt was made to prepare an inventory of medicinal plants used for the management of this endemic In Katsina- one of the poorer states of the country. Semi-structured questionnaire method was adopted to obtain information from traditional healers, people living with HIV/AIDS, herbalists and other old people from the selected communities. Three Local Government Areas (one from each Senatorial District) were selected for this study. The survey revealed that 63 plant species belonging to 34 families and 48 genera are used for the management of HIV/AIDS OIs in the study area. Most of the cited plants belong to Fabaceae (15 species), followed by Combretaceae (7 species) and Moraceae (4 species). Families Rubiaceae, Rhamnaceae, Olacaceae, Myrtaceae, Anacardiaceae and Euphorbiaceae were represented with 2 species each, while the remaining families have 1 specie each. Anogeissus leiocarpa appeared to be the most popular species having the highest Relative Frequency of Citation (0.75), while Ipomea batata had the least Relative Frequency of Citation (0.01). A total of 16 OIs were managed with these plants. The most used plant parts were leaves (37.50%), bark (33.75%), root (17.50%), and whole plant (3.75%). While Seed, rhizome and fruit account for 2.50% each. This study reveals that people still patronise medicinal plants to manage HIV/AIDS OIs despite the availability of anti-retroviral drugs in conventional health centres. The provides baseline data based on which future pharmacological studies aimed at producing anti HIV/AIDS drugs could be conducted. Umaru Musa Yar'adua University, Department of Biology, PMB 2218 Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria, Katsina, Katsina, Nigeria

271

OGUNMEFUN, OLAYINKA* , OLATUNJI, B.P. and OLAGBEMIDE, P.T.

A Survey of Ethnomedicinal Contraceptives used in Ekiti State, Southwestern, Nigeria A survey was carried out to gather information on the uses of fertility regulatory plants as birth control methods and as abortifacient in Ekiti, a Southwestern state of Nigeria. This method of contraception using herbal medicines was mostly common with the people in the rural areas of Ekiti state due to low cost and easy accessability. Anti-fertility plants are commonly used by women as contraceptives, as plants are generally used for health remedies from times immemorial which make it a vital area of research. The different parts of plants used, the actions they perform and the methods of preparation were documented which can serve as an eye opener for pharmacological testing and subsequent pharmaceutical preparations of these plant products into forms that are acceptable worldwide. Afe Babalola University, Biological Sciences, Km 8.5 Afe Babalola Way, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti, 6969, Nigeria

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Ethnobotany

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273

OJO, FUNMILOLA* 1, OLADIPO, OLANIRAN TEMITOPE 2 and AKINLOYE, AKINWUMI JOHNSON 2

JAN, DR. GUL

Quantitative ethno-botanical analysis and conservation issues of medicinal flora from Alpine and Sub-alpine, Hindukush region of Pakistan

Ethnobotanical and Floret studies on Twelve Species of the family Asteraceae in Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria

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t is the first quantitativeethno-botanical analysisand conservation issues of medicinal flora of Alpine and Sub-alpine, Hindikush region of Pakistan. The objective of the study aims to report, compare the uses and highlight the ethno-Botanical significance of medicinal plants for treatment of various diseases. A total of 250 (242 males and 8 females) local informants including 10 Local Traditional Healers were interviewed. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews, analyzed and compared by quantitative ethnobotanical indices such as Jaccard index (JI), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), use value (UV) and Relative frequency of citation (RFC).Thorough survey indicated that 57medicinal plants belongs to 43 families were investigated to treat variousillnesses. The highest ICF is recorded for digestive system (0.69%), Circolatory system (0.61%), urinary tract system, (0.53%) and respiratory system (0.52%). Used value indicated that, Achillea mellefolium(UV = 0.68), Aconitum violaceum (UV = 0.69),Valeriana jatamansi (UV = 0.63), Berberis lyceum (UV = 0.65) and are exceedingly medicinal plant species used in the region.In comparison, highest similarity index is recorded in these studies with JI 17.72 followed by 16.41.According to DMR output, Pinus williciana ranked first due to multipurpose uses among all species and was found most threatened with higher market value. Unwise used of natural assets pooled with unsuitable harvesting practices have exaggerated pressure on plantspecies of the research region. The main issues causative to natural variety loss found were over grazing of animals, forest violation, wild animal hunting, fodder, plant collectionas medicine, fuel wood, forest fire, and invasive species negatively affectthe natural resources. For viable utilization, in situ and ex situ conservation, skilfulcollecting, and reforestation project may be the resolution. Further wide field management research is required.

thnobotanical and floret studies were carried out on 12 species of family Asteraceae in Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria. The aim was to assess the extent of use of medicinal plants by the tribal and local people and to determine the importance of floret number in the taxonomy of the members of family Asteraceae. Data were gathered through interviews and structured questionnaire to show that the tribal and local people utilize different plant species for treatment of diseases. In this study, 12 species with ethnobotanical values were identified as being used by the local people as food, fuels, and medicine. Floret study was done by studying 25 capitula each from 20 plants of each species. Capitula at anthesis were harvested randomly from the species planted in garden and screen house. Each capitulum was dissected by means of a pair of forceps and mounting needle to detach the florets from the receptacle. The detached florets were counted to know the number of florets contained in each capitulum. Data were subjected to One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Post hoc test for significant differences among the species at p<0.05. The result of study indicates that the 12 species of the family Asteraceae studied were commonly used as food, fuel and medicine. Similarly, there was significant difference in floret numbers among the species. Mean floret number of the species ranges from 16.60 in Vernonia amygdalina to 91.64 in Crassocephalum crepidioides. Conclusively, this study shows that, ethnobotanical and floret studies also helps in taxonomic studies and characterization of plant species.

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Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Department of Biological Sciences, Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria2Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Botany, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Department of Botany, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Khyber Pakhtu, Botany, Department of Botany, Department of Botany, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, Mardan, Khyber Pakhoonkhwa, 23200, pakistan

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POSTERS 274

CZAPLA, GRANT* 1, KRAKOS, KYRA and BUCHANAN, ASHLEY 3 2

The use and analysis of Paoenia officinalis from the records of Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici in the Medici archives in Florence, Italy

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his is an historical ethno botanical study focusing on the use of Paoenia officinalis by Anna Maria Luisa de“ Medici (1667-1716). In Florence, Italy, the Medici Archives house the correspondence and documentation of the ruling house of Medici in the 15th and 16th century. Recent translations have provided documentation of the use of P. officinalis as a key recipe promoted by Anna Maria as a treatment for childhood fevers. In this study we document the pre-Linnean taxonomy of P. officinalis, compare past and present medicinal uses, and examine the known biochemistry of this species. The research was conducted both in the collaboration with the Medici Archives and at the Missouri Botanical Garden Riven Libary. We find that the use of P. officinalis has multiple sources of folk medicine documentation, and has biochemical properties consistent with potential efficacy for medicinal effects. 1

Maryville University, Biology, 509 Misty Moss Lane , St. Peters, MO, 63376, USA2Maryville University, Biology, 650 Maryville University Drive, St. Louis, MO, 63141, USA3University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL, 33620, USA

275

NANTENAINA, RINDRA HARILANTO* , ROGER, EDMOND and RAFIDISON, VEROHANITRA

Characterizing the optimal conditions for the production of Darutoside in Sigesbeckia orientalis

highlights the importance of taking into account both environmental conditions and biological factors in the harvest of Sigesbeckia orientalis for an optimal production of Darutoside. However, given that the production of active compound in medicinal plants may vary sporadically, periodic monitoring is necessary for a better understanding of the production of this important active compound. University of Antananarivo, Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, BP 906 Ankatso, Antananarivo, 101, Madagascar

276

SHANNON, OLIVIA* 1, BUCHANAN, ASHLEY 2 and KRAKOS, KYRA 3

Strychnos ignatii: an ethnobotanical study of a deadly bean from the Philippines to the last Medici Princess.

T

his historical ethno-botanical study focuses on the transfer of knowledge and use of the bean of Strychnos ignatii by the last Medici princess, Anna Maria Luisa de’ Medici (1667-1716). In this study, we will look at taxonomy, uses of the plant medicinally in the past and present, and understand the biochemistry of the species. Documentation from the Medici Archives indicates that this plant and its use in the Philippines was described by Kamel in 1697, who sent the information to a physician with the East India Trading Company, Browne, and then included in the Ray’s 1686 Historia Plantarum. In 1714, an epistle with a set of the Strychnos beans was sent from Thomas Medici, agent to the Phillipines, to Cosimo III and his daughter, Anna Maria. Medici records indicate it was used to treat menstrual cramps. Strychnos spp. have a history of use in many countries and the biochemistry of the plant supports some of its medicinal uses. This research was in collaboration with the Medici Archives and Missouri Botanical Garden. 1

Maryville University, Biology , 650 Maryville University Dr. , St. Louis , MO, 63141, USA 2University of South Florida, History , 4202 E Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL, 33620, USA 3Maryville University , 650 Maryville University Dr. , St. Louis , MO, 63141, USA

S

igesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae), a medicinal plant known for its wound-healing property, is highly demanded in cosmetic industries because of the presence of "Darutoside", an important active compound. This study aims in determining what factors influence the production of Darutoside in S. orientalis in the tropical ecosystems of Madagascar. To do this, we extracted this compound from three different organs (leaves, seeds and whole plants) collected at different time periods during the rainy season (at the beginning, in the highest peak and at the end) and dried using three different methods (sun-, shade- and freeze-drying). We also analyzed how the chemical composition of the soil in the field where S. orientalis is naturally found, influence the production of Darutoside. Our results show that Sigesbeckia leaves, collected at the end of the rainy season and dried in the shade, have the highest content of Darutoside. This content is enhanced for individuals found on a strongly acid soil, with a very sandy silt texture, rich in Carbon, Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus, and for those in close proximity to a river. This research

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Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo) 277 OLGA

2

BECK, SAMANTHA* 1 and KOPP,

Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo)

A review of the Phytochemistry and Ethnopharmacology of Tridax procumbens

ORAL PAPERS

O

riginating in Central and South America, Tridax procumbens, a member of the Asteraceae family has great ethnobotanical potential. It is a perennial plant with a capitulum inflorescence that results in abundant production of achenes, making it a noxious weed if not controlled. The purpose of this paper is to review the traditional uses of T. procumbens, along with the documented biological activity in order to highlight the importance of continuing research on this species. An in-depth review of the literature of this species was done using different sources, including ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Nature, PubMed and other databases. T. procumbens produces secondary metabolites that have been reported to have a variety of medicinal uses such as: anti-anemic, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic, pain relief, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, and immunomodulating properties. Different methods of extraction were compiled to show the wide range of various T. procumbens extracts in a variety of biochemical research. This paper shows that more exploration is needed for the potential of T. procumbens’ secondary metabolites as medicine or preventive treatment, making it a promising ethnobotanical resource.

278

LEUNG, AMY WING-SZE* 1, KIM, SANGTAE 2, LIM, BOON LEONG 1 and SAUNDERS, RICHARD MARK KINGSLEY 1

Transcriptome profiling of Desmos chinesis: Revealing the molecular basis of dipartite perianth evolution in the earlydivergent angiosperm family Annonaceae

W

hile many angiosperm taxa experienced genome duplication and different degrees of transposable element proliferation, the homeotic control of floral development has remained conservative. The MIKC-type MADS-domain proteins are transcription factors that dictate organ identity during floral organogenesis. The classic “ABCDE” MADS-box gene expression model proposed for the core eudicots is not fully applicable to early-divergent angiosperms, in which a gradual transition of floral organ morphology is observed, leading to the proposed “fading-borders” expression model. Flowers in the Annonaceae deviate from other earlydivergent angiosperms in possessing a distinctive dipartite perianth. Petals in the Annonaceae (‚bracteopetals’) have furthermore presumably evolved independently from andropetals in core eudicots. The degree of differentiation of petals from sepals in Annonaceae flowers is generally of functional significance (e.g., enabling the evolution of largely or fully enclosed pollination chambers during anthesis). Little is known of the genetic control of floral development in the Annonaceae. The application of massive parallel sequencing techniques such as RNAseq provides opportunities to profile the transcriptomes of non-model organisms. In addition to a developmental study, we characterized the floral and leaf transcriptome of Desmos chinensis, a representative of the Annonaceae that possesses a dipartite perianth and which shares the basic floral Bauplan of the family, in order to understand the genetics of its floral development. Transcriptomes of developing and mature Desmos chinensis floral organs and leaves were sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform. After filtering, 16,098 genes and 22,112 transcripts were recovered from de novo assembly. We identified possible coding regions and compared the assembled transcripts against five public databases. Based on sequence homology against NCBI non-redundant protein database, transcripts were annotated with 3,991 unique gene ontology (GO) terms and categorized into functional groups. Functional group enrichment analysis was used to identify groups with significant expression level changes during organ development. Transcripts that are commonly differentially expressed among developing and mature floral organs and leaves were identified using the digital gene expression data. We identified 40 putative homeotic MADS-box gene homologs and their respective expression levels in order to determine whether Annonaceae flowers are consis-

1

Utah Valley University, Biology, 800 W University Pkwy, Orem, Utah, 84058, USA2Utah Valley University, Biology, 800 W University Pkwy, Orem, Utah, 84058, United States

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tent with the MADS-box gene â&#x20AC;&#x153;fading bordersâ&#x20AC;? expression model. Other floral developmental regulators of Desmos chinensis were also discovered. While many questions remain unresolved at the transcription level, our data emphasizes the importance and potential of extending further studies into systems biology, and help understand floral developmental biology as biological networks. 1

The University of Hong Kong, School of Biological Sciences, Hong Kong, China2Sungshin Women's University, Department of Biology, Seoul, Republic of Korea

279 2

MIN, YA* 1 and KRAMER, ELENA

The Aquilegia JAGGED homolog promotes proliferation of adaxial cell types in both leaves and stems

I

n order to explore the functional conservation of JAGGED, a key gene involved in the sculpting of lateral organs in several model species, we identified its ortholog AqJAG in the lower eudicot species Aquilegia coerulea.We analyzed the expression patterns of AqJAG in various tissues and developmental stages, and used RNAi-based methods to generate knockdown phenotypes of AqJAG.AqJAG was strongly expressed in shoot apices, floral meristems, lateral root primordia and all lateral organ primordia. Silencing of AqJAG revealed a wide range of defects in the developing stems, leaves and flowers; strongest phenotypes include severe reduction of leaflet laminae due to a decrease in cell size and number, change of adaxial cell identity, outgrowth of laminar-like tissue on the inflorescence stem, and early arrest of floral meristems and floral organ primordia. Our results indicate that AqJAG plays a critical role in controlling primordia initiation and distal growth of floral organs, and laminar development of leaflets. Most strikingly, we demonstrated that AqJAG disproportionally controls the behavior of cells with adaxial identity in vegetative tissues, providing evidence of how cell proliferation is controlled in an identity-specific manner.

1

Harvard University, Department of organismic and evolutionary biology, 16 Divinity Ave., Biolabs R1119, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA2Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA

280

SMITH, ANNIKA

An Integrated Approach to Exploring Floral Evolution in the Nasturtiums (Tropaeolum)

T

he ability to successfully address the complex, multidimensional process of plant character evolution requires approaches that integrate across domains: genetics, evolution, development, and ecology. Likewise, in order to understand the patterns of plant character evolution across a broad phylogenetic scale, we must continue to extend beyond current model organisms and identify new candidate genes implicated in phenotypic evolution. I will explore the potential for an approach that synthesizes systematics, evo-devo, and bioinformatics to generate candidate gene hypotheses in non-model plants. Drawing on successful approaches from vertebrate systems, I propose a data-driven approach using ontologies to link the phenotypes and developmental processes of non-model plant clades to underlying candidate genes identified from the model plant Arabidopsis. I will discuss the application of this approach in the context of non-model Tropaeolum, commonly known as nasturtiums, to explore the genetic and developmental basis of phenotypic convergence and constraint in floral evolution. The placement of Tropaeolum within Brassicales, the same clade in which Arabidopsis occurs, provides the possibility of employing an ontological approach to develop candidate gene hypotheses for floral phenotypes. Additionally, more distantly related plant clades with convergent phenotypes could also be systematically queried through ontologies to explore the molecular and morphological basis for convergence and to suggest additional candidate genes. Both the challenges and potential inherent in ontological approaches will be discussed, as well as the integral role that development must play in the process of ontology design. Comparative genomic, phylogenetic, and gene expression studies are downstream methods that could be used in the interpretation of the candidate genes suggested by the ontologies. Ultimately, I hope to use this approach to elucidate the mechanisms behind the patterns of variation in floral form, especially as they relate to pollination, within Tropaeolum. University of Florida, Department of Biology, 1659 Museum Road, Gainesville, FL, 32611, United States

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Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo) 281

HALL, JOCELYN C* 1, CAREY, SHANE 2, MENDLER, KERRIN 2 and SINGH, NAVJOT 2

Investigating the evolution and genetic basis of jointed fruits in the Brassiceae (Brassicaceae)

F

ruits of Brassicaceae represent an ideal system to investigate the evolution of novel, ecologically important traits. The remarkable morphological variation seen likely impacts seed dispersal. Members of the tribe Brassiceae have a unique fruit type in the family, where the fruits are laterally segmented by a novel structure referred to as the joint. This segmentation, known as heteroarthrocarpy, is accompanied by variable dehiscence in the proximal segments. Further, indehiscence of proximal segment is often correlated with two segments abscising (separating) at maturity. Here we continue our investigations of Erucaria erucarioides and Cakile lanceolata, closely-related species which vary both in proximal dehiscence and joint abscission. Thus, we can make both within fruit and between species comparisons. We build on previous comparative gene expression studies by comparing RNA-seq data obtained from three regions of young fruits: proximal, joint, and distal. These data are complemented by qRT-PCR expression profiles at multiple developmental stages. Analyses suggest that the joint has a significantly different gene expression profile, especially when compared to the proximal segment. These data shed light on how differential expression of fruit patterning genes in these taxa may lead to variable morphologies and dispersal capabilities.

1

University Of Alberta, Harvard University Herbaria, CW 405 Biological Sciences Building, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E9, Canada2University of Alberta, CW 405 Biological Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G2E9, Canada

282

MAHEEPALA, DINUSHA* 1, FERNANDO ALZATE, JUAN 2, BAGHAEI, ARMAN 3, EMERLING, CHRISTOPHER A. 4 , LE, ALLEN 3, PABĂ&#x201C;N-MORA, NATALIA 5, STRAHL, MAYA 6 and LITT, AMY 1

Evolution and diversification of Solanaceae FRUITFULL genes

F

RUITFULL (FUL) genes are MADS-box transcription factors that have functions in vegetative and reproductive organ development, and the transition to flowering. A whole genome duplication early in the diversification of core eudicots resulted in the euFULI, and euFULII gene clades. As a result of further duplication events, Solanaceae has four FUL genes: FUL1 and FUL2 in the euFULI clade, and MBP10 and MBP20 in the euFULII clade. The Arabidopsis euFULI gene FUL is involved in patterning the lignified dehiscence zone in the dry silique. The overexpression of a euFULI gene in tobacco resulted in indehiscent fruit, suggesting a conserved role for these genes in dry fruit. However, all four Solanaceae FUL genes are also expressed in the berry of

tomato. The lack of lignified tissue in this fruit suggests a change in the function of these genes. We are characterizing FUL gene evolution in Solanaceae in an attempt to identify changes that might be correlated with the origin of fleshy fruit. To address these questions we have compiled and analyzed a dataset of FUL gene sequences from Sanger sequencing and transcriptomes either generated in our lab or available through online resources. Previous publications have suggested a whole genome triplication at the base of Solanaceae, and our data support the origin of FUL1 and FUL2 as a result of this event. However, MBP10 and MBP20 are located on the same chromosome and we have not found MBP10 in early diverging species, suggesting this is a tandem duplication that occurred later in Solanaceae diversification. A large first intron containing regulatory sequence is characteristic of FUL genes but MBP10 has only a short first intron that is missing several putative regulatory elements. This in combination with the low expression levels might indicate that MBP10 is becoming a pseudogene. However, our data also show that MBP10, along with the other three Solanaceae FUL gene lineages, is under purifying selection, which is inconsistent with the pseudogene hypothesis. Analyses of our data do not show any change in selection pressure or conserved protein motifs for any Solanaceae FUL gene clade in the transition to fleshy fruit. 1

University of California, Riverside, Botany and Plant Sciences2Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia3University of California, Riverside4University of California, Berkeley5University of Antioquia, Colombia6Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

283

CONWAY, STEPHANIE 1 and DI STILIO, VERONICA, S* 2

LEAFY function in the model fern Ceratopteris richardii: reconstructing the ancestral role of a flowering meristem identity gene

F

erns are an important group of vascular plants that represent both the sister group to seed plants and a midpoint comparison between angiosperms and non-vascular plants. Therefore, an evo-devo approach in ferns has the potential to bridge our understanding of the evolution of form and function in land plants. LEAFY (LFY) is a transcription factor with an important role in the transition from vegetative to floral development in angiosperms. The fact that LFY orthologs are found across non-flowering land plants suggests an important ancestral function beyond flower development. Recent stable transgenesis of the model fern Ceratopteris richardii presents a golden opportunity to examine LFY function in this early-diverging vascular plant. Ontogenetic expression analysis of the two CrLFY genes found that expression peaks in young sporophytes, while promoter-reporter gene activity was more specifically localized to the embryonic shoot apical meristem (SAM) and leaf initials of the compound fern leaf (frond). We generated LFY knockdown mutants using RNAi methods. Preliminary experiments on validated lossof-function transgenic lines suggest an early phenotype

121


consisting of delayed fertilization and/or delayed zygote development. Sporophytes that did develop had severe leaf abnormalities and persistent gametophytes. Taken together, these results suggest that CrLFY plays a role in the early development of the sporophyte, possibly in the establishment of its SAM, and in the development of the dissected leaf morphology. Based on our results, our working hypothesis is that LFYâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s floral meristem identity function was recruited from a broader meristematic role in earlier vascular plants. 1

University of Washington, Department Of Biology, Po Box 351800, Seattle, WA, 98115-1800, USA2University of Washington, Department Of Biology, Po Box 351800, Seattle, WA, 98115-1800, United States

284

SENGUPTA, ANIKET* 1 and HILEMAN, LENA 2

Searching for more: Antirrhinum corolla symmetry genetic network in carpel development

B

ilaterally symmetric flowers are a novel phenotype that has evolved at least 70 times from radially symmetric flowers during flowering plant diversification. The genetic basis of bilaterally symmetric flowers was first elucidated in Antirrhinum majus (order Lamiales). In this species, bilateral symmetry is defined by the interaction of six genesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;CYCLOIDEA (CYC), DICHOTOMA (DICH), RADIALIS (RAD), DIVARICATA (DIV), and DIV and RAD interacting factors (DRIF1 and DRIF2). This interaction is called the CYC-based genetic network. The competitive interaction between these genes define mirror image symmetry along the dorso-ventral axis of the flower, particularly in the petal and stamen whorls. CYC and DICH are two recent paralogs of the TCP gene family. Our preliminary data suggests that members of the TCP (CYC)-based genetic network are expressed in the carpels and fruits of many flowering plant species. However, conservation of this network in carpel or fruit development has received limited attention, as research has been largely focused on corolla and stamen development. We find that in Antirrhinum, DICH, RAD, DIV, and DRIF1 and DRIF2 (but not CYC), are expressed across multiple stages of carpel and fruit development. Further, wherever tested (our work and previous studies), the orthologs of Antirrhinum CYC-based genetic network were found to be expressed in the carpels and fruits of species outside Lamiales (Solanales, Brassicales, Rananculales, Piperales, and Zingiberales). This suggests the possibility of the network being conserved, partially or wholly, in gynoecium development in angiosperms, potentially pre-dating the origin of bilateral symmetry in corollas.

1

Kansas University, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 8009 Haworth Hall, 1200 Sunnyside Ave, Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA2University Of Kansas, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA

285

KHOJAYORI, FARAH* 1, ZHANG, JINGBO , KRAMER, ELENA 2, DAVIS, CHARLES 3 and ZHANG, WENHENG 1 1

CYC2-like genes elucidate floral symmetry evolution following a major biogeographic disjunction

R

ecent studies indicate that CYCLOIDEA2- (CYC2) like genes have likely played an important role in the evolution of floral symmetry in Malpighiaceae. Two copies of CYC2, CYC2A and CYC2B, arose from a gene duplication in the common ancestor of the family. These genes are differentially expressed among New World (NW) species exhibiting the typical floral zygomorphy: CYC2A is expressed in the dorsal banner petal and adjacent lateral petals; CYC2B is restricted to the dorsal banner petal. Loss of the obligate NW oil bee pollinators is associated with the loss of NW floral morphology in Old World (OW) Malpighiaceae. Among the seven OW clades, the acridocarpoids are comprised of the African and Malagasy Acridocarpus (ca. 32 species) and the Southeast Asian Brachylophon (ca. 2 species). Zygomorphic flowers of Acridocarpus consist of two prominent dorsal petals, two lateral petals, and one ventral petal. The flowers of Brachylophon, in contrast, are actinomorphic. We previously demonstrated for Acridocarpus natalitius and A. zanzibaricus that CYC2B has likely been lost, and that CYC2A expression was shifted to the dorsal and lateral petals coinciding with their altered morphology. Here, we report that Brachylophon curtisii contains both CYC2 genes, with BcCYC2A maintaining the ancestral NW expression, while BcCYC2B is only expressed in the stamens. We also demonstrate that the evolution of CYC2 genes in Acridocarpus is more complicated than previously thought. CYC2B homologs have been lost, independently, several times in the genus; CYC2A, in contrast, was largely maintained with the exception of certain species in which it was lost. Taken together, these results suggest that the ancestral NW expression of CYC2 genes was modified independently within Acridocarpus and Brachylophon, implying that the most recent common ancestor of these two genera possessed the NW floral zygomorphy. This model supports the conclusion that the ancestors of the acridocarpoids likely diverged quickly upon their arrival to the OW, and that their ancestral NW floral zygomorphy was subsequently modified independently, presumably in response to different pollinator selective regimens in Africa and Southeast Asia. 1

Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Biology, 1000 West Cary Street, Richmond, VA, 23284, USA2Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA3Harvard University, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology / Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Ave, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA

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Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo) 286

TONG, JINGJING* 1, BERGER, BRENT 2, KNOX, ERIC 3, MORDEN, C. W. 4, CELLINESE, NICO 5, PENDER, RICHARD 6 and HOWARTH, DIANELLA 2

BERGER, BRENT* 1, RICIGLIANO, VINCENT 2, SAVRIAMA, YOLAND 3, LIM, AEDRIC 4, THOMPSON, VERONICA 5 and HOWARTH, DIANELLA 1

Duplication and expression of CYCLOIDEA-like genes in Campanulaceae

Geometric morphometrics reveals shifts in flower shape symmetry and size following gene knockdown of CYCLOIDEA and ANTHOCYANIDIN SYNTHASE

S

hifts in flower symmetry between radial symmetry and bilateral symmetry have evolved multiple times independently in angiosperms and have played a major role in speciation and adaptation. Evidence from studies of core eudicots indicate that CYCLOIDEA-like (CYC) genes, which belong to the class II TCP gene family, specify dorsal identify in bilateral symmetrical flowers. Three core eudicot clades of CYC-like genes have been identified: CYC1, CYC2 and CYC3. This study focuses on these gene clades in Campanulaceae, which includes five subfamilies, with one, Campanuloideae, having radial symmetrical flowers. All other subfamilies, including Lobelioideae, Cyphioideae, and Cyphocarpoidea, have bilaterally symmetrical flowers. At present, we have sequenced CamCYC-like genes from Campanuloideae, Lobeliodeae, and Cyphioideae. Our data indicate that CamCYC2 genes have duplicated in Lobeliodeae, correlated with a shift to bilateral symmetry in Campanulaceae. Current sampling from CamCYC3 genes indicates that they have duplicated at least in the bilaterally symmetrical Cyphioideae. We aim with further work to utilize real time RT-PCR to examine expression patterns of different paralogs of CamCYC-like genes in Campanuloideae (radial flowers) and Lobeliodeae (bilateral flowers). Additionally, we aim to examine the localization of CamCYC-like genes in radial and bilateral flowers in Campanulaceae via in situ hybridization. 1

St. John's University, 8000 Utopia Pkwy, Jamaica, NY, 11439, USA2St. John's University, 8000 Utopia Pkwy, Jamaica, NY, 11439, United States3Indiana University, Department of Biology, Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA4University Of Hawaii, Department Of Botany, 3190 Maile Way, HONOLULU, HI, 96822-2279, USA5University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, 1659 Museum Road, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, United States6New Zealand Department of Conservation, Wellington, NZ

287

W

hile floral symmetry has traditionally been assessed qualitatively, recent advances in geometric morphometrics have opened up new avenues to specifically quantify flower shape and size using robust multivariate statistical methods. In this study, we examine, for the first time, the ability of geometric morphometrics to detect morphological differences in floral dorsoventral asymmetry following virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Using Fedia graciliflora Fisch. & Meyer (Valerianaceae) as a model, corolla shape of wildtype flowers was compared using canonical variate analysis to knockdown phenotypes of CYCLOIDEA2A (FgCYC2A), ANTHOCYANIDIN SYNTHASE (FgANS), and empty vector controls. Wildtype flowers and all VIGS treatments were morphologically distinct from each other, suggesting that VIGS may cause subtle shifts in floral shape. Knockdowns of FgCYC2A were the most dramatic, affecting the position of dorsal petals in relation to lateral petals, thereby resulting in more actinomorphic-like flowers. Additionally, FgANS knockdowns developed larger flowers with wider corolla tube openings. These results provide a method to quantify the role that specific genes play in the developmental pathway affecting the dorsoventral axis of symmetry in zygomorphic flowers. Additionally, they suggest that ANS may have an unintended effect on floral size and shape.

1

St. John's University, 8000 Utopia Pkwy, Jamaica, NY, 11439, United States2USDA-ARS, 2000 E Allen Rd, Tucson, AZ, 85719, United States3University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology, PO Box 56 (Viikinkaari 5), Helsinki, FIN-00014, Finland4RESA Power Solutions, 1180 Horizon Dr. Suite E, Fairfield, CA, 94533, USA5UC Davis, Plant Biology, Davis, CA, USA

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POSTERS 288

MAHEEPALA, DINUSHA* 1, RAJEWSKI, ALEX 1, HENRY, ASHLEY 2, ELKINS, KEVAN 3 and LITT, AMY 1

Transcriptomes analysis of independently derived fleshy fruit in Solanaceae

M

any animal species, including humans, depend on fleshy fruits for nutrition. Fleshy fruits have evolved numerous times during the evolution of angiosperms. However, we do not know the molecular mechanisms responsible for these evolutionary events. In Solanaceae (nightshades), there was a shift to fleshy fruit in the sub-family Solanoideae from the plesiomorphic dry capsule. In addition, there were independent origins of fleshy berry in Cestrum and Brunfelsia. The availability of multiple sequenced genomes, as well as well-developed molecular tools for Solanaceae, provides an excellent opportunity to study the molecular basis of fleshy fruit evolution. As part of a larger project aimed at elucidating the genetic architecture that distinguishes fleshy fruit from dry fruit, we compared the transcriptomes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the closest wild relative (Solanum pimpinellifolium), and the independently derived berry of Cestrum diurnum. Relatively few studies have looked at fleshy fruit development prior to ripening but studies have shown that key features such as shape, size, and pericarp thickness are determined at those early stages. Therefore, we performed transcriptome profiling at early and late stages of fruit developmental. The transcriptome of Solanum pimpinellifolium allows us to identify elements of the genetic networks that may have undergone changes during domestication, and Cestrum enables us to identify genetic networks common to fleshy fruit development in Solanaceae. Our analyses will illustrate fleshy fruit molecular dynamics on both developmental and evolutionary timescales.

FRUITFULL (FUL) gene is important for patterning the lignified dehiscence zone in the dry silique in Arabidopsis. A whole genome duplication coinciding with the diversification of core-eudicots resulted in two FUL gene clades: euFULI and euFULII. Solanaceae have two gene copies in each clade with a high degree of sequence similarity. FUL homologs have similar broad expression patterns in vegetative and reproductive tissue in both dry- and fleshy-fruited Solanaceae species. A study has shown that the overexpression of a FUL homolog in tobacco results in an indehiscent fruit suggesting FUL homologs may have a conserved role in dry fruit development. The fleshy berry of tomato lacks lignified tissue but the FUL homologs are expressed here too. This suggests a change in FUL function in fleshy fruit. Several studies have looked at FUL function in tomato development but the results have been contradictory leaving open the question of the role of these developmental regulators, and how that role changed with the evolution of fleshy fruit. We are creating single, double, and quadruple knockout mutants in tomato using CRISPR/Cas9 to understand how each FUL homolog functions in fleshy fruit development, and how these functions may have changed in the shift to fleshy fruit. Since tomato has undergone domestication, we are also studying the function of the FUL homologs in its closest wild relative, Solanum pimpinellifolium, a species that has not been extensively artificially selected, and that is a closer representation of a wild-type Solanoideae berry. We will present our data on our transformants. 1

University of California, Riverside, Botany and Plant Sciences2University of California, Riverside

1

University of California, Riverside, Botany and Plant Sciences2Truman State University3University of California, Riverside

289

MAHEEPALA, DINUSHA* 1, MACON, JENNA 2, HERRERA, VICTOR 2 and LITT, AMY 1

FRUITFULL genes underwent a change in function correlated with the evolution of fleshy fruit

F

leshy fruits are an ecologically and economically important commodity that have evolved multiple times during the evolution of angiosperms. However, we know little about the genetic and molecular basis of fleshy fruit evolution. In Solanaceae (nightshades), dry fruits are plesiomorphic and fleshy fruits are derived, but the family also shows independent origins of fleshy fruit and reversion to dry. Along with the availability of multiple genome sequences and the ability of manipulating gene function, this makes Solanaceae an ideal system for studying the evolution of fleshy fruit. The

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Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo) 290

KIM, JOON* 1, ZHANG, JINGBO , KHOJAYORI, FARAH 1 and ZHANG, WENHENG 3

291

HAN, JIAHONG* 1, BERGER, BRENT 1, RICIGLIANO, VINCENT 2, SHEPHERD, KELLY 3, TONG, JINGJING 4, THOMPSON, VERONICA 5, LIM, AEDRIC 1 and HOWARTH, DIANELLA 1

2

Effect of silencing CYC2-like genes on floral development in Solanum lycopersicum L. and Nicotiana obtusifolia M.Martens & Galeotti (Solanaceae)

V

irus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a technique used to study the function of a gene by silencing specific target genes of interest in diverse plant species. Cycloidea (CYC) and DICHOTOMA (DICH) of the CYC2 clade of the TCP gene family have been shown to play an important role in regulating the identity of the dorsal petals and abortion of the single dorsal stamen in Antirrhinum majus L. It is believed that CYC2-like genes are responsible for the convergent evolution of floral zygomorphy, but their role in the development of actinomorphic flowers is still unknown. In Solanaceae, previous analysis has identified two paralogs of CYC2like genes, CYC2-I and CYC2-II, resulting from gene duplication that predates the origin the family. Furthermore, the expression of these CYC2 paralogs occurs in all five functional stamens of S. lycopersicum. Here, we report on the function of CYC2-like genes during floral development in Solanaceae based on the results of VIGS. Our VIGS experiment using tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based vector in S. lycopersicum showed that down regulation of both CYC2-I and CYC2-II leads to retarded germination of the pollen tube, misshaped petals, unequal growth of the petals, and sometimes extra petals. Ongoing work on down regulation of CYC2-I and CYC2-II in N. obtusifolia will further illustrate the role of CYC2-like genes in the development of actinomorphic flowers. Our preliminary findings suggest the potential role of CYC2-like genes in the development of petals and pollen in actinomorphic flowers of Solanaceae. Keyword: Solanaceae, TCP genes, Solanum lycopersicum, Nicotiana obtusifolia, Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV), Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), Actinomorphy, Reverse genetics, pollen germination, CYC2like genes.

Phylogenetics and expression of CYCLOIDEA-like genes in Goodeniaceae

S

hifts in floral symmetry, especially from radial symmetry to bilateral symmetry, are often correlated with changes in diversification rates and pollinator specificity. Evidence from multiple, independent lineages demonstrates that these shifts are associated with gene duplication and, often, dorsal restriction in expression of transcription factors in the TCP gene family, specifically the CYCLOIDEA-like genes. In this study, we examine the predominantly Australian and Pacific Island fan-flowers of the Goodeniaceae, which contains both radially and bilaterally symmetrical flowered species. We find evidence for three CYC-like gene paralogs (CYC1, CYC2, and CYC3) in Goodeniaceae that correspond to the same three clades found across core eudicots. Unlike other bilaterally symmetrical groups where duplicate CYC2 genes predominate, Goodeniaceae appears to have a single GoodCYC2 clade and two GoodCYC3 clades, GoodCYC3A and GoodCYC3B. This is of special interest given the strongly ventrally placed petals in many bilateral Goodeniaceae and the possibility that the duplication of GoodCYC3 plays a greater role in the ventral zone of the flower. Also of note, there are several tip duplications in GoodCYC3A and GoodCYC3B, coincident with the morphological shift to a fan flower. Using the fan-flowered Scaevola aemula, we perform realtime qPCR and show that most CYC-like copies are expressed across the entire corolla. SaeCYC2 was more strongly expressed in dorsal petals than in ventral petals, the predominant pattern found in other core eudicots. Conversely, both SaeCYC3 paralogs have the highest expression in ventral petals in S. aemula. Taken together, these results indicate SaeCYC2 is expressed in a similar pattern to that in other groups, while SaeCYC3 exhibits the opposite expression pattern, being more highly expressed ventrally.

