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Confronting the Unknowable


Confronting the Unknowable Thesis Design Journal AR5807/AR5808

Bonaventura Kevin Satria Thesis Supervisor: Tsuto Sakamoto

Master of Architecture National University of Singapore May 2020


Aerial view of Lapindo Mudflow main crater (Source: ANTARA Foto/Eric Ireng, 2014)


Abstract In 2006, a massive mud eruption occurred in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. The largest mudflow of its kind, it has swallowed 12 villages and displaced more than 60,000 people. Until today, there has been no consensus regarding its cause; residents blamed the gas company for causing the eruption while the gas company denied the accusation, claiming that it was naturally induced. Yet, despite the contestation, the mudflow remains active and its activity could escalate anytime. This has caused people in the surrounding area to live in constant fear. The thesis proposes that in order to subsume people’s fear, they need to prepare for the worst through the excavation of grounds surrounding their settlement. However, as these pits will remain empty for an unknown period of time, different parties will inevitably try to exploit the situation. Political exchange among the three main actors—residents, gas company and government—will take place in the form of compensation. The gas company will be allowed to conduct drilling operations in return for funding the excavation while rice terraces will be created for residents to compensate their loss of agricultural land. Soon, a new form of economy will emerge within the pit. A series of temporary and permanent structures will be constructed on the pit slopes. However, these processes are always expressed with a certain fear of not knowing what is going to happen as the mud flood can inundate these structures anytime. Keywords: mudflow, unknowable, contestation, narratives


Acknowledgments I would like to express my gratitude to the following individuals, without whom this thesis would have been entirely impossible. My thesis tutor, Tsuto, for your constant guidance, support and patience in helping me develop the project the past one year, for the long consult sessions and your invaluable comments and insights. Thank you for believing in this project despite me having so much doubt with my own project. I am truly grateful. My studiomates, Viany, Nijel, Hogen, for the company and interesting studio discussions over the past one year. To Viany, thank you for keeping me motivated and helping me out when I was really struggling with this project. My housemates, Calvin and Bivan, for letting me create a mess in the living room to do my work. To Bivan, thank you for lending me your laptop during the last two weeks of production. Jesslin, Indra, for your encouragement and support, for dragging me out of my cave to dinner. Nicole, for introducing me to the new science building as my temporary workspace Elaine, for the listening ear and keeping in touch despite the vast time difference. Faith, Gerald, Deborah, Pan, Ben, Yenling, for keeping me sane in this crazy architecture journey. Andrew, Alvita and Kelvin, for staying in touch and helping me grow in faith during this period. Pak Nino, Mas Eko, Cak Irsyad, for allowing time to discuss with me about Lapindo and being so generous in sharing information and data with me. Your spirit and determination to stand for what is right have inspired me. Lastly, my parents—especially my mom—for your daily prayers and calls that have kept me going, particularly during the last few days nearing the deadline. I would not be able to finish this project without your care and encouragement. My brothers, Pedro and Inigo, for always reminding me of home.


