Download Full Solution Manual for Accounting for Governmental and Nonprofit Entities 14th Edition by Wilson at: https://digitalcontentmarket.org/download/solution-manual-foraccounting-for-governmental-and-nonprofit-entities-14th-edition-bywilson/ CHAPTER 2:
PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL REPORTING FOR STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS OUTLINE
Status (re: 13/e)
Describe Describe Describe Define and explain Explain Explain Explain Distinguish
Same Same Same New 2-10 New New 2-6
Governmental activities Business-type activities Fiduciary activities Reporting entity Component unit reporting Component unit reporting Legal compliance vs. GAAP General vs. fund long-term liabilities and capital assets Measurement focus and basis of accounting GASBS 34 integrated reporting model
2-7 Revised New
Defining the reporting entity
Identification of funds
Accounting and reporting principles
Internet; locating New information in the CAFR Internet; using the New CAFR to identity fund utilization Analysis; explanation New
Questions: 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8
Exercises/Problems: 2-1 Examine the CAFR 2-2 Various 2-3 Various 2-4 Identification of government-wide and fund financial reporting characteristics 2-5 Understanding purpose of funds
Examine Multiple Choice True/False Matching
Revised Revised Revised New
Determination of major funds
General long-term liability and general capital asset transactions
Calculation; written Report Journalizing and explaining
2-5 revised New
PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL REPORTING FOR STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
Answers to Questions 2-1.
Certain core services are provided by most general purpose governmentsâ€”those related to the protection of life and property (e.g., police and fire protection), public works (e.g., streets and highways, bridges, and public buildings), parks and recreation facilities and programs, and cultural and social services, among others. Governments must also incur costs for general administrative support (such as, data processing, finance, and personnel) of its service departments. Core governmental services, together with general administrative support, comprise the major part of what GASB refers to as governmental activities. The measurement focus and basis of accounting for these activities is on the flow of current financial resources on the modified accrual basis in the governmental funds and on the flow of economic resources on the accrual basis in the governmental activities column of the government-wide financial statements.
The business-type activities of a government include public utilities (such as electric, water, gas, and sewer utilities), transportation systems, toll roads and bridges, hospitals, parking garages and lots, liquor stores, golf courses, airports, and swimming pools, among other things. Many of these activities are intended to be self-supporting by charging users for the services they receive. Focusing financial reporting on economic resources recognized on the accrual basis of accounting allows the government to determine whether charges for services are sufficient to cover the full cost of the activity. This measurement focus and basis of accounting is the same used for reporting governmental activities in the government-wide financial statements, but quite different from the current financial resources measurement focus and modified accrual basis of accounting used in the governmental funds.
Fiduciary activities of a government involve the governmentâ€™s discharge of its fiduciary responsibilities, either as an agent or trustee, for parties outside the government. For example, a government may serve as agent for other governments in the administering and collecting of taxes. Fiduciary activities are accounted for in agency funds, investment trust funds, pension trust funds, and private-purpose trust funds. Fiduciary activities are reported only in the fund financial statements and not in the government-wide financial statements because these resources belong to external parties, not the government. Fiduciary funds use accrual accounting and focus on economic resources, as do business-type activities. However, reporting for fiduciary activities differs from that for governmental funds since the latter funds focus primarily on the budget and current financial resources.
Ch. 2, Answers (Contâ€™d)
A reporting entity consists of the primary government and all other legally separate organizations for which the government is financially accountable. Fiduciary activities are inherently the responsibility of the primary government and thus are reported as part of the primary government. A primary government is defined as a state government, a general purpose local government, or a special purpose government that has a separately elected governing body and that is fiscally independent of other state and local governments. A primary government differs from a component unit primarily in terms of the direction of fiscal accountability. A primary government is financially accountable for a component unit whereas a component unit is financially accountable to the primary government.