1

Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Biology, 1000 W. Cary St, Richmond, VA, 23284, USA2Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Biology, 1000 West Cary Street, Richmond, VA, 23284, USA3Virginia Commonwealth University, Department Of Botany, 1000 W Cary, Richmond, N/A, 23284, USA

1

St. John's University, 8000 Utopia Pkwy, Jamaica, NY, 11439, United States2USDA-ARS, 2000 E Allen Rd, Tucson, AZ, 85719, United States3Western Australian Herbarium, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, Perth, Western Australia, 6983, Australia4St. John's University, 8000 Utopia Pkwy, Jamaica, NY, 11439, USA5UC Davis

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Hybrids and Hybridization ORAL PAPERS

293

POTTER, DANIEL* 1, DANGL, GERALD 2, BARTOSH, HEATH 3, BITTMAN, ROXANNE 4 and PREECE, JOHN 5

292

POWERS, JOHN* , SAKAI, ANN , WELLER, STEPHEN and CAMPBELL, DIANE

Clarifying the Conservation Status of Northern California Black Walnut (Juglans hindsii) Using Microsatellite Markers

Flower scent as a potential reproductive barrier in a Hawaiian plant lineage

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n flowering plants, chemical communication often facilitates pollinator specificity, which may affect whether populations diverge or hybridize. Species possessing divergent floral scents may attract distinct pollinators, limiting interspecific pollen transfer. Conversely, shared volatiles that attract the same pollinator could reduce prezygotic isolation. Furthermore, ability of pollinators to recognize hybrid scent could mediate gene flow between hybrids and parental species. After recombination, hybrids may produce novel volatile compounds, novel blends, or reduced emissions. Alternatively, overlap between hybrid and parental scent could enhance uni- or bi-directional backcrossing and gene flow. The genus Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) has radiated rapidly across the Hawaiian Islands, producing interfertile species with diverse pollen vectors (moth, bird, wind, selfing). We investigated the floral scent of two sympatric species from different clades (S. kaalae and S. hookeri) and their artificial hybrids. These species are visited by the same microlepidopteran pollinator, and when artificially pollinated produce viable hybrid seeds and vigorous F1 hybrids in the greenhouse. However, we have no evidence of natural hybridization or past genetic introgression, suggesting other barriers. We hypothesized that the parental species will differ in scent due to their phylogenetic distance yet share volatile compounds to attract their common pollinator, and that hybrid plants will have intermediate floral volatile composition. Alternatively, F1 hybrids could lack attractants and/or produce novel compounds. We grew S. kaalae, S. hookeri, and F1 hybrids in the greenhouse from seeds and cuttings (n = 25, 23, 34). Floral volatiles were characterized and quantified by dynamic headspace sampling and thermal desorption GCMS, with overlap determined by qualitative comparison (compounds in ≥4 samples), PERMANOVA, and constrained analysis of principal coordinates (CAP). Parental species shared 58 of the 113 volatile compounds produced by the two species. As a group, artificial hybrids produced 57 of these 58 shared compounds, 11/17 compounds unique to S. kaalae, 36/36 compounds unique to S. hookeri, and 2 novel compounds. Quantitative scent composition differed between parents, hybrids were intermediate in their scent composition, and hybrids differed from parental species in scent composition. Several compounds (1-octen-3-ol, linalool) are known insect attractants, although attractants may be a single compound or blend of compounds. Despite sharing a pollinator, parental species differed in floral volatile composition. Implications for isolation are equivocal because the two parental species and hybrids produced both shared and distinct floral volatiles. Future work will identify compounds critical for moth attraction and their role in pre- and post-zygotic reproductive isolation. University Of California Irvine, Department Of Ecology And Evolutionary Biology, 321 Steinhaus Hall, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA

he conservation status of the Northern California black walnut, Juglans hindsii, has been a source of considerable confusion and controversy. Although not currently legally protected by either federal or state regulations, the species has been listed as rare and threatened by the California Native Plant Society and of special concern by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and some California counties require mitigation for removal of individuals of this species, especially older trees. The primary reason for these concerns is that, despite the current widespread distribution in northern California and southern Oregon of trees that match J. hindsii morphologically, there are only three or four sites where the species is known to have occurred prior to extensive settlement by Europeans of California in the mid-19th century. This has led to the suspicion that trees found in other places may not be genetically pure J. hindsii, but may instead be descendants of lineages that experienced past gene flow from one or more other species. Nonetheless, many of those trees have been confirmed as pure J. hindsii based on DNA sequences, although evidence of occasional past hybridizations with closely related other North American Juglans species has also been detected. In addition, despite its more distant relationship, the cultivated walnut (J. regia) readily hybridizes (as the male parent) with J. hindsii, producing morphologically identifiable ‚Paradox’ hybrids, which occur spontaneously and are widely planted as rootstocks and street trees. Finally, although J. hindsii is generally accepted as a distinct species from Southern California black walnut, J. californica, based on morphology, herbarium specimens identified as J. hindsii collected in southern California over the last five years have raised questions about the respective geographic distributions of the two taxa. We analyzed genotypes at 10 microsatellite loci for 160 apparently wild trees of J. hindsii from one county in southern Oregon and 10 counties in northern and southern California, including representatives of putative original native populations, as well as several Paradox hybrids, 10-20 standards for each of the five North American black walnut species, and six standards for J. regia. Bayesian cluster analyses with the program STRUCTURE revealed that twothirds of the putatively wild J. hindsii represent genetically pure members of that species, while the remainder show evidence of past hybridizations with one or more of the other North American black walnut species. The results suggest that J. hindsii should not be considered a rare species. 1

University Of California Davis, DEPARTMENT OF PLANT SCIENCES MAIL STOP 2, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 956168780, USA2University of California, Davis, Foundation Plant Services, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 956163Nomad Ecology, LLC, 822 Main Street, Martinez, CA, 94553, USA4California Department of

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Hybrids and Hybridization Fish and Wildlife, Biogeographic Data Branch, 1416 9th Street, Suite 1266, Sacramento, CA, 95814, USA5USDA ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository, UC Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA

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294

The transcriptomic drivers of ecological divergence after recurrent allopolyploidization in Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae)

HANKINS, KAYLA* 1, BRENEK, AUSTIN 1, RANDLE, CHRISTOPHER P. 1 and PASCARELLA, JOHN 2

The assessment of interspecific hybridization between Baptisia arachnifera and Baptisia lecontei using SequenceRelated Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) markers

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he primary objective of this project was to assess directly the hypothesis of hybridization between two closely related species, Baptisia lecontei and the endangered Baptisia arachnifera. In the 1980â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, B. arachnifera was cultivated in an ex situ population housed at the Lake Louise Biological Field Station of Valdosta State University in an effort to prevent the speciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; extinction. In 2005, however, morphologically unique plants exhibiting intermediate characteristics were discovered growing in close proximity to adult B. arachnifera individuals as well as near individuals of B. lecontei at the Lake Louise Biological Field Station. Thus, to test the hypothesis of hybridization, we identified SRAP markers capable of distinguishing the two putative parental species. Tissue samples were taken from the original marked B. arachnifera transplants at the Lake Louise site, as well as mature B. lecontei showing no signs of morphological intermediacy and growing at some distance. Markers were generated from plant material collected on silica gel in October 2015 including tissue from putative F1s and seedlings grown from fruits collected on site. PCR reactions were run twice, and only markers generated in both runs were included in the analysis. Markers were then scored as present/absent, and the Dice coefficient was used to estimate genetic distance. Genetic distances were visualized using Principal Coordinates Analysis, and a hybrid index was generated for each individual included in the analysis. Our results will contribute to the understanding of hybridization within the genus Baptisia, which is known for its extensive natural hybridization, as well as address potential problems within ex situ populations of endangered species. 1

Sam Houston State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 1900 Avenue I, Huntsville, TX, 77340, USA2Sam Houston State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 1900 Avenue I, Hunstville, TX, 77340, USA

WOLFE, THOMAS* 3, FRANCISCO, BALAO ROBLES 2, EMILIANO TRUCCHI, TRUCCHI 3, MAITE, LORENZO 2 , JULIANE, BAAR 3 and OVIDIU, PAUN 3

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ecurrent, polytopic origins are widespread among polyploids. These can produce a multitude of genetically, ecologically, morphologically and physiologically distinct populations. Subsequent gene flow, independent assortment and recombination may produce additional variation that will be sorted by natural selection as a function of local conditions. Our understanding of the ecological relevance of such early processes in young polyploids is still in its infancy. As their multiple origins provide natural replicates, sibling allopolyploids are excellent models to uncover mechanisms of adaptation to divergent environments, which are assumed to lead to evolutionary diversification and biodiversity increase. We screened the transcriptomic diversity among ecologically divergent, European sibling allopolyploid orchids (D. majalis and D. traunsteineri) of different moderate ages (i.e., less than 15,000 years) in order to identify the mechanisms driving their phenotypic divergence. These allopolyploids were formed through unidirectional hybridization between diploids D. fuchsii (always the maternal parent) and D. incarnata. Using RNA-seq we specifically test the hypothesis that over short evolutionary times, like in our study system, their ecological divergence relies mainly on quantitative differential gene expression (DE) rather than differences in coding DNA sequence. We observe a general trend of increased overexpression of genes in the youngest polyploid in comparison to the older D. majalis, whose transcriptome resembles more a diploid state. The phenotypic divergence between the polyploids is mediated by a general parental dominance in opposite directions, a pattern partly retained also at the level of transgressively expressed transcripts. The DE between the polyploids affects several ecologically-relevant genes. For example, genes in the nitrate metabolic pathway have been significantly downregulated after allopolyploidization in D. traunsteineri, which appears adapted to nitrogen-poor environments. In addition, the nucleotidic nature of RNA-seq allows us to ask specific questions about patterns of recombination between polyploid sub-genomes and introgression with diploid parental genomes. With smRNA-seq we also investigate the divergence in posttranscriptional regulation and the activity of transposable elements. The differential regulation via smRNAs appears however less systemic than the observed transcriptional divergence, and affects a different population of transcripts, but, in part, similar processes and functions. Our results add to our growing comprehension of the broader consequences of polyploidy, a central force behind plant evolution. 1

University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, Vienna, 1030, Austria2Facultad de Biologia, Avda. Reina Mercedes, 6, Sevilla, 41012 , Spain3University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, Vienna, 1030, Austria

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296

MCCARTHY, ELIZABETH 1, BERARDI, ANDREA 2, LAWHORN, AMBER 1, KURTI, AMELDA 1, GIOVANNONI, JAMES 3 , SMITH, STACEY 4 and LITT, AMY* 1

POSTERS 297 STACEY

Floral color differences in Nicotiana allopolyploids: the genetic and biochemical basis

PRETZ, CHELSEA* and SMITH,

Hybridization and gene flow among tomatillo (Physalis) species in the Southwestern Region of North America

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olyploidy has played an important role in the evolution of angiosperms. Allopolyploidy (polyploidy accompanied by interspecific hybridization) can result in genetic and epigenetic changes, transposable element activation, chromosomal rearrangements, and even transgressive phenotypes that fall outside the range found in the progenitors. Differences in floral phenotypes may attract different pollinators, which may facilitate allopolyploid establishment and reproductive isolation from its progenitors as well as subsequent species diversification following allopolyploidy. Here, we examine the genetic and biochemical basis of diverse and transgressive floral colors in Nicotiana (tobacco) allopolyploids. Nicotiana is an excellent system in which to study allopolyploidy because nearly half of its species are allotetraploids that arose at different points during the evolution of the genus. This age range, from synthetic allopolyploids made in the lab to natural allopolyploid species that range from 0.2 to 10 million years old, allows for investigation of both the immediate and long-term consequences of allopolyploidy and can provide insight into the progression of allopolyploid evolution over time. Nicotiana species display diversity in floral form and color, and many related allopolyploid species that share the same progenitors have divergent floral traits. Here, we investigate floral color differences among Nicotiana tabacum accessions as well as among synthetic lines that share the same progenitors as N. tabacum. We determine the underlying pigment composition of these floral colors and link them to differences in expression patterns of genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is a branched pathway that produces both brightly colored anthocyanins and colorless (to humans) flavonols, which are involved in determining floral color. Magenta N. tabacum flowers have increased cyanidin concentration, but lower flavonols than pale pink N. tabacum flowers. Synthetic lines also display differences in the intensity of pink coloration, and paler flowers have lower cyanidin concentration. The pale pink phenotype in both natural and synthetic accessions is correlated with a dramatic increase in the expression of the flavonoid biosynthetic genes that produce flavonols over the expression of those that generate anthocyanins. This suggests that competition between these enzymes for shared substrates may underlie differences in floral phenotype.

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hysalis, the tomatillo genus, has 90 different species in the genus and is globally distributed with its center of diversity in North America. Despite its economic importance, relatively little is known about the natural history of this genus, and in particular its pollination biology. This is a presentation of preliminary data that aims to better understand the evolution of the group by understanding the mechanisms that transfers genetic material through a population. This poster will cover the pollination biology of several Physalis species looking at flower phenology and the potential for cross-ability between species. This poster outlines some preliminary work, but mostly covers the future directions that this project will take, and welcomes any insights and advice. University of Colorado - Boulder, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 1900 Pleasant St, Boulder, CO, 80302, USA

1

University of California, Riverside, Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, 900 University Ave., Riverside, CA, 92521, USA2University of Bern, Institute of Plant Sciences, Altenbergrain 21, Bern, CH-3013, Switzerland3Cornell University, USDA-ARS and Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, NY, USA4University Of Colorado-Boulder, School Of Biological Sciences, Campus Box 334, Boulder, CO, 80309-0334, USA

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Macroevolution Macroevolution ORAL PAPERS 298

FOLK, RYAN* 1, STUBBS, REBECCA , CELLINESE, NICO 2, MORT, MARK 3, SOLTIS, PAMELA S. 4, SOLTIS, DOUGLAS E. 4 and GURALNICK, ROBERT 1 2

Dynamics of niche evolution in the Saxifragales

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revious work using traditional habitat descriptors from floristic treatments has suggest that niche is tightly conserved in the Saxifragales, and that many of the rarest transitions occurred during the early radiation of the clade. We return to this system using quantitative modeling methods and a large-scale phylogenomic supermatrix to infer patterns of diversification. We ask whether (1) the use of fine-scale quantitative methods corroborates earlier findings of niche conservation; (2) whether niche shifts are more frequent between certain habitat types; and (3) whether niche shifts are associated with phenotypic shifts as part of co-evolving complexes. In association with this work, we show-case some new methods that enable further types of hypothesis testing using ancestral niche reconstructions. We also make explicit comparisons between matrices derived from niche models, floristic data, and ecoregion presence, testing the effectiveness of each of these methods for reconstructing evolutionary patterns.

1

University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, Dickinson Hall, 1659 Museum Road, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA2University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, 1659 Museum Road, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, United States3University of Kansas, 1200 Sunnyside Ave., Lawrence, KS, 66045, United States4University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO BOX 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611-7800, USA, 352/273-1964

299

SCHENK, JOHN J.* 1, JACOBS, SARAH and HUFFORD, LARRY 3

experienced different biogeographic transitions that expanded their ranges into novel continental areas, we were able to examine and compare the consequences of colonization to ecological opportunity. Under an ecological opportunity model, we predicted that clades will experience an increase in speciation rates following the first colonization of new continental areas. We constructed a time-calibrated, phylogenetic hypothesis consisting of approximately 64% of the species diversity, and then applied the phylogeny to diversification and historical biogeographic analyses. The HydrangeaceaeLoasaceae split occurred at least 95.34-72.94 mybp. Speciation rates were approximately constant from that time until about 18 mybp, after which they sharply increased. Historical biogeographic analyses supported a Mesoamerican origin of Loasaceae and Hydrangeaceae, followed by numerous biogeographic transitions in both clades. Lineages of Hydrangeaceae diversified early into Asia from western North America, followed by eastern North America colonizations. A significant diversification rate increase was identified in the Philadelphus clade, associated with its initial colonization of Eurasia. A second increased diversification rate, unassociated with a geographic change, was identified in the Hydrangea-2 clade. Loasaceae experienced greater early lineage diversification in western North America than Hydrangeaceae, followed by a biogeographic transition into South America at the origin of Loasoideae. The latter range expansion into South America was not associated with a significant increased diversification rate; however, increased diversification was inferred in the Cajophora clade, a change likely tied to ecological opportunities created with the Andean uplift. Two increased shifts were associated within Mentzelia: one in Mentzelia section Trachyphytum and a second in Mentzelia section Bartonia. Neither of the two Mentzelia shifts were associated with continental-scale biogeographic transitions. We conclude that geographic range expansions have been important in generating species diversity in both families, but climate change, including aridification of the American West during the Miocene and glaciations during the Pleistocene, may have been equally important in accelerating cladogenesis in Mentzelia. 1

Georgia Southern University, Department of Biology, 4324 Old Register Road, Biological Sciences Building, Statesboro, GA, 30458, United States2University of Idaho, Department of Biology, 875 Perimeter Drive MS 3051, Moscow, ID, 83844, USA3Washington State University, SCHOOL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 312 Abelson Hall, PULLMAN, WA, 99164-4236, USA

2

Comparative Diversification Analyses of Hydrangeaceae and Loasaceae: The Role of Continental Dispersal in Generating Species Diversity

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ydrangeaceae and Loasaceae are sister clades that likely originated in arid regions of Mesoamerica but subsequently experienced different biogeographic and speciation histories. Hydrangeaceae became particularly diverse in Asia, with additional centers of diversity in western and eastern North America. Loasaceae, in contrast, has two centers of diversity, one in western North America and a second in the South American Andes Mountains. We tested the hypothesis that these clades share a common origin in Mesoamerica, and then compared how they diversified along both biogeographic and phylogenetic axes. Because these lineages

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300

WANG, XIN

Are there angiosperms in the Jurassic?

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t is widely believed that there were no angiosperms until the Cretaceous. This belief was formally established in 1960 by Scott et al., and has been reiterated many times until the last time in 2017. It appears as if such a belief has been consistently held ever since 1960. However, a rarely asked question about this belief is what is the evidence or logics behind this conclusion? How can one be sure that there were no angiosperms in the Jurassic before they exhaustively study all the strata


of the Jurassic or earlier age? If nature followed human logic, this belief would appear sound when the data of the Early Cretaceous of eastern North America available only in 1970s were taken into consideration. However, as new data are augmented the formerly logical smooth increasing curve and gradual diversification pattern of angiosperms in the Early Cretaceous vaporizes, casting serious doubt over this widely accepted statement. However, the questions are 1) Does nature follow our logic? 2) If the assumed pattern disappears, is the inference supported by such pattern still viable? The loss of both of these conditions makes the belief shaky. The prospect for this belief becomes unpromising when fossil evidence found recently is taken into consideration. Recently, there are increasing challenge against such a belief. First, there are more and more BEAST analyses based on new fossil discovery (of Poaceae, Prasad et al., 2011; of Solanaceae, Wilf et al., 2017) suggesting an earlier origin for angiosperms. Second, new discoveries of fossil plants reveal how less we know about the real history of fossil angiosperms and gymnosperms. Epsecially, the discovery of a typical flower (Euanthus panii, Liu and Wang, 2016) and a whole plant herb (Juraherba bodae, Han et al., 2016) bearing fructifications from the Middle-Late Jurassic underscore the existence of unequivocal angiosperms in the Jurassic. These fossils make the â&#x20AC;&#x153;No Angiosperms Until the Cretaceousâ&#x20AC;? claim a false statement or a joke that makes no one laugh. Third, some Triassic pollen grains that may have been ignored formerly are hard to distinguish from those of angiosperms in all aspects except age. It seems decent to take the Jurassic angiosperms more serious, although they are disliked by the pious believers of the above belief.

had diversified cryptically for a significant period of time in environments unsuitable for fossil preservation, and only later entered the fossil record. Nevertheless, some recent molecular dating analyses have raised the possibility that angiosperms may have originated and diversified much earlier. Furthermore, several recent reports of putative angiosperms from Triassic and Jurassic rocks have contributed to the renewal of interest in this question. These developments, combined with the substantial increase in quantity and quality of paleobotanical data that have accumulated since the 1960s, have caused us to revisit this question and determine the extent to which the situation has changed. Critical assessment of the reports of pre-Cretaceous angiosperms shows that none provides unequivocal evidence of flowering plants. We note that crown group or stem group angiosperms may ultimately be recognized from Jurassic or earlier rocks, but unambiguous documentation of the diagnostic structural features that separate angiosperms from other groups of extant and extinct seed plants is required for such a report to be viewed as credible. Unsubstantiated assertions of angiosperm affinity for pre-Cretaceous fossils undermine more rigorous paleobotanical research and potentially create confusion, especially in the context of molecular dating analyses that infer pre-Cretaceous ages for angiosperms and certain angiosperm subgroups. 1

Chicago Botanic Garden, Senior Scientist, 1000 Lake Cook Road, Glencoe, IL, 60022, USA2Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Palaeobiology, Stockholm, SE-104 05, Sweden3University of Aarhus, Department of Earth Science, Aarhus, DK-8000, Denmark4Oak Spring Garden Foundation, 1776 Loughborough Lane, Upperville, VA, 20184, USA

Nanjing Institute Of Geology And Palaeontology, 39 Beijing Dong Road, Nanjing, N/A, 210008, China

302

FISHBEIN, MARK* 1, STRAUB, SHANNON C.K. 2, DARBY, HAYLEY 3, BOUTTE, JULIEN 2 and LISTON, AARON 4

301

HERENDEEN, PATRICK S* 1, FRIIS, ELSE MARIE 2, PEDERSEN, KAJ RAUNSGAARD 3 and CRANE, PETER 4

Milkweed Defenses Revisited: Trends in Trait Evolution and Lineage Diversification

Palaeobotanical Redux: Revisiting the age of the Angiosperms

A

1

Oklahoma State University, Plant Biology, Ecology, & Evolution, 301 Physical Sciences, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA2Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Department of Biology, 300 Pulteney Street, Geneva, NY, 14456, USA3Oregon Health Sciences University, Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy, Portland, OR, 97239, USA4Oregon State University, Department Of Botany & Plant Pathology, 2082 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331-2902, USA

ngiosperms are the most diverse of all major lineages of land plants and they dominate almost all modern terrestrial ecosystems. As a consequence, their evolutionary and ecological history are of considerable interest, and knowledge of their fossil history is essential for understanding patterns of diversification in other lineages, including insects and other animals. Ever since Darwin noted the apparent sudden appearance of angiosperms in the mid-Cretaceous, the search for flowering plants that predate the Early Cretaceous has been intensive. Two influential reviews published in the 1960s concluded that there were no reliable records of flowering plants from pre-Cretaceous rocks. Over the past several decades extensive new data from macrofossils, mesofossils, and microfossils have corroborated this conclusion. Furthermore, the fossil record shows a more or less synchronous diversification of fossil pollen, reproductive structures, and leaf compression fossils through the Early Cretaceous, in patterns that are consistent with our understanding of angiosperm phylogeny. This pattern is difficult to explain if angiosperms

303

BILBAO, GONZALO* 1, JOLY, SIMON 2 and BRUNEAU, ANNE 3

The winning strategy: pollinator-mediated convergent floral shape evolution in tropical legumes of the genus Erythrina

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ollinators are believed to be a major driver of angiosperm evolution, exerting selective pressures on the plants they visit, which can result in convergent evolution in distantly related angiosperm taxa. The example posed by flower shape illustrates well this principle, with

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Macroevolution similar morphologies having arisen multiple independent times. However, it is unclear how these pressures drive the appearance of specific flower shapes. The pantropical genus Erythrina (Leguminosae), with 131 species pollinated mainly by birds (including hummingbirds, passerines and sunbirds) but also by bees, offers an ideal model to better understand pollinatormediated flower shape evolution. Phylogenetic studies indicate that hummingbird pollination has evolved several times in this genus, each time with the appearance of a prominent standard petal, that gives the flower an overall tubular shape. The shape of the standard petal plays a key role in the plant-pollinator relationship in Erythrina, and it is believed to be a target of pollinatormediated selective pressures. The keel and wing petals are usually much smaller than the standard, and they are often hidden within the calyx, although a strong interspecific variance in size and shape can be observed. In the present study, we use geometric morphometrics and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 90 Erythrina species (including representatives of most clades and of all the pollination modes) to explore morphological changes in the standard, keel and wing petals. The outlines for each kind of petal were digitized using three landmarks and 40 semilandmarks. Species were grouped according to their petal shape using a Procrustes PCA. Our results show that the standard petal in hummingbirdpollinated Erythrina species has repeatedly converged to a specific recurrent shape, suggesting a strong selection pressure imposed by hummingbirds on flower shape. These findings also suggest that the standard petal has a key mechanical role in mediating plant-pollinator interactions in hummingbird-pollinated Erythrina. Keel petal shape and size are more variable, ranging from 3-4 millimetres to a few centimetres, depending on the species. Our findings are in line with similar studies performed in other angiosperm families, and confirm the importance of pollinator-induced selective pressures in the evolution of legumes. 1

Université de Montréal, Dept. of Biological Sciences , Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale, 4101 Sherbrooke St. East, Montréal, QC, H1X2B2, Canada2Institut De Recherche En Biologie Végétale, 4101 CUE SHERBROOKE EST, Montréal, QC, H1X 2B2, Canada3INSTI DE RECHERCHE BIO VEGETAL, 4101 CUE SHERBROOKE EST, Montréal, QC, H1X 2B2, Canada

304

BAKER, ROBERT (ROB) L.* 1, YARKHUNOVA, YULIA 2, VIDAL, KATHERINE 3, EWERS, BRENT 3 and WEINIG, CYNTHIA 3

as well as overlapping targets of artificial selection make the Brassica triangle an excellent system for exploring variation in the connection between plant structure (anatomy and morphology) and function (physiology). We examine phenotypic integration among structural aspects of leaves including external morphology and internal anatomy with leaf-level physiology among several species of Brassica. We compare diploid and allotetraploid species to ascertain patterns of phenotypic correlations among structural and functional traits and test the hypothesis that allotetraploidy results in trait disintegration allowing for transgressive phenotypes and additional evolutionary and crop improvement potential. esults: Among six Brassica species, we found significant effects of species and ploidy level for morphological, anatomical and physiological traits. We identified three suites of intercorrelated traits in both diploid parents and allotetraploids: Morphological traits (such as leaf area and perimeter) anatomic traits (including ab- and ad- axial epidermis) and aspects of physiology. In general, there were more correlations between structural and functional traits for allotetraploid hybrids than diploid parents. Parents and hybrids did not have any significant structure-function correlations in common. Of particular note, there were no significant correlations between morphological structure and physiological function in the diploid parents. Increased phenotypic integration in the allotetraploid hybrids may be due, in part, to increased trait ranges or simply different structure-function relationships. Conclusions: Genomic and chromosomal instability in early generation allotetraploids may allow Brassica species to explore new trait space and potentially reach higher adaptive peaks than their progenitor species could, despite temporary fitness costs associated with unstable genomes. The trait correlations that disappear after hybridization as well as the novel trait correlations observed in allotetraploid hybrids may represent relatively evolutionarily labile associations and therefore could be ideal targets for artificial selection and crop improvement.

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1

University Of Wyoming, Laramie, Department Of Botany, 1000 E University Ave, University Of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, 82071, USA2University of Wyoming, Botany, 1000 E. University Ave, Laramie, WY, 82070, USA3University of Wyoming, Botany, 1000 E. University Ave, Laramie, WY, 82071, USA

305

TRIPP, ERIN A.* 1, ZHUANG, YONGBIN 2, SCHREIBER, MATT 2, STONE, HEATHER 2 and BERARDI, ANDREA 3

Intercontinental Gradients in Plant Flavonoids: Testing the Impacts of Latitude, Environment, and Phylogeny in Ruellia (Wild Petunias: Acanthaceae)

Polyploidy and the relationship between leaf structure and function: implications for correlated evolution of anatomy, morphology, and physiology in Brassica

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ackground: Polyploidy is well studied from a genetic and genomic perspective, but the morphological, anatomical, and physiological consequences of polyploidy remain relatively uncharacterized. Whether these potential changes bear on functional integration or are idiosyncratic remains an open question. Repeated allotetraploid events and multiple genomic combinations

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lavonoids are important secondary metabolites that play a primary role in protecting plants against UV radiation as well as other forms of stress including drought, salinity, and pathogens. In particular, given widespread impacts of latitude on a multitude of biological systems and a known increase in solar radiation towards equatorial regions, plant flavonoids are expected to increase with decreasing latitude. In this study, we test


the hypothesis of a positive latitudinal gradient in plant flavonoids and additionally attempt to disentangle other factors that may be impacting plant flavonoid production such as niche, altitude, evolutionary history, and pleiotropic effects. To accomplish this, we assembled a large comparative matrix of occurrence and quantity of these beneficial metabolites across a species-rich genus that spans one of the largest latitudinal gradients of any lineage of flowering plants (Ruellia). Two flavonesapigenin and luteolin-were detected both in floral petals and in plant vegetative tissues while surprisingly no detectable amount of flavonols were observed across all 72 individuals studied. Instead of a positive latitudinal gradient, our data suggest a trend towards a reverse latitudinal gradient in plant flavone concentration. Additionally, our results revealed a significant relationship between plant flavone content and dry habitats such as seasonally dry tropical forests and savannas. We recovered no relationship between flavone content and altitude but found that flavone content was partially explainable by shared evolutionary history, especially among dry forest lineages. Flavones were furthermore highly correlated between leaf and corolla tissue and were documented in high concentrations in lineages that produce flowers rich in anthocyanin pigments (e.g., pink, purple, and red-flowered species). A complex interplay of ecological, historical, evolutionary, and pleiotropic effects documented here suggests that full understanding of plant flavonoid production often requires consideration of a wide variety of interacting factors. 1

University Of Colorado Boulder, C105, Ramaley Hall, Campus Box 334, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA2University of Colorado3University of Bern

306

KIEL, CARRIE A.* 1, MCDADE, LUCINDA 2, FISHER, AMANDA 3 and TRIPP, ERIN A. 4

The New World 'justicioid' lineage (Acanthaceae, Lamiales): A microcosm for understanding covariation of floral traits and pollination systems in a phylogenetic context

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ariation in flower shape, size and color, along with remarkable diversity of anther, pollen, and stigma morphology, is rampant in the New World ‚justicioid’ lineage (400 spp.). Among these plants, micro-structures of pollen, anthers and stigma co-vary in patterns that are correlated with corolla morphology. These statistically distinct corolla shapes are consistent with pollination by particular kinds of animals. Based on our present phylogenetic knowledge of the group, these suites of co-varying traits have evolved multiple times across the lineage (e.g., floral traits consistent with hummingbird pollination have evolved at least 16 times) making the NW “justicioid lineage“ a tractable evolutionary microcosm for studying floral evolution. We will focus on the evolution of these floral structures in two major clades, taking an integrative and comparative, phylogenetic approach that includes quantitative analysis of variation in floral structures (e.g., floral form; anther, pollen, and stigma traits) and new phylogenetic data from ddRADseq.

1

Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500 North College Ave., Claremont, CA, 91711, USA2Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500 North College Ave, Claremont, California, 91711-43253California State University, Long Beach, Dept. of Biological Sciences, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA, 908404University Of Colorado Boulder, C105, Ramaley Hall, Campus Box 334, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA

307

REESE, JOHN* and WILLIAMS, JOSEPH H.

The effects of genome size and polyploidy on pollen tube growth rate evolution

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enome duplication (polyploidy) is a widespread phenomenon in seed plants, but its effects on performance are not well known, and have rarely been studied in the gametophyte generation. In angiosperms, the haploid male gametophyte is highly reduced, functioning largely to develop a pollen tube that delivers sperm directly to the egg and endosperm precursor. Selection on male gametophyte performance is expected to be strong because of pollen competition, the need for accurate fertilization timing, and because of substantial overlap in gene expression between the male gametophyte and the sporophyte. Thus, an important measure of male gametophyte performance is pollen tube growth rate (PTGR), which is generally a function of metabolic rate and tube wall dimensions. Genome duplication might speed PTGR if gene dosage positively affects metabolic rate, whereas it might decrease PTGR if genome size positively affects cell size, causing a need for more wall material per unit of tube length. Here we use comparative analyses to understand the broadscale relationship between genome size and PTGR in seed plants. A phylogenetic tree was generated for 455 species of seed plants using sequences from 16 genes downloaded from GenBank and aligned using PHLAWD. Tree inference was performed in RAxML, and treePL was used for time calibration. The evolution of average maximum PTGRs (speed of first pollen tubes to reach ovules) and genome size were each modelled separately under Brownian Motion (BM) and various Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) processes in OUWie. The evolution of pollen tube growth rate was also modelled between diploids and polyploids using OUwie. Lastly, a phylogenetic least squares regression was performed to test for correlated evolution of genome size (c-value) and PTGR. For PTGRs, nearly 100% of the averaged model weight consisted of OU models in which angiosperm and gymnosperm PTGRs evolved under different selective regimes. Results from genome size and polyploidy analyses will also be presented. Our results show that stabilizing selection tends to act on PTGR, reducing the variance in trait values relative to a Brownian Motion model. This suggests that PTGR is a phylogenetically conservative trait, at least until a shift in selective regime occurs. In contrast, genome size is relatively labile, which may help explain the lack of trend between c-value and PTGR. University of Tennessee, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA

132


Macroevolution 308

SANTORO, JULIAN AGUIRRE* 1, MICHELANGELI, FABIAN A. 2 and STEVENSON, DENNIS 3

The Geographically Disjunct Evolution of Ronnbergia and Wittmackia (Bromeliaceae) Across Three Neotropical Biodiversity Hotspots

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he genera Ronnbergia and Wittmackia encompass a monophyletic group nested within the adaptive radiation of the tank-epiphytic clade of berry-fruited bromeliads. The ca. 70 species that compose these genera diversified within three Neotropical hotspots of biodiversity: 1) the Tumbes-Chocรณ-Magdalena and adjacent forests (Pacific Forest), 2) the Atlantic Forest, and 3) the Caribbean. The species within these genera exhibit a highly heterogeneous floral diversity, suggesting a possible role of floral evolution as a modulator in the radiation of lineages. In this study, we estimated the most plausible scenarios that explain the disjunct evolution of lineages within Ronnbergia and Wittmackia and compared their evolutionary dynamics of lineage diversification and floral evolution. Our results suggest that the radiation started with the geographic split of Ronnbergia and Wittmackia between Pacific Forest and the Atlantic Forest, respectively, ca. 3.6 mya. The rates of speciation and floral evolution remained constant with a tendency to slowdown in the evolution of Ronnbergia within the Pacific Forest, despite the large floral variation observed in this genus. This pattern suggests an early-burst process followed by a possible effect of interspecific competition in the radiation Ronnbergia.

On the other hand, the evolutionary dynamics within Wittmackia are more heterogeneous. The early stages of the radiation in Wittmackia showed the same evolutionary rate regime observed for Ronnbergia; however, this pattern was disrupted in the most derived lineages by a significant acceleration in speciation rates. This rate shift occurred during the diversification of Wittmackia in the Atlantic Forest, ca. 1.8 mya, in lineages that inhabit areas previously subjected to climatic fluctuation during the Pleistocene glaciations. A second major geographic range shift occurred within Wittmackia with the longdistance dispersal from the Atlantic Forest to Jamaica, followed by a rapid diversification in the Caribbean. This radiation is characterized by exhibiting much faster speciation rates than Ronnbergia and the Brazilian-centered lineages of Wittmackia, coupled with a significant increase in the rates of evolution of floral traits related to floral protection (e.g. floral compression and enlarged floral bracts). This pattern suggests that the radiation in the Caribbean is an episode of a nested adaptive radiation occurring within the adaptive evolution of the tankepyphitic, berry-fruited bromeliads. Although our study only explored a limited set of evolutionary processes, it demonstrates how species-level phylogenetic studies combined with ecological, geographic, and morphological data can help understand fine-scale processes that shaped the biodiversity within the most strategic biodiversity hotspots of the Neotropics. 1

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Carrera 30 No. 45-03, edificio 425, Oficina 304, Bogota, Colombia2The New York Botanical Garden, Institute Of Systematic Botany, 2900 Southern Blvd., Bronx, NY, 10458, USA3THE NY BOTANICAL GARDEN, 2900 SOUTHERN BLVD, BRONX, NY, 104585126, USA

133


Molecular Ecology POSTERS 309

SHARPE, SAMANTHA LIPSON 1, JOHNSON, LORETTA C.* 2, BELLO, NORA 3 , GALLIART, MATT 2 and PARRISH, OLIVIA 4

Rapid evolution in a disturbed environment: evolutionary response of native grass Andropogon virginicus to heavy metals in an abandoned mine site.

A

nthropogenic activities have severely altered the earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecosystems, driving many species to undergo rapid evolution in response to extreme and changing environmental conditions. My research investigates genotypic and phenotypic components of adaptive variation in heavy metal exposed populations of Andropogon virginicus, a common perennial grass that often grows in contaminated mine soil. The study area is the Tar Creek EPA Superfund Site, an abandoned Lead and Zinc mine active for 100 years that spans Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Using a greenhouse soil reciprocal transplant, I am comparing populations of A. virginicus collected from Tar Creek with those collected from nearby non-mine sites to determine if ecotypic adaptation to contaminated soils has occurred in mine populations. To assess phenotypic adaptation, I have measured vegetative morphology (height, biomass), fitness (seed production), and physiology (photosynthesis, SPAD) over the course of the growing season. Plants from 20 populations have been genotyped with GBS to analyze differentiation on the genetic level. We identified ~6,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including 47 outliers under divergent selection between mine and non-mine populations, two of which are related to Zinc binding. For both of these SNPs, a single allele is fixed in the mine populations while both alleles are present in equal frequency in non-mine populations, indicating greater selection for one allele variant in the mine site. Preliminary evidence supports phenotypic differences between mine and non-mine populations, including a potential trade off in mine populations between reproduction and vegetative growth. In a greenhouse reciprocal soil transplant, plants from mine populations produced more biomass than plants from old field populations, but mine plants were half as likely to flower as old field plants. These results indicate genotypic and

phenotypic divergence between mine and non-mine populations linked to metal tolerance. To further compare genomic divergence and phenotypic plasticity in mine and non-mine populations, I will next perform a field reciprocal transplant with mine and non-mine plants, as well as additional genomic and transcriptomic comparisons. 1

Kansas State University , Division of Biology, 116 Ackert Hall, Kansas State University , Manhattan, KS, 66506, USA2Kansas State University, Division of Biology, 315 Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS, 66506, United States3Kansas State University, Department of Statistics, 002 Dickens Hall, Kansas State University , Manhattan, KS, 66506, USA4Kanas State University , Division of Biology, 116 Ackert Hall, Kansas State University , Manhattan, KS, 66506, USA

310

GARZA, ELYSSA* , HAWKINS, ANGELA and PEPPER, ALAN

Genome comparison of two Caulanthus varieties to identify possible loci contributing to serpentine tolerance

A

wild relative of Arabidopsis, Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae (Cab) is endemic to harsh serpentine soils; characterized by low calcium-to-magnesium ratios, increased heavy metal presence, minimal nutrients, and low water retention. Its sister variety, Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. amplexicaulis (Caa), inhabits adequate nutrient granite soils. The distinct contrast between the natural habitats of these two plant varieties allows exploration into plant selective adaptations to serpentine endemism. We have assembled, analyzed, and annotated the Cab and Caa genomes. The estimated genome size for C. amplexicaulis is 372 Mb; with 14 chromosomes. Along with resequencing data from a set of recombinant inbred lines, we are able to identify valuable marker and recombination data. Using a cluster of genomic prediction software, we have identified variants such as SNVs, indels, and structural variation to locate genes that possibly affect varying tolerance to multiple soil types. Information collected from currently available genomic and QTL programs-variants detected, recombination breakpoints, chromosome orientations, and annotations-have allowed the construction of a draft genetic map with high-density marker profiles and the potential to identify loci involved in serpentine tolerance. Texas A & M University, Department of Biology, 100 Butler Hall, 3258 TAMU, College Station, TX, 77843, USA

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Molecular Ecology - Mycology Mycology

312

POSTERS

Sphaerophragmium, a new holomorph for Uredo dalbergiae? and a common pathogen of Shisham tree in Pakistan

311

SEHAR AFSHAN, NAJAM UL* 1, ISHAQ, AAMNA 2, NIAZI, ABDUL REHMAN 2 and KHALID, ABDUL NASIR 2

Aecidium Jasminicola, a new pathogen for Jasminum sp. in Pakistan? asmine (Jasminum) is a genus of shrubs and vines in Jspecies the olive family (Oleaceae). It contains around 200 native to tropical and warm temperate regions

but their center of diversity is in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Jasmines are widely cultivated for the characteristic fragrance of their flowers as these are used commercially for making different products including tea. One of its species i.e. Jasminum officinale is also known as national flower of Pakistan. In present studies, plants of this economically important plant i.e. Jasminum were found infected with aecidial stage of some rust fungi. From morphological characterization it seems comparable with aecidial stages of previously reported rusts on same host. The fungus was found having similar infection pattern apparently like Aecidium jasminicola on Jasminum sp. in having rounded sori on abaxial side of leaf. Here molecular characterization of studied taxon reveals something different. In phylogenetic tree, studied taxon make clade with unpublished Macruropyxis sp. (JX036028). But aecia and uredinia of genus are unknown previously so it is difficult to identify this rust at specific level. Therefore present study reveals that the pathogen on Jasminum is an anamorphic stage of Macruropyxis sp., perhaps Aecidium Jasminicola. For identification of pathogen at specific level more sampling and data is required which is not yet available on any database.