Contents Abstract Acknowledgments Chapter 1: Background Issues

1.1 The Unknowable Phenomena

1.2 Contestation of Narratives

Government Gas Company Local Residents

Chapter 2: Design References

2.1 Architecture of Containment

2.2 Camouflaging Architecture

2.3 Submerged Architecture

Chapter 3: Design Proposal

3.1 The Pits

3.2 The Village

3.3 The Gas Drilling Site

3.4 The Rice Field

3.5 The Commercial Area

3.6 The Cottages

Appendix Bibliography


Chapter 1

Materiality of the mud

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Background Issues

Chapter 1: The Unknowable Phenomena

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Chapter 1

Mud water Wet mud

Mud distributiom

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Drying mud Dry mud


Background Issues

In May 2006, a bizarre phenomena suddenly occured in the sleepy village of Renokenongo, Sidoarjo. Massive amount of mud was erupted from underneath the earth. People were confronted with an unfamiliar entity that they had never encountered before. It is an incident that goes beyond people’s imagination. Due to its extreme otherness, the mudflow has consequently attracted countless scientists and professionals to probe into it and understand its behaviour. Various attempts have been made to stop the eruption, from using techniques of relief wells to plugging the vent with hundreds of concrete balls, but the mudflow activity cannot be stopped. Despite the extensive effort to gain control over the mudflow, it is still a question that remains unanswered. Today, the mudflow has submerged 12 villages, displaced more than 60,000 people and covered an area of approximately 7km2. Physically, the mud crater cannot be accessed due to its active and boiling main vent. the mudflow activity can never be fully comprehended; it is always in a constant flux. Based on the current estimation, the amount of erupted mud breccia was recorded at 80,000 m3/day in August 2017. However, in December 2017, the figure was suddenly almost doubled to 130,000 m3/day (Mazzini 2018; Miller and Mazzini 2018). Many speculate that the activity depends on the pressure underneath the surface due to the fault movement but this too is uncertain. The exact cause of such fluctuation can never be pinpointed; it can be approximated and hypothesised, but never fully known.

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Chapter 1

Aerial photographs of the mudflow evolution (Mazzini 2018)

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Background Issues

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Chapter 1

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Background Issues

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Chapter 1

The Real Object In his Object Oriented Ontology theory, Graham Harman discusses the inaccessibility of objects to human comprehension (2018). Developing his argument based on Martin Heidegger’s tool analysis (Heidegger 1962), he argues that objects are always withdrawn in the subterranean realm and only appear to our consciousness when they break, by presenting anomalies to us (Harman 2011). Yet, he believes that even if we are aware of an object’s presence, the thing-in-itself can never be “exhausted by its presence in consciousness” (Harman 2018). In his term, “no sensual profile of these things will ever exhaust its full reality, which withdraws into the dusk of a shadowy underworld” (Harman 2018). Such inaccessibility is certainly evident in the mudflow phenomena. The mudflow is real and present—its affects can be felt and observed—yet its “full reality” always remains withdrawn from human comprehension. The overwhelming presence of mudflow, coupled with people’s inability to fully access the mudflow, and gives rise to an unsettling condition. People living around the mudflow are constantly haunted by the threat of it invading their houses. At the same time, they are also hesitant to leave their original villages since living somewhere else means losing all their existing social ties (Novenanto 2018). They do not know how to act. This reality exemplifies the Anthropocene, defined as the “geologic epoch in which humans have become the major force” affecting the earth (Tsing et al. 2017), while revealing a paradox: despite having exerted tremendous impact on the earth, we also discover minimum agency to do anything about the corollary of our actions. Such inability to control and understand the mudflow has inevitably generated anxiety among people.

(Source: https://rovicky.files.wordpress. com/2006/08/porong-1.jpg)

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Background Issues

Speculated source of mud volcano

(Source: https://rovicky.files.wordpress. com/2006/08/porong-1.jpg)

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Chapter 1

24 sculpture by Dadang Christanto Human (Source: Umarul Faruq, https://www.antarafoto.com/peristiwa/ v1464416101 menjelang-10-tahun-lumpur-lapindo, May 2014)


Background Issues

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Chapter 1

Effigy of Aburizal Bakrie during the annual commemoration event in 2013 (Source: Umarul Faruq, https://catatandaris.wordpress.com/2013/05/29/944/, May 2013)

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Background Issues

Chapter 2: Narrating the Phenomena Due to the unknowable nature of the mudflow, people are living in a constant state of fear. Mud eruption could escalate anytime without anyone knowing. Attempts to stop the eruption has been proved futile. In order to be released from this disturbance, people try to give name to it. By giving a specific function, appropriating and exchanging it, they try to exploit the situation. Politics of the three actors--local dwellers, government, gas company--are the manifestation of it. This chapter will be dedicated to illustrate the political exhange and meaning construction that have taken place among the these three actors involved.