False. GASB standards indicate that individual component units should prepare separate financial statements and make them available to the public. Reporting financial data of component units with financial data for the component unit(s) reported to the right of those for the primary government in the government-wide financial statements is known as a discrete presentation. Blending is the alternative method if the financial activities of the component unit are so intertwined with those of the primary government that they are, in substance, the same as the primary government. In blended reporting, the financial information of the component unit is blended with that of the primary government, both in the appropriate fund and government-wide statements.
Generally, financial information for all discretely presented component units is reported in a single column in the government-wide financial statements. Using this approach, information about individual major component units can be presented in a separate combining financial statement placed in front of the notes or, alternatively, condensed financial information about individual component units can be included as a schedule in the notes to the financial statements. If the number of major component units is small, separate columns for each major component unit can be included on the face of the government-wide financial statements.
Disagree. The first governmental accounting and financial reporting principle, Accounting and Reporting Capabilities, listed in the appendix to Chapter 2, states that: A governmental accounting system must make it possible both: (a) to present fairly and with full disclosure the funds and activities of the government in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles, and (b) to determine and demonstrate compliance with finance-related legal and contractual provisions.
Fund long-term liabilities are those that are directly related to and expected to be paid from either the proprietary or fiduciary funds. Proprietary fund liabilities should be reported in the proprietary fund statement of net assets and in the appropriate columns of the governmentwide statement of net assets. Fiduciary fund liabilities should be reported in the statement of fiduciary net assets and not in the government-wide financial statements. General long-term liabilities are all other unmatured long-term liabilities of the government and should not be reported in governmental funds, but rather should be 2-4
Ch. 2, Answers, 2-8 (Cont’d)
reported in the Governmental Activities column of the government-wide statement of net assets. Similarly, fund capital assets are those acquired by or transferred to the control of proprietary or fiduciary funds. These capital assets, along with accumulated depreciation thereon, are reported in the fund statements of net assets and, in the case of proprietary funds, also reported in the government-wide statement of net assets. Capital assets of fiduciary activities are reported only in the statement of fiduciary net assets. All other capital assets are referred to as general capital assets and are reported in the Governmental Activities column of the government-wide statement of net assets. 2-9.
The government-wide financial statements are prepared using the economic resources measurement focus and the accrual basis of accounting, since the government-wide financial statements are intended to assist in assessing operational accountability—or how well the government has used its resources in providing services. The two governmental fund financial statements emphasize short-term fiscal accountability— whether financial resources were obtained and expended in conformity with budget laws and other financial stipulations. Therefore, governmental fund statements focus on the flows of current financial resources using the modified accrual basis of accounting.
2-10. Referring to Illustration 2-1, it should be apparent that the GASBS 34 financial reporting model reports financial information about the funds the government uses (reported in the fund financial statements) as well as financial information about the government as a whole (reported in the government-wide financial statements). From a reporting entity perspective, the financial statements also report all financial information of the primary government and legally separate organizations for which the primary government is financially accountable—i.e., component units. Fiduciary activities are included in the reporting entity because they are an inherent responsibility of the primary government. Solutions to Cases 2-1.
Obtaining a CAFR is becoming less difficult as a growing number of local governments post their CAFRs and budgets on their Web sites, as well as on the GASB’s Web site. Usually a bit of surfing under the Finance Department link of a government’s Web site will reveal the CAFR, which typically is downloadable as an Adobe Acrobat file. At any rate, once a CAFR is obtained it should be a relatively easy task to scroll down to the notes to the financial statements. Under the heading Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, the first note usually found is the description of the reporting entity. All information needed to complete this case should be readily available once the student finds the reporting entity note.
Once a CAFR has been obtained, determining the specific governmental, business-type, and fiduciary activities of the government may take a bit of reading, first in the introductory section of the CAFR, then in the MD&A and notes to the financial
Ch. 2, Case Solutions, 2-2 (Cont’d)
statements. A heading such as “Government Structure” in the introductory section often reveals the major functions of the government. The remainder of the information needed to determine the range of activities can usually be obtained by examining the MD&A and notes to the financial statements to find discussions of activities and a listing of all the government’s funds. Fund financial statements will also help in this regard. Major funds are generally identified in the MD&A and the notes to the financial statements. If all else fails, look at the fund financial statements. The funds with their own separate columns in these statements are the major funds. 2-3.