NIAZI, ABDUL REHMAN* 1, SEHAR AFSHAN, NAJAM UL 2 and ISHAQ, AAMNA 1

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albergia sissoo, known as shisham or tali in Pakistan, is renowned for its high wood quality. It is a very important raw material for a variety of wood-based industries, especially furniture and housing. Leaves of this economically important tree in Pakistan have variously been found infected with Urediniospores of an anamorphic rust fungus named as Uredo dalbergiae. In present studies, this pathogen is first time described using molecular tools. In phylogenetic tree, it was found clustering with Sphaerophragmium sp. This position in phylogenetic tree indicates that the holomorph of studied taxon must belong to genus Sphaerophragmium. For identification of pathogen at specific level as well as confirmation of its holomorph, more sampling and data is required which is not yet available on any database. However, it seems that both morphological and molecular tools are necessary for correct identification of plant pathogens. 1

University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, Department of Botany, Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, Lahore, Punjab, 54590, Pakistan2University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, Centre for Undergraduate Studies, Centre for Undergraduate Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, Lahore, Punjab, 54590, Pakistan

1

University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, Centre for Undergraduate Studies, Centre for Undergraduate Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, Lahore, Punjab, 54590, Pakistan2University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, Department of Botany, Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, Lahore, Punjab, 54590, Pakistan

135


Paleobotany

314

ORAL PAPERS

50,000 Years of climate inferred using plant macrofossils from packrat (Neotoma spp.) middens in western North America

313

GREEN, TOM

North Central Texas Holocene Plant Community Reconstruction

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econstructing plant community changes in response to climate during the Holocene provides a context to understand modern ecosystem resiliency. Previous palynological and isotopic studies provided evidence that the mid-Holocene of Texas experienced a significantly drier climate than today across North Central Texas. However, Holocene paleoenvironmental data for North Central Texas are limited and often difficult to correlate with other regions. Palynological data are useful for predicting how existing plant communities in Texas may adapt in response to persistent drought or intensified seasonality. This research provides new information on the vegetation communities of North Central Texas by evaluating microfossils at two separate localities: the Aubrey Site in Denton County and Gus Engeling Wildlife Management Area in Anderson County. Phytoliths were extracted and analyzed from the Aubrey Site, which has a nearly continuous stratigraphy of radiometrically dated alluvial sediments ranging in age from the Late Pleistocene to the Late Holocene. Fossil alluvial and modern soil phytolith assemblages were analyzed and paleoenvironmental conditions were inferred to assess response to Holocene climate changes. The second locality, Gus Engeling Wildlife Management Area, protects a highly diverse flora including beakrushpitcher plant communities associated with 300 acres of slightly acidic, organic-rich, spring-fed bogs. The palynological record from sediments at the bog margin was evaluated to determine plant community structure and its response to regional Holocene paleoclimate changes. The phytolith record from the Aubrey Site indicates that at 1850 years BP, North Central Texas became more arid than in previous millennia and grasses expanded relative to woodlands; and mesic conditions returned by 1700 years BP. Paleoecological interpretations from phytoliths are complicated at Aubrey by a steadily decreasing fossil record with depth, which may limit their utility in addressing paleoenvironmental changes in the Late to Mid Holocene. The pollen record from sampled bog sediments at Gus Engeling Wildlife Management Area are incompletely preserved, but suggest resilient forest and wetland communities during the Holocene. 1600 Callaway Dr., Plano, TX, 75075, USA

HARBERT, ROBERT S* 1 and NIXON, KEVIN C. 2

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ackrat midden plant macrofossils from the Late Quaternary of western North America provide an extremely detailed paleovegetation record of the last 50,000 years. Plant material including flowers, seeds, leaves, and twigs are used by packrats of the genus Neotoma as midden (nest) building material and food stores. Neotoma packrats build their nests in sheltered rock crevasses, overhangs, and caves. Sheltered midden sites in dry environments preserve plant material over thousands of years. Collections from more than 3,000 midden sites detail plant distribution shifts and vegetation turnover of the Late Quaternary. These paleovegetation data are now being used to generate multi-parameter, quantitative estimates of millennialscale climate for the Late Quaternary in western North America using the Climate Reconstruction Analysis using Coexistence Likelihood Estimation (CRACLE) method, a plant community climate proxy. The climate record generated reveals a wet and cold glacial period and the details of the rate and pattern of warming and drying at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The observed patterns of vegetation turnover, species distribution shifts, climate change, and implications for Pleistocene megafaunal extinction will be discussed.

1

American Museum of Natural History, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, Central Park West & 79th St., New York, NY, 10024, United States2Cornell University, L. H. BAILEY HORTORIUM, 408 MANN LIBRARY, ITHACA, NY, 14853-4301, USA, 607/255-4876

315

GALLAHER, TIMOTHY* 1, SENSKE, ASHLY 2, MARVET, CLAIRE 1, DESMOND, BRIAN 2, AKBAR, SULTAN 2, KLAHS, PHILLIP 3, CLARK, LYNN 3 and STROMBERG, CAROLINE 4

A 3D digital phytolith reference collection: A tool to improve the utility of GSSC phytoliths for the study of grasses and grassland evolution

T

he use of phytoliths represents a promising advancement in the study of grass and grassland evolution. Grass silica short cell (GSSC) phytoliths have diagnostic shapes which when properly assigned to specific clades can provide important information about the presence and abundance of grass lineages in place and time. Fossil grass phytolith assemblages as old as Late Cretaceous have been collected and described providing new evidence for the age and diversification of the Poaceae, the timing, tempo and causes of grassland ecosystem expansion and the domestication history of our most important crops. However, the placement of ancient phytoliths into extant clades has been met with skepticism because a family-wide and statistically-robust analysis of 3D phytolith shape is not yet available. To address this

136


Paleobotany ing the most resemblance to D. imbricatus. This is the first macrofossil record of Dacrycarpus in the Northern Hemisphere, providing new evidence for the study of the origin and migration route of this genus. The distribution and living habitat of extant Dacrycarpus indicate that the fossil locality might have a very wet climate during the Miocene, representing a mountain rainforest climate.

problem we are using confocal microscopy to develop a 3D digital reference collection of GSSC phytoliths from extant taxa across the Poaceae. Currently 200 species representing all 80 subtribes are being digitized. The resulting 3D surface representations provide a high degree of shape detail and are suitable for geometric morphometrics, virtual animations and 3D printing. The data will ultimately facilitate robust statistical analyses and quantifiable placement of ancient phytolith taxa within the grass family. Our methodologies and initial results from the APP grade and the Oryzoideae will be presented.

1

Sun Yat-sen University, School of Life Sciences, 135 Xingangxi Road, Guangzhou, China, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510275, China2 Jilin University, Changchun, China, Research Center of Paleontology & Stratigraphy, 938, Xi-minzhu Str., Changchun, 130026 China, Changchun, Jilin, 130026, China

1

University of Washington, Biology, 24 Kincaid Hall, Box 351800, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA2University of Washington, Biology, 24 Kincaid Hall, Box 351800, Seattle, WA, 98195, United States3Iowa State University, Department Of Ecology, Evolution, And Organismal Biology, 251 Bessey Hall, Ames, IA, 50011-1020, USA4University Of Washington, Department Of Paleobotany, 24 Kincaid Hall, Box 351800, Seattle, WA, 98195-1800, USA

317

HUANG, LULIANG* 1, JIN, JIANHUA 2, QUAN, CHENG 3 and OSKOLSKI, ALEXEI A. 4

Mummified Fossil Woods from Late Oligocene of Nanning Basin, Guangxi, South China

316

WU, XINKAI* 1, LIU, XIAOYAN 1, KODRUL, TATIANA 1, QUAN, CHENG 2 and JIN, JIANHUA 1

The First Northern Hemisphere Macrofossil Record of Dacrycarpus (Podocarpaceae) from Miocene of Guiping Basin, Guangxi, South China

N

umerous mummified fossil woods are discovered from late Oligocene of Nanning Basin, Guangxi, South China. According to the preliminary study, they include the genera of Camellia (Theaceae), Castanopsis and Lithocarpoxylon (Fagaceae), Litseoxylon (Lauraceae), Magnolia (Magnoliaceae), and Tetradium (Rutaceae). The fossil wood of Camellia is the most ancient fossil record of this genus in China, even in southern and southeastern Asia (the regions of greatest diversity of its extant species). In addition, this exceptional fossil woods preservation is beneficial for us to speculate the paleoclimatology of Guangxi, South China during the late Oligocene. Combined with the leaves, seeds and fruits in the same strata with fossil woods, it can be speculated that the flora from late Oligocene of Nanning is a mixed evergreen and deciduous forest (dominated by Fagaceae) with a tropical-subtropical climate (probably monsoonal).

D

acrycarpus (Bennett) de Laubenfels (Podocarpaceae) has nine living species, mainly distributed in tropical montane from southernmost China to Fiji and New Zealand, including Vanuatu and New Caledonia, with the highest diversity in New Guinea. Only one species, D. imbricatus (Blume) de Laubenfels, occurred in South China. However, the fossil record of Dacrycarpus is well known from the Cenozoic of the Southern Hemisphere. The earliest Dacrycarpus was found from Eocene of Chile, Argentina and Tasmania. By the Oligocene, the records are mainly limited in southeastern Australia and New Zealand. The latest records are in the Miocene of New Zealand. Until now no macrofossil record has been reported from the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we described a new species of the genus recovered from the Miocene Erzitang Formation of Guiping Basin, Guangxi, South China. The speciments consist of various forms foliage and three-dimensional preserved female cones, with well-preserved cuticles. The new materials have dimorphic foliage, composed of bifacially flattened “adult” leaves on long shoots and bilaterally flattened “juvenile” leaves on feather-like short shoots. All foliage have a single midvein and incurved mucro, as well as resin ducts. Bifacially flattened leaves are small, awl-shape, spirally arranged, imbricate, appressed, strongly keeled. Bilaterally flattened leaves are distichous, falcate, straight to slightly apically curved, decurrent, stongly keeled with a single prominently raised vein. Leaves are amphistomatic and stomatal complex is paratetracytic. Seed cones are terminal, obovate, deployed singly on a warty receptacle. Based on the architectural and cuticular features, the present fossils are assigned to the genus of Dacrycarpus, show-

1

Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China, School of Life Sciences, 135 Xingangxi Road, Guangzhou, China, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510275, China2Sun Yat-sen University, School Of Life Sciences, 135 Xingangxi Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, N/A, 510275, China3 Jilin University, Changchun, China, Research Center of Paleontology & Stratigraphy, 938, Xi-minzhu Str., Changchun, 130026 China, Changchun, Jilin, 130026, China4Kornarov Botanical Institute, Botanical Museum, Prof Popov Str. 2, St. Petersburg, 197376, RUSSIA

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318

SMITH, MACKENZIE ALLAN* 1 and MANCHESTER, STEVEN R 2

A new species of butternut (Juglans sect. Cardiocaryon) from the Miocene of Washington

A

permineralized nut of Juglans was discovered in a concretion from the mid-Miocene possibly correlative with the Astoria Formation in Grays Harbor County, Washington. The specimen was initially cut in cross-section for acetate peels. A micro CT scan was later performed which facilitated volume rendering, isosurface rendering, and virtual sections at multiple levels and orientations. Virtual transverse sections from apex to base, along with lateral views perpendicular to and parallel with the primary septum were analyzed from the CT data. The nut is ellipsoidal, about 26.3 mm long and 17.8 mm wide with a rough (bladed to scabrate) exterior surface and a smooth, basally bilobed locule. The nut shows a clear longitudinal plane of separation perpendicular to the primary septum, a central vascular strand and pair of large lacunae in the primary septum linked to very large lacunae in each half of the nutshell. These morphological characters allow for its recognition as a nut of Juglans (walnut) and more specifically as a representative of the butternuts (Juglans section Cardiocaryon), which is no longer native to the Pacific Northwest. A unique set of morphological characters distinguishes this specimen from previously described species of Juglans. Bladed to scabrate nuts of Juglans eocinerea are known from the Miocene of Banks Island, Canada but differ from this specimen in several ways including overall shape, distribution of lacunae in the primary septum and seed shape. This new species augments the smooth sculpted Juglans lacunosa from the Eocene of Washington as the example of section Cardiocaryon to be described from the Pacific Northwest. Not only does it add to the diversity of Cardiocaryon species but may shed light on the section’s evolutionary and biogeographic history. Additionally, this fossil gives more insight into the poorly known floral diversity along the Pacific Northwest’s mid-Miocene coastline. 1

University of Florida, Biology, 8316 SW Ashford St, Tigard, Oregon, 97224, USA2University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO BOX 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA

319

ALLEN, SARAH* 1, ALFORD, MAC 2, MANCHESTER, STEVEN R 3 and JUDD, WALTER 4

Flowers of extinct Salicaceae from the Eocene of western Wyoming

A

new flower type has been recognized based on impression and compression specimens from both the Eocene Blue Rim escarpment in the Bridger Formation of southwestern Wyoming and the Kisinger Lakes sites in the Aycross Formation of northwestern Wyoming. The flowers, represented by at least 50 specimens at Blue Rim and four specimens from Kisinger Lakes, are preserved both transversely (most specimens) and

laterally (occasionally). Transversely compressed specimens have 8 tepals (likely sepals) in a single whorl, each with an elliptical nectary gland at the base. The tepals, which do not show any distinct venation, average 6.0 mm by 1.2 mm for a length to width ratio of 5.4:1. Stamens are numerous (>50) with distinct filaments and globose to subglobose anthers. Rare specimens preserve a superior ovary. Laterally preserved specimens usually only show 3 or 4 tepals (with the others presumably concealed in the underlying sediment inferred from symmetry), but regularly preserve the pedicel. In situ pollen is prolate, tricolpate with a reticulate exine. The exine is smooth along the colpi margins with the lumina gradually increasing in size away from the colpi. Grains range from ~16-19 µm in polar diameter and ~11-15 µm in equatorial diameter. Families in the basal eudicots and rosids were explored to look for genera with morphological similarities to the fossil flowers. Similar flowers and pollen are present in the tribe Homalieae of Salicaceae sensu lato (former Flacourtiaceae). Homalieae, as currently circumscribed, are not monophyletic, but contain approximately 170 species of tropical trees and shrubs in nine genera. The fossils share the most morphological similarities with Bivinia, Byrsanthus, Calantica, Dissomeria, and Homalium, but most likely represent an extinct genus. The flowers have been tentatively associated with unidentified leaves preserved in the same quarries as the flowers at Blue Rim. The leaves are notophyllous, elliptic, and pinnate with semicraspedodromous secondaries. Tertiaries are opposite percurrent with a straight course. The leaf margin preserves 4-5 convex teeth per centimeter with angular sinuses. To our knowledge, these flowers would be the first confirmed fossils assignable to Homalieae. Wood from the Deccan Intertrappean Beds of India was assigned to Homalioxylon, but this taxonomic assignment has since been refuted as the specimen lacks diagnostic characters found in extant Homalieae. These flowers, together with fruits and foliage previously assigned to Populus and Pseudosalix, indicate that Salicaceae were a conspicuous component of Eocene vegetation near depositional areas in the central Rocky Mountain region. 1

University of Florida & Florida Museum of Natural History, Department of Biology, PO Box 118525, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA2University Of Southern Mississippi, Department Of Biological Sciences, 118 COLLEGE DRIVE #5018, HATTIESBURG, MS, 39406-0001, USA3University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO BOX 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA4University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, PO Box 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA

320

JUD, NATHAN A* 1, GANDOLFO, MARIA A 2, IGLESIAS, ARI 3 and WILF, PETER 4

Early Paleocene flowers confirm a deep history for Cunoniaceae in South America

C

unoniaceae comprises 27 extant genera and roughly 300 species of tropical and southern-temperate plants. The current distribution of this family is thought to have resulted from a combination of Gondwanan vicariance and long distance dispersal, but a sparse fossil record limits our ability to test alternate hypotheses.

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Paleobotany Herein, we report the discovery of two types of cunoniaceous flowers from the early Paleocene (Danian) Salamanca and Peñas Coloradas formations in southern Chubut Province, Argentina. The first has synapomorphies of extant Schizomerieae, including the presence of narrow, incised petals and a nectary disk; however, the fossils are unusual in having a perianth that is 8-10-merous, whereas in extant species the perianth is typically 4-5(6)-merous. The second flower type has features that are typical of the core-Cunoniaceae, including Caldcluvia, Weinmannia, and several other genera. The oldest evidence of Cunoniaceae comes from the Upper Cretaceous of Antarctica, but these represent the oldest Cunoniaceae known flowers and they add to our knowledge of the diversity of Gondwanan floras right after the end-Cretaceous extinction. Together with the recently described Ceratopetalum fruits from the early Eocene of northwest Chubut, these occurrences strengthen the biogeographic connection among Patagonia, Antarctica, and Australasia during the Paleogene. 1

Cornell University, School of Integrative Plant Sciences, Mann Library, Ithaca, NY, 14850, USA2Cornell University, L. H. BAILEY HORTORIUM, 410 Mann Library Building, ITHACA, NY, 148534301, USA3Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Ambiente INIBIOMA-CONICET, San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina4Penn State Univ., 537 Deike Bldg., UNIVERSITY PARK, PA, 16802, USA

321

LI, LONG* 1, JIN, JIANHUA 2, CURRANO, ELLEN D 3 and MANCHESTER, STEVEN R 4

Cupressaceae fossil remains from the Late Paleocene of Carneyville, Wyoming

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he monotypic genera Sequoia and Glyptostrobus of Cupressaceae s.l. are naturally distributed in the northern hemisphere in coastal areas of western USA and south China to Vietnam, respectively. However, the fossil records of these two genera indicate a wider distribution in both hemispheres during the geological time. In this study, we report a new species of conifer petrified wood of Sequoioxylon, and leafy shoots, seed cones of Glyptostrobus (Cupressaceae s.l.) from the late Paleocene of the Fort Union Formation (Tongue River Member) in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, USA (UF locality #19382, 44°55.130′N, 106°56.524′W). The fossil wood is characterized by distinct growth rings with abrupt transition from earlywood to latewood, diffuse axial parenchyma with smooth horizontal walls, 1-3 seriate (predominant 2-seriate) opposite pits on radial tracheid walls, 1-2 seriate pits on tangential tracheid walls, notched pits, rays that are usually uniseriate, sometimes partially biseriate, to occasionally partially triseriate, both horizontal and tangential walls of rays smooth, 1-4 (commonly 2) taxodioid cross field pits suggesting its affinity to the modern genus Sequoia. The new species is distinguished from other petrified woods ascribed to this family by the combination of 1-3 seriate pits on radial tracheid walls, smooth horizontal walls of parenchyma, notched tracheid pits and absence of resin canals. Co-occuring cone fragments and foliage are assigned to Glyptostrobus europaeus (Brongniart) Unger., distinguished by having flabellate rather than peltate

morphology of cone scales, and the alternate leaves with acute leaf apices. These findings indicate either a wider distribution of both Sequoia and Glyptostrobus in the late Paleocene compared with narrow habitat of modern genera, or possibly that cones corresponding to Glyptostrobus-like cones were borne on trees with wood resembling that of Sequoia. The petrified wood and seed cones together with leafy shoots, in addition to the deciduous dicotyledonsï¼Ë†eg. Aesculus, Platanus, Davidiaï¼â€°found at the same locality, reflect a seasonal warm and humid climate in northeastern Wyoming during the late Paleocene. 1

Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Life Sciences, 135,Xingang Xi Rd,Haizhu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510275, China2Sun Yat-sen University, School Of Life Sciences, 135 Xingangxi Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, N/A, 510275, China3University of Wyoming, Departments of Botany and Geology & Geophysics, Laramie, WY , 82071, USA4University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO BOX 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA

322

HAN, MENG* 1, MANCHESTER, STEVEN R 2, WU, XINKAI 1 and JIN, JIANHUA 3

Earliest fossil endocarps of Menispermaceae from the Paleocene of eastern Asia

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he Menispermaceae (Ranunculales), commonly known as the moonseed family, are a clade of dioecious lianas or scandent shrubs (rarely herbs, erect shrubs, or small trees) that are primarily distributed in the tropical regions of the World. There are ~72 genera and 520 species in the family. The classification of Menispermaceae is principally based on fruit characters. Their fruits are usually single-seeded, with leathery or membranaceous exocarps, thin and fleshy or fibrous mesocarps and woody endocarps. The shape of the endocarp varies strongly from straight, boat-shaped, horseshoe-shaped to hairpin-shaped. Moreover, the endocarp is variously ornamented which provides important taxonomic features for distinguishing between and within genera. This moonseed family is well-known for its fossil records. Previously, the earliest confirmed fossils of this family were reported from the Paleocene of South America, North America and Europe. By the Eocene, the family had attained a widespread distribution, with occurrences in North America, Europe, Asia and South America. Oligocene records, by contrast, are mainly limited to Eurasia. In Miocene and Pliocene, they were widely dispersed in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. Recently, some new Menispermaceae fossil specimens were collected from the middle Paleocene Buxin Formation of Sanshui Basin of Guangdong Province, South China. The age of the site is based on co-occurring mammal, ostracod fossils and associated radiometric dates. Four new species of Menispermaceae are recognizable based on a preliminary investigation and CT scanning is expected to provide improved documentation of these specimens which are preserved as 3-dimensional molds and casts. The specimens represent endocarps that were bony or woody, horseshoe shaped; outline of endocarp obovate to rounded; length 2.3 to 5.1mm, width 2.4 to 3.8mm,

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with a keel running along the dorsal surface; only one lateral crest on each side of the endocarp; 12 to 23 lateral ribs occur on the dorsal side. These new menispemaceous endocarps described from Sanshui Basin indicate the earliest Menispermaceous occurrence in eastern Asia. They confirm the presence of Menispermaceae in the Paleocene of South China, which gives us new evidence for the origin and spread route of this family. These fossils are also important as the first carpological remains to be reported from the Paleocene of Sanshui Basin. 1

Sun Yat-sen University, School of Life Sciences, 135 Xingangxi Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510275, China2University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO BOX 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA3Sun Yat-sen University, School Of Life Sciences, 135 Xingangxi Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, N/A, 510275, China

323

MATSUNAGA, KELLY K.S.* 1, MANCHESTER, STEVEN R 2, SMITH, SELENA 3, SRIVASTAVA, RASHMI 4 and KAPGATE, DASHRATH 5

Investigating taxonomic diversity and synonymy among fossil palms from the K-Pg transition of India

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he Arecaceae have an extensive fossil record that extends back to the Late Cretaceous, with the earliest unequivocal macrofossils dated as Coniacian-Santonian (~86 Ma) and putative representatives as early as the Aptian. One particularly rich palm flora inhabited the Indian subcontinent during the Late Cretaceous-early Paleogene (Maastrichtian-Danian ~66 Ma) of India, and is represented by about 164 species described from the Deccan intertrappean beds (DIB). However, this number probably overestimates the true taxonomic diversity within the flora because it includes morphospecies described from different organs, some of which likely originated from the same taxon. Moreover, owing to challenges associated with resolving the taxonomy of fossil palm stems (Palmoxylon), which comprise the majority of described species in the DIB, better estimates of the true taxonomic diversity may come from studies on fruits. The fruit component of the flora includes 33 described species which have been assigned to or compared with the extant genera Nypa, Cocos, Hyphaene, and Areca, as well as the morphogenera Palmocarpon and Arecoidocarpon. Here we focus on species assigned to the genus Arecoidocarpon through reinvestigations of type specimens and comparisons with new fossil collections. Three species have been described: A. kulkarnii and A. prismaticum from Mohgaonkalan, and A. palasundarensis from Palasundar. Additionally, several Arecoidocarpon specimens closely resembling A. kulkarnii and A. palasundarensis have been collected recently from the localities Keria and Dhangaon. Arecoidocarpon prismaticum fruits can be readily distinguished from the others by the presence of an outer prismatic layer in the endocarp and longitudinal fibrovascular bundles in the mesocarp. In contrast, A. kulkarnii, A. palasundarensis, and the Keria/Dhangaon Arecoidocarpon all possess an endocarp comprised of up to six layers of the fibrovascular bundles, and mesocarp with fibrovascular bundles

oriented perpendicular to the endocarp. Similarities in pericarp anatomy seen in these four Arecoidocarpon occurrences indicate that, rather than representing four difference species, these fossils correspond to a single widespread species and was probably abundant in the flora. Furthermore, Mohgaonkalan and Keria are situated in the western edge of the Mandla Lobe of the Deccan volcanic province, while Palasundar and Dhangaon are in the eastern region. Ar-Ar dating of the eastern Mandla Lobe indicates an early Paleogene age, while the western localities are considered Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous). While precise age constraints of the fossilbearing localities remain unclear, the geographic distribution of these Arecoidocarpon fossils implicates this taxon as one that potentially crossed the K-Pg boundary in India. 1

University Of Michigan, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA2University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO BOX 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA3University Of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Avenue, 2534 CC Little Building, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA4Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53 University Road, Lucknow 226 007, India5J.M. Patel College, Department of Botany, Bhandara 441904M.S., India

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DONOVAN, MICHAEL P.* 1, LABANDEIRA, CONRAD C. 2, WILF, PETER 3, IGLESIAS, ARI 4 and CUNƒO, RUBƒN 5

Insect herbivore communities tracked the conifer Agathis (Araucariaceae) from Paleogene Patagonia to modern Australasia and Southeast Asia

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uring the warm early Paleogene, a vast transAntarctic rainforest stretched across Gondwana. Recently, the first South American and earliest known members of the broadleaved conifer genus Agathis (Araucariaceae) were recognized in early Paleocene (Palacio de los Loros), early and middle Eocene (Laguna del Hunco and Río Pichileufú, respectively), and possibly terminal Cretaceous (Lefipán Fm.) floras in central Patagonia, Argentina. The breakup of Gondwana and major climate change led to the loss of suitable habitat and extinction of Agathis in South America, but the genus persists today in lowland to upper montane rainforests in Australasia and across Wallace’s Line in Southeast Asia. We observed that South American fossil Agathis are associated with diverse insect damage types (DTs) that resemble those found on extant Agathis species. To test whether the insect herbivore component communities tracked Agathis during its major range shifts, we compared insect damage on fossil Agathis leaves from Patagonia to that on extant leaves from herbarium collections and field specimens. Similar external foliage feeding on fossil and extant Agathis includes slot feeding (DT8) and margin feeding (DT12). Endophytic feeding on the fossils includes galls characterized by a thick margin surrounding epidermal tissue (DT115), resembling blister galls on extant Agathis. Fossil scale insect covers (DT86) preserved as amber casts resemble diaspidid scales associated with living Agathis. Elongate blotch

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Paleobotany mines (DT88) are found on fossil and extant species, including in the Cretaceous, possibly representing the only known Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary crossing leaf-mine association. Parectopa (Gracillariidae) moth mines are common on extant Agathis australis leaves from New Zealand but not found on the fossils. Overall, we found a similar suite of damage on extant Agathis throughout its modern range and on the Patagonian fossils. Therefore, Agathis and its component communities appear to include the legacy of long-term associations that originated in Gondwana and tracked the genus through major plate movements, environmental changes, and range shifts, persisting today in Australasia and Southeast Asia. 1

Pennsylvania State University, Geosciences, 236 Deike, University Park, PA, 16802, USA2Smithsonian Inst. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, MRC 121, Washington, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, 20013-7012, United States3Penn State Univ., 537 Deike Bldg., UNIVERSITY PARK, PA, 16802, USA4CONICET-Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente, San Carlos de Bariloche, 8400, Argentina5MEF AV. FONTANA 140, TRELEW-CHUBUT, N/A, 9100, Argentina

both of which have a discontinuous distribution. One morphotype has some vessels in tangential groupings, while another has simple to scalariform combination perforation plates (i.e., a simple perforation plate opposite a scalariform plate at the zone of contact between two vessel elements). The diagnosis for Platanoxylon as amended by Suss and Muller-Stoll (1977) includes distinct or indistinct growth rings, a combination of simple and scalariform perforation plates (not simple to scalariform combination plates) and vessels solitary and in multiples. The McRae woods fall outside the generic diagnoses of Platanoxylon and do not have the exact combination of features of Platanus warranting assignment to a new genus. This is supported by the extensive and diverse record of fossil leaves, flowers and fruits, which document a major radiation of Platanaceae during the mid- to Late Cretaceous. 1

Texas State University, Department of Biology, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX, 786662Texas State University, Department Of Biology, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX, 78666, USA

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325

SAVORETTI, ADOLFINA* 1, BIPPUS, ALEXANDER 2, STOCKEY, RUTH 3, ROTHWELL, GAR 4 and TOMESCU, ALEXANDRU 5

Significance and Systematic Assignment Of Early Platanoid Fossil Woods from the McRae Formation

Additional bryophyte diversity in the Lower Cretaceous of Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada): an anatomically-preserved tristichous moss

PARROTT, JOAN* 1 and UPCHURCH, JR., GARLAND 2

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xtant Platanaceae are composed of a single genus, Platanus, with 8 species native to North America, Europe, and Asia. Fossil woods indistinguishable from extant Platanus are assigned to the extant genus. Platanoids (Platanus-like woods) are reported from the late Tertiary and differ from Platanus by the incidence of solitary vs. grouped vessels, the incidence of simple vs. scalariform perforation plates and the distinctness of the growth boundaries, and are assigned to the fossil genus Platanoxylon. Platanoid woods from the Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary have been related to Platanaceae but differ from Platanoxylon and Platanus in features considered more primitive anatomically in the Baileyan model of wood evolution. Four platanoid woods from the McRae Formation, south-central New Mexico, of Late Campanion age (74-76 Ma) are compared to Cretaceous, Tertiary and extant platanoid woods to assess their evolutionary significance and systematic assignment. Woods from the crown group, Platanus, as well as probable members of the stem lineage (fossils), are assigned to Platanaceae on the basis of opposite intervessel pits, a combination of some exceptionally wide rays (>10 cells wide) along with very few or no uniseriate rays, and rays that are nearly homogeneous. McRae platanoid woods differ from Platanus and Platanoxylon by generally having exclusively solitary vessels and scalariform perforation plates, considered primitive in the Baileyan model, and no growth rings. However, several morphotypes show one or more intermediate features. One morphotype exhibits weakly developed growth boundary structure, while another has areas with somewhat narrower fibers and smaller vessels,

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he Early Cretaceous Apple Bay flora of Vancouver Island (Valanginian, 136 Ma) comprises permineralized plant assemblages preserved in carbonate concretions. This flora has yielded representatives of most major vascular plants groups, a lichen, and several fungi. A wide variety of bryophytes is present, making this one of the most diverse fossil bryophyte floras worldwide. Notable within the assemblage are polytrichaceous and leucobryaceous mosses, as well as hypnanaean tricostate mosses. A new bryophyte type identified at Apple Bay is characterized by very small gametophytes. The stem, 500 Âľm in diameter (including leaf bases), is triquetrous and branches three-dimensionally at close intervals. This branching architecture indicates an upright growth habit consistent with acrocarpy. The stem epidermis consists of flat cells with thicker walls than the cortical cells. The cortex comprises 3-4 layers of larger parenchyma and shows a sharp transition, at the center of the stem, to an area that lacks cellular preservation, which suggests the missing cells were delicate or small and could have formed a conducting strand. Leaves are densely imbricate, with helical tristichous phyllotaxis, and diverge at a sharp angle. Leaves are keeled, with recurved margins. The lamina is bistratose at the leaf base, becoming partially bistratose distally along the costa, and eventually unistratose in the upper leaf half. The strong costa is attenuate and exhibits some differentiation between thicker-walled epidermal cells and thinner-walled internal cells. This new Apple Bay moss has a distinctive combination of features: tristichous helical phyllotaxis and a bistratose leaf lamina. However, given their broad but infrequent taxonomic distribution, both of these features are probably homo-

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plasic. Each occurs in several extant families: tristichous phyllotaxis in at least 10 extant families and bistratose leaf lamina in at least 15 extant families. Of these, four families (Meesiaceae, Polytrichaceae, Grimmiaceae, Pottiaceae) include species that have tristichous phyllotaxis or bistratose lamina, but not both. Additionally, no extant moss shows bistratose lamina organization similar to that of the Apple Bay moss (bistratose basally, transitioning to unistratose apically): in living mosses, leaves are completely bistratose or they are bistratose either apically, marginally, in patches, or in streaks. Together, these suggest that the Apple Bay fossil represents a distinct moss type with no extant counterpart. This is the fifth moss described from Apple Bay and the third acrocarp type in this bryoflora, adding another element to the rich diversity of this Early Cretaceous flora and to the sparse bryophyte fossil record. 1

Instituto de Botanica Darwinion, Labarden 200, San Isidro, Buenos Aires, 1642, Argentina2Humboldt State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, United States3Oregon State University, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331, USA4Oregon State University, Department Of Enviromnental & Plant Biology, 2082 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA5Humboldt State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, USA

327

PFEILER, KELLY C.* 1, ORTIZ, ASHLEY 2, KAMMET, ASHLEY 1 and TOMESCU, ALEXANDRU 3

Exploring the relationships of an anatomically-preserved cupressaceous seed cone from the Lower Cretaceous of California

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he Cupressaceae have an extensive fossil record going back as far as the Jurassic, and possibly the Triassic, with some extant genera present as early as the Early Cretaceous. Fossil seed cones assigned to the Cupressaceae are diverse and have been included in phylogenetic analyses aimed at resolving relationships within the family. Of these fossils, anatomically-preserved seed cones provide the most valuable information for such studies. A seed cone discovered in the Lower Cretaceous Budden Canyon Formation (California), close to the Barremian-Aptian boundary (ca. 125 Ma), represents an early occurrence for the family, with potential implications for relationships among basal Cupressaceae. This is the second type of anatomically-preserved seed cone assigned to the Cupressaceae, discovered in this rock unit. The cone is 9 mm long, 6 mm in diameter, with an axis 1.2 mm in diameter bearing 22-28 helically arranged bract-scale complexes (ovuliferous scales). The bract-scale complexes are up to 1.9 mm long. They have a cuneate base and a polygonal peltate head up to 2.4 mm tall and up to 1.7 mm wide. One central resin canal runs the length of the bract-scale complex; in the wider portion of the latter, two shorter lateral canals run parallel and at the same level with the central canal. The vascular supply of bract-scale complexes consists of very thin adaxially positioned bundles; up to five such bundles diverge in a horizontal plane from the main bundle that supplies the base of the bract-scale complex. Morphologically, this cone shares some features with extant genera in early-divergent lineages of the Cupressaceae:

Sequoia and Sequoiadendron (sequoioids), Cryptomeria and Taxodium (taxodioids), and Athrotaxis. The Budden Canyon cone is the oldest fossil that shares features of these lineages. Both its age and its morphology suggest that this cone represents an early-diverging taxon in the Cupressaceae. Among younger Cretaceous cupressaceous cones, the Budden Canyon cone shares features with Quasisequoia, Parataxodium, Athrotaxites, and Austrosequoia. Some of these are permineralized fossils that allow for direct comparisons of bract-scale complex anatomy with extant genera and the Budden Canyon cone. The comparisons will explore vascular architecture and resin canal geometry of bract-scale complexes and the resulting data will be incorporated into a morphological phylogenetic matrix to address the placement of the Budden Canyon cone, with the potential to inform understanding of relationships at the base of the Cupressaceae. 1

Humboldt State University, Biological Sciences, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, USA276 East Oxford Street, Chula Vista, CA, 91911, USA3Humboldt State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, USA

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HAHN, ZACHARY* 1 and RYBERG, PATRICIA ELIZABETH 2

Foliar Herbivory from the early Middle Triassic Fremouw Formation, Antarctica

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n the wake of Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest mass extinction event, the Triassic Period (199-252 Ma) was tasked with the responsibility of restoring the planetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s biodiversity and facilitating the evolution of the small percentage of species that survived the Permian extinction. For many years, varieties of paleontologists have dedicated their efforts to finding clues and links that can shine light on how species changed and adapted to the warmer, drier Triassic environment. The early Middle Triassic Fremouw Formation, located within the Transantarctic Mountains, may offer some of those desired clues as it was a riparian forest. The significance behind the ecosystem is that it would have offered ideal conditions for the growth of the dominant plant group of the Triassic of Gondwana, the Corystospermales. The leaf genus of this group, Dicroidium, has been reconstructed as basally bifurcated, pinnate fronds that grew on woody shrubs and trees. The widespread distribution and dominant element of local floras suggests that Dicroidium should be a focal point of any study aiming to foster connections between Triassic floras and herbivores. These connections can be made by identifying plant damage on fossilized remains and then analyzing how herbivory played a role in the evolution of both the herbivore and the plant and how the herbivore fit into and affected its ecosystem. The goal of this study is to look through Dicroidium specimens from the Mt. Falla locality in the Fremouw Formation for evidence of herbivory. Initial examination of the foliage has illustrated marginal and hole feeding traces as well as oviposition. Continuing examination will determine what types of herbivores may have formed these traces as well as whether specific traces are associated with specific Dicroidium species and what affect these may have one the ecosystem.