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Chapter 1

Government 28


Background Issues

As an immediate reaction towards the uncontrollable eruption, the government attempts to close the main eruption vent using the relief wells. Foreign consultants have been invited to conduct the intervention. However, as soon as it was carried, the ground was shaking tremendously and the effort had to be terminated. Furthermore, a team of academic professionals were invite to minimise the eruption rate by dropping high-density concrete balls (HDCBs) into the main vent. The balls, twenty-to-forty centimeters in diameter and eighteen-to-eighty kilograms in weight, were tied together with steel cables. However, the effort was soon abandoned as the government authority concluded that the technique was futile in slowing down the eruption (Hadimuljono 2007, 65–75).

Dropping high-density concrete balls (HDCBs) into the main vent.

Stopping the mudflow eruption:

Relief wells and high-density concrete balls 29


Chapter 1

Due to government’s inability to stop the eruption, they could only implement strategies to regulate and channel the mudflow. As the most immediate response to the mudflow phenomena, embankment was constructed by the government authoirty to contain the mudflow. However, when the embankment was first constructed, people were expecting the mud eruption to only last for a few months. TIMNAS, the National Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Team, was formed as an emergency task force under the belief that the incident could be resolved within a few months (Novenanto 2015). Intended to hold the mud temporarily, the embankment was therefore not properly constructed—the ground was not compacted with no foundation laid out.

Embankment separating us human from the other

Embankment separating us human from the other

Containing the mudflow: Embankment construction

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(Source: Fully Syafi, https://en.tempo.co/ read/678012/state-budget-allocation-doesnot-cover-all-lapindo-victims, May 2015)


Background Issues

Borrow area Borrow area

Borrow area

Borrow Area To construct the embankment, massive amount of soil materials are needed. The locals call the materials as sirtu, abbreviated from pasir (sand) and batu (stones); the technical term is macadam, the mixture of small- and middle-sized stones and sand to layer the road foundation. According to BPLS’s crews, the materials are obtained from several spots of “borrow area” beyond the Sidoarjo regency such as the Mojokerto and Pasuruan regencies (Karyadi, Soegiarto, and Harnanto 2012, 45–46). Many areas have been immensely excavated to fulfill the burgeoning demand of macadam for the embankment. These excavated materials are then carried by trucks to the disaster site. More than 34 trucks are needed to carry the load daily with more than 1,000,000 meter cube of macadam having been excavated from various borrow areas.

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Chapter 1

5.0

7.0

4.5

7.8

12.0 +11.00

Embankment 5 Embankment 4 Retaining wall: Igneous rock block

Embankment 3 Embankment 2

+8.00

Mud +5.00

Embankment 1 +1.00

Layer 1: silty sand

Layer 2: sandy clay Layer 3: sandy silt Layer 4: silty clay

Layer 5: clay

Cross section of the embankment

Containing the mudflow: Embankment construction

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Background Issues

Embankment Failure From June 2007 to December 2009, it is reported that there have been 74 cases of embankment failure incident occuring on site. Most of the failure cases were caused by overtopping during rainy season. Other than that, embankment failure also occured due to excessive pressure caused by the mudflow on the embankment wall. Narita (2000) and Fell et al. (1992) also describe other kinds of embankment failures including hydraulic failures (piping, leakage, seepage, overtopping) and structural failures (deformation, crack, collapse). Despite constant repairing, failures keep occuring. Such incessant and yet unpredictable embankment failures have created anxiety among local residents living around the embankment as their houses are always at risk of being destroyed by the mudflow.

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Chapter 1

Apart from creating embankment, another intervention has been implemented to contain the mudflow, by regularly discharging it to Porong River to maintain the volume within the embankments (Novenanto 2015). However, such intervention has sparked controversy since the exact content of the mud remains debatable. On one hand, many researchers argue that the mud contains heavy metal substances (Nusantara 2010; Putri 2009; Dagdag, Rachmansyah, and Leksono 2015), such as lead and cadmium, that are harmful to the existing ecology and contaminate people’s water supply. The decision to discharge mud to the river is deemed to have created a larger problem by exposing far more areas to the mudflow threat. Since Sidoarjo as a delta city relies on Porong River to irrigate its expansive rice fields and fishery areas, any toxic substances discharged into the river will not only contaminate the waterway itself but also the entire productive agricultural fields.