A quick look at these financial statements reveals that Ms. Eager has almost no knowledge of GASBS 34 reporting requirements. Let’s examine these financial statements from the viewpoint of (a) a local CPA who is considering auditing the town’s financial statements and (b) a member of the town council or a citizen. a. As a CPA knowledgeable about governmental accounting, you should see many red flags regarding this potential audit engagement. Do the financial statements that Ms. Eager has prepared conform to GAAP? The short answer is no! To the CPA contemplating whether to serve as auditor, these financial statements should set off alarm bells. He/she only has to compare these statements to the variety of government-wide and fund financial statements required by GASBS 34 (see Illustrations 1-4 through 1-14) to realize that they fall far short of what is required by GAAP. Among the many problems the CPA should detect (although students will probably miss many of these problems at this early point in the course) are the following. 1. The town does not present separate government-wide and fund financial statements, although with a little work the balance sheet could be converted into a government-wide statement of net assets. 2. The statement of activities is not in the cost of services format prescribed by GASBS 34. 3. Because no fund financial statements are prepared, key information such as unreserved and reserved fund balances of the General Fund (see Illustrations 1-6, for example) and the Road Tax Fund are not presented. 4. Budget and actual comparison information is not presented, either as basic statements or required supplementary information schedules, as required. 5. Expense detail is lacking. More functional detail is needed under “Government services,” such as general government, public safety, public works, and other relevant functions, so the amounts expended for each service area can be determined. Presumably, this would also reduce the relatively large amount reported as “Miscellaneous.”
Ch. 2, Case Solutions, 2-3 (Contâ€™d)
6. Why are accounts receivable relating to the Sewer Fund missing from the balance sheet? The presence of sewer fees on the statement of activities suggests that the Sewer Fund is being operated as an enterprise fund. If so, billings that have not been collected at year-end should be reported. In addition, GAAP requires accrual of a receivable and revenue for services provided but unbilled at year-end.
7. If the Sewer Fund is an enterprise fund, then a statement of cash flows is required for that fund. 8. Where are the notes to the financial statements? The notes are a required and integral part of any set of financial statements. 9. Where is the MD&Aâ€”also required by GAAP? Given the serious reporting deficiencies observed, it is likely the CPA would be required to render an adverse opinion, since it appears that the financial statements do not fairly present financial information in conformity with GAAP. Depending on the quality of the townâ€™s financial records, it is also possible that the CPA would have to issue a disclaimer report due to missing or insufficient financial information. (Note: You may wish to look at Chapter 11 for the meaning of adverse and disclaimed audit reports.) b.
A member of the town council or a citizen of the town should be concerned as well about several of the points made in part a above. Although the treasurer may still be preparing statements of cash receipts and disbursements for each fund, the lack of information about cost of services for governmental functions and sewer operations should be of concern. Moreover, unless the town budgets on a cash basis, the lack of GAAP-based fund statements results in a lack of full information about available financial resources in the General and Road Tax Funds for budgeting purposes. The lack of budget and actual comparison statements or schedules should also be of concern to a member of the town council or a citizen.
Solutions to Exercises and Problems 2-1.
Each student should have a different governmental annual report, so will have different answers to questions in this exercise. Some time spent in class to allow students to report on their own answers and to get an idea of the range of the answers of other students is useful. 2-2.1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
d. b. b. c. d.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
b. a. d. c. a.