1

Park University, Department of Natural & Physical Sciences, Parkville, MO, 64152, USA2Park University, Department of Natural & Physical Sciences, 8700 NW River Park Drive, Parkville, MO,


Paleobotany 329

KOLL, REBECCA* 1 and DIMICHELE, WILLIAM 2

Vegetative-diversity and patterns of arthropod herbivory in one of the most botanically rich localities in western equatorial Pangea

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he Wolfcampian (Artinskian) age Emily Irish locality, of north-central Texas, is believed to be the most thoroughly collected flora of this age from any place in the world, including ca. 6000 hand specimens housed at the US National Museum of Natural History. As part of a larger synthesis of Permian environments in western equatorial Pangea, we are investigating the record of plant-insect association, specifically examining the response of Permian food webs to climatic fluctuations during the waning phases of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. Integration of paleobotanical, sedimentological, and entomological reconstructions allows for broad-scale interpretations concerning assemblage diversity and patterns of plant radiation during this time of major environmental change. In an effort to better understand community structure of the region this study focuses on a quantitative census of vegetative dominance and diversity as well as an investigation of the degree and type of insect herbivory present; comparing and contrasting these results with existing literature investigating assemblage diversity and resource partitioning of other known vegetative communities from equatorial Pangea and Cathaysia. Results from the Emily Irish investigation address the following questions: How does the intensity of Pangean insect damage shift in response to time, environmental conditions, and habitat? 2) Do the damage types and their intensity indicate a changing spectrum of plant hosts or preferential feeding through time? 3) How does tropical vegetative community structure across Pangea respond to changes in environmental conditions? 4) How do long-term shifts in climate influence plant morphology such as leaf architecture and reproductive strategies? 5) What are the species richness and evenness patterns of Emily Irish how do they compare with other Permian sites? 1

University Of Florida And National Museum Of Natural History, Botany, 109 SE 16th Ave, Q302, Gainesville, FL, 32601, USA2Smithsonian Institution, DEPT OF PALEOBIOLOGY, NHB MRC 121, WASHINGTON, DC, 20560-0001, USA

330

POSEY, NYSHELE* 1 and RYBERG, PATRICIA ELIZABETH 2

New Late Permian permineralized glossopterid ovules from the Nimrod Glacier region, Antarctica

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uring the Permian age, (252-299 Ma), Gondwana was covered with the seed fern group Glossopteridales. Most glossopterid fossils are found as impressions, which limits and confounds interpreting three dimensional structures such as reproductive organs. Permineralized material, although rare, can provide detailed anatomical information about a fossil plant as the cellular structure is preserved. In this study a permin-

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eralized groups of ovules from Turbidite Hill in the Nimrod Glacier (82°1’ S 157° 45’E) region of Antarctica are described. The specimen belongs to the Late Permian Buckley Formation which has been reconstructed as a braided river depositional environment. More than seven ovules are clustered together and appear attached to a single structure. The ovules measured 2.77 mm in length and 1.29 mm in width. The sacrotesta is 85-213 μm thick with thin walled cells full of dark contents. A distinctive feature of the surface of the ovules is the presence of small spines that cover the surface. The sclerotesta is 109-164 μm thick and consists of isodiameteric cells with thick walls with scalariform thickenings and measure 14-42 μm in diameter. The endotesta is not easily observed, but the nucellus appears to be broadly attached at the base of the integument and free for the rest of the length. When comparing these ovules to other permineralized ovules from Antarctica, they are most similar to the genus Choanostoma. The sarcotesta of both ovule types have small spines, and the sclerotesta have highly sclerified cells. However, the shape of the ovules differs as the length of Choanostoma includes distinctive sarcotestal pads which overarch the micropyle whereas these new ovules have no distinctive micropylar end. To date, all permineralized ovules from Antarctica have been from the Skaar Ridge locality in the Beardmore Glacier region. This new genus of ovule presents data from a different position of the same braided river system as Skaar Ridge and may provide a hint of the broader diversity of Antarctic glossopterids. 1

Park University, Department of Natural & Physical Sciences, Parkville, MO, 64152, USA2Park University, Department of Natural & Physical Sciences, 8700 NW River Park Drive, Parkville, MO, 64152, USA

331

KELLY, BROOKE* 1 and RYBERG, PATRICIA ELIZABETH 2

Floral analysis of a Pennsylvanian floodplain ecosystem, Parkville, MO, USA

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uring the Pennsylvanian (323-299 Ma), environments of North America ranged from coal swamps to flood plains, and even some slightly drier environments, such as clastic, terra-firma lowlands. The dominance of one of the five plant groups of this period (lycopsids, ferns, sphenopsids, pteridosperms, cordaitaleans) provides clues as to the type of ecosystem present in the deposit. For example, lycopsids dominated coastal coal swamps while cordaitaleans dominated drier upland habitats. An outcrop in the central part of the United States; Parkville, MO, USA (39.19° N, 94.68° W) reveals the retreat of the Panthalassic Ocean in the Late Pennsylvanian as marine deposits grade into shales in which the plant flora changes from a coastal environment through a floodplain flora and finally a probable upland environment. The preservation of the fossils is pristine providing exquisite detail on both vegetative and reproductive features. Quantitative analyses were performed on plant fossils from this outcrop to determine the abundance and diversity of the flora, however stratigraphic position within the outcrop was not considered in this study. This quantitative study presents the initial results of the diversity of the flora present throughout all the layers in the outcrop. The abundance


of each genus present was determined by examining the paleobotanical collections at Park University and the University of Kansas, Lawrence. The dominant group were Medullosans (34%) represented by Neuropteris and Odontoperis foliage followed by the Sphenophytes (24%). Cordaitaleans and lycopsids each represented less than 20% of the diversity. Contemporaneous environments that have been reconstructed as floodplains show a dominance of medullosans close to active channels and sphenophytes in wetter areas near abandoned channels and ponds. Preliminary examination of the stratigraphic distribution of the medullosans and sphenopsids in the Parkville outcrop indicates a river/deltaic system with active channels (medullosan dominated) alternating with abandoned channels (sphenopsid dominated). Future studies aim to study the dynamic changes of the environment as the ocean receded and more upland habitats formed. 1

Park University, Department of Natural & Physical Sciences, Parkville, MO, 64152, USA2Park University, Department of Natural & Physical Sciences, 8700 NW River Park Drive, Parkville, MO, 64152, USA

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BIPPUS, ALEXANDER* 1 and TOMESCU, ALEXANDRU 2

Characterizing the Early Devonian plant communities of western North America: the Lochkovian-Pragian Cottonwood Canyon flora of Wyoming

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he Cottonwood Canyon flora consists of Lochkovian-Pragian (419-410 Ma) fossil assemblages preserved in rocks assigned to the Beartooth Butte Formation, in northern Wyoming. Although >90 Lochkovian and Pragian plant fossil assemblages are known worldwide, the Cottonwood Canyon flora is the only Early Devonian flora of significance known in Western North America; two other Devonian floras in this geographic region (Martin Formation of Arizona and Chilliwack Group of Washington) are poorly sampled and probably younger. The Early Devonian witnessed the first stages of the evolutionary radiation of tracheophytes, during which several lineages of structurally-simple vascular plants diversified to generate the different types of structurally-complex tracheophytes described from younger, Middle Devonian floras. Understanding Early Devonian plant diversity is, thus, essential for untangling the evolution and relationships of early tracheophytes. The Cottonwood Canyon flora has been sampled since the 1970s and collections are housed at several major museums in the United States. However, despite its geographic significance and extensive sampling, the Cottonwood Canyon flora has not received a modern formal taxonomic treatment. Plants are preserved in abundance at Cottonwood Canyon, as coalified compressions or impressions. A survey of all the material collected from this flora reveals plants with diverse taxonomic affinities, including three zosterophylls, a renalioid, three lycophytes, two trimerophytes, and thalloid gametophytes of riccioid appearance; specimens potentially representing four additional morphotypes have been recorded. The two most abundant plants are Sengelia radicans, a drepanophycalean lycophyte identified in 52% of the samples, and a zostero-

phyll (present in 24% of samples) represented by axes that branch at wide angles with subaxillary tubercles and stalked globose sporangia; both of these are found predominantly in monospecific autochthonous and parautochthonous layers. Sporangia are rare on the Cottonwood Canyon plants and especially rare in the in situ/parautochthonous assemblages. This paucity of reproductive structures, very striking considering the large number of vegetative remains, points to clonality as the prevailing reproductive strategy, especially for the abundant zosterphyll and Sengelia. Clonality has been noted previously in other Early Devonian plant assemblages, e.g., the Battery Point Formation of GaspĂŠ (Canada). While the relatively high level of plant diversity documented at Cottonwood Canyon is not unusual for Lochovian-Pragian localities, this flora is the only source of information on the vegetation of western North America during the Early Devonian, thus contributing significantly to the picture of Early Devonian plant diversity and biogeography. 1

Humboldt State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, United States2Humboldt State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, USA

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TOLEDO, SELIN* 1 and TOMESCU, ALEXANDRU 2

Early hints of structural complexity: a new euphyllophyte from the Lower Devonian of Quebec

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he Battery Point Formation of the GaspĂŠ Peninsula (Quebec, Canada) hosts a rich Emsian permineralized flora, one of the rare occurrences of anatomicallypreserved Early Devonian plants. One of these plants is a new type of structurally complex euphyllophyte represented by >10 axis segments up to 8mm in diameter, bearing alternate decussate lateral appendages. Lateral appendages, at least 1.5cm long, 3mm wide x 2mm thick, bear small, dichotomous, alternate ultimate appendages. The axes have actinosteles with 4 xylem ribs and protoxylem strands at the center of the stele, along rib midplanes (2-3 per rib), and at rib tips; central and rib tip protoxylem strands occasionally form lacunae. Metaxylem tracheids have distinctive P-type secondary thickenings with spongy structure. Primary phloem forms an incompletely preserved thin layer of narrow cells around the xylem. Secondary xylem forms a 5-6 cell-thick layer of radially aligned tracheids that is thicker around the tips of primary xylem ribs and thinner along their sides. The inner cortex, incompletely preserved, hosts a discontinuous layer of longitudinally elongated sclereids with thick secondary walls. The outer cortex has alternating zones of sclerenchyma and parenchyma reminiscent of Sparganum-type anatomy. Areas of sclerenchyma cells extend from the outer cortex into the bays between primary xylem ribs. Axes and lateral appendages bear capitate trichomes. Traces to lateral appendages consist of pairs of Y-shaped bundles emerging tangentially from the tip of primary xylem ribs, lateral appendages, like the traces supplying them, have bilateral polarity. This Emsian plant occupies an intermediate position between basal euphyllophytes (trimerophytes) and the diverse younger Devonian

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Paleobotany lineages of structurally complex euphyllophytes. Consistent with this position, this plant exhibits a unique combination of characters that can illuminate the evolution of euphyllophyte structural complexity: (i) P-type tracheids (seen only in trimerophytes), (ii) features of select younger Devonian euphyllophytes - tangential trace divergence (Stenokoleales, Triloboxylon, Tristichia), protoxylem lacunae (Cairoa, Stenokoleos) -, and (iii) characters more broadly represented in the same groups - mesarch protoxylem, secondary growth, heterogeneous outer cortex. Possessing P-type tracheids, the Gaspe plant is potentially basal to two other structurally complex Emsian euphyllophytes (Gensel 1984 and Gothanophyton). Together, these plants indicate that several euphyllophyte lineages were already exploring structural complexity prior to the Middle Devonian. These plants also illustrate a snapshot of the mosaic pattern of morphological evolution that characterizes the radiation of vascular plants during the Devonian Explosion, which appears to have become canalised into distinct lineages by the Middle Devonian.

with differences in branching architecture between these groups; euphyllophytes evolved finely dissected branching systems that terminated in small sporangia, while lycophytes generally had larger branches bearing larger lateral sporangia. Our results suggest that sporangium size and spore size were largely decoupled across the Devonian. They also demonstrate that the evolution of different plant architectures has a pervasive influence in structuring plant reproductive allocation, not only in terms of the aggregation of sporangia into stobili as noted in previous studies, but also in terms of the specific reproductive output of the sporangia themselves. With its combination of increasing spore size and decreasing sporangium volume, the Middle Devonian is then a unique time period in the history of plant reproductive allocation and the evolution of reproductive strategies. 1

Brown University, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 40 Taber Ave, Providence, RI, 02906, USA2Brown University, 80 Waterman St., Providence, RI, 02912, United States

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BICKNER, MAYA* 1, TOLEDO, SELIN and TOMESCU, ALEXANDRU 3

1

Humboldt State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 1, Harpst Street , Arcata, CA, 95521, USA2Humboldt State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, USA

2

New fossils from the Battery Point Formation of Gaspé (Quebec, Canada) expand the anatomical diversity of Early Devonian euphyllophytes

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BONACORSI, NIKOLE* 1 and LESLIE, ANDREW B 2

Spore size, sporangium size, plant architecture, and the evolution of plant reproductive allocation over the Devonian

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he Battery Point Formation, located on the Gaspé Peninsula hosts a rich Early Devonian (Emsian) flora that represents one of the rare occurrences of anatomically preserved Early Devonian plants. Recent investigations of the permineralized plant assemblages of the Battery Point Formation have uncovered several new types of euphyllophytes represented by small-sized axes with ribbed xylem. A first morphotype is represented by several axes ca. 2 mm in diameter exhibiting mesarch protosteles with three short ribs (up to 180 µm long) and inconspicuous protoxylem strands at each rib tip. The inner cortex, mostly parenchymatous, has a discontinuous layer of sclereids. The outer cortex combines parenchyma and sclerenchyma cells in an alternating pattern and is ca. 192µm thick. A second morphotype is an axis 1.8 mm wide with an oval-shaped protostele that has 3-4 mesarch protoxylem strands forming a line along the xylem midplane. The inner cortex is thin and parenchymatous. The outer cortex, ca. 190µm thick, consists of evenly distributed sclerenchyma cells. A third morphotype represented by a single axis 1.7 mm in diameter, has a 3-ribbed stele with longer (up to 400 µm) mesarch xylem ribs and incompletely preserved extraxylary tissues. A forth morphotype, represented by two axes up to 3.5 mm wide, is characterized by a 4-ribbed protostele. The protostele ribs are up to 168 µm long and protoxylem strands are present at each rib tip and the center of the stele. The inner cortex is mostly parenchymatous, with scattered groups of sclereids. The outer cortex, ca. 220 µm thick, consists of alternating areas of sclerenchyma and parenchyma cells. A fifth type is represented by two axes ca. 2.1 mm in diameter. Although sub-optimally preserved, these axes have steles with 5 and 6 thin xylem ribs up to 580 μm long. Protoxylem strands are present at the stele center, rib tips, and possibly along rib midplanes. The inner cortex is parenchymatous and the outer cortex, ca. 180 µm thick, scler-

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he Middle Devonian was a pivotal time in plant evolutionary history, which saw the rise of the first large trees and diverse forest ecosystems. Plant reproductive strategies also diversified over the Middle Devonian, as reflected in the evolution of larger spore sizes and the first appearance of heterospory. The increase in reproductive strategies may generally reflect the ecological diversification of plants, but the exact reasons for these changes and their evolutionary consequences remain unclear. Here we explore the consequences of increasing spore size on the allocation of reproductive resources within specific sporangia, in order to better understand the consequences of increasing spore size on the reproductive strategies of Devonian plants. We compiled a dataset of microsporangium and megasporangium sizes, based on linear measurements and estimated volumes from published literature sources, for the Late Silurian through the Late Devonian. We particularly focused on taxa containing in situ spores, which we also coupled with information on supporting branch diameter where available. We find that Early Devonian sporangium sizes were relatively large, but sporangia show a decrease in average size over the Middle Devonian. Sporangia sizes then increase in average size and variance in the Late Devonian. The Middle Devonian decrease occurs at the same time that large spores (both large meiospores and early megaspores) become more abundant, meaning that the number of spores produced per sporangium declines significantly over this interval. In situ data suggests this pattern is mainly driven by early euphyllophytes, as lycophytes show consistently larger sporangia. These patterns are consistent

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great detail. In comparisons of different Sengelia shoot size classes, larger-diameter shoots have substantially greater microconchid density than smaller shoots. This, coupled with the presence of a substantial number of Sengelia specimens that lack microconchid colonization, suggests that Sengelia populations experienced repeated (possibly periodical) episodes of submergence that led to progressive accumulation of microconchids on older shoots. Further investigation of microconchid distribution on plants at Cottonwood Canyon is ongoing and will allow us to understand the dynamics of microconchid colonization on the other plant types. The abundant colonization of plants by microconchids at Cottonwood Canyon also provides insight into the habitats of these invertebrates, suggesting that they had the capacity to live in unstable brackish to freshwater environments during the Early Devonian. Together, these highlight the importance of studies on microconchidplant interactions which will enrich our understanding of the natural history and ecology of microconchids and plants.

enchymatous. These five distinct morphotypes offer a new set of previously unknown Early Devonian plants. The features of these plants - ribbed steles, outer cortex with alternating parenchymatous and sclerenchymatous areas, sclereids in inner cortex - are reminiscent of younger (Middle Devonian) structurally-complex euphyllophytes: cladoxylopsids, aneurophytalean progymnsoperms, and stenokolealeans. These new plants broaden considerably the anatomical diversity known in the Early Devonian and demonstrate that the euphyllophyte evolutionary radiation was already exploring different aspects of structural complexity by the Emsian. 1

Humboldt State University , Botany , 1 Harpst St, Arcata, CA, 95521, USA2Humboldt State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 1, Harpst Street , Arcata, CA, 95521, USA3Humboldt State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, USA

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DORN, SHANELLE* 1, ABIDI, SHAYDA 2, BIPPUS, ALEXANDER 3, MATSUNAGA, KELLY K.S. 4 and TOMESCU, ALEXANDRU 5

1

Humboldt State University, Biological Sciences, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, USA2Humboldt State University, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, United States3Humboldt State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, United States4University Of Michigan, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA5Humboldt State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, USA

Microconchid-plant interactions in the Early Devonian wetlands of Wyoming (Beartooth Butte Formation, LochkovianPragian)

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icroconchids are extinct aquatic invertebrates classified as phoronid lophophorates. They are sessile encrusters, producing coiled calcareous tubes on various hard substrates, including plants. Consequently, they can provide insights on the living and depositional environments, and taphonomy of fossil plants. However, microconchids, identified as a distinct group only recently, are still poorly understood in terms of taxonomy, living environments, stratigraphic and geographic distribution. Additionally, interactions between microconchids and plant substrates have yet to be studied in detail. The Early Devonian Beartooth Butte Formation records the oldest occurrence of microconchids colonizing plants, in Lochkovian-Pragian fossil assemblages studied at Cottonwood Canyon (Wyoming). This is also the most abundant occurrence of microconchids associated with plants known to date. As such, the Cottonwood Canyon assemblages provide an opportunity to explore the relationships between microconchids, plants, and their living environments, and can enhance our understanding of these enigmatic invertebrates. At Cottonwood Canyon, plant fossils are preserved as coalified compressions, alongside fish and eurypterid arthropods, in channel fill deposits. The most abundant plant fossil is Sengelia radicans, a robust lycophyte preserved in extensive in situ mats. Flood deposits alternate with Sengelia mats preserving fossils of zosterphylls, trimerophytes, thalloid gametophytes, protolepidodendralean lycophytes and sterile axes assigned to several morphotypes. Microconchids are extremely abundant on the shoots of Sengelia and moderately abundant on two sterile axis morphotypes. The occurrence of microconchids on these plants indicates that they lived in areas that were temporarily submerged. The rich assemblages of Sengelia have allowed us to understand the relationship between this plant and microconchids in

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HARPER, CARLA J* 1, KRINGS, MICHAEL 1 and TAYLOR, EDITH L 2

The Windyfield chert (Lower Devonian, Scotland): Exceptional preservation of chytrid-like fungi and fungal interactions with charophytes

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he Windyfield chert is a chert deposit in close proximity and broadly coeval to the world famous Lower Devonian Rhynie chert site. Recent screening of Windyfield chert blocks has yielded multiple specimens of distinctive microorganisms that have not been recorded from the Rhynie chert. Several different types of parasitic interactions between charophytes and chytrid-like microfungi were documented some 25 years ago from the Rhynie chert. Those chytrid-like organisms (formally described as Milleromyces, Lyonomyces, and Krispiromyces) were characterized by epibiotic or endobiotic zoosporangia and rhizomycelia extending into the host; some were the causative agents of hypertrophy in the form of drastically inflated algal cells. Newly discovered in-situ stands of charophytes from the Windyfield chert also contain representatives of the fungal taxa described in the original study, as well as several new forms, including one that is characterized by particularly thick walled, drop-shaped zoosporangia and multi-branched, tenuous rhizomycelia. Another form possesses short-stalked, lacrimoid zoosporangia with a single distal discharge opening. Other evidence of chytrid-like organisms in the Windyfield chert includes zoosporangia entirely surrounded by what appears to be a prominent mucilage sheath strikingly similar to that seen in certain extant species of the chytrid Rhizophy-

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Paleobotany dium. The lumen of the zoosporangium is filled with numerous spherules that contain dark central inclusions; in rare cases, zoosporangia are attached to thick rhizomycelia. The Windyfield chert fossils demonstrate that (1) charophyte algae in Early Devonian freshwater ecosystems served as hosts to a much wider range of microscopic fungi and probably to other groups of microorganisms and (2) the diversity of chytrid-like organisms in these early non-marine ecosystems was greater than previously thought. 1

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Department für Geo- und Umweltwissenschaften, Paläontologie und Geobiologie, RichardWagner-Straße 10, Munich, 80333, Germany2University Of Kansas, Department Of Ecology And Evolutionary Biology, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue, Haworth Hall, Lawrence, KS, 66045-7600, USA

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KRINGS, MICHAEL* 1, HARPER, CARLA J and TAYLOR, EDITH L 2 1

Primary producers in the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert: Cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae

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he Lower Devonian Rhynie chert from Aberdeenshire, Scotland, has long been recognized as one of the most important rock deposits yielding comprehensive information on early continental plant, animal, and microbial life. Cyanobacteria and microscopic algae were no doubt instrumental as primary producers in the Rhynie ecosystem, and therefore must have been diverse and occurred in large quantities. However, only a few of these life forms have been documented in detail and formally described, due in part to the simple fact that specimens are often exceedingly small, and thus not readily recognized and studied. Moreover, classification of cyanobacteria and microscopic algae today largely relies on molecular data and (ultra)structural features that are difficult, if not impossible to obtain from fossils. This presentation reviews the documented evidence of primary producers from the Rhynie chert, and presents several new discoveries of coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria, including forms resembling the extant Anabaena, Aphanothece, Cyanosarcina, Gloeocapsa, and Oscillatoria, as well as sarcinoid and filamentous eukaryotic algae that are morphologically similar to present-day Apatococcus/Desmococcus and Ulothrix. Moreover, microbial mats dominated by the filamentous cyanobacterium Croftalania venusta are described that harbour a variety of other photoautotrophic microorganisms, and thus represent a valuable source of new information on the diversity of primary producers in the Rhynie ecosystem. 1

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Department für Geo- und Umweltwissenschaften, Paläontologie und Geobiologie, RichardWagner-Straße 10, Munich, 80333, Germany2University Of Kansas, Department Of Ecology And Evolutionary Biology, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue, Haworth Hall, Lawrence, KS, 66045-7600, USA

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TOMESCU, ALEXANDRU

Dissecting the Devonian Explosion: an Emsian leap in anatomical diversity suggests biphasic rise in euphyllophyte disparity

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ver broad time scales, evolution within clades follows a few fundamental patterns: increasing diversity, increasing organismal complexity and maximal size, and early high disparity. While the first three macroevolutionary patterns have been documented in vascular plants or are readily apparent from their fossil record, the forth has yet to be tested for this clade. Disparity, referring to morphological diversity independent of taxonomy, was shown to reach highest levels early in the history of a clade, i.e. early high disparity. Tracheophytes span 425+ Ma of evolutionary history and by the early Carboniferous, in less than one fifth of the clade’s history, had diversified taxonomically and had also reached high morphological disparity, thus qualifying for early high disparity. The same is true of a major clade within tracheophytes, the euphyllophytes. Early tracheophytes and euphyllophytes have frustrated efforts aimed at phylogenetic resolution and the taxonomy of their Devonian representatives is fluctuating, at best. These shortcomings are thought to reflect rapid diversification, termed the Devonian Explosion, which likely entailed mosaic patterns of morphological evolution. Taxonomy notwithstanding, euphyllophytes show a conspicuous, previously unrecognized rise in anatomical diversity ca. 400 Ma ago, in the Emsian. Whereas older euphyllophytes feature exclusively by terete centrarch xylem strands, Emsian euphyllophytes, particularly those recognized in the Battery Point Formation (Gaspé, Canada), mark a sudden leap to diverse xylem anatomies. Foreshadowing the anatomical diversity seen in younger Devonian lineages (iridopterids, pseudosporochnaleans, stenokolealeans, aneurophytaleans, seed plants), the Gaspé euphyllophytes feature diverse actinosteles and different architectures of lateral trace divergence; extraxylary tissues mirror this diversity, exhibiting anatomical differentiation. This sudden and substantial increase in anatomical diversity is consistent with rapid evolutionary radiation and corroborates hypotheses of early high disparity. Furthermore, this contributes an element of detail on the tempo of euphyllophyte evolution, by dating the beginning of their rise in disparity and, more generally, in structural complexity, to the mid/late Emsian. Interestingly, the rise in anatomical disparity was happening in plants that otherwise shared the simple body plan of older tracheophytes, characterized by systems of branching axes exhibiting minimal morphological differentiation: Emsian euphyllophytes show high anatomical disparity but low disparity in external morphology. Organographic differentiation and complex body plans evolved later in this clade, during the Middle and Late Devonian. Thus, during the Devonian Explosion, euphyllophyte disparity seems to have begun exploring the morphospace of body plans and organography only after a first phase of exploration of the internal anatomy morphospace.

Humboldt State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA, 95521, USA

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as Nucellangium based on features of the integument. Like angiosperm flowers, the new cone matured from base to tip (pollen first, seed last), so that specimens with mature seeds generally lack intact, filled pollen sacs. We interpret cones with attached seeds as bisexual due to the extraordinary amount of cordaitean pollen between the intermediate cone scales, the presence of male scales with developing pollen sacs, and male scales bearing fragmented pollen sacs that contain cordaitean pollen. In developing cones, the upper sterile scales have abundant trichomes and closely surround the developing seed; these scales may have protected immature ovules from self-pollination. The discovery of a cordaitean with bisexual secondary fertile shoots supports molecular phylogenies linking gnetaleans and conifers, and suggests that the common ancestor of gnetaleans and cordaiteans may have had compound cones with bisexual secondary fertile shoots. The basal sterile, intermediate male, apical female organization of the new bisexual cordaitean cone echoes the organization of angiosperm flowers, controlled by interactions of A-, B-, C- and E-family genes. No angiosperm flowers have a set of ‚upper’ sterile scales inserted between stamens and carpel; and in angiosperms, sterile organs do not form after down-regulation of A-family genes caused by the expression of C-family genes. However, the gnetalean genus, Gnetum, has basal sterile scales that express orthologues of C- and D-family genes (GGM-3), suggesting that these are not like angiosperm petals or sepals, which we would expect to express B- or A-family genes. Perhaps orthologues of C-family genes also controlled the development of the upper sterile scales in the new bisexual cordaitean cone. If so, this cone provides direct evidence of A-, B-, C- and E-family genes and of ABCE reproductive patterning in the Late Pennsylvanian.

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PRESTIANNI, CYRILLE* 1 and DECOMBEIX, ANNE-LAURE 2

Bipolar or not that’s the question: earliest spermatophyte growth habit into question

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he earliest true spermatophytes are found in the Upper Devonian where up to 20 species have been described. They show a wide morpho-anatomical disparity of their reproductive structures. By contrast, the vegetative systems of almost all of them are characterized by a very narrow diversity. In all documented cases, it consists in a zigzag-shaped pseudomonopodial main axis bearing helically arranged dichotomous branching systems. This general organisation appeared early in the lignophyte phylogenetical tree. The earliest diverging trimerophytes include several well described fossil genera such as Psilophyton and Pertica that are similarly characterized by a pseudomonopodial stem and helically arranged dichotomous branching systems. This bauplan, though experiencing considerable variations, was as well conserved within Middle Devonian lignophytes such as the aneurophytales and stenokoleales. By contrast, the data available for the Lower Carboniferous spermatophytes indicate that though the morpho-anatomical disparity of ovules was comparable to that of the Devonian, a much higher disparity is observed for the vegetative parts, with the apparition of various growth habits and new characters of the primary and secondary vascular system. Exogenous ecological reasons are most often advocated to explain this major change as the disappearance of Archaeopteris and new climatic conditions allowed the exploration and occupation of new niches. We however suspect a major breakthrough to have occurred among spermatophyte growth habit with the apparition of bipolar growth around the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary. We will here discuss this hypothesis based on new available developmental evidences.

1

Texas A & M University, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, College Station, Texas, 77843, United States2Harvard Botanical Museum, 26 Oxford Ave, Cambridge, MA, 02138, United States

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1

DECOMBEIX, ANNE-LAURE* 1, ROWE, NICK P 1, SERBET, RUDOLPH 2 and TAYLOR, EDITH L 3

Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences, Paleontology Dpt., Rue Vautier 29, Bruxelles, N/A, 1000, Belgium2CNRS, UMR AMAP, C/o CIRAD, TA A51/PS2, Bvd De La Lironde, Montpellier, N/A, F-34398, France

What is the functional significance of the unusual cambial development in Vertebraria (Glossopteridales) roots? Some geometrical and mechanical clues

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RAYMOND, ANNE* 1 and COSTANZA, SUZANNE 2

One Cone, Two Genders: A bisexual cordaitean from the Late Pennsylvanian of Iowa

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evelopmental changes in the onset of secondary growth are a powerful source of variation for the hydraulic and mechanical properties of woody plants. A fascinating example from the fossil record is the Permian morphogenus Vertebraria. Vertebraria axes represent the roots of the glossopteridalean seed plants, which dominated Southern Hemisphere floras during the Permian. In the first stages of their secondary growth, Vertebraria roots typically have a discontinuous production of secondary xylem around the axis. The lengthening of this phenomenon results in a wood cylinder that is discontinuous and appears star-shaped in cross-section, with lacunae between the wedges of wood. In older roots, xylem production becomes continuous around the axis, surrounding the central discontinuous wood development. This unique anatomy

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xtinct cordaitean gymnosperms produced compound cones in which the primary axis bore secondary fertile shoots. Like their sister group, conifers, most cordaiteans had unisexual cones. However, a new cordaitean cone from the Late Pennsylvanian of Iowa has bisexual secondary fertile shoots organized like angiosperm flowers, with basal sterile scales, intermediate male scales bearing pollen sacs, and an upper female scale bearing a single, basally attached seed. Unlike angiosperm flowers, the new bisexual cordaitean cone has an extra set of sterile scales, inserted between the male scales and the apical female scale. The new cone comes from the Kalo Formation (Pennsylvanian) of Iowa. Five specimens have attached seeds, identified

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Paleobotany of the young developmental stages and the following "inside out" transformation likely has a strong impact on the functional properties of Vertebraria axes. n this study, we combine new anatomical observations of Vertebraria from the Late Permian of Skaar Ridge, Antarctica, with geometrical and mechanical approaches. We investigate (1) to what extent Vertebraria differs from “normal” roots with a conventional circular outline, and (2) what is the functional significance of its derived organization. Comparisons of tissue distribution in cross-section between a normal root with an entire cylinder of wood and a star-shaped organization show “cheaper” growth in the latter where a smaller number of wood cells are produced to develop a given overall diameter. The star-shaped organization of the wood in young Vertebraria roots also leads to a reduced surface for hydraulic conductivity compared to a normal root but a potentially higher bending rigidity owing to its "I"-beam-like organisation. Young Vertebraria specimens are observed to have grown inside the wood of another trunk suggesting that the star-shaped organization provided a potentially effective method for growth through the surrounding matrix by young roots. The unique organization of the wood in young Vertebraria roots possibly represents a "light structural organisation" and efficient strategy for fast root growth and rapid establishment in a wet environment such as a peat swamp. The “inside out” transformation to a more classical root anatomy might reflect the prioritization of new functions (such as carbon storage, water transport and strength) in later stages of root development. The ecological implications of these functional strategies in high-latitude peat swamps will be discussed.

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1 CNRS, UMR AMAP, C/o CIRAD, TA A51/PS2, Bvd De La Lironde, Montpellier, N/A, F-34398, France2University Of Kansas, Division Of Paleobotany, NAT HIST MUS & BIODIV RES INST, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA3University Of Kansas, Department Of Ecology And Evolutionary Biology, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue, Haworth Hall, Lawrence, KS, 66045-7600, USA

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GULBRANSON, ERIK L* 1 and HARPER, CARLA J 2

Isotopic characterization of plant-fungus interactions in modern and fossil woods

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orphological studies of fossil wood rotting and pathogenic fungi are in the relatively early stages as a research foci, however, in depth studies on the geochemical pathways of degradation and decay symptoms in fossils remain even less understood. The relative abundance or relationship of certain pathogenic microorganisms with specific fossil taxa is an underutilized parameter of paleoecological analyses. This is perhaps due in part by the current lack of screening tools to supplement optical microscopic methods of investigation. The study presented herein incorporates stable carbon isotope analyses of various forms of plant-fungus decay features in modern wood spanning several genera of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Preliminary results suggest that fungal decay signs and symptoms in white pocket rot infected trees and host responses, i.e., Compartmentalization Of Decay In Trees (CODIT)

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response, reveal characteristic isotopic patterns. We provide documentation of specific sampling strategies to characterize the compositional changes to wood during saprotrophic interactions and potential host responses. The geochemical pathways of degradation are interpreted based upon comparison of stable isotope patterns in identical sampling strategies for control samples and the expected trend of decay products from preferential microbial-metabolism of lignin. The isotopic results from extant plants are compared to fossil woods that display morphologic evidence of fungal decay structures; fossil woods underwent identical sampling strategies as the modern woods. The similarity of isotopic patterns between fossil and extant fungal decay structures indicates that geochemical pathways of wood decay in the modern are of great antiquity. Moreover, these interpretations of metabolic process are supported by characterization of fossil wood organic compounds, illustrating the potential to detect host responses as well as elucidating specific changes in wood geochemical composition from fungal decay versus thermal diagenesis. Geochemical techniques such as stable carbon isotope analysis can be used to broadly screen fossil woods for the presence of saprotrophic or pathogenic relationships in deep time, which can be further studied in depth via morphologic analysis, organic geochemistry, and high-resolution mass spectroscopy techniques. 1

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Geosciences, 3209 N. Maryland Ave, Milwaukee, WI, 53211, USA2University Of Kansas, Ecology And Evolutionary Biology, 2041 Haworth Hall, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA

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ROTHWELL, GAR* 1, STOCKEY, RUTH 2 and STEVENSON, DENNIS 3

Cyacas-like seeds in the Bajocian Stage of the Middle Jurassic

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ore than 200 large permineralized cycad seeds have been recovered from shallow marine sediments of the Yukon Formation (Vancouver Group) on South Balch Island, near Queen Charlotte City, on the islands of Haida Gwaii, off the west cost of Canada. Two distinct morphologies of such seeds have been identified, including the radial Cycadeocarpus columbianus Dawson and a “bilateral” seed that closely resembles Cycas. The Cycas-like seeds are 3.3-7.1 cm long, 3.2-7.6 cm wide, and 2.4-4.2 cm thick. Some have a smooth outer surface while others have several longitudinally oriented ridges and furrows on the surface. Some are oval in cross section, while others have blunt wings in the major plane of section. All of the forms intergrade, with the differences having resulted from differential taphonomic modification. The integument is divided into two valves that are defined by a suture that extends from the endotesta to the periphery of the seed in the major plane of section, and gives the seeds 180 degree rotational symmetry. Opening at the suture is characteristic of the distinctive germination mechanism of the genus Cycas. The nucellus is adnate to the integument in the basal three quarters of the seed cavity and forms a distal pollen chamber that is sealed at the apex. The integument consists of an inner zone of small, thin-walled cells, and an outer zone of larger more isodiametric cells that form thick-walled sclereids toward the inside. To-


ward the outside, the thick-walled sclereids intergrade with thin-walled cells of similar dimensions. Two large vascular bundles of contorted tracheids enter the base of the seed in the major plane and extend distally between the two valves of the integument. Distal to the chalaza those bundles enter the inner zone integument and branch. One branch extends proximally to below the seed cavity where it converges with the bundle from the other side of the seed as transfusion tracheids. The other branch extends distally to near the micropyle, where it terminates within the inner zone of the integument. Incompletely preserved megagametophyte cells and an apparently dicotyledonous embryo are present in some specimens. These seeds compare favorably with those of Cycas spp. in most characters, including germination via splitting of the bivalved integument. However, novel seed vascularization and a distinctive zonation of the integument reveal that they most probably represent a stem-group member of the Cycadaceae. 1

Ohio University/Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology/Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, 2082 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA2Oregon State University, Department of Botany and Plant Biology, 2082 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA3THE NY BOTANICAL GARDEN, 2900 SOUTHERN BLVD, BRONX, NY, 10458-5126, USA

345

ESCAPA, IGNACIO HERNAN* 1 and LESLIE, ANDREW B 2

New whole plant reconstructions from Patagonia shed light on the biology, phylogeny, and biogeography of the conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae

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heirolepidiaceae is an extinct conifer family known from the Late Triassic through the Late Cretaceous/ Early Paleogene. Members of this family have distinctive reproductive morphology that includes characteristic pollen grains (Classopollis) and complex seed cones with seeds that are covered by ovuliferous scale tissue. From a phylogenetic standpoint, the unique character combination show in Cheirolepidiaceae may help to bridge some of the long morphological gaps that exist among crown group conifer clades. Here we focus on new specimens of Pararaucaria, a Jurassic cheirolepidiaceous conifer. Following the re-interpretation of this genus as a member of Cheirolepidiaceae, permineralized seed cones from Patagonia, the United Kingdom, and the United States revealed the wide biogeographic extent of the genus. New Jurassic localities from the Argentinean provinces of Santa Cruz and Chubut preserve compressions and impressions that allow us for the first time to link Pararaucaria seed cones with leaves, branches, wood, and pollen cones. These new specimens, collected from Early, Middle, and Late Jurassic sequences, nearly complete a whole-plant concept for Pararaucaria, which allows for more detailed comparisons to well-known cheirolepidiaceous remains from the Cretaceous of Euramerica. Adding impressions and compressions to the record of Paraucaria also allows for a better understanding of its geographic distribution during the Mesozoic, deeper analyses of different features with paleobiological implications (e.g., stomata

structure), and more precise and solid homology discussions on its vegetative and reproductive remains. Altogether, the newly discovered Jurassic record of Cheirolepidiaceae in Patagonia represent an unique opportunity to shed light on the evolution of the family, and its role in the early evolution of modern conifer families. 1

MEF-CONICET, Fontana 140, Trelew Chubut, N/A, 9100, Argentina2Brown University, 80 Waterman St., Providence, RI, 02912, United States

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ATKINSON, BRIAN A

An integration of fossils, phylogeny, and disparity: Reconstructing the Cretaceous radiation of Cornales

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he order Cornales (605 species) is the earliest diverging lineage within the most diverse core eudicot clade, the asterids (>80,000 species). Paleobotanical studies and molecular divergence time analyses indicate that the order rapidly radiated into its major clades during the Late Cretaceous (100-66 Ma). This initial rapid radiation has made it difficult for molecular phylogenetic analyses to resolve deep-node relationships within Cornales. However, recent paleobotanical studies have begun to shed light on this phylogenetic radiation. Most Cretaceous cornalean fossils are represented by fruits, which contain numerous systematically informative characters for the delineation of major cornalean clades and families. Therefore, cornalean fruits have great potential for elucidating the early evolution of Cornales. In this study, deep-node phylogenetic relationships and early patterns of morphological diversity (disparity) within Cornales are reconstructed. A cladistic matrix consisting of 77 fruit morphological characters and 58 taxa (35 extant, 23 extinct) was assembled. To infer cornalean phylogenetic relationships, the data matrix was analyzed using parsimony. The impact of fossils on phylogenetic inference was assessed by excluding extinct species in a separate analysis. Strict consensus trees (SCT), from both analyses resulted in a monophyletic Cornales with resolved deep-node relationships. However, resolution in the fossil inclusive SCT is substantially higher, revealing a cornalean basal grade including Loasaceae, Hydrangeaceae, Hydrostachyaceae, Grubbiaceae, a Hironoia-Amersinia clade, and Curtisiaceae, respectively, leading to a â&#x20AC;&#x153;coreâ&#x20AC;&#x153; clade. The core group contains a clade comprising a grade of Late Cretaceous taxa leading to a clade of Nyssaceae, Mastixiaceae, and Davidiaceae, which is sister to a Cornaceae-Alangiaceae clade. A time-scaled phylogeny using approximate stratigraphic ranges of terminal fossil taxa indicates that the primary diversification of Cornales occurred before the Coniacian (89.8 Ma). Morphospace occupation and disparity of Cornales through time were analyzed using a modified matrix (drupaceous taxa only). The taxa were organized into three time bins: Late Cretaceous (100-66 Ma), Paleogene (66-23.03 Ma), and NeogeneRecent (<23.03 Ma). Morphospace and disparity analyses are concordant, revealing that Cretaceous taxa occupy a significantly different area of morphospace and have significantly lower disparity values than Cenozoic taxa. By the Paleogene, there was a significant shift and expansion in morphospace occupation. Maximum levels of cornalean disparity were reached by the Paleo-

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Paleobotany gene and remained relatively constant throughout the Cenozoic. These changes in morphospace occupation and disparity of cornaleans may be due to a combination of whole genome duplication events and ecological responses to major environmental changes.