(Source: https://cdn-asset.jawapos.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/10-tahun-belum-dapat-ganti-rugi-pengusaha-korban-lumpur-melawan_m_126557-640x421.jpeg https://www.antarafoto.com/peristiwa/v1208605556/pipa-penampungan-lumpur-panas)

Discharging the mudflow:

Spilling the mud into Porong River

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Background Issues

Spilling of mud to Porong River (Source: author’s photograph)

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Chapter 1

Lapindo mudflow

Madura Strait

2005 Area: 5.00 ha

Madura Strait

2005-2010 Area: 78.20 ha

Madura Strait

2010-2015 Area: 90.40 ha

Madura Strait

2015-Present Area: 90.40 h + 6.20 ha

Discharging the mudflow: Emergence of Sarinah Island 36

On the other hand, spilling the mud into the river has resulted in the emergence of a land mass named Sarinah Island. This island is then further promoted as an indicator of the mud’s benign character (Drake 2018). Planted with over 10,000 mangroves, the island has unsuspectedly managed to attract an array of wildlife, from birds to milkfish and fiddler crabs (Drake 2016a). Subsequently, such Edenic image of the island has been to debunk reports of the mud toxicity and legitimise government’s mud spilling effort (Drake 2018).


Background Issues

Aerial view of Sarinah Island (Source: https://m.jitunews.com/read/61698/ kkp-kelola-pulau-lusi-sebagai-destinasi-wisata-baru-di-sidoarjo, July 2017)

Herons spotted in the newly formed Sarinah Island 37


Chapter 1

Gas company 38


Background Issues

From the gas company point of view, they have always argued that the mudflow is triggered by a massive earthquake occurring two days prior in Yogyakarta over 200 km away. This hypothesis is then propagated by the gas company to deny victims’ accusation and escape liability. Had the drilling activity been proven to trigger the mudflow, Lapindo would have to finance and oversee the costly disaster management effort (Novenanto 2015). The company is pressurised to keep its image clean to ensure the continuation of its drilling operations in the block. Furthermore, Lapindo is owned by one of the most powerful and prominent political figures, Aburizal Bakrie. During the eruption, Bakrie was serving as Coordinating Minister for the Economy for the cabinet and planning to run for president in the subsequent election—admitting to have committed such a fatal error would badly hurt his reputation and chance of winning the election (Drake 2016b).

Banjar Panji-1 gas drilling rig (Source: Didiek Djarwadi 2015 )

Accused depths of protective casing

Microfossils in mud volcano are suspected from this interval

Planned depths for setting of protective casing in BJP-1

Diagrammatic section of Banjar Panji-1 drilling borehole (Source: Davies et al. 2008)

Denying the blame 39


Chapter 1

Gas drilling operation area of Lapindo Brantas

Resuming gas drilling operation 40


Background Issues

Despite being accused of triggering the mudflow eruption and receiving heavy criticism and resistance from local residents, Lapindo Brantas, the gas company, continues to expand its gas drilling operation area over the years as Sidoarjo has one of the richest natural gas reserves in East Java. Map on the left shows the distribution current drilling wells of Lapindo Brantas

Lapindo plans to construct 7 new wells in Tanggulangin (Source: https://katadata.co.id/berita/2019/03/21/lapindo-targetkan-pengeboran-7-sumur-di-lapangan-tanggulangin)

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Chapter 1

Local residents 42


Background Issues

The displaced victims of the mudflow phenomena have always blamed Lapindo gas company for causing triggering the mudflow. From the victims’ perspective, composing the mudflow as an anthropogenic disaster allows them to put the blame on Lapindo, thus entitling them the right to demand financial compensation for their loss from the company. Countless protests have subsequently been staged by victims over the years to urge the company to release compensation payment to them.

