Science Laboratory - Grade 8 - Preview

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SCIENCE LABORATORY

LABORATORY

Educational Bootcamp

LABORATORY grade 8

www.educationalbootcamp.net Tel. 305-423-1999 Fax. 305-423-1132 GRADE 8

Hands-on activities addressing specific benchmarks as required by the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards for Science.

EDUCATIONAL BOOTCAMP


THE LABORATORY ACTIVITY BOOKLET INCLUDES: 

Labs – complete experiments that walk students through the process of the scientific method.

Lab Forms – helps students define their specific role in the group and record notes accordingly.

Lab Team Response Form – a handy worksheet to be completed by student groups at the conclusion of the lab.

Lab Report Rubric – a precise way to measure group performance on the scientific method.

Connecting the Process Skills – provides a reminder of questions to ask each group after the lab.

The Science Section of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment 2.0 Test is based on the Next Generation Sunshine Standards The Science FCAT 2.0 evaluates students’ knowledge of scientific processes/content. Students must be able to analyze and apply these principles in order to demonstrate scientific understanding. The Science FCAT 2.0 is adapted from Florida’s Next Generation Sunshine State Standard benchmarks that encompass specific concepts involving several Big Ideas. Among these concepts are items involving four clusters: Nature of science, Life Science, Physical Science and Earth & Space Science.

Science Boot Camp Laboratory Activities Booklet Grades 6-8 Publisher: J & J Educational Boot Camp Content Development: J & J Educational Boot Camp Senior Editor: Chantel Styles Cover Design: Doris Araujo, Inc. Copyright © 2011 by J & J Educational Boot Camp J & J Educational Boot Camp P.O. Box 824221 Pembroke Pines, Florida 33082 All rights reserved. This publication may be reproduced for classroom use only.

Printed in the United States of America ISBN: 0-85-8343007 10 9 8 7 6 5

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TABLE OF CONTENTS FLORIDA CODE SC.8.N.1.1 SC.8.N.1.2 SC.8.N.1.1 SC.8.N.1.1 SC.8.N.1.2 SC.8.N.1.5 SC.8.N.3.2 SC.8.E.5.1 SC.8.E.5.6 SC.8.E.5.4 SC.8.E.5.9 SC.7.E.6.2 SC.7.E.7.2 SC.7.E.6.3 SC.7.E.6.5 SC.6.E.7.2 SC.6.E.7.5 SC.8.P.8.3 SC.8.P.8.1 SC.8.P.8.8 SC.8.P.9.1 SC.8.P.10.1 SC.7.P.10.2 SC.7.P.11.2 SC.6.P.13.1 SC.6.L.14.1 SC.6.L.14.2 SC.6.L.14.4 SC.6.L.14.5 SC.6.L.14.6 SC.6.L.15.1 SC.7.L.15.1 SC.7.L.16.1 SC.7.L.17.3

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION CONNECTING THE PROCESS SKILLS TYPES OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD MAGNETIC RACER PENNY PENDULUM AIR POLLUTION THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS MEASURING STAR DISTANCE THE STRUCTURE OF THE SUN GRAVITY AND ORBITING PLANETS SOLAR AND LUNAR ECLIPSES DEMONSTRATING THE ROCK CYCLE RIVER EROSION RADIOACTIVE DECAY PLATE TECTONICS THE WATER CYCLE GLOBAL WIND PATTERNS DENSITY OF SOLIDS CONSTRUCTING ATOMS IDENTIFYING ACIDS AND BASES CONSERVATION OF MASS CONSTRUCTING A SPECTROSCOPE THE REFLECTION OF LIGHT WAVES ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS ELECTROMAGNET CHICKEN LEG DISSECTION PLANT AND ANIMAL CELL INVESTIGATIONS SCHOOL HOUSE CELL CONNECTION BREATHE IN, BREATHE OUT GAS PRODUCTION BY YEAST CLAY FOSSILS SEPERATING DNA FROM LIVING THINGS LIGHT AND OXYGEN PRODUCTION PHOTOSYNTHESIS & CO2 CONSUMPTION LABORATORY FORMS/RUBRIC LAB FORM: Project Director LAB FORM Assistant Director LAB FORM: Materials Manager LAB FORM: Data Analyst LAB TEAM RESPONSE FORM