their radiation may still have been in its early stages during the late Albian. 1

Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Zaragoza, 50009, Spain2University Of California Davis, DEPT OF EVOL & ECOLOGY, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616-8537, USA3Texas State University, Department Of Biology, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX, 78666, USA4Estación Regional del Noroeste, UNAM, Instituto de Geología, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000, Mexico5Universidade de Vigo, Xeociencias Mariñas e Ordenación do Territorio, Vigo, 36310, Spain

University of Kansas, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 2041 Haworth Hall, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue , Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA

347

SENDER, LUIS MIGUEL 1, DOYLE, JAMES A.* 2, UPCHURCH, JR., GARLAND 3, VILLANUEVA-AMADOZ, UXUE 4 and DIEZ, JOSE BIENVE 5

Leaf and inflorescence evidence for nearbasal Araceae in the latest Albian (midCretaceous) of Spain

F

ossil leaves, inflorescences, and pollen from the Aptian-Albian of Brazil and Portugal have been assigned to Araceae, in the near-basal monocot order Alismatales, and increasingly diverse araceous leaves have been reported from the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. We report a well-preserved leaf and several inflorescences resembling Araceae from two localities in the Boundary Marls Unit (latest Albian) overlying the Utrillas Formation in Teruel Province, northestern Spain. The leaf, from Huesa del Común, shows an unthickened multistranded midrib in its lower portion, several orders of low-angle primary lateral veins, transverse veins crossing more than one order of parallel veins, additional veins connecting the finest parallel veins, and paracytic stomata on the adaxial side only. This suite of characters (but with anomocytic as well as paracytic stomata) is diagnostic of the North American genus Orontium in the near-basal araceous subfamily Orontioideae, and similar venation occurs with minor variations in later Cretaceous and early Cenozoic leaves assigned to Orontium and Orontiophyllum. However, phylogenetic analyses, using a modified version of the morphological dataset and the molecular phylogenetic tree of extant Araceae of Cusimano et al. (2011), indicate that this character combination may be ancestral for Araceae. As a result, the fossil could be either sister to Orontium, sister to Araceae as a whole, or nested at several points in a basal grade of the family, below the True Araceae clade. Several types of linear monocot-like leaves also occur at Huesa del Común. The inflorescences, from Estercuel, are spadices of closely packed, sessile flowers with usually four tepals, as in the dimerous flowers that are prevalent in perigoniate Araceae, and a long basal stipe, in contrast to derived Araceae in which the spathe is attached close to the fertile portion of the spadix. Stamens have not been identified, but a protruding central structure is presumably the gynoecium, which shows various degrees of enlargement in different specimens. Among living Araceae, similar inflorescences occur in Gymnostachys and Orontioideae. Phylogenetic analyses confirm that the inflorescences are related to Araceae, either sister to the family or nested within the same basal grade as the leaf from Huesa del Común. Considered together with reports from other regions, these results suggest that Araceae were one of the first families of monocots to diversify in the Cretaceous, but

348

NYANDWI, ALPHONSE 1, DEVORE, MELANIE* 2 and PIGG, KATHLEEN

3

Elucidating foliar features for identifying Urticaceae in the fossil record

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he latest Early Eocene Okanagon Highland sites in British Columbia and Washington, US, provide a record of high elevation floras with temperate elements. Well represented in these fossil floras are the Betulaceae, Rosaceae, Ulmaceae that today are predominately distributed in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. During the past year, we have considered the floras of the Northern Andes and the Virunga Mountains of central eastern Africa to be the most feasible analogues for interpreting taxonomic diversity within fossil angiosperms of the high elevation floras of the Pacific Northwest. While treating leaves tentatively attributed to Rosaceae, we found trichomes and assigned the leaves to Rubus. During investigations of trichome anatomy and distribution patterns of stinging species of nettles (Urticaceae) from the Virungas (Girardinia, Laportea, and Urtica), it was clear that the fossil leaves assigned to Rubus belong to Urticaceae. The Urticaceae is a large family (45 genera over 2000 species; Friis, 1989) and it is surprising that it lacks a robust fossil record since it contains taxa with varied life forms. In this presentation, we will describe key foliar features enabling the identification of Urticaceae taxa from fossil leaf floras. 1

University of Rwanda, Department of Biology, Rwanda2Georgia College, 1834 Tanglewood Road, Milledgeville, Georgia, 31061, United States3Arizona State University, SCHOOL OF LIFE SCIENCES FACULTY & ADMIN, BOX 874501, Tempe, AZ, 852874501, USA

349

STOCKEY, RUTH* 1 and ROTHWELL, GAR 2

A new Upper Cretaceous araucarian seed cone from the Brannen Lake locality (Campanian) of Vancouver Island, British Columbia

O

ne permineralized seed cone embedded in a calcium carbonate concretion was recovered from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Brannen Lake locality, Vancouver Island. The cone, nearly spherical, 6 X 6 cm in diameter, was studied using cellulose acetate peels. Helically arranged cone-scale complexes, up to 3

151


cm wide, consist of a large bract with an upturned tip and a small, fleshy ovuliferous scale that separates from the bract near the seed chalaza. The cone peduncle bears fleshy rhomboidal leaves and modified cone-scale complexes. Pith of the peduncle and cone axis is parenchymatous with scattered sclereids and resin canals. Secondary xylem of the peduncle, 7-10 cells thick and relatively complete, separates into bundles in the cone axis, where the pith expands. Cortex of the cone axis is parenchymatous with scattered sclereids. Vascularization of the cone-scale complex is single at its origin, dividing in the cortex into bract and ovuliferous scale traces. Winged bracts, with a bulging base, contain numerous small vascular bundles with accompanying small diameter resin canals. Abaxially, bract hypodermis contains numerous distinct, regularly spaced fiber bundles interspersed with rows of crowded stomata. Ovuliferous scales, free from the bract distally, are comprised of parenchymatous cells, a band of sclereids near the seed chalaza, and scattered sclereids. The ovuliferous scale closely adheres to the bract surface bending upward along with the bract tip. Stomata occur on adaxial surfaces of ovuliferous scales and abaxial surfaces of bracts. Seeds are large, ovoid, 1.2 cm long, 1.2 cm in diameter, tapering to a mouth-shaped micropyle. Seeds are vascularized by two bundles entering from the ovuliferous scale. Sclerotesta is thick, composed of branched, interlocking sclereids, and endotesta contains thin-walled elongate cells. Nucellus is free from the integument, except at its base, with a highly convoluted cellular apex, containing possible pollen tubes. Megagametophyte and mature cellular embryos occur in several seeds. The structure of this cone most closely resembles those of Araucaria Section Eutacta, with embedded seeds, small free ovuliferous scale tips that follow the course of the upturned bract tip, and a single trace to the cone-scale complex. While the cone is small, the imbricate bracts are very wide, and seeds that are unusually large for fossil cones of this type. Width and continuity of secondary xylem in the cone axis, and intact conescale complexes, indicate that unlike extant Araucaria Section Eutacta, this cone probably did not easily lose its scales at maturity.

carpellate ovary, a distally three lobed style, slight bilateral symmetry, and a highly distinctive indumentum of peltate trichomes that cover all floral parts. Various phylogenetic analyses based on morphology alone or using a molecular scaffold suggest the fossils are part of the broadly defined ericalean clade. Within Ericales, fossils share distinctive floral trichomes with modern Styracaceae. This fossil taxon briongs into focus the impressive array of glandular and non-glandular trichomes found in Turonian and Santonian Ericales and raises questions about their functional roles at this early stage of asterid radiation. 1

Cornell University, Department Of Plant Biology, 413 Mann Library, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA2George Mason University, 4400 University Drive MSN 5F2, Fairfax, VA, 22030, USA3Cornell University, L. H. BAILEY HORTORIUM, 408 MANN LIBRARY, ITHACA, NY, 14853-4301, USA, 607/255-4876

351

MANCHESTER, STEVEN R

Extinct anacardiaceous samaras and sumaclike leaves from the Eocene of western North America

A

n extinct genus of asymmetrical samara, found at many localities of the Eocene Green River Formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming in western North America, occurs in association with pinnately compound anacardiaceous leaves that have been called Rhus nigricans (Lesquereux) Knowlton. The samaras were recognized as Anacardiaceae by Roland Brown, who placed them in the fossil genus Anacardites. However, that generic name, based on leaves described a century earlier by Saporta from the Oligocene of France, is inappropriate for isolated fruits. Here the fruits and associated foliage are recognized as representing a new extinct genus. Although morphologically unique, the fruit shares some of its characters with the samaras of extant Loxopterygium, supporting the familial assignment. Samaroid fruits occur in at least five different extant lineaages of Anacardiaceae (e.g., Amphipterygium, Faguetia Loxopterygium. Schinopsis and Smodingium). This fossil genus appears to represent yet another instance of morphological adaptation for wind dispersal.

1

Oregon State University, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, 2082 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA2Ohio University/ Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology/Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, 2082 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA

University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO BOX 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA

350

CREPET, WILLIAM LOUIS* 1, WEEKS, ANDREA 2 and NIXON, KEVIN C. 3

352

A New Densely Armored Ericalean Floral Taxon from the Turonian of New Jersey USA

Forest to desert or forest to forest: how the character of climate change affects lineage survivorship in the context of dispersal adaptations

SIMPSON, ANDREW G.* 1 and AXSMITH, BRIAN J. 2

A

new fossil angiosperm flower is described based on three dimensionally preserved fusainized flowers from Cretaceous (Turonian) deposits from Sayreville New Jersey, USA.This site is notable for its rich flora that includes mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms as well as insects. The new taxon is represented by numerous fossil specimens. It is characterized by a pentamerous perianth, eight stamens alternating with eight staminodes, tricolpate finely rugulose pollen, a tri-

I

ncreasingly, scientists are linking ecology and evolutionary biology by finding evidence for macroecological explanations of patterns of evolutionary diversification and extinction, with particular attention given to geographic range size and related factors. Multiple studies now link ecological traits, such as seed dispersal, to macroevolutionary trends mediated by macroecological factors. However, while patterns of diversification and

152


Paleobotany extinction must necessarily affect ecological parameters such as community composition, relatively little work has been done investigating the character and tempo of these ecological changes. We here compare the rates of survival and range collapse in floras in the United States from the Miocene through the Pliocene. Climatic changes endured by floras of eastern North America have been different in character from those endured by western North American floras; while climate in the east has become cooler from the Miocene to the present overall, eastern North America remains a wet temperate forest while most of western North America has transitioned to steppe or desert during the same interval. As a result, we predicted that floristic change in the east should be dominated by dispersal-mediated metapopulation dynamics with animal-mediated dispersal being useful in resisting extinction due to climate change. Western floristic change would instead be driven by broad climatic tolerance and not by dispersal. reliminary data suggest the opposite, however. There appears to be a relationship between animal dispersal and lineage survivorship in eastern North American floras (Alum Bluff, Brandon, Brandywine, Citronelle), but is not statistically significant. By contrast, a partial taxon list from the Clarkia flora of eastern Idaho alone implies that there is a statistically significant association between animal dispersal and survivorship. If these results bear out with the inclusion of additional data from Clarkia as well as other western North American floras (including the Latah, Purple Mountain, and Stewart Valley floras), then we suggest that the abundance of refugia in eastern North America relaxed the need for effective long-distance dispersal, while more severe secular climate change in the west resulted in fewer refugia located farther part, with animal dispersal thus being more valuable in enabling colonization and, ultimately, survivorship.

P

1

National Museum of Natural History, Paleobiology, Washington, DC, USA2University of South Alabama, Biology, 5871 USA Drive North, Rm 124, Mobile, AL, 36688, USA

353

SERBET, RUDOLPH* 1 and TAYLOR, EDITH L 2

University of Kansas paleobotany collections: An inventory of geological and paleobotanical diversity

T

he Division of Paleobotany at the University of Kansas (KU), in conjunction with the Biodiversity Institute (BI), the KU Center for Research and the National Science Foundation (NSF) recently secured funding to expand both its collections space and storage capacity. The NSF support has enabled the Division to purchase a state-of-the-art compactor system that will provide storage space for currently uncurated specimens and for the acquisition of new material. The compactor specifications were based on several factors. These include the ability to house the maximum number of specimens in the available space, the weight that the material will subject the system to and the loadbearing properties of the floor. Careful consideration of all of these factors has produced an ideal storage system that will allow the collections to grow for several years. The KU paleobotanical collections consist of a diverse assemblage of taxa, geologic time frames and preservational types. By far the bulk of the collection is made up of Permian, Triassic and Jurassic fossil plants from numerous Antarctic localities. This part of the collection contains approximately 20,000 permineralized and compression/impression specimens and is perhaps the largest collection of Antarctic fossil plants in the world. The collection is also rich in Devonian, Pennsylvanian and non-Antarctic Jurassic fossil plants. Over the years a number of collections have been incorporated and these have greatly diversified various aspects of the KU collections. These collections include material from James M. Schopf, Lawrence Matten, Ted Delevoryas, Robert Hope, Gar Rothwell and Gene Mapes. The various datasets associated with all of the KU paleobotanical collections are currently being migrated from FileMaker Pro into the Specify platform. Once in this data basing format, it will be available on line and can be searched individually or through portals such as iDigBio. 1

University Of Kansas, Division Of Paleobotany, NAT HIST MUS & BIODIV RES INST, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA2University of Kansas, Biodiversity Institute, Lawrence, Kansas, 66045, United States

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POSTERS 354

FRIEDMAN, VIRGINIA* 1, LAMBERT, JOSEPH B. 2 and NGUYEN, TRUONGAN V. 2

Late Cretaceous amber in Texas: A preliminary study

F

ossil resin (amber) is reported in abundance from a new amberiferous locality in North Central Texas. The amber was found at the stratigraphic level of the non-marine Dexter member of the lower Woodbine Formation. The amber pieces are found as clasts in thin carbonaceous horizons and are present in different sizes from sand grain size up to 3 cm in length. Some of the amber clasts have the appearance of a hickory nut when found unbroken. The clasts break relatively easily in a conchoidal fashion exhibiting a variety of colors from pale yellow, dark yellow, reddish brown and white opaque. The exterior, if present, is a brownish oxidized rough surface. The interior of the amber clasts is for the most part, transparent or translucent and glistening. So far no definitive zooinclusions have been found but some clasts present abundant plant debris inside as well as bubbles of different sizes and shapes. Solid-state 13 C NMR as well as solution 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis were carried out on selected amber samples and based on their spectral characteristics are assigned to the Group A of the Lambert, et al 2008 classification and as such the botanical origin is most likely a conifer. This is further suggested by palynological analysis carried out on the sediments of the outcrop that indicate the presence of abundant conifer pollen, fern spores, and very rare dinoflagellates. The low diversity but well preserved palynomorph assemblage is suggestive of a nearby source for the paleoflora present composed mainly of conifers and ferns. The kerogen composition is characteristic of a fluvial system. The environment of deposition is interpreted as non-marine, fluvial deltaic with abundant siltstones, mudstones and rare horizons of carbonaceous (sub- bituminous) clays where the amber is mostly located. The sediment where the amber is found is composed of abundant charcoal particles. This may in concordance with the Cretaceous period being described as a time of fires. The age of the sediments based on stratigraphic data and palynomorph assemblage is mid-Cenomanian. This locality represents an important contribution to the paleobotany of this area inasmuch as it is the first study of amber in Texas. 1

1000 Walnut Place, Mansfield, TX, 76063, USA2Trinity University, Chemistry, One Trinity Place, San Antonio, TX, 78212-7200, USA

355

CENTENO, NAYLET* 1, ESTRADA-RUIZ, EMILIO 2 and PORRASMÚZQUIZ, HƒCTOR 3

Late Cretaceous angiosperm leaves from Olmos Formation (upper Campanian), Coahuila, Mexico

T

he Olmos Formation (upper Campanian) in Sabinas Basin is located in Northern Mexico. The formation represents a deltaic system along a coastal plain and is important for its extensive coal resources and the abundance of fossil plants. Despite that the fossils collected in the Olmos flora comprises over 100 morphotypes, there have been identified no more of 20% of material. Published descriptions of angiosperm leaves include members of Palmae, Rhamnaceae, Lauraceae, and Nelumbonaceae. In this work, we describe three new morphotypes of angiosperm leaves. The morphotype 1 shows an elliptic-ovate lamina, mesophyll size, rounded apex, convex base, dentate margin, primary vein pinnate, secondary veins semicaspedodromous, with a constant distribution through the lamina, one inter-secondary vein per inter-costal region, tertiary veins percurrent opposite straight, and quaternary veins polygonal reticulate. This morphotype resembles Boraginaceae and Elaeocarpaceae. The morphotype 2 has an ovate laminar form, notophyll size, straight apex, rounded base, entire-crenate margin, primary venation pinnate, secondary veins simple brochidodromous, two basal secondary veins, tertiary veins percurrent opposite straight, with a perpendicular-obtuse angle respect to mid-vein, quaternary venation reticulate, fifth order veins reticulate, fimbrial marginal vein present. These characters are present in Caprifoliaceae. Lastly, the morphotype 3, has an elliptic-rounded form, microphyll size, rounded apex, concave-convex base, crenate margin, primary veins palmately basal actinodromous, secondary veins semicrapedrodomous, with irregular space between intercostal secondary veins trough the margin, tertiary venation convex and chevron, with perpendicular angle respect to mid-vein, fimbrial marginal vein. These new records support the notion of the presence of a very diverse flora with paratropical elements in northern of Mexico. The fossil record of the formation provides key data to help us understanding the origin of the tropical flora that today exists in the country. 1

Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n, Santo Tomás, Ciudad de México, MX, 113402Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Departamento de Zoología, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n,, Col. Santo Tomás, Ciudad de México, MX, 113403Museo de Múzquiz, Zaragoza 209, Melchor Múzquiz, 26340

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Paleobotany 356

357

HARPER, CARLA J* 1, KRINGS, MICHAEL 1, TAYLOR, THOMAS N 2 and TAYLOR, EDITH L 3

BRIAN J.

STULTS, DEBRA* 1 and AXSMITH,

2

Does size matter? A minute chytrid-like organism from the Rhynie chert

Newly Identified plant fossils from the Miocene Brandywine flora of Maryland, U.S.A

T

T

he Lower Devonian Rhynie chert is famous for preserving a diversity of chytrid-like microorganisms. Among these is a minute life-form that was initially described based on a few specimens occurring within land plant tissue, and interpreted as a holocarpic, Olpidiumlike chytrid characterized by a spherical zoosporangium with a single discharge tube. Surrounding the zoosporangium is an envelope that was initially interpreted as an endophytic alga colonized by the chytrid. New material provides additional information on the structure and biology of this organism. Specimens may occur singly or in clusters of up to several hundred individuals. All specimens indicate that this organism was attached to some substrate, favorably plant cell walls. We hypothesize that cluster morphology depends on the shape of the substrate. For example, linear arrangements occur in narrow, elongate host cells. Moreover, this organism was obviously small enough to enter and colonize intact and partially degraded plant cells. The new specimens also show that what was originally interpreted as an algal cell in fact is a structural element of the organism itself, and thus that the organism cannot be directly compared to Olipidum, but likely represents a new type of holocarpic organism for the Rhynie chert. 1

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Department für Geo- und Umweltwissenschaften, Paläontologie und Geobiologie, RichardWagner-Straße 10, Munich, 80333, Germany2University Of Kansas, Department Of Ecology And Evolutionary Biology, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue, Haworth Hall, Lawrence, KS, 66045-2106, USA3University Of Kansas, Department Of Ecology And Evolutionary Biology, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue, Haworth Hall, Lawrence, KS, 66045-7600, USA

he depositional environment of the Miocene Brandywine Formation of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of Maryland near Washington, D.C has been characterized as a braided stream system, similar to that occurring in the modern-day Salisbury Embayment of the same region. Previously identified plant fossils consisting of mostly endemic North American taxa, along with several exotics and one extinct genus suggest a Late Miocene age designation (approximately 10 to 6 Ma). Forty-nine plant taxa were identified from the original 1990 study based on pollen (23 taxa), leaves (23 taxa) and fruit (16 taxa), wherein some taxa were represented by multiple organs. These identifications suggest a transitional/upland depositional environment. Subsequent work in our lab based mainly on continued identification of mesofossils extracted from the Brandywine matrix has produced several new records including stems of Equisetum sp., Cyperaceae fruits and seeds (Scirpus and Carex), a Taxus seed (Taxaceae), Lithospermum cf. arvense (Boraginaceae) seeds, Cleome (Cleomaceae) seeds, Portulaca (Portulacaceae) and undetermined Caryophyllaceae sp. seeds, a Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae) seed, lauraceous receptacles (similar to those of Persea and Sassafras), Maclura fruits, and Carpinus (Betulaceae) nutlets. Interestingly, the small Brandywine Macurla fruit is more similar to southeastern Asian species than to the large, endemic Maclura pomifera. Our previous quantitative climatic study (2011) indicated that the Brandywine flora grew under warmer conditions than those of the modern Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Ongoing research is focused on additional identifications of this rich flora, and in determining how the newly identified taxa will affect paleoclimate estimates. 1

27640 Rigsby Road, Daphne, AL, 36526, USA2University Of South Alabama, Biology Department, 5871 USA Drive North, Room 124, MOBILE, AL, 36688-0002, USA

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358

ESTRADA-RUIZ, EMILIO* 1, CENTENO, NAYLET 2 and AGUILAR-ARELLANO, FELISA 3

First record of Marsilea from the Olmos Formation (upper Campanian), Coahuila, Mexico

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he Olmos Formation (upper Campanian) has yielded a diverse flora represented by flowers, fruits, leaves, stems and wood of angiosperms, as well as gymnosperms and polypodiales. The taxonomic affinities of these records suggest the presence of a paratropical flora. Among of the material collected, there are some monilophytes, represented by ferns of aquatic forms such as Salvinia Ség. and Dorfiella Weber. Here we describe macrofossil leaves of the aquatic fern Marsilea L. (family Marsileaceae). This aquatic fern has leaves composed by four opposing leaflets of quadrifoliate form, these can be sessile or with a short petiolulate, base straight to cuneate; the apex can be obtuse and/or round; the margin is entire, towards apex is entire or crenate; the leaflet venation is dichotomizing with anastomoses to reticulate, the areoles are elongate lengthwise and fusiforms, with a marginal vein. The combination of these features supports the erection of a new species of Marsilea from the upper Campanian of northern Mexico. This report of Marsilea represent of oldest record to the genus worldwide and further supports other evidence suggesting that aquatic forms as Marsilea, Salvinia, Dorfiella, Pistia and Nelumbonaceae were an important element in the flora of the Olmos Formation. 1

Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Departamento de Zoología, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n,, Col. Santo Tomás, Ciudad de México, MX, 113402Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n, Santo Tomás, Ciudad de México, MX, 113403Centro INAH Coahuila, Calle José María Morelos y Pavón 244, Zona Centro, Saltillo, CO, 25000

359

MICKLE, JAMES E

A Ginkgophyte from the Late Triassic of North Carolina, USA

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he Triassic flora of North Carolina has been shown to contain abundant cycadophytes, conifers, equisetophytes and ferns, but ginkgophytes have rarely been previously reported. Recently discovered fossils consist of a leaf composed of dichotomously dissected filiform segments, and a seed, both attached to an axis. The specimens are from an abandoned clay mine (35° 34’ 02. 87” N 79° 78’ 42.77” W) near the village of Gulf, NC that was formerly known as the Boren Clay Products Mine. These strata lie within the Pekin Formation of the Newark Supergroup and is Middle to Late Carnian in age. The leaf dichotomizes up to five times, and overall is 35 mm long X 30 mm wide. Segments are 1.5 mm wide proximally to 0.5 mm distally. The seed is elliptic, 1.0 mm long X 5.0 mm wide and is attached anatropously to a slender stalk that is 11 mm long. Both the leaf and seed are attached to an axis 3.0 mm in diameter that is perpendicular to the bedding plane of the matrix. No cuticle was obtained. The dichotomous nature of the leaf and the stalked seed are similar to ginkgophytes that

bear dichotomous, filiform leaves and stalked ovules such as Trichopitys and Baiera, but differs in the greater degree of dichotomizing of the leaf and position of the ovule. These similarities suggest interpretation of these fossils as ginkgophytes. As such, these fossils from the Gulf mine represent one of the few examples of ginkgophytes from the North Carolina Triassic flora and increases our knowledge of the biodiversity at the wellknown Gulf Mine Triassic locality. North Carolina State University, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, Campus Box 7612, 2115 Gardner Hall, Raleigh, NC, 276957612, USA

360

DOAN, SHANNON C* 1, PIGG, KATHLEEN 2 and DEVORE, MELANIE 3

Yakima Canyon, WA, USA: An anatomically preserved fossil flora from the middle Miocene

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he permineralized flora of Yakima Canyon, WA represents an important assemblage of fossilized plant remains from the middle Miocene (15.6 mya). Discovered in 1965 by local residents TH Tuggle and R Foisy, the site has yielded a treasure trove of anatomically preserved remains from several plant families, dominated by Taxodium (Cupressaceae) studied by Coleman (2004). Several authors have described individual taxa from the locality. The first to be described from this locality was a pine (Pinus foisyi) with stems, leaves, and asymmetric seed cones (Miller 1982). Three ferns have been found, including Osmunda wehri (Miller 1992), the extant Woodwardia virginica , and Wessiea yakimaensis (Pigg & Rothwell 2001). Whole, intact acorns of a white oak, Quercus hiholensis, were described from seed, embryo and involucre characters (Borgardt & Pigg 1999). Liquidambar changii (Altingiaceae), similar to the extant L. acalycina from China, was described by Pigg, Ickert-Bond, & Wen (2004). Tcherepova (2001) investigated Paliurus (Rhamnaceae) and Nyssa (Nyssaceae). Most recently, Pigg et al. (2014) described Melia yakimaensis (Meliaceae) from endocarps. he current study attempts to compile all that is currently known, and to begin examining the unknown taxa that appear in the matrix. Shirleya grahamae (Lythraceae) was described from fruits by Pigg and DeVore (2005). The current study investigates flowers that may also be assignable to this taxon. Staminate and pistillate inflorescences, infructescences, and possible fruitlets with dispersal hairs of Platanus (Platanaceae) are considered. Vitis seeds and vines will also be examined, as well as a Typha-like monocot. Numerous “unknowns” include well-preserved seeds, stems, leaves, and twigs, yet to be described, as well as evidence of insect damage patterns and galls.

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Arizona State University, School of Life Sciences, Box 874501, Tempe, AZ, 85287-4501, USA2Arizona State University, SCHOOL OF LIFE SCIENCES FACULTY & ADMIN, BOX 874501, Tempe, AZ, 85287-4501, USA3Georgia College, Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences, 1834 Tanglewood Road, Milledgeville, GA, 31061, USA

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Paleobotany 361

BAGHAI-RIDING, NINA LUCILLE* 1, AXSMITH, BRIAN J. 2, DAVIS, KENDAL 3 and ALLISON, RAVEN 4

Implications of a palynological sample from Bowie River, Mississippi

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ssorted plant megafossils have been recovered from Bowie River, Mississippi. This fossil flora locale has been attributed to the upper Hattiesburg Formation. The Hattiesburg Formation consists of silty to finesandy clays in the middle, alluvial phase, of the postVicksburg prograding deltaic wedge associated with the three-phased â&#x20AC;&#x153;Grand Gulf Groupâ&#x20AC;?. The Bowie River plant megafossil locale is projected down-dip but not far below the gradational contact with the overlying Pascagoula Formation. Megafossils recovered include leaves of Platanus, Morus, Sambucus, Quercus, Cercis, Cedrus, Cyparis, Taxodium, Salvinia, Woodwardia, seeds of Sargentodoxa, and fruits of Carya. One random palynological sample was acquired from this plant megafossil locale. Well-preserved palynomorphs are suggestive of a riparian, coastal forested environment that bordered the sea. Dominant pollen types include Pinus, Sequoia, Tsuga, Alnus, Carya, Ilex, Juglans, Ulmus, and Tilia. Common sporomorphs are assignable to Sphagnum, ?Azolla (aquatic fern), Anemiaceae, Lycopodiaceae, and Polypodiaceae. Miscellaneous peridiniacean dinoflagellate cysts and sponge spicules also were noted. In a 300+ point count, angiosperms represented 46.9%, conifers 25.7%, pteridophyte and moss trilete spores 12.4%, monolete fern spores 1%, fungal spores 3.5%, and dinoflagellate cysts, acritrachs, and freshwater algae forms 10.1%. Age-diagnostic palynomorphs have not been noted yet. However, the lack of grasses and composites appear to support an early-middle Miocene age. A Middle Miocene age has been designated to the Hattiesburg Formation based on marine equivalents offshore and to a Teleoceras medicornutum tibia found as float in association with a fossil llama proximal phalanx on the Hattiesburg outcrop at the Middle Fork of the Homochitto River near Meadville in Franklin County, Mississippi. 1

Delta State University, Biological Sciences, Walters Room 116 A, Cleveland, MS, 38733, USA2University Of South Alabama, Biology Department, 5871 USA Drive North, Room 124, MOBILE, AL, 36688-0002, USA3Delta State University, Biological Sciences, PO Box 3262 DSU, Cleveland, MS, 38733, USA4Delta State University, Biological Sciencesp, PO Box 3262 DSU, Cleveland, MS, 38733, USA

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Phylogenomics ORAL PAPERS

363 LAWRENCE, TRAVIS JOSEPH* 1 and ARDELL, DAVID H 2

362

tRNA Interaction Network Sheds Light on the Origin of Chloroplast

FOLK, RYAN* 1, ALLEN, JULIE 1, SOLTIS, PAMELA S. 2, SOLTIS, DOUGLAS E. 2 and GURALNICK, ROBERT 1

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GS methods have quickly become a central resource for phylogenomics, enabling robust phylogenetic inference in a wide variety of taxa and greatly facilitating the use of historical DNAs. Methods for data collection and multilocus phylogenetic analysis are now well-trodden territory, but in the middle ground there is a conspicuous literature gap of identifying appropriate methodologies for data assembly. Much has been proposed in the way of alternative methods, but little exists in the way of comparative methodological studies. Several pipelines have appeared, among which aTRAM is particularly promising. aTRAM is a hybrid reference-based and reduced de novo method (that is, a reference-guided method). Reads matching a reference by BLAST are pulled and assembled as small de novo subproblems; this process is iterative in the sense that assembly results are the new reference for each successive round of BLASTing and assembly. aTRAM is highly parallelizable within each assembly problem and among loci and taxa, and is being actively optimized for performance and ported to python; the de novo portion integrates multiple methods with highly flexible parameters. Here, we report aTRAM results for (1) a deep divergence, comprising exon-capture data collected in the Saxifragales. This late Cretaceous radiation presents an assembly challenge due to deep nucleotide divergence and our reliance on primarily museum DNAs. We also show (2) results for a shallow divergence in Heuchera, a ~4 my divergence where low nucleotide variation and the acute need for gene-tree based analyses present the primary challenges. We compare these toreference-based short read aligning approaches and present new work in post-processing exonic data in a protein- and paralog-aware manner, complementary to alternative consensus-based approaches. We advocate a pluralistic approach to NGS assembly; much like de novo assembly, researchers should begin by testing several methods, and perhaps report comparative results among assemblies, which could shed light on methodological or biological issues that would be hidden in isolation.

ore than one billion years ago the acquisition of a cyanobacterial endosymbiont led to the development of the eukaryotic chloroplast. Like the mitochondrion before it, the chloroplast profoundly changed the tree of life and, through the generation of oxygen during photosynthesis, our planetâ&#x20AC;&#x153;s entire ecosystem. Though a cyanobacterial plastid origin was proposed more than a century ago the precise point of plastid origin within the cyanobacterial tree (i.e. the identity of the cyanobacterial progenitor) is one of the last great questions regarding this landmark evolutionary event. Illuminating the evolutionary origin of the plastid progenitor is complicated by at least a billion years of vertical descent, including massive plastid genome reduction and a number of secondary and tertiary endosymbiosis events. Previous attempts to resolve the origin of plastids have arrived at conflicting results finding support for both a deep and a more recent origin of plastids. Here we present a novel approach for delving into the deepest evolutionary history of plastid origin. This method takes advantage of the unique constraints on the evolution of the tRNA-protein interaction network. Despite the very high structural similarity of all tRNAs each must interact productively with only one type of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) to be charged with its cognate amino acid and must avoid interacting productively with others. The class (i.e. charging specificity) of a tRNA relies on a set of structural features called determinants that promote recognition by its cognate aaRS. These sets of structural features that determine a tRNAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s class, which we refer to as class-informative features (CIFs), are not static and vary widely across the tree of life. We have developed an analysis pipeline to bioinformatically identify tRNA CIFs from genomic sequence data and then use a novel neural network classifier to assign plastid genomes to known cyanobacterial clades. Using 113 cyanobacterial genomes we obtained 5,476 tRNAs, which were used to identify CIFs for cyanobacterial clades and train our neural network classifier. Using 14,319 plastid tRNAs from 423 plastid genomes we obtained a strong signal classifying plastids to a clade containing filamentous and/or N2-fixing cyanobacterial species that is within a more recent diversification of cyanobacteria. Our results suggest a relatively recent origin of the plastid lineage likely with close relatives among extant cyanobacteria and not a survivor of an extinct lineage.

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Data Assembly and Post-Processing in aTRAM for Museum Phylogenomics

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University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, Dickinson Hall, 1659 Museum Road, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA2University Of Florida, Florida Museum Of Natural History, PO BOX 117800, Gainesville, FL, 32611-7800, USA, 352/273-1964

University of California, Merced, Quantitative and Systems Biology Graduate Group, 5200 North Lake Rd., Merced, CA, 95348, USA2University of California, Merced, Molecular Cell Biology Unit, School of Natural Sciences, 5200 North Lake Rd., Merced, CA, 95343, United States

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Phylogenomics 364

365

DILLENBERGER, MARKUS S.* 1 and LISTON, AARON 2

PATSIS, AMANDA* 1, OVERSON, RICK , JOHNSON, MATT 2, SKOGEN, KRISSA 3, WAGNER, WARREN 4, RAGUSO, ROBERT 5, WICKETT, NORM 6 and LEVIN, RACHEL ANN 7 2

Origin of the decaploid Oregon endemic Fragaria cascadensis (Rosaceae)

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he Cascade strawberry (Fragaria cascadensis) is a species newly described in 2012 that is endemic to the Cascade mountain range in Oregon, USA. Fragaria cascadensis is one of two naturally occurring decaploid strawberry species; the other is F. iturupensis, endemic to Iturup Island, in northeast Asia. The known distribution range spans 330km from north of Mt. Hood to south of Crater Lake National Park in montane habitats between 1000-1800m. The decaploid species occurs in sympatry with octoploid F. virginiana subsp. platypetala and diploid F. vesca subsp. bracteata. It has been suggested that F. cascadensis is a natural hybrid of the two sympatric species, based on ploidy level and morphology. Our goals are to identify the progenitors of F. cascadensis and to determine if there was a single or multiple origins. We collected 16 populations with 6 samples each of F. cascadensis covering the entire distribution range. The ploidy level of these samples was determined with flow cytometry. Chloroplast (cp) haplotypes were identified from a plastome phylogeny of Fragaria and assayed with restriction site analysis of diagnostic polymorphisms. Preliminary results show a more complex pattern than previously hypothesized for the origin of F. cascadensis. Most samples of F. cascadensis have a unique cp haplotype that is shared with some Oregon individuals of F. virginiana subsp. platypetala and F. Ă&#x2014;ananassa subsp. cuneifolia (the naturally occurring hybrid of the octoploids F. chiloensis and F. virginiana subsp. platypetala). Approximately 30% of sampled F. cascadensis show the typical haplotype present in octoploid F. virginiana from across North America. Results of flow cytometry confirmed the existence of enneaploid (9x) individuals, especially where F. cascadensis (10x) and F. virginiana subsp. platypetala (8x) co-occur. The cp haplotype results and presence of 9x individuals could indicate recent exchange of genetic material via hybridization between the taxa. Alternatively, the cp haplotype distribution could reflect incomplete lineage sorting of ancient polymorphisms. To answer these and further questions we are using target capture sequencing of the nuclear genome, plus genome skimming for chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, in 15 populations plus 6 additional individuals of other Fragaria species. With data spanning all three genomes, we aim to disentangle the complex evolutionary history of F. cascadensis, as well as provide a roadmap for similar studies of other high polyploids.

Elucidating the evolutionary history of Oenothera sect. Pachylophus using phylogenomics

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he evening primrose family (Onagraceae) is comprised of 655 species, with 17 genera divided into 7 tribes. One tribe within the family, Onagreae, has emerged as an important system for the study of the evolution of floral traits in response to a diversity of plant-insect interactions. Within the tribe, Oenothera section Pachylophus has become the focus of ongoing studies regarding floral scent and plant-insect co-evolution. This section is found throughout western North America, and has traditionally been divided into five species based on morphological characteristics. Four of these species are narrow endemics, while the fifth is wide-ranging and highly polymorphic. Previous attempts to understand species relationships at a molecular level have been largely unsuccessful due to high levels of incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization, and an overall lack of phylogenetic signal within the section. In this study, we used next-generation phylogenomic techniques to resolve these previously recalcitrant nodes and create a more robust phylogenetic resource to inform ongoing work on character evolution in Onagreae. Forty-one samples spanning the geographic range of the section were analyzed using HybSeq, which combines target gene enrichment via hybridization and high throughput sequencing. This yielded high quality sequence data from 322 phylogenetically informative loci across the genome. Using data from both exonic and intronic regions, species trees were estimated using concatenation and maximum likelihood methods (RAxML), as well as coalescent-based methods (ASTRAL-II). Our findings challenge the monophyly of species as they are currently defined, with several narrow endemics being nested within the wide-ranging species. This suggests a need to re-evaluate taxon classifications within Oenothera sect. Pachylophus. 1

Amherst College, Biology, McGuire Life Sciences Building, Amherst, MA, 01002, USA2Chicago Botanic Garden, 1000 Lake Cook Road, Glencoe, IL, 60022, USA3Chicago Botanic Garden, Conservation Scientist, 1000 Lake Cook Road, Glencoe, IL, 60022, USA4 Smithsonian Institution, Botany, MRC-166 National Museum Of Natural History, PO Box 37012, WASHINGTON, DC, 20013-7012, USA5Cornell University, Department Of Biological Sciences, W355 Mudd Hall, 215 Tower Road, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA6Chicago Botanic Garden, 1000 Lake Cook Rd., Apt 2, Glencoe, IL, 60022, USA7Amherst College, Department Of Biology, McGuire Life Sciences Building, Amherst, MA, 01002, USA

1

Oregon State University, Department of Boatny and Plant Pathology, 2082 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA2Oregon State University, Department Of Botany & Plant Pathology, 2082 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331-2902, USA

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chollas and relatives, based on plastomes from 42 diploid taxa, which were acquired via paired-end read sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq X Ten platform. Our resulting topology resolves relationships at all levels, generally with high support. We resolve five major clades in Cylindropuntia, while Grusonia s.l. also forms a well-supported clade, excluding Micropuntia pulchella, as has been found in previous studies. Biogeographic analyses suggest that the Cylindropuntia + Grusonia clade appears to have evolved out of the Chihuahuan Desert from where it migrated north into the Sonoran, Mojave and Great Basin deserts, and south into Baja California. There is a repeated pattern with sister species showing divergence (i.e., speciation) via migration from one desert into another (e.g., from the Chihuahuan into the Sonoran Desert). Key morphological features (e.g., spiny fruit) often associated with particular series or groups of species that have been recognized traditionally, and thus which are taxonomically important, actually are widely homoplasious in specific instances. Our data demonstrate the resolving power of using whole plastomes for phylogeny reconstruction in Cactaceae but also that great care must be taken when building these datasets across major groups of cacti, as plastomes in the family are less structurally stable than in most angiosperm families.