Monument of Lapindo Mudflow Tragedy (Source: https://assets.kompasiana.com/statics/ crawl/552d269e0423bd74388b456d.jpeg?t=o&v=760)

Demanding for compensation 43


Chapter 1

The suspended goat on the front page of the Jawa Pos newspaper (Source: http://korbanlumpur.info/2013/05/the-goat-that-couldnt-stop-the-mud-volcano-sacrifice-subjectivity-and-indonesias-lapindo-mudflow/)

For many victims, the mud volcano is not only a geothermal entity but also a spiritual one. In Javanese mythology, the underworld is believed to be guarded by a giant serpent (Novenanto 2015). The mudflow eruption is interpreted by them as a sign of the serpent’s wrath due to Lapindo’s reckless gas drilling operation. It is seen as a form of punishment for the misconduct of the company and government at large. In 2016, 120 rituals have reportedly been performed in a locally organised paranormal contest with many participants coming from different parts of Indonesia (Prasetyo 2009). Religious activities such as mass prayers and placing flowers on the ancestors’ graves have also been conducted regularly on the embankment among the victins.

(Source: https://www.hetanews.com/images/20190702/20190702113002-images-13.jpeg https://img.okezone.com/content/2015/09/23/340/1219415/kangen-kampung-korban-lumpur-lapindo-gelar-shalat-ied-di-tanggul-S0OprItLHN.jpg)

Resorting to religious/mythical practices: Tour guide and motor taxi driver 44


Background Issues

Mudflow as a tourist spot

(Source: https://mubi.com/films/tour-on-mud)

Over the years, the mudflow has become a tourism site of its kind as many curious tourists, both local and international alike, swarmed the area to witness its otherness. This phenomenon has undeniably given them new job opportunities as ojek (motorcycle taxi) drivers and impromptu tour guides (Pitaloka 2019). Soon, different vendors selling selfie sticks, DVDs and food also found themselves a spot in this newly emerging business ecology.

Motor taxi driver

(Source: author’s photograph https://www.antoniuswillson.com/movies#/ojek-lusi-2/)