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

PAGE NUMBER

Controlled Experiment

1

MIXED

2

Controlled Experiment

3

Controlled Experiment

5-7

Controlled Experiment

8 -10

Field Study

11- 13

Controlled Experiment

14 - 16

Systematic Observations

17 -19

Making A Model

20 - 22

Simulation

23 - 25

Making A Model

26 - 28

Systematic Observations

29 - 31

Controlled Experiment

32 - 34

Systematic Observations

35 - 37

Making a Model

38 - 40

Controlled Experiment

41 - 43

Controlled Experiment

44 - 46

Controlled Experiment

47 - 49

Making a Model

50 - 52

Controlled Experiment

53 - 55

Controlled Experiment Controlled Experiment

56 - 58 59 - 61

Controlled Experiment

62 - 64

Controlled Experiment

65 - 67

Controlled Experiment

68 - 70

Systematic Observations

71 - 73

Controlled Experiment

74 - 76

Making a Model

77 - 79

Making A Model

80 - 82

Systematic Observations

83 - 85

Systematic Observations

86 - 88

Systematic Observations

89 - 91

Controlled Experiment

92- 94

Controlled Experiment

95- 97

PAGE NUMBER 98 - 99 100 101 102 - 103 104 - 105

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CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT - RESPONSE FORM THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS - SC.8.N.3.2 Student Name: _____________________________________

TITLE PROBLEM STATEMENT HYPOTHESIS CONTROL

Date: __________________

THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS What affect does a closed container have on the conservation of mass? If a container storing reactants is closed, then the mass of the product will (increase/decrease/remain the same) in comparison to the reactants. circle one

INDEPENDENT (TEST) VARIABLE

DEPENDENT (OUTCOME) VARIABLE

NUMBER OF TRIALS

CONSTANT VARIABLES MATERIALS

PROCEDURES

        

one – triple beam balance one – 600 mL beaker one – 3 liter soda bottle with cap one – funnel one – 250 mL flask one – graduated cylinder one – tissue 20 grams – baking soda 70 mL - vinegar

Step 1: Use a graduated cylinder to measure 35 milliliters of vinegar. Transfer the vinegar into the beaker. Step 2: Cut the tissue into two pieces. Place a tablespoon of baking soda into each of the two pieces of tissue and wrap them neatly. Step 3: Place one of the wrapped tissues of baking soda and the beaker of vinegar on the triple beam balance at the same time. Record the measurements. Step 4: Place the packet of baking soda inside of the beaker of vinegar. Allow the reaction to occur. Calculate the product in the beaker after the reaction has occurred. Step 5: Use a funnel to pour 35 milliliters of vinegar into a 3 liter bottle. Step 6: Place the second wrapped tissue of baking soda and the bottle of vinegar on the triple beam balance at the same time. Record the measurements. Step 7: Place the second packet of baking soda into the bottle and quickly twist on the cap. Step 8: Allow the reaction to occur. Calculate the product of the reactants in the bottle after the reaction has occurred. Record the measurements.

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OBSERVATIONS Responding Variable

Data Table Independent Variable

Mass Before & After Reaction (grams) Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Average

Opened Container Closed Container Graph Title

grams

Mass

Heading on the Y-axis

Units

THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS

0

Container Heading on the X-axis

RESULTS CONCLUSION APPLICATION 15


TEACHER NOTES THE CONSERVATION OF MASS - SC.8.N.3.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What affect does a closed container have on the conservation of mass? HYPOTHESIS: (predictions will vary) BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The Law of Conservation of Mass was established in 1789 by French Chemist Antoine Lavoisier and states that mass is neither created nor destroyed in any ordinary chemical reaction. Further interpreted, it means that in a chemical reaction, the mass of the products equals the mass of the reactants. Therefore, it may be assumed that mass is better contained and measurable if it is contained within a measureable area. VARIABLES: Control Group

Closed Container

Independent Variable

Open Container

Dependent Variable Constant (Controlled) Variables

The mass of the product The same…. volume of vinegar, amount of baking soda, amount and type of tissue, etc….

DATA COLLECTION/OBSERVATIONS: (data collection will vary) GRAPHS: (answers will be based on the data collected) RESULTS: (answers will vary) CONCLUSION: (answers will vary) APPLICATION: (answers will vary)

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MAKING A MODEL - RESPONSE FORM SOLAR AND LUNAR ECLIPSES - SC.8.E.5.9 Student Name: _____________________________________

TITLE PURPOSE MATERIALS

Date: __________________

SOLAR AND LUNAR ECLIPSES To identify the cause of solar and lunar eclipses.  One- white polystyrene ball, 3 inches in diameter  One - lamp  One- pencil or stick

Step 1:

Place the pencil or stick through the ball (the moon) from the top to the bottom.

Step 2: Turn on the lamp, which will represent the Sun.

PROCEDURES

Step 3: Hold the ball out in front of your face so that it is at eye level. Step 4: Face the lamp with one eye opened so that the ball is blocking the lamp Step 5: Next, hold the ball in front of you and turn around so that your back faces the lamp. Step 6: Position the ball so that the shadow of your head (the Earth) blocks the light from the ball.