366

PHAM, KASEY KHANH* 1, HIPP, ANDREW 2, CRONN, RICHARD 3 and MANOS, PAUL 4

A Time and a Place for Everything: Phylogenetic history and geography as joint predictors of oak plastome phylogeny

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ue to high rates of introgressive hybridization, the plastid genome is poorly suited to fine-scale DNA barcoding and phylogenetic studies of the oak genus (Quercus, Fagaceae). At the tips of the oak plastome phylogeny, recent gene migration and reticulation cause topology to reflect geographic structure, while deeper branches reflect population and lineage divergence history. In this study, we quantify the simple and partial effects of geographic proximity and nucleome-inferred phylogenetic history on oak plastome phylogeny at different evolutionary scales. Our study compares pairwise phylogenetic distances based on complete plastome sequences, pairwise phylogenetic distances from nuclear restriction site-associated DNA sequences (RADseq), and pairwise geographic distances from provenance data for 34 individuals of the white oak clade representing 24 North American and Eurasian species. Within the North American white oak clade alone, phylogenetic history has essentially no effect on plastome variation, while geography explains 11-21% of plastome phylogenetic variance. However, across multiple continents and clades, phylogeny predicts 30-41% of plastome variation, geography 3-41%. Tipwise attenuation of phylogenetic informativeness in the plastome means that in practical terms, it has little use in solving phylogenetic questions, but can still be a useful barcoding / phylogenetic marker for resolving questions among major clades, especially when used in tandem with nuclear data.

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Desert Botanical Garden, Research, Conservation, and Collections, 1201 N. Galvin Parkway, Phoenix, AZ, 85008, USA2Arizona State University, School of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 874501, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA3Desert Solitaire Botany and Ecological Restoration, San Diego, CA, 92103, USA4Desert Botanical Garden, USDA-ARS, U.S. Arid-Lands Research Center, 1201 N Galvin Parkway, Phoenix, AZ, 85008-3490, USA5Southern Illinois University, Plant Biology, 1125 Lincoln Dr., LSII, room 420, MC6509,, Carbondale, IL, 62901, USA

368

SINISCALCHI, CAROLINA MORIANI* 1, LOEUILLE, BENOIT 2, PIRANI, JOSE RUBENS 3 and MANDEL, JENNIFER R. 4

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Michigan State University, Plant Biology, 612 Wilson Rd, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA2The Morton Arboretum, 4100 Illinois Route 53, Lisle, IL, 60532-1293, USA3USDA Forest Service, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR, 97330, USA4Duke University, Biology, 330 Bio Sci Bldg, Durham, NC, 27708, USA

Understanding morphological diversity in Chresta (Asteraceae, Vernonieae) and its relationship with other Vernonieae subtribes

367

MAJURE, LUCAS CHARLES* , BAKER, MARC 2, CLOUD-HUGHES, MICHELLE 3, SALYWON, ANDREW 4 and NEUBIG, KURT M. 5

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hresta encompasses 18 species of Compositae, mostly distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga. Plants of this genus present great morphological diversity, despite the relatively small number of species. Species of Chresta are herbs to shrubs, usually with well-developed underground structures, occurring in a number of environments: rock outcrops, savannahs, quartzitic soils, riverbanks, wet soils and areas that suffered anthropic action. The heads are always fused in syncephalia, which can be globular, with strongly fused capitula, or hemispheric, with the heads loosely grouped. In three species the secondary heads present indeterminate growth of their axis, a highly unusual feature within the Vernonieae. Two of the Cerrado species present red flowers and are hummingbird-pollinated, another unusual character in the tribe. The Caatinga species have deeply lobed leaves, silver-green in most of the species. The genus has been either considered part

Phylogenomics in Cactaceae: A case study using the chollas (Cylindropuntieae, Opuntioideae, Cactaceae) reveals a common pattern out of the Chihuahuan Desert

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he New World clade Cactaceae (ca. 1400-1800 spp.) is an iconic group of mostly stem succulents that occur broadly throughout edaphically arid regions of the Americas. Most phylogenetic reconstructions of the group have been carried out using a handful of plastid and/or nuclear loci. However, no such phylogenetic analysis has incorporated whole genomic data for any specific subclade within the family. Here we present a phylogenomic analysis of tribe Cylindropuntieae, the

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Phylogenomics of Eremanthus, due to the secondary heads, or split up into five different genera. Two previous phylogenetic analysis based on molecular markers and morphological data recovered the monophyly of Chresta, but did not present enough support to understand relationships within the genus and with other Vernonieae subtribes, neither brought new insights on how its morphological diversity evolved. In this work we used a previously developed set of 1000 nuclear markers, aiming to achieve a better understanding of its morphological diversity and relations within Vernonieae. Maximum parsimony analysis was ran in TNT, generating one tree, with maximum bootstrap support in 1000 replicates. Maximum likelihood analysis used RAxML, with 1000 bootstrap replicates. Both analysis recovered the same topology for internal relations in Chresta and with other genera in the tribe, with maximum bootstrap support at all nodes, except for one. Chresta martii is sister to all other Chresta species, which are grouped in two clades, representing Caatinga and Cerrado species. The likely ancestral syncephalium type is hemispherical, with loosely joined capitula, with the globose, tightly joined capitula type arising twice, once in each clade. Surprisingly, the two red-flowered species are separated in two different clades, indicating that this character evolved twice in the group history. The clades obtained here loosely follow the generic divisions previously proposed by other authors, but with some of these genera being non-monophyletic. Regarding its relations with other genera, the sister group to Chresta seems to be a clade formed by Vernoniinae and Dypterocypselinae as its sister group, a relationship that had not emerged in previous phylogenetic studies. 1

University of Memphis, Department of Biological Sciences, 3700 Walker Ave, Memphis, TN, 38152, USA2Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Botânica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Iputinga, Recife, Pernambuco, 50670-901, Brazil3Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Botânica, Rua do Matão 277, São Paulo, São Paulo, 05508-090, Brazil4University Of Memphis, 3744 Walker Ave, Memphis, TN, 38152, USA

369

ARCHIBALD, JENNY K* 1, MONNAHAN, PATRICK J 2, OLSON, KAREN V 3, KEPHART, SUSAN R 4, THEISS, KATHRYN E 5 and CULLEY, THERESA M 6

Genome-level phylogenetics in the taxonomically complex Camassia and Hastingsia (Asparagaceae)

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pecies delimitation has been an open question in Camassia and Hastingsia (Asparagaceae), two genera of ecological importance in a range of habitats in North America. Camassia comprises six recognized species, including the western C. quamash (with eight subspecies) and the disjunct eastern C. scilloides. These two widespread taxa occur sympatrically with one or more of the other four less-common species. The number of species recognized in Hastingsia has ranged from two to four. These genera provide a case study for better understanding speciation and for the application of integrative taxonomy. One approach we are applying is

the inference of evolutionary patterns using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) data. We have recovered thousands of loci across approximately 280 individuals. Results confirm the utility of these data for phylogeny inference at this level, resolving relatively deep nodes along with many infraspecific relationships. 1

University Of Kansas, RL McGregor Herbarium & Bridwell Botanical Research Lab, 2045 Constant Ave, Lawrence, KS, 66047-3729, USA2John Innes Centre, Cell and Developmental Biology, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk, NR4 7UH, UK3University of Kansas, Biodiversity Institute and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Lawrence, KS, 66045, USA4WILLAMETTE UNIVERSITY, Department Of Biology, SALEM, OR, 97301, USA5California State University, Dominguez Hills, Department of Biology, Carson, CA, 90747, USA6University Of Cincinnati, Department Of Biological Sciences, 614 Rieveschl Hall, Cincinnati, OH, 45221-0006, USA

370

MANDEL, JENNIFER R.* 1, BARKER, MICHAEL 2, BAYER, RANDALL 3, DIKOW, REBECCA 4, KEELEY, STERLING 5 , SUSANNA, ALFONSO 6, WATSON, LINDA 7 and FUNK, VICKI 8

Using Phylogenomics to Resolve The Compositae Tree of Life

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he Compositae comprises more than 25,000 species of sunflowers, artichokes, dandelions and daisies, representing 10% of all flowering plant species on Earth. Many species have restricted ranges in areas that are threatened with high extinction rates (e.g., Pacific Islands, Cape Floristic Region) while some are among the world’s most noxious weeds (e.g., knapweeds, thistles) and others are economically important crops and cultivars (e.g., food, medicinals, insecticides, garden plants, cut flowers). Similar to other major lineages of organisms (vertebrates, fish, spiders, flowering plants), the family has experienced substantial gene and genome duplication throughout its history, and many of its major lineages have undergone rapid diversification and expansion. Numerous broad (among tribes) and fine scale (within tribes) relationships remain unresolved. Our research utilizes gene capture data (Hyb-Seq), plastomes, transcriptomics, and genomes to examine phylogeny reconstruction in order to provide a robust understanding of evolutionary relationships within the family. Here we provide a summary of our progress to date including a 100+ genera phylogeny and introduce the initiative to understand the The Compositae Tree of Life. Our preliminary data indicate a “shake up” of some previously accepted clades and groupings, but much work remains. Through global partnerships we plan to broaden our taxonomic and geographic coverage of the family as we develop a comprehensive and more fully resolved Compositae Tree of Life. 1

University Of Memphis, 3744 Walker Ave, Memphis, TN, 38152, USA2University Of Arizona, Department Of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, P.O. Box 210088, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA3University of Memphis, 3700 Walker Ave, Memphis, TN, 38152, United States4 Smithsonian Institution, Office of Research Information Services, Washington, DC, 200025University of Hawaii, Department of Botany6Botanic Institute of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain7Oklahoma State

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University, Department Of Botany, 301 Physical Sciences, Stillwater, OK, 74078-3013, USA8Smithsonian Institution, DEPT OF BOTANY-NHB 166, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC, 20013-7012, USA

371

BARRETT, CRAIG* 1 and KENNEDY, AARON 2

Plastid genome evolution in the holomycotrophic genus Hexalectris Raf

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he leafless, terrestrial genus Hexalectris Raf. comprises nine species of holomycotrophic orchids native to Mexico and the southern USA. The genus belongs to the tribe Bletiinae, and is closely related to the leafy genera Basiphyllaea Schltr. and Bletia Ruiz & Pav. Vegetative morphology in Bletiinae follows a trend of reduction, with well-developed, conduplicate leaves in Bletia, highly reduced, plicate leaves in Basiphyllaea, and absence of leaf laminae in Hexalectris. Estimates of relationships among these genera vary among studies. Recent analyses place Basiphyllaea as sister to Hexalectris, or as nested within Bletia; one analysis places Basiphyllaea + Hexalectris as nested within Bletia. Studies in orchid clades containing holomycotrophs and in holoparasitic Orobanchaceae suggest that plastid genome degradation occurs as a result of relaxed selective pressures on photosynthesis, which parallels reduction in vegetative morphology. Thus, Bletiinae serves as a powerful model for comparison with such clades. To test hypotheses of plastid genome reduction in Bletiinae, we sequenced representatives of Bletia, Basiphyllaea, and Hexalectris, focusing primarily on the latter. All species of Hexalectris were included, with at least two accessions sampled per species, and more intensive sampling in the widespread Hexalectris spicata (Walter) Barnhart, which ranges from Mexico to the eastern USA. Plastid genomes were assembled de novo and annotated, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted based on whole plastomes. Gene losses and pseudogene content were assessed across Bletiinae, as were patterns of selection on individual genes. These patterns are compared with recent mechanistic models of plastome evolution in parasitic lineages. 1

West Virginia University, Biology, 53 Campus Drive, Morgantown, WV, 26506, USA2USDA-aphis, Mycology and Nematology Genetic Diversity and Biology Laboratory, Bldg 010a, 10300 Baltimore Blvd., Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA

372

VATANPARAST, MOHAMMAD* 1, POWELL, ADRIAN 2, SHERMAN-BROYLES, SUE 2, DOYLE, JEFF 2 and EGAN, ASHLEY N. 1

Phylogenomics of the phaseoloid and millettioid legumes using a target enrichment approach

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he phaseoloid (ca. 2,070 species in 112 genera) and millettioid (ca. 1,100 species in 56 genera) legumes form a single large clade of the papilionoid subfamily and include various important crops such as soybean, common bean, cowpea, pigeon pea and winged bean. The majority of taxa in this clade correspond to the Phaseoleae sens. lat. and Millettieae sens. stric. groups; however, in spite of multiple molecular phylogenetic studies, relationships within this clade remain unresolved or with low statistical support, particularly along the backbone. To understand the evolutionary history of these legumes, we developed probes using 24 transcriptomes from this group as well as six outgroup legume genera. We used a target enrichment approach and obtained sequences for hundreds of genes and built phylogenetic trees encompassing phaseoloid and millettioid legumes. Our results reveal robust phylogenetic relationships of multiple clades and subclades within this group and provide well-supported phylogenetic evidence useful for classification within this important legume clade. 1

National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, MRC 166, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC, 20013-7012, USA2Cornell University, 412 Mann Library Building, ITHACA, NY, 14853-4301, USA

373

BOUTTE, JULIEN* 1, FISHBEIN, MARK 2 and STRAUB, SHANNON C.K. 1

Indel characters and phylogenomic analyses: application to milkweeds (Asclepias)

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hylogenomic approaches allow characterization of evolutionary relationships and plant diversity using a considerable number of genes and informative characters. However, a potential source of phylogenetically informative characters (PICs), coded indels, are often not utilized during phylogenomic analyses because misassembly of short reads, rather than true insertion or deletion of nucleotides, may be their cause. Studies at the species level, especially in groups that have undergone recent, rapid evolutionary radiations, often recover low amounts of phylogenetically informative variation in coding regions, and require non-coding region sequences, which are richer in indels, to resolve gene trees. To study the impact of indel characters on phylogenomic analyses, we developed a pipeline to evaluate and code indels in sequence alignments. We applied this pipeline to a Hyb-Seq data set (768 loci including targeted exons and the intron flanking regions or â&#x20AC;&#x153;splash zoneâ&#x20AC;?) for the American milkweeds (Asclepias L., Apocynaceae; ca. 130 species), which are the result of a rapid and recent evolutionary radiation and whose phylogeny has been difficult to resolve. For each

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Phylogenomics sequenced locus, we assembled a mean of 1,827 bp of exon and 1,067 bp of internal and flanking splash zones with HybPiper. Using custom python scripts, we identified false positives PICs (due to low sequencing depth and/or sequencing error) and putative chimeric large insertion/deletion regions (created during reassembly process due to low read depth or read depth variation). After removing erroneous assemblies, each locus contained a mean of 5.62 PICs per 100 bp due to Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) variation and a mean of 8.44 PICs per 100 bp including sites that could be coded as indels. We conducted phylogenomic analyses on the concatenated loci using RAxML and 2MATRIX, a program that codes informative indels in binary characters. We used ASTRAL to estimate the species trees from the collection of 767 gene trees. We then compared the impact, separately, of including coded small and large indels on gene trees and species trees derived from concatenated loci and sets of gene trees and the impact of indel coding on discordance among these phylogenetic approaches. Our new pipeline represents a step forward in making maximal use of the information content in phylogenomic datasets.

deep-sequencing will need to be explored. A survey of ITS2 variants obtained from the SAG 34-1h isolate of Haematococcus showed evidence of incomplete lineage sorting which could confound phylogenetic reconstruction. However, the same isolate also exhibited a dominant variant with the highest relative frequency. Results from phylogenetic analysis of all ITS2 variants support the conclusion that IGV is unlikely to confound analyses using ITS2 exemplars produced by standard PCR and Sanger sequencing. Our results show that SBS is reproducible and that the Illumina protocols and platforms (SBS) should be the approach of choice for assessing IGV. In addition to advancing our understanding of rRNA variation, the results of this investigation have allowed us to begin testing hypotheses regarding the maintenance of homogeneity (i.e., concerted evolution) across multi-copy genes. Comparisons between IGV in asexual lineages (e.g., Haematococcus) and sexual lineages (e.g., Chlamydomonas) suggest that the homogenizing effect of concerted evolution through unequal crossing over may be relaxed in the former. University of Tulsa, Department of Biological Science, 800 South Tucker Drive, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 74014, USA

1

Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Department of Biology, 300 Pulteney Street, Geneva, NY, 14456, USA2Oklahoma State University, Plant Biology, Ecology, & Evolution, 301 Physical Sciences, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA

375

LINAN, ALEXANDER* 1, SCHATZ, GEORGE 2, LOWRY, PORTER 2, MILLER, ALLISON 1 and EDWARDS, CHRISTINE 3

374

ALANAGREH, LO'AI and BUCHHEIM, MARK ALAN*

Mapping species boundaries: phylogenomics and patterns of gene flow in threatened Mascarene Diospyros (Ebenaceae)

Intragenomic Variation in the ITS2 rRNA: Results from Deep-Sequencing of Haematococcus

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rimary and secondary structural data from the internal transcribed spacer two (ITS2) have been used extensively for diversity studies of a myriad of eukaryotic organisms, including the green algae. Ease of amplification is due, at least in part, to the fact that ITS2 is part of the tandemly-repeated rRNA array. Nonetheless, the potential confounding influence of intragenomic variability (IGV) has yet to be addressed except in a few organisms. Moreover, none of the assessments of intragenomic variation have taken advantage of the deep-sequencing capacity of sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS) protocols. We present results from our adaptation of the 16S Metagenomics Sequencing Library Preparation (Illumina) protocol for deep sequencing of the ITS2 genes in selected isolates of the green algal genus, Haematococcus. Deep sequencing using SBS (MiSeq) yielded anywhere from more than 500,000 to just under 20,000 merged reads, easily outpacing results from recent pyrosequencing efforts. Furthermore, a conservative evaluation of these data revealed a range of three to six ITS2 variants (haplotypes) across the sampling of isolates. The relative frequency of the dominant ITS2 haplotype ranged from 0.35 to 0.96 across the isolates sampled. In all but one case, the haplotype with the greatest relative frequency corresponded to the published Sanger sequence. Although deep-sequencing generally yielded more ITS2 variants than a clone-andsequence approach, the latter produced a few unique variants indicating that alternative priming sites for

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n islands, where high rates of endemism are common as a result of adaptive radiation, closely related species frequently live in close proximity or in sympatry. Understanding species boundaries among such taxa is fundamental to our greater understanding of island species diversity. Furthermore, the ways in which interspecific hybridization is affected by both phylogenetic and physical distance among taxa is relevant for understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation. In this study, we focused on a clade of Diospyros endemic to the Mascarene Islands, a volcanic archipelago in the Indian Ocean comprising the islands Reunion, Rodrigues, and Mauritius. A total of 13 Diospyros species are endemic to the Mascarenes: Rodrigues and Reunion each have a single endemic species, and 11 largely sympatric, endemic species occur on Mauritius. The goal of this study was use genetic data generated from multiple populations of each species to address three questions: 1) How do patterns of genetic variation correspond to species delimitations based on morphology? 2) What are the evolutionary relationships among Mascarene Diospyros? 3) How are patterns of interspecific gene flow shaped by phylogenetic relatedness and geographic proximity? We sampled multiple individuals from multiple populations of each of the 13 Mascarene species and used a 2bRAD-seq approach to genotype individuals. We analyzed SNP and DNA sequence data using population genomics and phylogenomics data analysis approaches, respectively. Genetic boundaries among species largely corresponded with species


delimitations based on morphology. Phylogenomic analyses provided good resolution of the evolutionary relationships among species and revealed that although many occur in sympatry, hybridization appears to occur only between closely related species. These results have important implications for species conservation, as they will help ensure that efforts focus on taxonomically relevant species units. 1

Saint Louis University, Biology Department, 1 N Grand Blvd., St. Louis, MO, 63103, USA2Missouri Botanical Garden, Africa and Madagascar Department, PO Box 299, St. Louis, MO, 63166, USA3Missouri Botanical Garden, CCSD, PO Box 299, St. Louis, MO, 63166, USA

376

MASON-GAMER, ROBERTA J.* and WHITE, DAWSON

Relationships within the wheat tribe Triticeae (Poaceae): phylogenetic trees based on chloroplast genomes and 150 nuclear loci

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hylogenetic relationships within the wheat tribe, Triticeae (Poaceae), have remained intractable in spite of numerous systematic analyses based on morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular phylogenetic data. Generating a single, well-supported phylogenetic tree has been confounded by a combination of (1) introgression and incomplete lineage sorting, leading to conflict among gene trees; (2) frequent polyploidization, leading to explicitly reticulate relationships; and (3) rapid diversification of early lineages, resulting in poor resolution among them. To clarify of the group“s evolutionary history, we are applying a Hyb-Seq approach, which combines targeted enrichment of low-copy sequences with skimming of non-targeted, high-copy sequences. With this method, we have obtained sequence data from (1) presumably single-copy nuclear loci, including targeted exons and flanking, non-targeted introns; and (2) complete or nearly-complete chloroplast genomes skimmed from the bait-hybridization reaction. We currently include only diploid species, in order to avoid the complications introduced by known reticulate taxa. The data set comprises 75 individuals representing a broad diversity of the tribe, and two outgroups. We present (1) a highly-resolved and well-supported chloroplast DNA tree; (2) a tree based on 150 nuclear loci, estimated with both a concatenated analysis using maximum likelihood and a quartet-based method; and (3) a summary of the well-supported conflict and consensus between the trees.

377

ORTIZ, EDGARDO M.* 1 and SIMPSON, BERYL B. 2

Phylogenomics of high-elevation genera of Andean Vaccinieae

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he blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae) comprises ca. 1300 species from which 60% inhabit the Neotropics. In the Neotropical region they are more prevalent in the cool and humid habitats found in the Andean range. The genera Demosthenesia, Rusbya, Pellegrinia, Polyclita, and Siphonandra are endemic to elevations above 3000 m on the eastern slopes of the Andes of Peru and Bolivia. Because these genera diverged relatively recently within the tribe, the markers traditionally used in the group (ITS, matK, ndhF, rps4, rbcL) could not unequivocally show their monophyly in every case (e.g. Demosthenesia and Rusbya), or fully resolve the relationships between their species. In order to confirm the monophyly of these five genera, determine their phylogenetic position in the Vaccinieae, and clarify the relationships between their species, we used the genome skimming technique to assemble complete nuclear ribosomal RNA cistrons, complete plastomes and partial mitochondrial genomes from 43 species. Phylogenies for each organellar partition were estimated using maximum likelihood with IQ-TREE and the resulting topologies were compared. Our findings show that Demosthenesia, Pellegrinia, and Rusbya are monophyletic and contained in a clade together with the genera Themistoclesia, and Diogenesia. A monophyletic Siphonandra is found in a different clade also containing Psammisia, and Ceratostema. Finally, the monotypic Polyclita is nested within the “Thibaudia” clade. These results would suggest that colonization of high-elevation habitats happened multiple times during the evolution of the tribe in the Andes. 1

The University of Texas at Austin, Integrative Biology and Plant Resources Center, 205 W 24th St, Biology Labs, Austin, TX, 78712, USA2University Of Texas, Section Of Integrative Biology, 205 W 24th St, Mail Stop C0930, Austin, TX, 78712, USA

University of Illinois at Chicago, Biological Sciences, 845 W. Taylor St., MC 066, Chicago, IL, 60607, USA

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Phylogenomics 378

379

MOORE, ABIGAIL J* 1, HANCOCK, LILLIAN P 2, LEGG-JACK, IBIKARI T 3, TALKINGTON, AUGUSTUS B 3 and EDWARDS, ERIKA J 4

NOYES, RICHARD DAVID* and KLING, BRITTANY

Whole chloroplast sequencing for Asteraceae tribe Astereae; methodology and phylogenetic ramifications

Diversification and gene flow in Anacampseros (Anacampserotaceae) in the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

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ribe Astereae, (Asteraceae), includes about 170 genera and 2,800 species making it the second largest tribe in the family. The tribe is of worldwide distribution and woefully understudied phylogenetically. Here we conducted complete chloroplast genome sequencing for 10 diverse species including Southern Hemisphere genera Baccharis and Felicia, and North American genera Boltonia, Bradburia, Doellingeria, Erigeron (2 sp.), Euthamia, Felicia, Solidago, and Symphyotrichum. We used a high-salt enrichment procedure and MiSeq (2 x 300bp) short read Illumina sequencing. Results completely resolve the 10 genomes and show that their sequences are generally consistent in terms of overall size, gene content, and order with other Asteraceae. Most of the size differences among samples is due to expansion or contraction of intergenic regions. Phylogenetic analyses rooted using sequences for sister-tribe Anthemidae resolve Felicia as basal within Astereae, as expected. However, conspicuous conflicts with nrDNA data are supported including the failure to resolve the eight North American genera as monophyletic.

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he Anacampserotaceae are a group of succulent plants that, together with the Portulacaceae, are the closest relatives of the cacti. Although the group also occurs in the New World and Australia, the Anacampserotaceae are most diverse in South Africa, where they have recently radiated into various open, rocky habitats in the Greater Cape Floristic Region. We reconstruct species trees and gene family trees from targeted sequence capture data to examine the factors leading to the diversification of Anacampseros in the GCFR. Morphology is phylogenetically conserved, with each of the six main morphological types seeming to have arisen only once (although at least one is paraphyletic). When multiple species co-occur, they do not appear to be each otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s closest relatives, thus supporting allopatric divergence followed by secondary contact instead of parapatric or sympatric divergence. However, even though Anacampseros is self-compatible and appears to be predominantly selfing, some gene exchange does appear to have occurred in some cases of secondary contact. Many species of Anacampseros are narrow endemics, with only a few known populations, and even the species that are more widespread are often endemic to particular substrates. We also explore the role of substrate switching may have played in the diversification of Anacampseros.

University Of Central Arkansas, Department Of Biology, Lewis Science Center 180, Conway, AR, 72035, USA

1

University of Oklahoma, Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology and Oklahoma Biological Survey, 770 Van Vleet Oval, Room 208, Norman, OK, 73019-6131, USA2Brown University, EEB, 80 Waterman Street, Box G-W, Providence, RI, 02912, USA3University of Oklahoma, Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology and Oklahoma Biological Survey, 770 Van Vleet Oval, Room 208, Norman, OK, 73019-6131, United States4Brown University, Box G-W, 80 Waterman St, Providence, RI, 02912, USA

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POSTERS

381

380

Developing Next Generation Sequencing Tools to Resolve Relationships and Test for the Monophyly of the Mentzelia Section Bartonia Pinnatifid Group

BATTENBERG, KAI* 1, LEE, ERNEST K. 2, CHIU, JOANNA C. 2, BERRY, ALISON M. 1 and POTTER, DANIEL 3

Orthologfinder: A newly developed automated orthology prediction tool -A case study analyzing the transcriptomes of actinorhizal plants-

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dentifying orthologous genes is an initial step required for phylogenetics. However, in silico orthology prediction tools often require large computational resources only available on high-performance computing clusters. Here we present Orthologfinder, an orthology prediction tool with accuracy comparable to other published tools that requires only a desktop computer. The low resource requirement is achieved by (1) taking a gene-bygene approach rather than analyzing all genes at once, and there by (2) minimizing the number of sequences analyzed at a time. With high-throughput sequencing, unprecedented number of genes from non-model organisms is available with increasing need for clear information about their orthologies. Orthologfinder is not only fast and accurate as an orthology prediction tool, but also gives researchers flexibility in the number of genes analyzed at a time without a high-performance computing cluster. Testing Orthologfinder with three datasets, which represented three phyla with different ranges of species diversity and different number of genomes included, we found that the predicted orthologs were highly similar to the predictions made by other published orthology prediction tools. Median CPU time for orthology prediction per gene by executing Orthologfinder on a desktop computer was de novo assembled transcriptomes of two actinorhizal (engaging in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with Actinobacteria) plant species, Ceanothus thyrsiflorus and Datisca glomerata. In a search including genomes of angiosperms across the four Rosid orders comprising the nitrogen-fixing clade (Fabales, Rosales, Cucurbitales, and Fagales), Orthologfinder found that orthologs of most of the genes known to be involved in the process of root nodule symbiosis establishment in legumes are also present in C. thyrsiflorus and D. glomerata. Our results based on the predicted orthology and gene expression patterns support the hypothesis that the root nodules of C. thyrsiflorus and D. glomerata are homologous to those of the model legume Medicago truncatula.

KELLY, KHADIJAH* and SCHENK, JOHN J.

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ecent phylogenetic and monographic studies have rectified many of the longstanding taxonomic issues that have obfuscated the species diversity of Mentzelia section Bartonia (Loasaceae). Despite these efforts, significant questions remain regarding species relationships, which can be attributed to the lack of genetic variation in molecular markers. One such group that remains unresolved is the pinnatifid mentzelias. We hypothesize this group to consist of Mentzelia conspicua, M. filifolia, M. holmgreniorum, M. laciniata, M. lagarosa, and M. sivinskii. The pinnatifid group shares similarities in multiple traits, including floral, fruit, seed surfaces, and pinnatifid leaves, and are distributed near the four corners regions, with a particular density of species near the Colorado/New Mexico border. Previous phylogenetic analyses recovered M. laciniata as sister to M. conspicua, but this clade, along with the other pinnatifid species, were recovered in a polytomy with 11 other species that differ in morphological traits and species distributions (e.g., M. multiflora and M. marginata). Our overarching aim is to develop next generation sequencing techniques to generate variable sequence data to resolve relationships among species in the polytomy, and then apply these tools to resolve additional relationships within Mentzelia. We implemented this study by using genome skimming to generate sequence data from the mitochondria, chloroplast, and nuclear ribosomal genes. The data will then be used to robustly resolve relationships among species of Mentzelia section Bartonia and to test the monophyly of the pinnatifid group. Georgia Southern University, Department of Biology, 4324 Old Register Road, Biological Sciences Building, Statesboro, GA, 30458, United States

1

University of California, Davis, Department of Plant Sciences, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA2University of California, Davis, Department of Entomology and Nematology, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA3University Of California Davis, DEPARTMENT OF PLANT SCIENCES MAIL STOP 2, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616-8780, USA

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Physiology and Ecophysiology Physiology & Ecophysiology

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Yale University, School Forestry , New Haven , Ct , 065112Weselyan University, Plantetary and Envronmental Sciences, Middletown, CT3INECOL, Xalapa, Vera Cruz, Mexico4Penn State Univ., Oceanography, Collegtown, PA5WEsleyan University , Planetary and Environmental Sciences, Middletown, Ct. 6Penn State UNiv, Oceangraphy , Collegetown, PA7Yale University, School Of Foresty & Evironmental Studies, GREELEY LAB-370 PROSPECT ST, NEW HAVEN, CT, 06511, USA

ORAL PAPERS 382

THORHAUG, ANITRA* 1, POULOS, HELEN MILLS 2, LOPEZ-PORTILLO, JORGE 3, NAJJAR, RAYMOND 4, KU, T. 5 , HERRMANN, MARIA 6 and BERLYN, GRAEME 7

Carbon Flow and Stabilization from Rivers through the Gulf of Mexico Blue Carbon Habitats with Potential Solution to Restore Blue Carbon

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s organic carbon flows from rivers into the Gulf of Mexico, estuarine habitat species capture and stabilize riverine carbon as well as create carbon sequestration from atmospheric/oceanic carbon. The mangrovesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; organic carbon dominate blue carbon in the Gulf of Mexico with their extent of 538,246ha especially in Mexico, which contains about equal GOM mangrove extent to the USA. High sequestration from 386Mg/ha-1 average in southwestern Florida mangroves to 1332Mg/ ha-1 in eastern Mexico. The subdominant blue habitat GOM species is seagrasses, over a million hectares in extent and sequestering 179 Tg org C total in GOM in the first meter (with 37.4 in the upper 20cm. Additionally, their standing stock if far less than the much larger mangrove trees standing stock. The marshes in the GOM are chiefly within the northern estuaries and are 401,900ha extent while sequestering roughly 97.8Tg . Total Blue carbon of GOM equals 538Tg. The comparison to North American Atlantic seacoast blue carbon (from Florida to Newfoundland) shows less total blue carbon sequestered 270.6Tg on the chiefly temperate Atlantic seaboard than in the subtropical/tropical Gulf of Mexico (538Tg). This comparison will include the marshes dominating the Atlantic Coast blue carbon 224.8Tg (mangroves being very small amount 2.2Tg, and the seagrasses far less carbon sequestered than marshes) while mangrove carbon dominates in the Gulf of Mexico and seagrass is subdominant. Recently several of us (Poulos, Lopez-Portillo, Ku, Thorhaug) found restored mangroves in Florida sequester more carbon than naturally-occurring mangroves. The restored seagrass results of Corg (organic carbon) ranging from Florida to south Texas shows consistently greater Corg than found in naturally-occurring proximate seagrasses in each area for sampling (45 to 3-year-old seagrass restorations). There are approximately 900,000ha of degraded seagrass areas in the area with potentially at minimum, a 500,000ha of degraded mangroves. Restoring seagrass and mangrove carbon could bolster sequestered organic carbon in the geologically sedimentary carbon-intensive area, especially in the previously degraded areas of industrialized Texas and Eastern Mexico plus degraded areas in Florida. One solution for climate change suggested by James Hansen (2011) is to restore forests, and other vegetation to return carbon to soil or sediment form. The Gulf of Mexico offers an excellent opportunity for this in terms of restoring degraded blue carbon.

383

LOSADA, JUAN M* 1 and HOLBROOK, N. MICHELE 2

Hydraulic conductivity of the phloem in a woody basal angiosperm lineage

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he ecological context in which angiosperms evolved has been hotly debated in the last decades. Recent ecophysiological work with living taxa compared with anatomical information of fossils supports the idea of tropical-like and shaded environments as a credible niche for the rise of angiosperms. While these studies emphasized the low xylem hydraulic capacity of basal angiosperms, information on the functional relationship between anatomy of the phloem and its transport capacities is lacking. To better understand the ecological distribution of early angiosperms, we compared the anatomical properties of the phloem in the aerial parts of seedlings and mature plants of Illicium parviflorum, a basal angiosperm shrub growing in the understory tropical areas of the American continent. Anatomical studies revealed a direct relationship between the area occupied by the xylem and the diameter of the stem, and an inverse relationship for the cortical tissue. However, the proportion of the cross-section occupied by phloem tissue was maintained independently of the diameter. The geometrical properties of sieve element length and radius, as well as area and number of the sieve plates showed a direct linear relationship with the diameter of the stems, whereas pore size of the sieve areas was remarkably small (and independent of diameter). Interestingly, while the number of sieve elements increased with the diameter of the stem, the ratio of conductive elements with respect to other phloem cells was conserved in all the stem diameters studied. In both seedlings and adult plants, the phloem elements of the leaves showed a decrease in length and width from the major vein towards the secondary veins and the petioles. Additionally, photosynthetic activity was similar in both plants, but sap velocity was faster in the leaves of seedlings, suggesting a more efficient transport of solutes for rapid growth. The low light and humid environments where Illicium and related basal angiosperm taxa develop match with a general low hydraulic conductance of the phloem. Yet, phloem conductance increased from the stems with primary growth towards those with secondary growth. The low photosynthetic activity in both seedlings and mature plants showed a conserved developmental strategy, but the velocity of the sap was doubled in the leaves of seedlings compared to that of adult plants. These results point to sap velocity as a modulator of growth during the early ontogeny of woody plants adapted to shade. 1

167

Arnold Arboretum Of Harvard University, Organismic And Evolutionary Biology, 1300 Centre Street, Boston, MA, 02131, USA2Harvard University, Organismal And Evolutionary Biology, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA


384

BLAKE, JENNIFER* 1 and STRUWE, LENA 2

Sugars, stress, and sex-change: environmental sex determination in striped maple

S

exual plasticity is a rare sexual system in flowering plants in which individuals may switch sex expression over the course of their lives in response to environmental or developmental factors. In insect-pollinated plants it is common for individuals to express the female sex if they have more access to important resources, are in better condition, or are larger. Acer pensylvanicum (Sapindaceae) is one of these rare sexually plastic species. Previous work on A. pensylvanicum suggests that sex expression is not related to size. In contrast to theoretical expectations, it appears that female sex expression and changes to female sex expression correlate with decreased condition. n a manipulative study initiated in 2015, individuals of various starting sexes were severely pruned at the time of flowering. The following year, male trees had higher odds of switching to female sex expression, while female trees were more likely to die. In a separate experiment, we analyzed the resource status of trees in the form of stored carbohydrates. We found that females, regardless of size, had higher sugar levels than did males. Furthermore, males that changed to female had higher sugar levels the prior winter than did males that stayed male. Males that had been defoliated in the summer of 2015 had significantly lower levels of carbohydrates in the winter following defoliation and higher odds of not flowering the following year. The responsiveness of sex expression to damage cues in this species suggests that we might see increased numbers of females in striped maple populations due to damage incurred by increased frequency of extreme weather events. The resulting changes in sex ratios may change mortality rates, seed set, and persistence of striped maple populations and the recruitment of other desirable hardwoods which striped maple commonly suppresses.

I

1

Rutgers University, Ecology, Evolution, And Natural Resources, 237 Foran Hall, 59 Dudley Rd, Cook Campus, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901-8551, USA2Rutgers University, Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources and Plant Biology, 15 College Farm Rd, Cook Campus, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA

385

MEAD, ALAYNA* 1, PEĂ&#x2018;ALOZA RAMIREZ, JUAN 2, BARTLETT, MEGAN 3, GUGGER, PAUL F. 4, WRIGHT, JESSICA W. 5 , SACK, LAWREN 6 and SORK, VICTORIA L. 7

Variation in gene expression and ecophysiological response to water stress in valley oak seedling populations

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alley oak (Quercus lobata) is an ecologicallyimportant tree species that lives in a wide range of climates throughout California. Previous research showed that populations are genetically differentiated, consistent with expectations for local adaptation to their particular climate. However, it can be difficult to tell whether genes that vary among populations have adaptive value based only on environmental associations in nature. This study had two objectives: 1) To determine whether valley oak seedling populations from regions of disparate climates differ in patterns of gene expression and ecophysiological response to water stress treatment in a greenhouse experiment, and (2) to investigate associations between gene expression and ecophysiological traits. Seedlings from six different valley oak populations from sites throughout California with a wide range of environmental variation were grown in a greenhouse, and were subjected to experimental water stress to determine responses relative to well watered control plants. Leaf tissue was collected to assess gene expression using RNA-seq analysis; and key structural and ecophysiological traits, including height, leaf size and thickness, and the leaf water potential and turgor loss point (TLP), were measured during the experiment. The seedlings from contrasting populations and experimental treatments differed in gene expression and in phenotypic traits, including TLP. These data will enable exploration of the genetic basis of ecophysiological traits, especially to discover candidates for adaptive genetic variation. 1

UCLA, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 4140 Terasaki Life Sciences Building, 610 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA2UCLA, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology3Princeton, Princeton Environmental Institute, Princeton Environmental Inst, Guyot Hall, Room 1324University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Science, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Appalachian Laboratory, 301 Braddock Road, Frostburg, MD, 21532, USA5Institute Of Forest Genetics, 1100 West Chiles Road, Davis, CA, 95618, USA6UCLA, 621 Charles E. Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA7UCLA, ECOL & EVOL BIOL, Box 957239, LOS ANGELES, CA, 90095-7239, USA

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Physiology and Ecophysiology 386 JU PING

RUSSO, SABRINA E* and CHAN,

Variation in trait plasticity among Bornean tree species with contrasting ecological strategies

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henotypic plasticity allows organisms to respond optimally to their environment, which is important for sessile organisms like plants. Because variable environments select for phenotypic plasticity, generalist species that occupy multiple habitats should have greater within-species variation in their responses to environmental variation, compared to habitat specialists. Less well examined is the idea that habitats with plentiful resources, in which species with fast-growth strategies are favored, may also select for greater plasticity. We tested these ideas in a Bornean tropical rain forest with three year-old seedlings of 13 tree species representing three soil specialization groups (clay specialists, sandy loam specialists, and generalists) reciprocally grown from locally collected seed in two soil types (clay versus sandy loam) and light environments (high versus low insolation). We quantified within-species variation (plasticity) in 17 functional traits and six measures of growth rate across these four treatment combinations for each species. While their genotypes were unknown, seedlings were half-siblings from several mothers, distributed roughly evenly across treatment combinations, allowing us to partition phenotypic variation into what is explained by environmental treatment, speciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; soil specialization, and their interaction. We found that specialists of the more fertile clay soil type and generalists, which are found on both soils, were more plastic than specialists of the less fertile sandy loam. On average, trait plasticity due to light was greater than plasticity due to soil. While growth rates were generally more plastic than traits, greater trait plasticity was associated with greater variation in growth rates. The magnitude of plasticity not only differed among traits and species with contrasting ecological strategies, but also in response to the type of environmental variation. Moreover, within species variation in traits across contrasting soil and light environments translated into far greater variation in growth rates, suggesting a non-additive effect of plasticity on whole-plant phenotypic integration. Thus, within species trait variation in response to a heterogeneous environment is not only complex, but has effects on demography that would ultimately have implications for how tree species are distributed along environmental gradients.