Seizing new job opportunities: Tour guide and motor taxi driver

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Chapter 1

Staging annual protests 46


Background Issues

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Chapter 1

2009 (Source: https://news.detik.com/berita/d-1139425/3-tahun-lumpur-lapindo-pendemo-ajak-boikot-produk-bakrie) (Source: http://teguhimawan.blogspot.com/2008_03_23_archive.html) (Source: http://kont ras.org/backup/home/index.php?page=1&ipp=All&module=search_detail&id=110&mod=pers&keyword=&wilayah=&label=&from=2009-01-01&to=2009-12-31&isu= 2010 (Source: http://northquad.umich.edu/category/lapindo-mud-disaster/) (Source: http://www.seismopolite.com/art-and-social-engagement-in-yogyakarta-indonesia-ketjilbergerak-and-the-legacy-of-taring-padi-i) (Source: https://indoartnow.com/artists/taring-padi) 2011 (Source: http://agustinus6son.blogspot.com/2011/06/5-tahun-lumpur-panas-lapindo-menggusur.html ) (Source: http://agustinus6son.blogspot.com/2011/06/) (Source: http://agustinus6son.blogspot.com/2011/06/) 2012 (Source: http://aneka11.rssing.com/chan-21953220/all_p2.html) (Source: https://tahoentjahaja.wordpress.com/2012/08/18/mengapa-kita-tidak-ikut-jalan-kaki-porong-jakarta-refleksi-kecil-6-tahun-perlawanan-korban-lumpur-lapindo/ 2013 (Source: catatandaris.wordpress.com/2013/05/29/944/) 2014 (Source: https://pemilu.tempo.co/read/591650/korban-lumpur-lapindo-memilih-coblos-jokowi ) (Source: https://sunardian.blogspot.com/2014/05/dadang-christanto-di-lumpur-lapindo.html (Source: https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2014/12/20/08032671/Kalla.Ambil.Alih.Lapindo.Pemerintah.Diuntungkan. kalau.Lumpur.Berhenti) 2015 (Source: https://lintas-peristiwa-online.blogspot.com/2016/02/bupati-sidoarjo-lakukan-pertemuan.html) (Source: https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20160530174410-22-134482/satu-dekade-bencana-lumpur-lapindo/8) (Source: https://en.tempo.co/read/879698/84-lapindo-mud-erupted-remain-uncompensated) 2016 (Source: https://www.mongabay.co.id/2016/06/01/10-tahun-lumpur-lapindo-luka-itu-terasa-menyayat-hati/) (Source: https://tirto.id/sepuluh-tahun-yang-tak-terselesaikan-9k5) (Source: https://travel.detik.com/domestic-destination/d-3662847/lumpur-sidoarjo-yang-menyedihkan-yang-juga-masih-bikin-penasaran) 2017 (Source: https://m.medcom.id/jawa-timur/peristiwa/ybDR01mK-warga-peringati-11-tahun-lumpur-lapindo) (Source: https://news.detik.com/berita-jawa-timur/d-3510137/korban-lumpur-lapindo-peringati-11-tahun-semburan-di-titik-21?_ga=2.198772973.352967173.1574327894-1077074538.1565867941) (Source: https://www.suara.com/foto/2018/05/29/151539/peringati-12-tahun-semburan-lumpur-lapindo?page=2) 2018 (Source: https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20180529160450-22-302059/foto-12-tahun-lumpur-lapindo-di-sidoarjo) (Source: https://bisnis.tempo.co/read/1249667/lapindo-tak-bayar-utang-rp-17-t-kemenkeu-layangkan-tagihan-lagi) (Source: https://kanalindonesia.com/44250/2018/05/29/12-tahun-lumpur-lapindo/) 2019 (Source: https://www.voaindonesia.com/a/peringati-13-tahun-lumpur-lapindo-warga-minta-pemulihan-kondisi-lingkungan-dan-tolak-pengeboran-baru/4936951.html) (Source: https://faktualnews.co/2019/06/01/terkait-protes-pencemaran-lingkungan-semburan-lumpur-lapindo-pemprov-jatim-tanggapi-serius/142895/) (Source: http://dimensipers.com/2019/06/01/korban-semburan-lumpur-lapindo-tuntut-13-tahun-penyelesaian-ganti-rugi/)

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Background Issues

Bringing visitors around the mudflow (Source: author’s photograph)

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Chapter 1

Madura Strait

Summary of events taking place between 2006 to 2019

50

Madura Strait


Background Issues

689000

690000

691000

688000

689000

690000

691000

Madura Strait

9165000

9165000

9166000

9166000

9167000

9167000

9168000

9168000

9169000

9169000

688000

Madura Strait

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Chapter 1

Projection of image on the soil surface (Source: author’s photograph)

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Background Issues

Soil box

Mud sample

Installation Model

Semester 1 Final Review, November 2019 53


Chapter 1

Projection of different narratives by different actors 54


Background Issues

55


Chapter 2

56


Design Research

57


Chapter 2

58


Design Research

Chapter 2: Design References Architecture of Containment Camouflaging Architecture Submerged Architecture

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Chapter 2

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Source: https://www.trbimg.com/img-59b2eaee/turbine/la-1504897768-yqctnro6db-snap-image


Design Research

Chapter 2.1: Architecture of Containment Los Angeles Debris Basins

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Chapter 2

San Gabriels is the outermost suburbs of Los Angeles that is experiencing terrestrial instability of the ground beneath. Located at the foot of the mountain range of San Gabriels, the residential area is always at risk of beong destroyed by rockslides, debris slugs, and other forms of geologic “mass wasting.” As an attempt to continue inhabiting the unstable area, Los Angeles county “began digging pits to catch debris,” surrounding itself with voids to counteract the unleashed brawn of surprise geology. These debris pits are “quarries, in a sense, but exceedingly bizarre quarries, in that the rock [is] meant to come to them.” “Blocked at their downstream ends with earthfill or concrete constructions, they are also known as debris dams. With clean spillways and empty reservoirs, they stand ready to capture rivers of boulders – these deep dry craters, lying close to the properties they protect.” Yet they are empty – vast concavities – ready to be filled in a single night’s rush of silt.