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TEACHER NOTES Solar and Lunar Eclipses- SC.8.E.5.9 PURPOSE:

To identify the cause of solar and lunar eclipses. HYPOTHESIS: (predictions will vary) BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The moon’s interaction with the Earth and Sun causes lunar and solar eclipses. When the moon passes behind the Earth so that the Sun’s rays are blocked from illuminating the moon, it is known as a lunar eclipse. During a lunar eclipse, the Sun, Earth, and moon must be in perfect alignment with the Earth in the middle. Lunar eclipses usually appear dimmer than the full moon itself. A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes in between the Sun and Earth. At this point, the moon fully or partially blocks the Sun’s rays as apparent from an observer on Earth. Total solar eclipses last for just a few minutes and are a rare occurrence. DRAWING: (data collection will vary) LABELING: Solar Eclipse

Moon Earth

Sun _________________________ Eclipse

Earth Lunar Eclipse

Sun

Moon

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CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT - RESPONSE FORM RIVER EROSION - SC.7.E.7.2 Student Name: _____________________________________

TITLE PROBLEM STATEMENT HYPOTHESIS CONTROL

Date: __________________

RIVER EROSION What affect does the force of a flowing river have on the surrounding land? If a river runs through an area of surrounding land, then the land will (decrease/stay the same/increase) in size. circle one

INDEPENDENT (TEST) VARIABLE

DEPENDENT (OUTCOME) VARIABLE

NUMBER OF TRIALS

CONSTANT VARIABLES MATERIALS

     

four – medium sized aluminum pans backyard soil one – ice pick (or an object to make small holes) one – watering can with removable sprinkler end one – hand lens four – textbooks

Step 1: Place seven to ten small holes in the bottom of two of the aluminum pans. Step 2: Half fill each of the two aluminum pans with backyard soil.

PROCEDURES

Step 3: Place the two additional aluminum pans (no holes) flat on the surface side by side. These two pans will be identified as the collection pans. Step 4: Place two books flat on top of each other behind the two collection pans. Step 5: Place the pans filled with soil inside the collection pan with the bottom resting inside of the collection pan and the top resting on the books. Step 6: Water the soil in the first soil tray with the sprinkler end attached to the watering can. Water the soil at a height of at least 30 centimeters above the pan. Step 7: Repeat step six using the watering can without the sprinkler end. Step 8: Measure the widest area of separation in the soil in both pans and record the data in the table. Use a hand lens to observe the differences. 32


OBSERVATIONS

Data Table Independent Variable

WATER SOURCE

Responding Variable

Length of Separation (centimeters) Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Soil watered with a sprinkler end (RAIN) Soil watered without a sprinkler end (RIVER)

Graph Title

cm

Soil Erosion

Heading on the Y-axis

Units

RIVER EROSION

0

Water Source Heading on the X-axis

RESULTS CONCLUSION APPLICATION 33


TEACHER NOTES RIVER EROSION - SC.7.E.7.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT:

What affect does the force of a flowing river have on the surrounding land? HYPOTHESIS: (predictions will vary) BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Earth’s surface is covered by landforms that are constantly changing and creating new features. Weathering and erosion are two causes of landform changes. Weathering breaks down existing rock into smaller particles by way of air, water, wind, ice, and living organisms. No movement is involved in weathering. Once rocks and soil are carried away and deposited to other places, the process is called erosion. Moving water, wind, or gravity causes the transport of these particles. Weathering and erosion can sometimes take years to notice. An example of weathering is rock that breaks down as a result of the pressure of raindrops over a period of years. Another example of weathering is the occurrence of rivers carving canyons in rocks. River erosion is the gradual removal of rock material from the river banks and bed.

VARIABLES: Control Group Independent Variable Dependent Variable Constant (Controlled) Variables

Watering can with the sprinkler (imitation of rain) Watering can without the sprinkler (imitation of a river) The length of the gap in the land The same…. soil type, aluminum pans, force of the flowing water, slope of the pan, etc….