387

ZIEMINSKA, KASIA* 1 and GLEASON, SEAN M 2

Anatomical underpinnings of water storage in angiosperm wood

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ood water storage creates a potentially important buffer plants can tap into during the periods of water stress. Yet, trees vary significantly in the quantity of stored water and the degree to which they make use of it. Stored water can contribute from 6 to as much as 50% of the daily transpiration requirements of a tree. We currently do not have a clear understanding of structural drivers of water storage. Two candidate wood tissues can potentially store water: parenchyma and fibers. They are the two most abundant tissues, together making up a majority of the wood volume. The primary functions of parenchyma is thought to be carbohydrate and water storage, whereas the primary function of fiber is thought to be mechanical support. However, recent, indirect evidence suggests that fibers may play a pivotal role in water storage, potentially compromising mechanical strength. We examined hydraulic, anatomical and mechanical traits in twigs of 30 temperate, deciduous tree species grown in the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. The species represented a broad phylogenetic range (30 genera from 23 families) and diverse wood anatomies. Their wood density ranged from 0.34 to 0.71 g cm-3 and was correlated with midday leaf water potential (two-fold variation from -1.1 to -2.5 MPa). As expected, species with higher density wood tended to tolerate more negative midday water potentials. However, these species also had higher midday relative water contents (ranging from 39% to 81%). This suggests that high density species maintain water contents closer to their maximum capacity to store water, whereas the midday water contents of low density species rarely approach their maximum storage capacity. Given that wood density is an outcome of anatomical structure, water storage strategies among species are likely underpinned by differences in their wood anatomy. In this talk, I will explore how these strategies might be driven by parenchyma and fiber properties, and how they relate to mechanical strength. 1

Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, 1300 Centre Street, Weld Hill Research Building, Boston, MA, 02131, USA2USDA Agricultural Research Service, Water Management Research Unit, 2150 Centre Avenue, Bldg D, Suite 320, Fort Collins, CO, 80526, USA

University of Nebraska, School of Biological Sciences, Manter Hall, Lincoln, NE, 68588-0118, USA

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388

WU, HONGHONG* , TITO, NICOLAS and GIRALDO, JUAN PABLO

Plant Nanobionic Protection from Abiotic Stress Enhances the Light and Carbon Reactions of Photosynthesis in Arabidopsis

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lant abiotic stress leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in decreased photosynthetic performance. We demonstrate that a plant nanobionics approach of interfacing cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) with chloroplasts in vivo augments ROS scavenging and photosynthesis of Arabidopsis thaliana plants under excess light, heat, and dark chilling. Negatively charged nanoceria preferentially localize inside chloroplasts of leaf mesophyll cells than positively charged nanoceria. Nanoceria are transported into chloroplasts via non-endocytic pathways, influenced by the electrochemical gradient of the plasma membrane potential. Nanoceria augment plant ROS scavenging including superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals, for the latter ROS there is no known plant enzyme scavenger. Plants with embedded nanoceria exposed to abiotic stress have enhanced quantum yield of photosystem II, carbon assimilation rates, and Rubisco carboxylation rates relative to plants without nanoparticles. Nanoceria improves both quantum yield of photochemistry and carbon assimilation rates under excess light but only the carboxylation reactions under heat and dark chilling. This study demonstrates that nanoceria can be applied as a tool to study the impact of oxidative stress on plant photosynthesis and protect plants from abiotic stress.

UC Riverside, Botany and Plant Sciences, 3401 Watkins Drive, Batchelor Hall 1133, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA

389

WU, HONGHONG* 1, SHABALA, LANA , SHABALA, SERGEY 2 and GIRALDO, JUAN PABLO 3 2

Cerium oxide nanoparticles improve Arabidopsis salinity stress tolerance by enabling leaf mesophyll K+ retention

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alinity is a critical factor limiting agricultural production worldwide. Efficient mesophyll K+ retention is one of the most important sub-traits of salinity tolerance. Here, we report that negatively charged poly (acrylic acid) coated cerium oxide nanoparticles (PNC) protect plant performance under salinity stress. Leaves infiltrated with PNC (PNC-leaves) have significantly higher carbon assimilation rates, stomatal conductance, quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll content compared with controls without nanoparticles after being exposed to 100 mM NaCl for 3 days. Confocal imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in planta and whole leaf histochemical staining demonstrated that PNC-leaves exhibit less ROS levels in leaf mesophyll cells than controls. Electrophysiological experiments showed that PNC-leaves have about three times lower NaCl-induced K+ efflux from mesophyll cells than the buffer control. This was confirmed by confocal imaging with K+ dye APG-2

showing that PNC infiltrated leaves have higher cytosolic K+ in leaf mesophyll cells than buffer controls. Furthermore, relative expression of K+ uptake plasma membrane transporter HAK5 gene was significantly upregulated in PNC-leaves under salinity stress, compared with no significant change on K+ efflux plasma membrane channel GORK gene. Overall, our results demonstrate that scavenging of excess ROS by PNC imparts plants with enhanced ability to maintain K+ in the cytosol of leaf mesophyll cells and therefore better salinity tolerance. 1

UC Riverside, Botany and Plant Sciences, 3401 Watkins Drive, Batchelor Hall 1133, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA2University of Tasmania, Australia, School of Land and Food, College Road, Life Science Building, Room 445 , Hobart, TAS, 7005, Australia3UC Riverside, Botany and Plant Sciences, 3401 Watkins Drive, Batchelor Hall 1125, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA

390

THORHAUG, ANITRA* 1, POULOS, HELEN MILLS 2, SCHWARZ, ARTHUR 3 and BERLYN, GRAEME 4

The physiological pollutant effects on tropical/subtropical seagrass of diminution of light through turbidity, of temperature, of salinity

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he important effects of anthropogenic changes in environmental conditions has diminished global seagrass by 30% with yearly loss at 7% y-1. Engineers creating infrastructure altering normal environmental conditions of estuaries’ , bays’ or open shorelines’ superimpose their structure without knowledge of ecosystem responses to the effluents they create have caused large global diminution especially in the fragile tropics. Temperature additions from power plants, desalination facilities, occurred ubiquitously through the tropics although the upper thermal limit is 31-32oC for most benthic seagrasses, close to summer natural maxima. Salinity alterations to seagrasses occur from both riverine diversion, (lowering of salinity fluctuations), or damming including causeways and/or ponding which increase of salinity, creating seagrass change.Each seagrass species has individual upper and lower salinity limits. Estuarine or open shoreline light alteration due to river turbidity impingement, removal of stabilizing seagrass cover so that sediment resuspension occurs, or turbid effluents diminishes tropical/subtropical seagrasses both within the effluent isopleths, and at their deeper edge. Generally, the seagrass diminish greatly at the deeper edge, an extent difficulty captured from most mapping methods. The detailed field studies for temperature, salinity, light including laboratory tolerance studies defining physiological limits of dominant Atlantic species will be discussed. The solutions lie in tailoring effluents and infrastructure modifying normal watershed flow to respect seagrass limits for their services of essential fish habitat, high carbon sequestration, bottom and shoreline stabilization and endangered species habitat and restoration. Major species in western tropical/subtropical Atlantic include Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme, and Halophila engelmanii.

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Physiology and Ecophysiology 1

1359 SW 22ND TER #1, Miami, FL, 33145, USA2WEseleyan University , Planetary and Environmental Science, Middletown, CT3Southwestern Adventist UNiversity , Biology , Keene, TX4Yale University, School Of Foresty & Evironmental Studies, GREELEY LAB-370 PROSPECT ST, NEW HAVEN, CT, 06511, USA

391

SINGH, KAMAL JIT

Calcium application lowers the accumulation of heavy metal cadmium in chickpea and mungbean

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hickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. Himachali channa II) and mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek cv. Mung 666) genotypes were subjected to varying levels of heavy metal stress to assess their tolerance levels towards cadmium induced heavy metal toxicity, its uptake behavior and accumulation in the leaves and seeds. Mungbean cultivar had shown better tolerance towards the heavy metal depicted in terms of better growth profile, relative leaf water content, electrolyte leakage, leaf pigments, yield attributes of the crop comprising flower, pod and seeds in comparison to chickpea. Mungbean leaves acted as hyper-accumulators of the metal with minimal translocations directed towards the seeds. Higher leaf surface area of the mungbean crop accompanied by more watery requirement during summer season was the possible reason for such accumulation. On the other hand, in chickpea, a winter seasoned crop cadmium accumulation was many times in the seeds in comparison to mungbean depending upon toxicity level of heavy metal. Calcium application played an important role in lowering the accumulation of cadmium in both leaves and seeds with improved water absorption at the root surface and its further uptake. Cadmium toxicity can be checked effectively with the application of calcium in the rhizosphere.

available forms of the various heavy metals in the leaves. Higher percentage of metals accumulated in the plant tissues were chelated for Cd,Pb and Cu in that order, as compared to others. Foliar stabilization efficiency of Cd, determined as percentage of total accumalated metals that were in the chelated forms, ranged from 32.87 to 38.96% and between 28.89 to35.97% for Pb. Results also showed that nitrogen accumulation significantly (p<0.05) reduced with increased metal concentration in the soil. However, there were no significant changes in ammonia nitrogen in the leaves of the test plant following metal phyto-accumulation (108.54 to 187.34ppm). It was however observed that inspite of the aforementioned changes in nitrogen accumulation associated with metal concentration. Plants accumulates more nitrogen in the metal contaminated soil than in the control soil (>50% accumulation). Comparatively Utilization of nitrate nitrogen was higher than ammonia nitrogen. The relationship between metal and nitrogen accumulation is to the extent that increase metal accumuation enhances nitrogen utilization as deduced from the study. Keywords: Phytoremediation, nitrogen assimilation, heavy metals, Chromolaena odorata, nitrate, ammonia 1

Federal University of Petroleum Resourses, Effurun Warri, Delta State, Environmental Management and Toxicology, Delta State, 3200012University of Benin, Benin City, , Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Benin City, Edo State, 300001

Panjab University, Botany, Sector 14, Chandigarh, UT, 160014, India

392

OMOREGIE, GLORIA* 1, IKHAJIAGBE, BECKLEY 2 and ANOLIEFO, GEOFFREY 2

Nitrogen uptake and foliar distribution during heavy metal accumulation by young Chromolaena odorata plants

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he present study investigated nitrogen utilization by young plants of Chromolaena odorata during phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. This study became even more important in the bid to further establish the possible link between nitrogen utilization and the plants phytoremediative capabilities. Equal-sized stem cuttings of Chromolaena odorata (30cm long, 2.5 - 3.0cm) were sown in 5 different metalcontaminated soils of different concentrations based on their ecological screening benchmark values (ESV) (Mn = 50mg/kg, Cd = 4mg/kg, Pb = 50mg/kg, Cu = 100mg/ kg and Zn = 50mg/kg). These concentrations were SubESV (control), ESV, 3ESV and 5ESV respectively. After 8 weeks following exposure to test plant to metals, there were significant accumulation of available and non-

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POSTERS

394

393

A Comparison of Dendroclimatic Relationships in Quercus alba (White Oak) Before and After the Onset of Recent Warming

VARVEL, NICK A. 1, HILT, CHRISTINA J. , BAER, SARA G. 2, JOHNSON, LORETTA C. 3 and MARICLE, BRIAN R.* 4 1

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Stomates of Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)

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ig bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is a dominant prairie grass that has wide distribution and several genetically distinct ecotypes within the species. Many of the ecotypic adaptations of big bluestem are related to water availability in the native environment. Epidermal pores on leaves, called stomates, facilitate photosynthetic gas exchange and regulate water loss from the plant. As such, stomatal size and density represent possible adaptations to conserve water. We hypothesized drought-tolerant ecotypes of big bluestem would have fewer or smaller stomates compared to more mesic ecotypes. Five ecotypes of big bluestem were planted in four common gardens from western Kansas to southern Illinois to determine genetic and environmental influences on stomates. We made epidermal imprints to measure stomatal size and density on tops and bottoms of leaves. Leaves were largely hypostomatous, with 187 stomates mm-2 on the adaxial surface and 5.3 stomates mm-2 on the abaxial surface. Genetics was a much more prominent influence than environment for stomatal size and density. The drought-tolerant Sand Bluestem had larger stomates on the bottoms of leaves, but a lower density compared to most other ecotypes. The most mesic ecotype from Illinois and the Kaw cultivar had the greatest density of stomates on the bottoms of leaves. Sand Bluestem had a greater density of stomates on the tops of leaves compared to all other ecotypes. There was no difference in size or density of stomates among sites, despite mean annual precipitation ranging from 505 to 1167 mm, illustrating the genetic underpinnings of stomates in big bluestem. There is a genetic predisposition for drought-tolerant ecotypes to have fewer stomates, illustrating an evolutionary adaptation to drought tolerance in an important prairie species. 1

Fort Hays State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 600 Park St., Hays, Kansas, 67601, United States2Southern Illinois University, Department of Plant Biology and Center for Ecology, Carbondale, IL, 62901, USA3Kansas State University, Biology, Ackert Hall Rm 232, Manhattan, KS, 66506-4901, USA4Fort Hays State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 600 Park St., Hays, KS, 67601-4099, USA

WARNER, SCOTT M.* 1, JAROSZ, ANDREW M. 2 and TELEWSKI, FRANK W. 3

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limate is currently changing at an unprecedented rate. Fossil pollen shows that plant species responded to glacial retreat by shifting their distributions, and contemporary climate change has already altered plant distributions, and their phenology. Individual trees can live long enough to experience climatic shifts, and their growth response to them may be a bellwether for a species’ ability to acclimate to climate change. In Michigan, white oak (Quercus alba) is an important component of forest communities across a wide range of site types. Individuals can live for centuries, long enough to experience recent climatic shifts in Michigan. Annual temperature there was 1.3 °C higher from 1980-2012 compared to 1895-1979, and annual precipitation has been steadily increasing since the 1930s. Here we perform a dendroclimatic correlative analysis of a population of 150-year-old white oaks. We find relationships between radial growth and climate, compare these relationships before and after 1980, and speculate about the implications of our results in the face of continuing climate change. We found no significant difference in ring widths before and after 1980 (p=.795), however, growth-climate relationships reveal interesting differences between the time periods. Growth-temperature relationships were, mostly, more negative post-1980 than pre-1980, especially for winter and for summer prior to the year of ring formation (hereafter, “prior-year”). The winter change may be due to increased respiration or less snow accumulation. The summer change suggests that high temperatures are exacerbating summer drought stress, or exceeding the optimum for photosynthesis and respiration. Not all growth-temperature relationships are becoming more negative, however. In current-year fall, relationships were more positive post1980 than pre-1980, suggesting that increasing temperatures may be extending the end of the growing season. Growth-precipitation relationships, too, were mostly more negative post-1980 than pre-1980, suggesting that precipitation increases are more than offsetting increased evaporative demand due to high temperatures. Temperatures are expected to increase year-round with continuing climatic change, which will likely cause white oak to decline at this site. This trend may be offset partially by an extended fall growing season. Precipitation is projected to increase during winter and spring. Because the growth-precipitation relationship changed direction from positive to negative during March and April, increasing precipitation in those months could be detrimental. Summer and fall precipitation may remain the same or decrease. Summer decreases could be highly detrimental, as evident in the significantly negative growth-temperature relationships and significantly positive growth-precipitation relationships.

1

Michigan State University, Plant Biology, Plant Biology Laborotories, 612 Wilson Rd., Room 143, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA2Michigan State University, Plant Biology; Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Plant Biology Laborotories, 612 Wilson Rd., Room 143,

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Physiology and Ecophysiology East Lansing, MI, 48824, United States3Michigan State University, Plant Biology; W.J. Beal Botanical Garden, Campus Planning and Administration, 408 West Circle Drive, Room 412, East Lansing, MI, 48824, United States

395

KRISS, TAYLER J* 1 and MARICLE, BRIAN R. 2

Photosynthetic action spectra of etiolated beans during greening

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ow varying wavelengths of light drive photosynthesis has not been investigated during the period when young plants are transitioning from an etiolated state to a green state. In this study, photosynthetic rates of young bean plants were analyzed in light with wavelengths of 350 nm to 750 nm. Isolated thylakoids were analyzed spectrophotometrically with an artificial electron acceptor (DCIP, a Hill reagent) to measure the light reactions of photosynthesis. Monochromatic light was supplied by a spectrophotometer, and samples were illuminated at a specific wavelength for five minutes. Another spectrophotometer measured difference in absorbance as the Hill reagent in solution was reduced by electron transfer in the light reactions of photosynthesis. Plants were germinated in the dark for 14 days and then moved into sunlight. Analysis was done at 0, 3, 7, and 21 days of light exposure. These were the first action spectra of photosynthesis measured during greening in etiolated seedlings. Blue and red wavelengths of light were most effective at driving the light reactions of photosynthesis, but not during the initial few days of greening. Photosynthetic rates, calculated by use of the Hill reaction, were minimal until 7 days of sunlight exposure, but were evident thereafter. This work shows spectrophotometers can be used as an illuminating source to measure action spectra of photosynthesis. This allows action spectra to be constructed for small-scale reactions without the need for sophisticated equipment.

1

Fort Hays State University, Department of Biological Sciences , 1904 Fort Street, Hays , Kansas , 67601, United States2Fort Hays State University, Department Of Biological Sciences, 600 Park St., Hays, KS, 67601-4099, USA

396

VATH, RICHARD , HUPP, JASON* and DOUG, LYNCH

Finding the floor: Comparison of portable photosynthesis systems for measurement of small fluxes

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ccurate measurement of plant physiological activity at near zero rates is limited by the capabilities of the instruments used to measure that activity. Chamberbased gas exchange systems, designed to quantify CO2 and H2O transport between the leaf and the atmosphere, are inherently limited in their resolution of low gas exchange rates by instrument electronic noise and the precision of chamber environmental control loops. Here, we compare the performance of the LI-6400XT Portable Photosynthesis System to the recently released LI-6800 Portable Photosynthesis System (LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA), examining the individual system components and how those systems interact to impact

the instrumentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; limit of resolution. To demonstrate how these combined effects impact real measurements, continuous gas exchange measurements were performed on an Epipremnum sp. (Devilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ivy) under low-light conditions (photosynthetically active radiation of 21 umol m2 s-1 or less). At these light intensities, the plant is expected to operate near or below its light compensation point, greatly limiting the magnitude of the potential gas exchange signal that can be observed by an instrument. This work demonstrates the impact of instrument design on measurements of near zero rates and is particularly important in the context of quantifying parameters such as dark respiration, the light compensation point, or quantum yield. LI-COR Biosciences, 4647 Superior St, Lincoln, Nebraska, 68504, United States

397

DAHL, JULIAN 1, LISH, BARBARA , KIM, NATALIE 1 and HESCHEL, M. SHANE* 2 1

Flower color, UV protection, and fitness trade-offs in Scarlet Gilia (Ipomopsis aggregata)

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lants require access to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), which also exposes them to potentially damaging ultraviolet wavelengths. Anthocyanin is a secondary compound which provides red coloration for flowers, which attracts hummingbird pollinators, and has been shown to absorb light in the UV spectrum. Ipomopsis aggregata displays flower color varying from pink to scarlet red, correlated with anthocyanin content. In this study, we investigate the UV protective qualities of I. aggregata individuals with scarlet flowers (darkcolored) compared to plants with pink flowers (lightcolored) using a combination of field observations (Manitou Experimental Forest) and in situ experimental manipulations. We found that dark-colored individuals have higher photosystem efficiency, germination rates, and seed mass than light-colored individuals. We also found significant microenvironmental effects on seed count and photosystem efficiency, which may be due to differing canopy cover. This research highlights a reproductive and survivorshiop trade-off, seemingly connected directly to flavonoid content, between pollinator attraction and protection from UV damage in a mid-elevation plant population.

1

colorado college, Organismal Biology2Colorado College, Biology, 14 E. Cache La Poudre St., Colorado Springs, CO, 80903, USA

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398

GIDDENS, JON

400

ECKART, PHOEBE 1, ALSAMADISI, NOAH 1, MARTIN, CELIA 2 and SPICER, RACHEL* 3

Ecophysiological Responses of Eastern Redcedar in Oklahoma University of Oklahoma, Microbiology and Plant Biology, 770 Van Vleet Oval, #144, Norman, OK, 73019, USA

399

1

UMEBAYASHI, TOSHIHIRO* , UTSUMI, YASUHIRO 2 and SANO, YUZOU 3

The interspecific difference in drought stress tolerance with transplants between two woody species

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ransplants of woody plant saplings are generally conducted after root pruning. Water in the saplings ascend under negative pressure, and root pruning may involve significant risks such as the occurrence of xylem embolisms and the fungal invasion. Thus, the understanding of the interspecific difference in drought stress tolerance in root pruning would improve the success rate of transplants of woody plants. In this study, we evaluated the interspecific differences in drought stress tolerance using a centrifuge methodology, and compared the losses of hydraulic conductivity of the stem after transplants between the two woody species (Betula maximowicziana and Larix kaempferi). B. maximowicziana (angiospermous tree) had higher conductivity and was more vulnerable to water stress-induced embolisms than L. kaempferi (conifer). The specific conductivity of the stem in root-pruned saplings significantly differed between the two species. The specific conductivity of the stem in L. kaempferi hardly changed after root pruning irrespective of the extent of the treatment. On the other hand, the conductivity in B. maximowicziana significantly decreased with the treatment of root pruning, and the mortality rate also increased with the amount of pruned roots. Our results suggested that the existence of species-specific vulnerability to water stressinduced embolisms and root pruning. It is desirable to keep roots as much as possible when angiospermous trees having high conductivity are transplanted.

Auxin transport affects vessel structure and hydraulic properties in hybrid poplar

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he plant hormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) has a well-established role in the regulation of vascular development, where vascular strands are initiated in cell files containing high concentrations of IAA due to PIN protein-mediated transport. In contrast, little is known about the effects of auxin transport on vessel development specifically. We applied the auxin transport inhibitor NPA in longitudinal strips (lanolin + DMSO + 1% w/v NPA) to stems of 3-month-old Populus tremula x alba and monitored the effects on xylem development and stem hydraulic properties. Interestingly, xylem growth was significantly reduced under both control (lanolin + DMSO) and NPA treatments relative to the untreated stem surface, whereas only the NPA treatment produced abnormally shaped vessels. Vessels formed under NPA were smaller in diameter, more tightly clustered, shorter in length and more angular in cross-section relative to those of controls. Native specific conductivity (ks, m2 s-1 MPa-1) was about 20% lower in NPA-treated plants relative to controls and preliminary evidence suggests that this may have been due to increased embolism accumulation. Our results suggest that auxin transport plays a significant role in the differentiation and expansion of vessels with corresponding consequences on stem hydraulic function. 1

Connecticut College, Botany2Connecticut College, Biology3Connecticut College, Botany, 270 Mohegan Avenue, New London, CT, 06320, USA

1

Hokkaido University, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Kita 9, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 0608589, JAPAN2Kyushu University, Tsubakuro 394, Sasaguri, Fukuoka, N/A, 811-2415, Japan3HOKKAIDO UNIVERSITY, LAB OF WOODY PLANT BIO, FAC OF AGRIC, KITA-9, NISH, HOKKAIDO UNIVERSITY, SAPPORO, N/A, 060-8589, Japan

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Physiology and Ecophysiology 401

THOMAS, DAVID

Cell Wall Composition and Whole Plant level Implications of Functional Trait Variation in Panicum virgatum Due to Genotype by Environment Interactions

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owland Switchgrass grown in northern latitudes of North America delay flowering and produce higher yields. It is desirable to have plants that delay or never flower and continue vegetative growth for the entire growing season instead of allocating resources to the production of flowers and seeds. Switchgrass can be propagated by division and therefore does not need to produce seed for new plants. Internode cellular architecture is important for optimal plant functioning. In particular, cortical sclerenchyma provides strength to grass tillers. Additionally, cell walls serve as a carbon sink during growth and allocation. Different cellular composition and cell type concentrations in milled biomass affect the degree of recalcitrance during biofuel production. The lowland genotype AP13 grown in northern and southern latitudes show different cellular architecture. Resource allocation toward different plant tissues during plant growth affects the development of various tissues and overall plant success. University of Oklahoma, Microbiology and Plant Biology, 770 Van Vleet Oval, 136 George Lynn Cross Hall, Norman, OK, 73019, USA

402

COWAN, MICHAEL* 1 and AHEDOR, ADJOA 2

Invasive species in the Oklahoma rangelands: A comparative study on transpiration rates of the Eastern redcedar (juniperus virginiana) and adjacent deciduous trees

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he eastern redcedar (juniperus virginiana) has been growing at an estimated rate of 300,000 acres per year in Oklahoma rangelands and prairies. This rapid increase in numbers is causing negative effects in both human and wildlife population. It is estimated that one acre of these trees can absorb up to 55,000 gallons (ca. 208 kl) of water a year effectively starving grassland areas, native forestry, and human water sources that depend on groundwater accumulation. Their impressive ability to adapt to Oklahomaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s extreme summers and winters include the presence of scale-like leaves, thick cuticle and shallow roots. Wind pollination and seed dispersal by birds increases their reproduction rate. These adaptive mechanisms along with fire suppression has contributed to their encroachment and establishment in many rangelands. Deciduous trees in close proximity have a difficult time competing with redcedar due to long periods of dormancy even throughout mild winters and prolong droughts in the summer. These ecological factors sometimes cause some deciduous trees to die thus increasing fire hazards in native forests and grasslands. In this study transpiration rates in Eastern Redcedars and adjacent deciduous trees of central Oklahoma are compared from the winter season into the summer season to determine rates of water uptake in the rangelands. Branch tips of the trees were secured for a 24 hour time frame while temperature, humidity, and wind speed were recorded for said period. The amount of water transpired from each branch tip was trapped, collected and measured. Transpiration rates were used in estimating water absorption rates in the trees. Results show that the overall annual absorption rate of water by the eastern redcedar is greater than that of deciduous trees due to the dormancy period undergone by the deciduous trees. However during the warmest parts of the year the deciduous trees transpiration levels are higher than that of redcedars due to increased growth activity in the former. Redcedars are already costing the state of Oklahoma hundreds of millions of dollars in fire, wildlife, livestock, and water damage. The problems caused by this invasive species will only grow larger over time if not addressed sooner than later. 1

Rose State College, 6420 S.E. 15th Street, Mid West City, OK, 73110, USA2Rose State College, Engineering And Science, 6420 S.E. 15th Street, Midwest City, OK, 73110, USA

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403

SPITZ, BETHANY* 1, MILLER, 2 J'NAE , GLOVER, BREAUNA 2 and AHEDOR, ADJOA 3

Measurements of Evapotranspiration rates in Eastern redcedar (Juniperus viginiana) and Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda)

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ree species native to Oklahoma are primarily deciduous with a few evergreen conifers such as the Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) and Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). In the last half-century, eastern redcedar has become a problem as they proliferate and expand their range. Once controlled by wildfires and prescribed burns, redcedar populations and range were limited to areas like canyons, creek bottoms, and other areas protected from fires. As the state became more populated, wildfires were suppressed and controlled burns have become more hazardous. Eastern redcedars cause many environmental problems: they are a fire hazard, they change the ecosystem affecting the animals that live in the area, they outcompete other tree and grass species, as well as negatively impact the water supply. They are also thought to contribute to aridity, which is a problem in a state often affected by drought. Evergreen conifers undertake physiological processes throughout the year including winter seasons. Thus to effectively manage the impact of redcedars in Oklahoma, there is the need to determine water use in redcedars. Therefore the objective of this experiment was to compare the evapotranspiration rates of Loblolly Pine and Eastern redcedar during the winter and spring seasons. The ends of branches were securely bagged for 24-hour periods, moisture collected in bags were weighed and analyzed. Preliminary data showed that even in dryer conditions during late winter Eastern redcedar took up more water than the Loblolly pine. After periods of spring rainfall, both trees produced more water than recorded in the winter, but on most days the Eastern redcedar produced more despite being a smaller trees.

of dose-response experiments with eight to ten treatments and four replicates each. The experiments allows to determine the sensitivity of each accession based on the germination inhibition. Essential oil from Baccharis psiadioides (Less.) Joch. Mull. (Asteraceae) was used as phytotoxin. Germination inhibition was calculated with the median effective dose (ED50) with a log-logist regression model, which corresponds to the dosage of essential oil capable of inhibiting the germination from 50% of the sample (thirty seeds) compared to the control of each accession. Results showed a positive correlation between seed size and ED50. Small seeds needed lower quantities of essential oil to inhibit germination whereas larger seeds needed more than twice essential oil doses. This pattern has been reported for aqueous extract with isoflavonoids, phenolic acid derivatives, isothiocyanates, coumarins and now are observed for essential oil derived from terpenoid pathway. Seed size is related with the amount of the nutrient reserve provided for the embryo by the mother plant, thus, small-seeded species generally have fewer reserves with which to support growing embryo and seedling respiration during periods of stress-induced. Furthermore, small-seeded have greater amounts of root length per unit of root mass, providing greater absorptive surface area through which phytotoxins might enter and cause subsequent damages. Effects reported herein may be a pattern for action of other essential oils, however, other studies may be conducted relating other seed attributes as seed reserve or embryo size. 1

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Botânica, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Instituto de Biociências, Porto Alegre, RS, 91501- 970, Brazil2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Botânica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Instituto de Biociências, Porto Alegre, RS, 91501970, Brazil

1

Rose State College, 6420 S.E. 15th Street, Mid West City, OK, 73110, USA2Rose State College, 6420 S.E. 15th Street, Mid West City, OK, 731103Rose State College, Engineering And Science, 6420 S.E. 15th Street, Midwest City, OK, 73110, USA

404

KÖHLER, MATIAS* 1 and SOARES, GERALDO LUIS GONçALVES 2

Small seeds are more sensitive to phytotoxic effects of an essential oil during germination

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xtant angiosperms have a great variety of seed masses, spanning 11 orders of magnitude, from the dust seeds of orchids up to the 20 kg seeds of the double coconut. These characteristics is an important functional trait in plant ecology with real implications on germination. In this study, we investigated how this attribute may be related to susceptibility to a phytotoxic essential oil during seed germination. Twenty one accessions, spanning six botanical families and four orders of magnitude in seed mass, were submitted to a battery

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Population Genetics/Genomics Population Genetics/Genomics ORAL PAPERS 405

PALACIO-MEJĂŞA, JUAN DIEGO* , HAQUE, TASLIMA 1, ORTIZ, EDGARDO M. 2 and JUENGER, THOMAS E. 3

1

Population genomics in the native grass Panicum hallii

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ince early in the last century, the field of ecological genetics has provided abundant evidence that selection can produce differentiated and locally adapted populations, generating a gradient of character variation through the natural range of species distribution. In this study we determinate the genomic diversity and structure of Panicum hallii, a native Southwestern grass of United States and North of Mexico. We characterized 582 individuals from 123 localities across its natural distributions in The United States and Mexico from samples for the two species varieties: var. hallii and var. filipes. Genotypic data from 41 individuals of P. hallii var. filipes and 563 individuals of P. hallii var. hallii were obtained using double digestion restriction associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing technic. Our results show three main genetic clusters: one big cluster corresponds to var. hallii populations, a second cluster corresponds to var. filipes and an interesting third group correspond an admixed cluster which include populations for both varieties suggested a possible hybridization between.

changing climate. While ecological studies have been extensive in this system, genetic structure, gene flow or the genetics of adaptation have not been addressed. Gene flow will have a crucial role in this system given local adaptation and the likelihood that plants adapted to the northern end of its distribution will face future climate shifts that will be more similar to conditions now in the south of its range. We use NGS ddRAD SNP data and transcriptomics to begin to understand the genetic basis of ecotype variation among E. vaginatum populations. We sampled across 14 populations along a latitudinal gradient in Northern Alaska for population genomic studies. We also used comparative transcriptomics to determine variation in level of gene expression in common garden experiments for 6 ecotypes from across the range. Population genomic studies uncovered gene flow restrictions based on the northern limit for trees that is congruent with results recognizing north/south ecotypic differences. However, fine scale differences were not found that are congruent with home site advantage throughout the range. Samples of E. vaginatum in the high elevation Southeastern part of the range formed a unique cluster strongly differentiated from all other populations sampled. There is a clear historical disruption of gene flow at the tree-line boundary and potentially ecological limits. 1

University Of Texas At El Paso, Department Of Biology, 500 W. University Ave., Bioscience Bldg 2.120, El Paso, TX, 79968, USA2University of Texas at El Paso, Bioinformatics Program, 500 W. University Ave, El Paso, Texas, 79968, United States3Wilkes University, Institute for Environmental Science and Sustainability4Marine Biological Laboratory, The Ecosystems Center5University of Texas at El Paso, Biological Sciences, 500 W. University Ave, El Paso, Texas, 79968, United States

1

The University of Texas at Austin, Integrative biology, 1 University Station C0930, Austin, Texas, 78712, USA2The University of Texas at Austin, Integrative biology, 1 University Station, C0930, Austin, Texas, 78712, USA3University Of Texas At Austin, Section Of Integrative Biology, 2401 Speedway Blvd., Austin, TX, 78712, USA

407

HAYNSEN, MATTHEW* 1, VATANPARAST, MOHAMMAD 2, LUXIAN, LIU 3, CHENG-XIN, FU 4, CRANDALL, KEITH A. 5 and EGAN, ASHLEY N. 2

406

MOODY, MICHAEL LEE* 1, MOHL, JONATHON 2, FETCHER, NED 3, TANG, JIM 4 and STUNZ, ELIZABETH 5

Population Genetic Analysis of Invasive Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) throughout Asia and the United States

Population genomics and gene flow of the dominant arctic moist tundra sedge, tussock cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum), in the context of local adaptation and climate change

Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu), one of the most invasive plant species in the United States, is native to southeastern Asia. The twining vine was initially introduced into the United States from Japan during the Centennial Exposition in 1876 with subsequent mass introductions throughout the southeastern United States through the 1930s to 1950s. The native geographic origins of these introductions remain unknown, which poses a concern due to the wide native range of Pueraria montana, a species containing three recognized varieties that share overlapping ranges and delimiting morphological characteristics. It is possible that the invasiveness of kudzu found in the United States can be ascribed to not only admixture from geographically and genetically distinct populations of P. montana var. lobata, but hybridization among two or more varieties of P. montana. Only through the use of high resolution molecular markers on populations of P. montana across both its

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he arctic is facing some of the most extreme effects of global climate change, which could have long term consequences for the composition of its vegetation. Tussock cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum) is the dominant sedge in the moist tundra ecosystem of northern Alaska. Reciprocal transplant studies have shown home site advantage for flowering and survival along a north/south latitudinal gradient for this sedge. It has also been shown that southern ecotypes have high survival when moved north, whereas southern ecotypes are at a disadvantage when moved south. This may have consequences as northern populations face a rapidly

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native and introduced ranges will it be possible to identify the geographic and varietal sources of genetic diversity within introduced populations of invasive kudzu. In this study we used Genotyping-by-Sequencing, a next generation sequencing methodology, to assess the genetic variation of over 600 individuals of P. montana from China, Japan, Thailand, and the United States. Through the collection of thousands of SNPs per individual we assessed both the among and within nation genetic diversity, native and introduced range structuring of genotypes, and models of introduction pathways. 1

The George Washington University, Department of Biological Sciences, 2029 G St NW, Bell Hall, Room 302, Washington, DC, 20052, USA2National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, MRC 166, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC, 20013-7012, USA3Henan University, College of Life Sciences, Kaifeng, Henan, China4Lab Of Syst. & Evol. Botany And Biodiversity, Yuhangtang Road 866,, Hangzhou, N/A, 310058, China5The George Washington University, Computational Biology Institute, 45085 University Drive, Innovation Hall, Suite 305, Ashburn, VA, 20147, USA

408

ZUMWALDE, BETHANY A.* 1, PRATHER, L. ALAN 2, FERGUSON, CAROLYN J. 3 and FEHLBERG, SHANNON D 1

Fine-scale population genetic, morphological and ecological segregation of Phlox amabilis diploid and tetraploid cytotypes in a contact zone

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tudies of polyploidy and cytotype variation in Phlox have revealed widespread genome duplication between and within species. Our recent work has focused on the morphological, evolutionary, population genetic, and environmental niche differentiation of cytotypes in three diploid-polyploid complexes from the southwestern United States: Phlox amabilis, P. nana, and P. woodhousei. In P. amabilis, environmental niche modeling at a broad spatial scale indicates clear differentiation of habitat suitability and climatic variables for hexaploid cytotypes but considerable overlap between diploid and tetraploid cytotypes. Here we report on local cytotype distribution at a diploid-tetraploid contact zone in P. amabilis and on correlation of this distribution with genetic variation, morphology, and fine-scale ecological properties. Our overarching goal is to identify factors that contribute to environmental niche differentiation of ploidy levels. We documented broad-scale cytotype variation in P. amabilis across 28 sites using flow cytometry. At 27 of these sites, only a single cytotype was observed (with the exception of rare triploids found at three diploid sites) resulting in 16 diploid, six tetraploid, and five hexaploid sites. At the remaining site in Prescott National Forest in Arizona, diploids and tetraploids were found to co-occur. At this site, we gathered detailed information for 65 representative plants, including cytotype, genetic diversity at six microsatellite loci, morphological diversity, carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of leaves, and vegetation and soil attributes. In general, all analyses indicated finescale differentiation of diploid and tetraploid plants. Diploids and tetraploids were genetically distinct, with

nearly one third of observed alleles unique to each cytotype, supporting the hypothesis of secondary contact. Morphological characters differed across cytotypes for both vegetative and reproductive traits, potentially correlating with other observed differences. Carbon and nitrogen isotope concentrations were similar between cytotypes; however, the percentage of nitrogen was higher and the carbon to nitrogen ratio was lower for tetraploids, suggesting higher photosynthetic capacity. Four soil attributes differed between diploids and tetraploids, including nitrates, calcium, potassium, and pH. We interpret these results in the context of broader, regional cytotype distributions, genetic variation, soil attributes, and environmental niche modeling. The results presented here suggest that identification of genetic and ecological factors contributing to the spatial distribution of cytotypes at fine scales can improve our knowledge of the contributions of polyploidy to different aspects of diversity, evolution, and speciation. 1

Desert Botanical Garden, 1201 N. Galvin Pkwy., Phoenix, AZ, 85008, USA2Michigan State University, PLANT BIOLOGY, Plant Biology Laboratories, 612 Wilson Rd, Rm 48, East Lansing, MI, 48824-1312, USA3Kansas State University, Herbarium and Division of Biology, Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS, 66506, USA

409

SUTHERLAND, BRITTANY* and GALLOWAY, LAURA

Interploid reproductive isolation differs with cytotype in mixed-ploidy contact zones

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hole genome duplication often confers reproductive isolation between polyploids and their diploid progenitors. However, evidence suggests that reproductive isolation may be weaker among higherorder cytotypes than between diploids and tetraploids. If the magnitude of reproductive isolation varies with parental ploidy, related cytotypes may show different patterns of interploid reproduction and gene flow when occurring in sympatry. We assessed interploid reproductive isolation and gene flow in four mixedploidy contact zones throughout the distribution of the Campanula rotundifolia polyploid complex. We sampled leaf tissue from 30-125 individuals in each of two diploid-tetraploid contact zones, and two tetraploid-hexaploid contact zones. Each individual sampled was cytotyped via flow cytometry, and genotyped using microsatellite markers. In the diploid-tetraploid contact zones, only diploid and tetraploid individuals were recovered. However, in the tetraploid-hexaploid contact zones, pentaploid plants accounted for 35-42% percent of all sampled individuals, indicating that interploid reproduction was common between tetraploid and hexaploid populations. Furthermore, substantial genome size variation occurred between pentaploids and hexaploids, suggesting that backcrossing may be occurring between pentaploid hybrids and hexaploid parents. Microsatellite data confirmed little to no gene flow between diploid and tetraploid cytotypes, but suggested significant introgression between tetraploids and hexaploids. The marked difference in both cytotypic distribution and population structure in these two classes of interploid contact zones suggest that reproductive isolation is reduced in higher-order polyploids and may be per-

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Population Genetics/Genomics mitting more gene flow among polyploids than between diploids and polyploids. The presence of disparate patterns of gene flow within a polyploid complex suggests that divergence may be ploidy-specific, with greater divergence over time between diploids and polyploids than among polyploids. University of Virginia, Biology, 229 Gilmer Hall, 485 McCormick Road, P.O. Box 400328, Charlottesville, VA, 22903, USA

410

POSTERS 411 MARY V.