Structures of Mass Wasting Los Angeles Debris Basin 62

Source: http://www.bldgblog.com/2005/10/ structures-of-mass-wasting/


Design Research

Series of debris basins around Los Angeles County

Containing the Uncontainable There are countless debris basins scattered around the Los Angeles County along the base of the mountain in preparation for the rockslides from the mountain range. Since it is impossible to prevent the rock and mud slides from happening, the only plausible effort that humans can do is to divert and channel them along a certain part away from the existing settlement. “...each basin also exemplifies the best human attempt to build, plan for and contain the potentially uncontainable: the material reality of geologic time and force.� At the same time, these basins become a true reflection of people’s fear towards the material threat that the disintegrating San Gabriel Mountains pose.

Source: https://fopnews.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/basin_survey.jpgx

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Chapter 2

Concrete barriers installed not to control traffic and people, but for deflecting runaway debris

Architecture as deflectors “...In the face of ‘this heaving violence of wet cement,’ new architectural techniques become urgently necessary – that is, architecture becomes as much a technique as it is a structure: ‘At least one family,’ for instance, ‘has experienced so many debris flows coming through their back yard that they long ago installed overhead doors in the rear end of their built-in garage. To guide the flows, they put deflection walls in their back yard. Now when the boulders come they open both ends of their garage, and the debris goes through to the street.’ Deflection walls, overhead doors, feeder channels, concrete crib structures – the lived topography of dwelling shifts in the presence of geologic collapse, as if to mimic those inhuman tectonics”.

Source: http://www.bldgblog.com/2005/10/structures-of-masswasting/ https://fopnews.wordpress.com/2011/01/27/shape-shifters-debris-basins-and-the-san-gabriels/

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Design Research

Michael Heizer’s City

Infrastructure as Land Art? Although these debris basins as infrastructures are constructed purely out of functional reasons, they carry an uncanny resemblance with many land arts projects that have been carried out by countless artists, such as Michael Heizer’s City project constructed in the isolated desert of Nevada. “...this flood control system exists in a nation that is generally starved for quality infrastructure, yet it sits there mostly unused. Because it’s often idle, it’s easy to aestheticize as some sort of constructed ruins, or land art installation. And the closer you look, it’s harder and harder to prove it’s not land art. The abstract shapes and asymmetrical mass beg for a close, formalistic read. It’s located in a western milieu fertile for this artistic tradition. And rarely do waters surge through its spillways.”

Los Angeles Debris Basin

These debris basins have also started to attract attention among artists and tourists to witness the sheer scale of these idle basins.

Image source: https://pbs.twimg.com/media/D6xhofRWkAI0EB6.jpg https://fopnews.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/basin_survey.jpgx Source: https://landscapearchitecturemagazine.org/2017/08/17/the-2billion-land-art-paradox/

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Chapter 2

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Source: https://www.lb908.com/single-post/2018/08/10/Fun-Fact-Astronaut-Islands


Design Research

Chapter 2.2: Camouflaging Architecture THUMS Island Tower of Hope Signal Hill

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Chapter 2

THUMS Islands are a set of four artificial islands in San Pedro Bay off the coast of Long Beach, California. The islands are constructed to facilitate natural gas extraction but purposely designed to blend in with the surrounding coastal environment. “.The islands contain significant landscaping, a waterfall, and tall structures concealing the drilling rigs, including one known as The Condo and mistaken for “a ritzy hotel” by those on land. The structures are lit by colored lights at night. The aesthetic mitigation cost $10 million at time of construction, and was overseen by theme park architect Joseph Linesch.”