Ch. 2, Solutions (Contâ€™d)
1. F. The three categories of governmental activities discussed in GASB pronouncements and Chapter 2 of this text are governmental, business-type, and fiduciary. Although governments are inherently affected by politics, that is not (or, at least, should not be) one of their primary activities. 2. F. The permanent fund is a governmental fund type. 3. T. 4. T. 5. F. Integration of budgetary accounts is required for certain governmental fund types, but is not recommended for proprietary funds. 6. T. 7. T. 8. F. Depreciation of general capital assets should be reported in the Governmental Activities column of the government-wide financial statements, but not in the governmental fund financial statements. 9. T. 10. F. Financial information for most internal service funds, one of the two proprietary fund types, is reported in the Governmental Activities column of the governmentwide financial statements. 2-4.1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Fiscal accountability Debt service funds Revenues and expenses Operational accountability Modified accrual Statement of cash flows Current and noncurrent assets and liabilities 8. Additions and deductions 9. Agency funds 10. Integrated budgetary accounts
GF GF GWGA, GWBTA, PF GWGA, GWBTA, PF, FF GF PF GWGA, GWBTA, PF, FF FF FF GF
Ch. 2, Solutions (Contâ€™d)
2-5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 2-6.
k. a. j. g. b. d.
7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
DATE: MEMO TO: FROM: RE:
e. i. f. c. h. xxx Village Manager, Village of Manchester Village Accountant Major Special Revenue Funds
As shown by the blue shading in the calculations provided below, only the Housing and Urban Development Grant must be reported as a major fund. Neither the Gas Tax Revenue Fund nor the Forfeiture Act Fund meets the GASB threshold for major fund reporting; that is, none of the four elements of those funds (assets, liabilities, revenues, or expenditures) is greater than 10% of the corresponding total of all governmental funds and greater than 5% of the corresponding total of all governmental and enterprise funds. Both total assets and total revenues of the Housing and Urban Development Grant meet the 10 percent of all governmental funds and 5 percent of all governmental and enterprise funds combined criteria. Although the Forfeitures Act Fund does not meet the minimum criteria for major fund reporting, GASBS 34 permits government officials to designate any governmental or enterprise fund as a major fund if, in their judgment, the fund is of sufficient importance to warrant designation as a major fund. Because of recent press coverage of forfeiture actions in drug cases, the Forfeiture Act Fund may be of particular interest to financial statement users. Accordingly, I recommend that you and the town council consider designating this fund as a major fund.
Calculation of Major Fund Thresholds
Financial Statement Elements Assets Liabilities
Gas Tax Revenue Fund >5% of >10% of GovernGovernmental and mental Enterprise Funds Funds YesNo-4.6% 10.3% No-8.4% No-4.9%
Housing and Urban Development Fund >5% of >10% of GovernGovernmental and mental Enterprise Funds Funds YesYes-5.01% 11.2% No-9.8% Yes-5.7%
Forfeitures Act Fund >5% of >10% of GovernGovernmental and mental Enterprise Funds Funds No-6.5% No-2.9% No-0.0%
Ch. 2, Solutions (Cont’d) 2-7.
1. Record issuance of $120,000, 3-year note: General Fund: Cash Other Financing Sources— Proceeds of 3-Year Note Governmental Activities: Cash Notes Payable
2. Record purchase of the four police vehicles at a total cost of $120,000. General Fund: Expenditures—Capital Outlay Cash
Governmental Activities: Equipment Cash
Recording these transactions in this manner is completely consistent with GASB standards. Because the General Fund focuses on current financial resources and uses the modified accrual basis of accounting, it does not record long-term liabilities, but does record the inflow of the proceeds of the loan as an Other Financing Source. This is a temporary account that increases fund balance in the General Fund. At the government-wide level, however, the focus is on the flow of economic resources using the accrual basis of accounting. Consequently, the longterm liability for the $120,000 3-year note is recorded in the Governmental Activities General Journal and reported in the Governmental Activities column of the government-wide statement of net assets. Similarly, the General Fund records the outflow of current financial resources as an Expenditure, a temporary account that reduces fund balance of the General Fund. The general capital assets are recorded as an asset, Equipment, in the Governmental Activities General Journal at the government-wide level. The police vehicles will be depreciated at the government-wide level each year. Depreciation has no effect on the General Fund.
Download FULL Solution Manual for Accounting for Governmental and Nonprofit Entities 14th Edition by Wilson in : http://digitalcontentmark...
Published on Mar 15, 2018
Download FULL Solution Manual for Accounting for Governmental and Nonprofit Entities 14th Edition by Wilson in : http://digitalcontentmark...