GRAPHS: (answers will be based on the data collected) RESULTS: (answers will vary) CONCLUSION: (answers will vary) APPLICATION: (answers will vary)

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MAKING A MODEL - RESPONSE FORM PLATE TECTONICS - SC.7.E.6.5 Student Name: _____________________________________

TITLE PURPOSE BACKGROUND INFORMATION

MATERIALS

PLATE TECTONICS To discover how the movement of the Earth’s plates affect land formations. The plate tectonic theory was formulated in the 1960s to explain the movement of Earth’s plates. There is scientific documentation that Earth’s plates move an estimated 1 -10 cm per year. Through plate tectonics, scientists now understand the cause and formation of both slow and rapid geologic phenomenon such as earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, ocean basins, and ocean trenches. As the boundaries of these large plates interact with one another, they cause seismic activity in the form of earthquakes and volcanoes. Deformations also occur at the plates’ boundaries as they slip, slide, separate, and collide with each other. When plates collide, mountain ranges are formed. As tectonic plates move away from each other, rocks break and form a gap between the plates. This begins the process of seafloor spreading. Underwater volcanoes act between the crack of the plates, and eventually new oceanic crust is formed causing the seafloor to extend away from the ridge.       Part A: Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4:

PROCEDURES

Date: __________________

two – whole graham crackers cake frosting one – plastic knife one – sheet of wax paper water one – rice treat

Break one graham cracker into separate squares and lay them on the wax paper. Use the knife to spread the frosting over the middle of the wax paper in a thick layer. Lay the graham crackers on top of the frosting with the edges touching. To imitate the divergent plates of the ocean floor, press down as you slowly move the crackers apart and observe what happens. Record your observations.

Part B: Step 1: Remove one of the graham crackers from the frosting in Part A. Step 2: Lay the rice treat next to the cracker where the edges just touch. Step 3: Push the rice treat (continental plate) towards each other and observe what happens. Part C: Step 1: Remove the rice treat from Part B and replace it with the other graham cracker half. Step 2: Place one hand on each of the crackers and push them together while pressing down and moving one towards you and the other in the opposite direction. Step 3: As you move the crackers, observe what happens as the pressure increases.

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OBSERVATIONS Data Table: Lab Part

PLATE MOVEMENT

A

Divergent Plates

B

Convergent Plates

C

Transforming Plates

Describe the observations that were made

What is the resulting landform?

RESULTS

CONCLUSION

APPLICATION

39


TEACHER NOTES PLATE TECTONICS- SC.7.E.6.5 PURPOSE:

To discover how the movement of the Earth’s plates affect land formations. HYPOTHESIS: (predictions will vary) BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The plate tectonic theory was formulated in the 1960s to explain the movement of Earth’s plates. There is scientific documentation that Earth’s plates move an estimated 1 -10 cm per year. Through plate tectonics, scientists now understand the cause and formation of both slow and rapid geologic phenomenon such as earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, ocean basins, and ocean trenches. As the boundaries of these large plates interact with one another, they cause seismic activity in the form of earthquakes and volcanoes. Deformations also occur at the plates’ boundaries as they slip, slide, separate, and collide with each other. When plates collide, mountain ranges are formed. As tectonic plates move away from each other, rocks break and form a gap between the plates. This begins the process of seafloor spreading. Underwater volcanoes act between the crack of the plates, and eventually new oceanic crust is formed causing the seafloor to extend away from the ridge.

DATA COLLECTION/OBSERVATIONS: Lab Part

PLATE MOVEMENT

Describe the observations that were made

What is the resulting landform?

A

Divergent Plates

answers will vary

Earthquakes

B

Convergent Plates

answers will vary

Mountains

C

Transforming Plates

answers will vary

Volcanoes

RESULTS: (answers will vary) CONCLUSION: (answers will vary) APPLICATION: (answers will vary)

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GROUP No: __________

OR

STUDENT NAME: _____________________________________

TOTAL POINTS: ____________ GRADE (select one) :

A (39 – 36)

B (35 – 31)

C (30 – 27)

D (26 – 23)

F (22 – 0)

Lab Report Rubric Problem – (select most appropriate) stated as a problem that is clearly testable 3 stated as a problem statement but is not measurable 2 not stated as an experimental question (this is a “yes” or “no” question) 1

Hypothesis - (select most appropriate) stated the (1) “if, then” format”, (2) includes the independent and dependent variables, and (3) is testable by the student. 3 stated 2 of the 3 from above. 2 stated 1 of the 3 from above. 1 Materials - (select most appropriate) describes in detail both quantitatively and quantitatively 3 not adequately described quantitatively or qualitatively 2 not adequately described quantitatively and qualitatively 1 Procedure - (select all that apply – 1 point for each) all steps beginning with an action word steps are written clear enough to be completed by another person steps listed sequentially

Variables – (select all that apply – 1 point for each) fixed manipulated responding control 106


SCIENCE LABORATORY

LABORATORY

Educational Bootcamp

LABORATORY grade 8

www.educationalbootcamp.net Tel. 305-423-1999 Fax. 305-423-1132 GRADE 8

Hands-on activities addressing specific benchmarks as required by the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards for Science.

EDUCATIONAL BOOTCAMP