JINGA, PERCY* 1 and ASHLEY,

2

Elevation between Afzelia quanzensis (pod mahogany) populations in Zimbabwe promotes genetic differentiation

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CULLEY, THERESA M* 1, TUNISON, ROBERT 2 and KEPHART, SUSAN R 3

When "Missing Data" has Biological Relevance in Microsatellite Studies Conducted Across Multiple Species

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raditional population genetic studies with microsatellite markers typically have focused on populations of a single species, using primers developed exclusively for that taxon. However, increasing numbers of genetic studies today take primers developed in one taxon and use those in related species or genera. As a first step in these studies, researchers often test multiple sets of primers from different published papers for cross-amplification success across the different focal taxa. Only those primers that amplify consistently across taxa are typically selected for the final genetic investigation. But is this the correct approach? Is there any value to other primer sets discarded because of inconsistent amplification? We suggest here that there may be cases in which these primers with "missing data" may actually contain biologically relevant information. Using examples from our research with multiple species and populations of Camassia across the U.S., as well as multiple populations of Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stillgrass), we show that the consistent absence of microsatellite bands within some populations or species is genetically relevant and can be used in certain genetic analyses. Consequently we recommend that investigators carefully consider what microsatellite primer pairs they include (or discard) in analyses among different species or across multiple populations of a widespread or genetically variable species. 1

University Of Cincinnati, Department Of Biological Sciences, 614 Rieveschl Hall, Cincinnati, OH, 45221-0006, USA2University of Cincinnati, Biological Sciences, 614 Rieveschl Hall, Cincinnati, OH, 45221-0006, USA3WILLAMETTE UNIVERSITY, Department Of Biology, SALEM, OR, 97301, USA

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ountain ranges may isolate plant populations, and allow genetic drift and natural selection to act at a local level. The Kalahari-Zimbabwe (KZ) axis is a mountain range that developed across the middle part of Zimbawe. Low altitude plant species, such as Afzelia quanzensis, are separated into northern and southern distributions by the KZ axis. The aims of this study were to determine genetic structure of A. quanzensis, an economically important tree species in sub-Saharan Africa, and to identify whether the KZ axis is a barrier to gene flow. Ten microsatellite loci were used to genotype 192 samples of A. quanzensis collected from nine sites. Population differentiation statistics, FST, G“ST, GST, and DJOST, were estimated. Bayesian cluster analysis and PCA were used to detect distinct gene pools, while a Monmonier“s function was used to identify genetic barriers. Approximate Bayesian computation was used to determine time since divergence of distinct gene pools. Significant genetic differentiation was observed; FST = 0.0936, G“ST = 0.1982, GST = 0.1001, DJOST = 0.0598. Bayesian cluster analysis and PCA identified two gene pools, one made up of southern individuals, amd the other of northern individuals. A genetic barrier coincided with the KZ axis. The gene pools started to diverge more than 120 000 years ago. The KZ axis is a genetic barrier between A. quanzensis populations. Local genetic resource management programs should take into consideration the existence of the different gene pools in order to capture all the extant genetic variation. 1

University of Illinois at Chicago, Biological Sciences Department, 845 W. Taylor St., Chicago, IL, USA2University Of Illinois At Chicago, 845 W. Taylor St., Chicago, IL, 60607, USA


412

CHAUDHRY, SHAZAD and OBAE, SAMUEL*

414

Genetic Diversity of Aronia melanocarpa Germplasm Accessions Based on Novel Microsatellite Markers

Local adaptation to the environment drives genetic variation among populations of an herbaceous plant

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U

ecent research reports about the health benefits of Aronia juice has sparked worldwide interest in Aronia fruit. As such, breeding efforts to develop superior cultivars of Aronia for commercial cultivation in the U.S. are underway. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of Aronia melanocarpa accessions currently maintained in the Aronia germplasm collection at the University of Connecticut. Forty eight accessions were analyzed at 7 microsatellites loci. A total of 75 alleles were generated, of which 99% were polymorphic. Only 5 of the 48 accessions evaluated were genetically similar. Cumulatively, this implies that substantial genetic diversity exists among the germplasm accessions to support Aronia breeding. Stevenson University, Biology, 11200 Ted Herget Way, Owings Mills, MD, 21117, USA

JOINES, JASON PAUL* 1, DEWALT, SAARA J. and WALKER, JOAN L. 2 1

nderstanding the mechanisms responsible for genetic variation within species is an important topic in ecology and evolution. One mechanism that may drive genetic variation within species is adaptation to environmental conditions. As a first step toward understanding this topic, we examined genetic variation in populations of the herbaceous plant Tephrosia virginiana (Fabaceae). We selected populations from different ecoregions that are delimited in part by differences in climate and soils. If local adaptation is promoting genetic differentiation, variation among populations in different ecoregions will be greater than variation between populations within ecoregions. Our results show that genetic variation among populations of Tephrosia virginiana does mirror ecoregion geography suggesting that local adaptation to the environment promotes genetic differentiation within this species.

1

413

OBAE, SAMUEL* 1, BRAND, MARK 2, CONNOLLY, BRYAN 3, BEASLEY, ROCHELLE 4 and LANCE, STACEY 5

Clemson University, Department of Biological Sciences, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC, 29634, USA2United States Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 233 Lehotsky Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634, USA

Microsatellite markers for Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) and their transferability to other Aronia species

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his study reports the development, characterization, and cross-species transferability of 20 genomic microsatellite markers for Aronia melanocarpa, an important nutraceutical fruit crop. The markers were developed with Illumina paired-end genomic sequencing technology using DNA from Professor Ed cultivar that was originally collected from the wild in New Hampshire, USA. The markers were highly polymorphic and transferable to A. arbutifolia and A. prunifolia genomes. The average number of alleles per locus was 9.1, 4.5, and 5.6 for A. melanocarpa, A. arbutifolia and A. prunifolia, respectively. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of loci ranged from 0.38 to 0.95 for all taxa, with an average of 0.80, 0.68, and 0.87 for A. melanocarpa, A. arbutifolia and A. prunifolia, respectively. This is the first study to develop microsatellite markers in the Aronia genus. These markers will be very useful in studying the genetic diversity and population structure of wild Aronia and expediting the breeding efforts of this emerging fruit crop through marker-assisted selection. 1

Stevenson University, Biology, 11200 Ted Herget Way, Owings Mills, MD, 21117, USA2University of Connecticut, Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, 1390 Storrs Road, Storrs, CT, 062694065, USA3Framingham State University, Biology, 100 State Street, Framingham, MA, 01701-9101, USA4University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC, 298025University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC, 29802, USA

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Population Genetics/Genomics 415

THAPA, RAMHARI* 1, BAYER, RANDALL 2 and MANDEL, JENNIFER R. 3

Development of Microsatellite Markers in Antennaria (Asteraceae) Using Genomic Data

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ntennaria is a peculiar genus of the tribe Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae) with features such as polyploidy, sexual dimorphism, gametophytic apomixis etc. The genus mainly has a Holarctic distribution unlike most of the other members of the Tribe Gnaphalieae which are prevalent in South America, Southern Africa and Australia. It is a moderate size genus of about 40 recognized species divided into basal Leontipes and advanced Catipes groups, with the members of Catipes groups giving rise to at least five polyploid agamic complexes by intense hybridization and backcrossing. Antennaria rosea is one of the most morphologically diverse polyploidy agamic complexes sharing similar morphology with eight putative Antennaria parents: A.aromatica, A. corymbosa, A. microphylla, A. marginata, A. pulchella, A. rosulata, A. racemosa, and A. umbrinella. In this study, genomic data previously obtained by sequencing more than 1000 nuclear Conserved Ortholog Set (COS) loci for the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationship among recognized Antennaria species and also sequence data produced by enrichment of Antennaria SSR loci were used to develop SSR markers to investigate polyploid origin and patterns of clonal diversity in the A. rosea species. Sequence data from COS loci and SSR enriched loci for the eight putative Antennaria parents were first aligned using MAFFT in the Geneious software platform and the SSR search tool, PHOBOS, was used to locate possible repeat regions, which were then selected based on differences in the number of repeats seen in the alignment. Similarly, SSR loci were also searched in the partially assembled chloroplast data from the off-target reads of COS loci. Sixteen primer pairs were developed, seven pairs from nuclear COS loci, four pairs from SSR enriched loci, and five pairs from chloroplast assembled data, and tested for amplification. All the primer pairs, except one from the nuclear COS loci, amplified for the putative A. rosea parents as well as a few tested A. rosea populations. 1

University of Memphis, 3700 Walker Avenue, Memphis, TN, 38152, United States2University of Memphis, 3700 Walker Avenue , Memphis, TN, 38152, United States3University Of Memphis, 3744 Walker Ave, Memphis, TN, 38152, USA

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416

RODIGUEZ, ROSA* 1, BASTARDO, RUTH 2, MANZUETA, KATHERINE 2 , FERNÁNDEZ, JOSUE 2, CARRERAS, ROSANNA 3 and KRON, PAUL 4

Population Genetics and Pollinator Ecology of Vaccinium in the Dominican Republic

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he Caribbean Islands Hotspot is one of the most diverse places in the world; however, many species face a high risk of extinction due to human activity. Vaccinium ekmanii, the only endemic species of the genus Vaccinium in Dominican Republic, is critically endangered and restricted to small populations in the Cordillera Central as a result of urban expansion. In contrast, Vaccinium racemosum is a native species with widespread distribution. Our main objective is to compare the genetic diversity of both species and determine whether pollinators have influenced their genetic structure. Seven populations (three V. ekmanii and four V. racemosum) were sampled; including 174 DNA samples, isolation of 46 inflorescences (830 flowers), and collection of 200 seeds. We have identified different visitors for each species. Vaccinium ekmanii is mostly visited by honey bees (Apis mellifera). Vaccinium racemosum is visited by hummingbirds (Chlorostilbon swainsonii) and bananaquits (Coereba flaveola). Both species of Vaccinium are self-compatible but the selfing rate is significantly low; which means that both species depend on pollinators to produce seeds. Population genetics analyses are based on eight microsatellite loci previously designed. Our results suggest that both species have low level of genetic diversity, but genetic differentiation is moderate probably due to the homogenizing effect of pollinators. Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation have reduced population size and as a consequence the genetic diversity of both species. 1

The Ohio State University, Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology , Aronoff Laboratory 456, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA2Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, Instituto de Investigaciones Botánicas y Zoológicas, Santo Domingo, 10205, Dominican Republic3Instituto de Tecnológico de Santo Domingo, Area de Ciencias Básicas y Ambientales, Santo Domingo, 10205, Dominican Republic4Wake Forest University, Department Of Biology, 1834 Wake Forest Road, WINSTON-SALEM, NC, 27106, USA


418

KAO, TZU-TONG* 1, FREUND, FORREST D 2, ROTHFELS, CARL 3, WINDHAM, MICHAEL D. 4 and PRYER, KATHLEEN 5

Pteridology ORAL PAPERS 417

1

HOOPER, ELISABETH A* , YATSKIEVYCH, GEORGE 2, HUIET, LAYNE 3 , PRYER, KATHLEEN 4 and WINDHAM, MICHAEL D. 5

The current status of Aleuritopteris (Pteridaceae) based on recent molecular analyses.

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ecent molecular phylogenetic studies identified seven major lineages within cheilanthoid ferns (Pteridaceae, subfamily Cheilanthoideae). The largest of these is the hemionitid clade which includes more than 60% of the approximately 500 cheilanthoid species. Although several well-supported clades have been identified within the hemionitids, relationships among them remain poorly resolved. One particularly problematic lineage is Aleuritopteris Fée and its relatives. Unlike most hemionitids, which are New World in distribution, the ca. 40 species in Aleuritopteris are most diverse in Indo-Himalayan Asia. There are no known morphological synapomorphies that define Aleuritopteris; Fée emphasized the presence of farina, yet several members are not farinose. Many Aleuritopteris species have had a tumultuous taxonomic history, being placed in Allosorus, Cheilanthes, Cheilosoria, Leptolepidium, Mildella, Negripteris, or Sinopteris by different authors. To better understand relationships within Aleuritopteris and its phylogenetic position within the hemionitids, we conducted an analysis using three plastid gene markers (rbcL, atpA, and trnGR). Our preliminary results identify monophyletic species clusters, but with little resolution across the deeper nodes. Difficulties in circumscribing genera in this group appear to involve relatively recent and rapid diversification events that likely obscure older, deeper relationships. New molecular data, including nuclear markers, as well as renewed attention to cytology and morphology may provide new insights leading to a workable generic classification system for Aleuritopteris and other hemionitid ferns. 1

Truman State University, 100 E Normal Ave, Kirksville, Missouri, 63501-4200, United States2University of Texas at Austin, Plant Reources Center, Austin, Texas, 78712-1711, USA3Duke University, Herbarium, Durham, NC, 27707, USA4Duke University, Science Drive, Durham, NC, 27708-0338, USA5DUKE UNIVERSITY, Department Of Biology, BOX 90338, DURHAM, NC, 27708, USA

Low-copy nuclear data for notholaenid ferns (Pteridaceae) corroborate plastid phylogeny over traditional morphological groupings

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otholaenids are an unusual group of ferns that have adapted to, and diversified within, the deserts of Mexico and the southwestern United States. With approximately 40 species, this group is noted for being desiccation-tolerant and consistently expressing farina across both phases of the life cycle: usually producing farina on the abaxial surface of its sporophytic leaves and along the edges of its gametophytic thallus. The farinose condition is thought to reduce water loss from transpiration and help the plants cope with excessive solar irradiation. The most recent circumscription of notholaenids is based on three plastid markers and is surprisingly incongruent with traditional groupings based on morphology. For example, two small clades, which are well-nested within notholaenids, comprise taxa never before associated with Notholaena. They differ from Notholaena by having a prominent false indusium and lacking farinose gametophytes. Furthermore, two taxa lack sporophytic farina as well, whereas the other two have chalcone-rich farinas rarely observed among notholaenids. Our aim was to assess whether the incongruities noted between the plastid phylogeny and traditional morphology-based classifications were supported by sequence data from unlinked, low-copy nuclear data. Here, we present results from four nuclear markers (~1kb each) for 65 samples (15 outgroups, and 50 notholaenids--including 33 out of the 38 recognized species), obtained using PacBio’s SMRT Sequencing (Sequel platform). The sequence data were sorted to different loci and alleles using the PURC Pipeline, and a species tree was inferred using ALLOPPNET implemented in BEAST. The results from our analyses are reassuringly congruent with those from the plastid data. In addition, they provide novel evidence that resolves the hybrid origin of several polyploids, and provide a solid phylogenetic basis for examining character evolution within this clade. In particular, the robust phylogenetic placement of the Notholaena standleyi species group, validates current plans to use this subclade as a model system for examining the function and evolutionary significance of farina in desert-adapted ferns. 1

Duke University, Biology, Box 90338, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708, USA2U.C. Berkeley, Integrative Biology, 3040 Valley Life Sciences Building #3140, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3140, USA3University of California Berkeley, University Herbarium and Dept. of Integrative Biology, Berkeley, CA, 94720-2465, USA4DUKE UNIVERSITY, Department Of Biology, BOX 90338, DURHAM, NC, 27708, USA5Duke University, Science Drive, Durham, NC, 27708-0338, USA

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Pteridology 419

SIRIMALWATTA, V.N.S.* 1, MORDEN, C. W. 2, RANKER, T. A. 2, SUNDUE, M.A. 3, CHEN, CHEN-WEI 4 and KUO, LIYAUNG 5

Phylogenetic Relations within the Grammitid ORT Clade (Polypodiaceae)

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rammitids are a monophyletic group of ferns within the family Polypodiaceae. It is a species-rich group with ca. 900 species (nearly a two-thirds of Polypodiaceae) among 33 genera. Species of grammitids are widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics at high elevations. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on five chloroplast genes have found strong support for the delimitation of many grammitid clades that are recognized as previously identified or newly named genera. However, relationships among Oreogrammitis, Radiogrammitis, and Themelium (the ORT clade), however, have not been clearly resolved. The species of ORT form a large clade where Radiogrammitis and Oreogrammitis species are polyphyletic with respect to each other and Themelium is monophyletic but nested within the larger cladeRadiogrammitis. The current study was conducted to reanalyze the phylogenic relationships among species treated in ORT clade using nuclear genes. We reexamined the phylogeny of species in the ORT clade using a three-nuclear gene character matrix of 2277bp. The genes used in the study were IBR3 Short, PgiC and SQD1a. The genes are presented here as phylogenetic markers for grammitids for the first time. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred among 45 species in the ORT clade (~25% of the total known species diversity) using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference. Both ML and Bayesian optimal trees had similar topologies. ML tree had more resolved relationships with low bootstrap support. Overall the Phylogenetic relationships of the most taxa used in this study were resolved. The ingroup consisted of two clades; a small clade with two species of Radiogrammitis (R. havilandii and R. beddomeana) and large clade that included the other ORT species and that continued to show a polyphyletic relationship among genera. The majority of Oreogrammitis species formed sub-clades within the large clade of ORT but no Radiogrammitis sub-clades were resolved. Except for four accessions of Themelium yoderi, the other Themelium species formed a monophyletic group within the large clade of Oreogrammitis and Radiogrammitis. This study provided additional support for the polyphyly of the genera Oreogrammitis, Radiogrammitis, and Themelium. To further resolve the phylogenetic relationships of these closely related species of the ORT clade we are exploring rapidly evolving nuclear genes such as ITS, LEAFY, and additional chloroplast markers.

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KUO, LI-YAUNG* 1, TANG, TEYEN , CHIOU, WEN-LIANG 3, LI, FAYWEI 1, HUANG, YAO-MOAN 2 and WANG, CHUN-NENG 4 2

Organelle genome inheritances in Deparia ferns (Athyriaceae, Aspleniineae, Polypodiales)

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rganelle genome inheritances of land plants are very diverse in that they can be inherited maternally but also paternally or biparentally. Despite much being known in seed plants (> 83% genera of angiosperm and > 12% genera of gymnosperms), organelle genome inheritances have only been investigated in fewer than 2% of fern genera. Besides, inheritance of mitochondrial genome has been investigated only in one fern genus. This study aims on broadening knowledge of organelle genome inheritances in ferns by understanding this from an additional and uninvestigated lineage. We examined organelle genome inheritances of both plastid and mitochondrion in Deparia ferns (Athyriaceae, Aspleniineae, Polypodiales) using a new and efficient approach to investigate organelle DNA transmission in infra-specific crosses and inter-specific hybrids. In practice, we first cultured a spore mixture of two individuals of the diploid D. lancea, and then sequenced their organelle genomes in order to find pDNA (plastid DNA) and mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) as genetic markers tracing organelle DNA transmission. To confirm the maternal parent of the newly generated sporophytes, we genotyped each of their attached gametophytes with the aid of tissue-direct PCR; and the identity of their paternal parents was verified by genotyping the nuclear locus, IBR3. Next, to examine whether or not both organelle genomes have a same inheritance way in Deparia inter-species hybrids, we sequenced both pDNA and mtDNA regions of nine D. Ă&#x2014;tomitaroana individuals, and performed phylogenies using these regions in order to identify the origins of organelle DNA in these hybrids. In sum, the evidences from our experiments and analyses support that both organelle genomes in Deparia are uniparentally and maternally inherited. Most importantly, our study is the first one reporting mtDNA inheritance in eupolypod ferns, and the second one among all ferns.

1 Boyce Thompson Institute, USA2Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taiwan3Dr. Cecilia Koo Botanic Conservation Center, Taiwan4 Department of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taiwan

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East-West Center, 1601 Eat-West Road, Honolulu, HI, 968482University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 3190 Maile Way, Room 101, Honolulu, HI, 968223Pringle Herbarium, Department of Plant Biology, University of Vermont, 27 Colchester Avenue, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA4Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taiwan5 Boyce Thompson Institute, USA

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A sequence-capture approach to multilocus nuclear phylogenetics of ferns

Inferring the evolution of corm lobation in Isoëtes using Bayesian model-averaged ancestral state reconstruction

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ROTHFELS, CARL* 1, SUNDUE, MICHAEL A. 2, TESTO, WESTON L. 3 and WOLF, PAUL G. 4

he vast majority of molecular phylogenetic studies in ferns have been based on chloroplast genes; only a handful have used data from nuclear genes. These plastid-based analyses have made great contributions to our knowledge of fern phylogeny, however, information is still lost in uniparentally inherited characters compared to those that are biparentally inherited. To facilitate nuclear-phylogenetic studies in ferns, we have developed a targeted sequence capture approach to gather data from 25 nuclear genes across 24 species from across the fern tree of life. We designed 19,863 120-bp baits, excluding chloroplast sequences, simple repeats, and low-complexity DNA. We sequenced the captured targets using paired-end MiSeq 250 bp reads. Across the 24 samples sequenced we generated contigs of an average total length of 134,537 bp per sample. Although the baits were designed entirely from exon (transcript) data, we successfully captured intronic regions that should be useful for shallower phylogenetic studies. We present phylogenetic analyses of the new target sequence capture data and integrate this into previous transcript-based analyses. We also make our bait sequences available to the community as a resource for further studies of fern phylogeny based on nuclearencoded genes. 1

University of California Berkeley, University Herbarium and Dept. of Integrative Biology, Berkeley, CA, 94720-2465, USA2111 Jeffords Hall, 63 Carrigan Dr., Burlington, VT, 05405, USA3University of Vermont4Utah State University, Department Of Biology, 5305 OLD MAIN HILL, Logan, UT, 84322-5305, USA

FREUND, FORREST D* , FREYMAN, WILLIAM and ROTHFELS, CARL

he isoetalean lycophytes are among some of the oldest lineages of extant land plants. While the single contemporary genus, Isoetes L., is a highly reduced and apparently simple plant, the extensive fossil history of this lineage shows that these plants were once far more elaborate, and included complex arborescent forms. However, over evolutionary time, they have undergone serial reduction, resulting in their current diminutive state. This reduction is hypothesized to have continued to the present, with extant Isoetes showing a highly reduced number of basal, root-producing meristems (the number of meristems determines the lobation corm pattern). Using the most recently published Isoetes phylogeny in conjunction with Bayesian model-averaged ancestral state inference, we tested the hypothesis of this evolutionary reduction by reconstructing the history of corm lobation evolution that led to the extant members of the genus. U.C. Berkeley, Integrative Biology, 3040 Valley Life Sciences Building #3140, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3140, USA

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VASCO, ALEJANDRA* 1 and AMBROSE, BARBARA A. 2

Leaf evolution and development: building better models from fern leaf diversity

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he evolution and development of leaves is a question that has intrigued botanists for over two centuries. Evolutionary developmental studies are providing crucial data that is allowing researchers to revise theories of how leaves evolve and develop, moving forward this long-term debate. Ferns constitute an interesting lineage of plants to study leaf development, not only because of its phylogenetic crucial position as the sister group of seed plants, but also because within the ferns there might be several origins and different mechanisms for leaf development. Comparative studies within ferns and between ferns, angiosperms, and lycophytes are helping to untangle the intricate evolutionary history of ferns in light of their leaf developmental network. In this talk we will show what we have learnt from our studies in three leaf developmental modules in ferns: Class III HD Zips, Class I KNOXs, and KANADIs. We will also explore what we could learn about fern leaf evolution and development by studying the rest of the genes involved in the leaf developmental network. Studies of ferns with diverse leaf morphologies and studies of model organisms, will be instrumental to build better models to understand the intricate relationships of ferns and the evolution and development of their leaves, which might involve more than a single story. 1

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Biología, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, A.P. 70-367, Mexico City, 04510, Mexico2The New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern Blvd., Bronx, NY, 10458, USA

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Reproductive Processes

GOODWILLIE, CAROL* 1, BURCH, JACOB 2, STILLER, JOHN 3 and BREWER, MICHAEL 4

ORAL PAPERS

Changes in gene expression with floral age in stigmas of a species with transient selfincompatibility

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KARRON, JEFFREY DAVID* 1, MITCHELL, RANDALL 2 and WHITEHEAD, MICHAEL 3

Ecological and evolutionary mechanisms for among-population variation in plant mating systems

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elf-fertilization is prevented in many plant species by self-incompatibility, a genetic mechanism by which plants recognize and reject their own pollen. Self-incompatibility (SI) has evolved independently in multiple angiosperm lineages, but only a few systems have been studied at molecular or physiological levels. In particular, sporophytic SI, in which the pollen recognition phenotype is determined by the diploid genotype of the pollen parent, has been well characterized only in the Brassicaceae. Multiple distinct forms of SI have been reported in the Polemoniaceae family, including a sporophytic SI system in Leptosiphon, but nothing is known of the molecular basis of these systems. Leptosiphon jepsonii, a California annual, exhibits an unusual, transient form of SI in which flowers initially reject self-pollen but become capable of selfing after one or two days. This rapid functional transition provides an opportunity to use changes in stigma gene expression to identify proteins that may be important in either the self-incompatibility mechanism or in the developmental shift to selfing in older flowers. Here we report the findings of a preliminary RNA seq analysis of stigma tissues in flowers at day one and day three of anthesis, replicated across plants of three populations. Significant differences in gene expression were found for 68 mRNA sequences, of which some were upregulated and some downregulated in older flowers. Some of these appear to be novel, with no homologous sequences reported to date in other plant species. Ongoing analysis will characterize mRNA sequences to gain insights into gene expression in stigmas, flower senescence, and selfincompatibility mechanisms.

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lassical genetic models predict that disruptive selection on outcrossing rate will cause mixed-mating to be rare and transitory. To more fully characterize the extent of among-population variation in outcrossing, we surveyed all published microsatellite and allozyme studies reporting multilocus outcrossing rates (tm) for three or more natural populations of hermaphroditic Angiosperms. Our dataset includes tm values for 753 populations from 105 species. These taxa are distributed across 43 families and 80 genera. Many of the species in our survey exhibit substantial among-population variation in outcrossing rate. For 32 / 105 species the range between the lowest and highest tm was > 0.3. Nearly two-thirds of all species have at least one mixed-mating population. Given this marked variation among populations, there is a critical need for studies that explore how both ecological context and heritable differences in floral traits influence mating system phenotypes. For mating systems to evolve, there must be heritable variation for mating system traits within natural populations. However, nearly all studies estimate outcrossing rates for entire populations, rather than for individuals, due to violations of assumptions about the local pollen pool and statistical limitation of the maximum likelihood procedure. However, if there is sufficient genetic variation at marker loci to facilitate unambiguous paternity assignment to all sampled offspring, it is possible to quantify individual outcrossing rates, and to explore relationships between outcrossing rate, siring success, and pollen discounting. We are using this approach to characterize individual variation in outcrossing rates within and among populations of Mimulus ringens, a wetland perennial native to eastern North America. By clonally replicating genets and exposing them to different ecological contexts, we can explore how changes in the pollination environment influence the pattern of selection on the mating system. We are complementing these experimental studies with studies of natural populations that address whether rates of selfing and levels of inbreeding depression correlate with natural variation in ecological context and floral display.

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EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY, Department Of Biology, Mail Stop 551, GREENVILLE, NC, 27858, USA2East Carolina University, Biology, Greenville, NC, 278583East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, 27858, USA4East Carolina University, Biology, Greenville, NC, 27858, USA

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University Of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Department Of Biological Sciences, PO BOX 413, MILWAUKEE, WI, 53201, USA2UNIVERSITY OF AKRON, Department Of Biology, Department Of Biology, AKRON, OH, 44325-3908, USA3University of Melbourne, School of BioSciences, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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KLAHS, PHILLIP* 1, HSU, MING2 CHEN , HERREMA, AUSTIN 2 and CLARK, LYNN 1

A Quantitative Assessment of Floral Aerodynamics in the Wind Pollinated Grass Panicum virgatum (Poaceae: Panicoideae)

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hile the evolutionary history of flowering plants is closely tied to animal pollinators, anemophilous angiosperms have foregone this dependence to disperse pollen via air currents. The grass family (Poaceae) is the largest plant family to employ anemophily as a primary means of sexual reproduction. The unique inflorescences of grasses are composed of subunits known as spikelets, and both inflorescences and spikelets exhibit forms arguably well adapted to the function of wind pollination. To quantify interactions between the morphological architecture of spikelets and the fluid dynamics of air, potentially carrying pollen, a 3D model of a grass spikelet was created using computer assisted design (CAD) software and placed in a virtual wind tunnel. Panicum virgatum was chosen as the first species to model. The spikelets of Panicum virgatum are arranged in a diffuse panicle, and contain the standard bracts associated with the grass flower (lower glume, upper glume, lemma and palea). Simulations of fluid flow dynamics over the surface of the Panicum spikelet revealed regions of differential pressures associated with the placements of stigmas. Efficiency of pollen entrapment was analyzed using Lagrangian specification methods. In order to address phylogenetic questions of spikelet evolution additional species of grasses, including examples with awns or multiple florets, will be modelled using these methods in the future. Additional aerodynamic simulations and morphometric comparisons among species will permit questions about the biomechanical properties and ecological success of the grass family.

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Iowa State University, Department Of Ecology, Evolution, And Organismal Biology, 251 Bessey Hall, Ames, IA, 50011-1020, USA2Iowa State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ames, IA, 50011, United States

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SHAY, KIMBERLY* 1 and DRAKE, DONALD 2

The pollination and reproductive biology of Jacquemontia sandwicensis

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ative plants of Hawaii have received little attention regarding their basic ecology and pollination biology. As human impacts on island systems increase, so, too does the importance of understanding native speciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; life histories and population dynamics for plant conservation. The breeding system and pollinator observations were assessed for the native coastal vine Jacquemontia sandwicensis (Convolvulaceae), a common plant in the coastal strand habitat. To evaluate the breeding system of this plant, field and lab experiments involving natural and hand pollination treatments were performed, as well as pollinator observations in 3 coastal

sites of the southeast coast of Oahu. J. sandwicensis is a hermaphroditic species with a flexible, mixed mating system. High fruit set, seed set, and germinating seeds depend on pollen being deposited on the stigma by an active pollinator rather than a passive vector (wind or autogamy). However, this species still produces some seeds even in the absence of manipulation, suggesting it can reproduce when pollinators are absent or in low abundances. In the observed sites, this plant was visited by a variety of mostly non-native Hymenoptera (Apis mellifera and Lasioglossum spp.). Native Hylaeus anthracinus visited J. sandwicensis, but at much lower frequency than the non-native pollinators. Non-native pollinators appear to be effective pollinators for J. sandwicensis and could provide pollination services in the face of absent or declining native pollinators. 1

University of Hawaii at Manoa, Botany, 3190 Maile Way, Room 101, Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA2University Of Hawaii, Botany Department, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA

428 JUN 2

PAUDEL, BABU* 1 and LI, QING-

Pollination Ecology of Himalayan alpine ginger (Roscoea species) in Nepal Himalaya

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he genus Roscoea exhibits the suites of floral traits that would fit pollination by long tongued insects, but previous studies in North-Indochinese clades of Roscoea did not find any pollinators with long tongue that matches with the corolla tube of Roscoea. In this study, we hypothesized that selection by long tongued insect is one of the major driving forces for the evolution of long corolla tubed Roscoea from relatively shorter corolla tubed lineage. To test this hypothesis, we explored the pollination biology of five Himalayan Roscoea species (Roscoea alpina, R. auriculata, R. capitata, R. purpurea and R. tumjensis) that represent diverse floral morphology and phenology together with broad altitudinal distribution range within Himalayan clades of Roscoea. Moreover, based on the preliminary evidence of a long tongued fly as a specialized pollinator of R. purpurea, we made observational and experimental studies of natural selection and coevolution between R. purpurea and a long tongued fly (Philoliche longirostris) across the landscape in Nepal Himalayas. All Himalayan Roscoea species studied here are self-compatible but exhibit pollinator dependent breeding system. Except R. alpina which achieves autonomous selfing by the gradual shrinkage of style, rest four Roscoea species lack autonomous selfing. R. purpurea is pollinated by a specialized pollinator, Philoliche longirostris and thus exhibits specialized pollination system and avoids non specialized pollinator by hiding nectar deep inside the corolla tube so that only a long tongued fly can access the secure nectar. While rest of the Roscoea species depend upon generalized pollinators such as bumblebees (Bombus flavescens and B. haemorrhoidalis), a moth (Macroglossum nycteris), butterflies and even a beetle in the absence of a specialized pollinator. Our result also indicates that corolla length of R. purpurea and tongue length of P. longirostris show significant correlation and well-matched mechanical fit across landscape, in

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Reproductive Processes a manner consistent with the Darwinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hypothesis of reciprocal selection. This study provides some novel information on pollination biology of Roscoea species by discovering the yet unknown effective pollinators. Presence of highly specialized pollinator in R. purpurea (one of the ancestral Roscoea species) may indicate that Roscoea species are originally pollinated by long tongued flies. Moreover, finding of species specific reciprocal selection between corolla length of R. purpurea and proboscis length of P. longirostris suggests that selection by long tongued fly is one of the major driving forces for the evolution of long corolla tubed Roscoea species in the Himalayas. 1

Yunnan University, Lab of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 2# North Cui-Hu Road, Kunming, Yunnan, China2Yunnan University, Lab of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 2# North Cui-Hu Road, Kunming, China

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MILLER, JILL S.* 1, KAMATH, AMBIKA 2 and LEVIN, RACHEL ANN 1

Floral size and shape evolution following the transition to gender dimorphism

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loral morphology is expected to evolve following the transition from cosexuality to gender dimorphism in plants, as selection through male and female function becomes dissociated. Specifically, male-biased dimorphism in flower size can arise through selection for larger flowers through male function, selection for smaller flowers through female function, or both. The evolutionary pathway to floral dimorphism can be most effectively reconstructed in species with intraspecific variation in sexual system. We examined the evolution of flower size and shape in Lycium californicum, whose populations are either gender dimorphic with male and female plants, or cosexual with hermaphroditic plants. Floral morphology was characterized in populations spanning the speciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; complete range. For a subset of the range where cosexual and dimorphic populations are in close proximity, we compared the size and shape of flowers from female and male plants in dimorphic populations to hermaphrodites in cosexual populations, accounting for variation associated with abiotic environmental conditions. The magnitude of flower size dimorphism varied across dimorphic populations. After controlling for environmental variation across cosexual and dimorphic populations, flowers on males were larger than flowers on females and hermaphrodites, whereas flower size did not differ between females and hermaphrodites. Flower shape differences were associated with mating type, sexual system, and environmental variation. While abiotic environmental gradients shape both overall flower size and shape, male-biased flower size dimorphism in L. californicum appears to arise through selection for larger flowers in males but not smaller flowers in females.

430

GREENBERG, KIMBERLY* 1, LEVIN, RACHEL ANN 2 and MILLER, JILL S. 2

Gender dimorphism, polyploidy, and evolutionary affinities of Lycium australe (Solanaceae)

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ycium australe (Solanaceae) is the only endemic Lycium species in Australia, with a large geographical distribution spanning four states across the southern parts of the country. Despite its prevalence, L. australe has not been thoroughly characterized regarding its evolutionary provenance. Interestingly, preliminary field observations also suggested that gender dimorphism may be present in this species. Within Lycium, gender dimorphism appears to have arisen multiple times, and polyploidy is tightly correlated with gender dimorphism, both within and among species. Thus, the primary goals of this study were to identify the closest relative(s) of L. australe and document gender dimorphism in this species. Additionally, given the established association between dimorphism and polyploidy within Lycium, we used flow cytometry to infer ploidy across the entire range of L. australe. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using traditional chloroplast and nuclear sequence data as well as Restriction-Site-Associated-DNA sequencing (RADseq). Although plastid data separates L. australe into two clades, nuclear and RAD-seq data support L. australe as monophyletic. In addition, RAD-seq data provide strong support for L. horridum, a southern African species, as the closest relative to L. australe, suggesting a single dispersal event from southern Africa to Australia. Across the range of L. australe, male, female, and hermaphroditic plants were identified based on floral measurements and the presence or absence of pollen. Specifically, individuals in one plastid lineage (restricted to Western Australia) are either male (lack style and stigma) or female (lack pollen) and are exclusively polyploid (either tetraploid or hexaploid). By contrast, individuals within the other plastid lineage (located throughout southern Australia) are either female or hermaphrodite and either diploid or polyploid. Thus, Lycium australe provides one of only two known exceptions to the correlation between gender dimorphism and polyploidy within the genus and serves as a valuable model for understanding the evolution of dimorphism in Lycium.

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Amherst College, Biology, McGuire Life Sciences Building, Amherst, MA, 01002, USA2Amherst College, Department Of Biology, McGuire Life Sciences Building, Amherst, MA, 01002, USA

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Amherst College, Department Of Biology, McGuire Life Sciences Building, Amherst, MA, 01002, USA2Harvard University, Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA

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PRATT, DONALD B.* 1