Architectural Folly

THUMS Islands, Los Angeles 68

Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/THUMS_oil_island https://aoghs.org/technology/thums-california-hidden-oil-islands/


Design Research

“Even today, those islands are viewed as one of the most innovative oil field designs in the world,” Komin added in a 2015 Long Beach Business Journal article celebrating the production facilities’ 50th anniversary. “The islands have grown to become icons in which the City of Long Beach takes a great deal of pride.” The buildings constructed and palm trees planted along the periphery of the island become follies to mask the drilling activities taking place within.

Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ commons/f/f7/THUMS_oil_island https://aoghs.org/technology/thums-california-hidden-oil-islands/

69


Chapter 2

Tower of Hope is an iconic structure located next to a prestigious school, Beverly Hills High School. However, little do people know that the tower was constructed to wrap around equipment used to harvest hundreds of barrels of oil a day (as well as hundreds of thousands of cubic feet of natural gas). To camouflage the controversial ongoing drilling operation, the structure was transformed into a “155-foot-tall artwork--compliments of children throughout California. Youngsters in schools across the state joined hospitalized pediatric patients in painting stylized flowers on vinyl fabric panels that now cover the tower�.

Political Compromise

Tower of Hope, Los Angeles 70

Mural of colourful flower patterns

Source: https://99percentinvisible.org/article/hollywood-worthy-camouflage-uncovering-the-urban-oil-derricks-of-los-angeles/ https://archpaper.com/2014/07/will-beverly-hills-highs-plans-destroy-the-citys-most-famous-oil-derrick/


Design Research

“Beverly Hills High School, the only large high school in this affluent enclave of Los Angeles, has had a long and profitable relationship with Big Oil – indeed, the school receives approximately $300,000 a year (some sources say $700,000) in royalties courtesy of the hundreds of barrels of crude oil and 350,000 cubic feet of natural gas extracted from beneath the stylish campus every day.” Although oil drilling operation was a highly controversial issue, it could continue to operate in such an urban area because of its symbiotic relationship with the high school. Political exchange takes place between the two parties, ensuring that both receive benefits from the agreement. Source: https://99percentinvisible.org/article/hollywood-worthy-camouflage-uncovering-the-urban-oil-derricks-of-los-angeles/ https://weburbanist.com/2010/04/18/school-fuel-beverly-hillshighs-tower-of-hope/

71


Chapter 2

(Source: https://www.latinorebels.com/2019/06/20/ cityofoil/)

72


Design Research

The phenomenon of urban drilling in Los Angeles is not a recent one. In the 1890s, what used a small town of around 50,000 people began to experience a boom when extensive oil reserves were discovered. By 1930, California was producing for “a quarter of the world’s oil output. In some places, derricks were set so close to one another their legs overlapped, packed in like artificial trees or alien skyscrapers”. “For years, this strange urban-looking landscape of lanky towers served as a backdrop for beachfront activities, creating uncanny juxtapositions of industrial-age machinery and human-scale recreation” (Kohlstedt 2018).

Uncanny Juxtaposition Signal Hill, Los Angeles

(Source: https://la.curbed.com/maps/oil-los-angeles-drill-sitesoffshore https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/forest-of-wellsrigs-and-derricks-crowd-the-signal-hill-oil-news-photo/92925999 https://99percentinvisible.org/article/hollywood-worthy-camouflage-uncovering-the-urban-oil-derricks-of-los-angeles/)

73


Chapter 2

74

Source: https://hips.hearstapps.com/countryliving.cdnds. net/17/24/1497519760-romania-village.jpg


Design Research

Chapter 2.3: Submerged Architecture Geamana Village Derwent Village

75


Chapter 2

Geamana is a village located in Romania, which was evacuated and deliberately flooded in 1978 to make way for one of the continent’s largest copper mines. The colour of the water is a result of the toxic sludge thrown out by the mine. Residents were offered around £1,500 each to leave their homes - some of which had been there for generations. Within a year, the village was under the polluted, metallic water. “The lake is growing rapidly, and there are still people living in the area who live with the threat of poisonous water encroaching on their homes.” This has created an uncanny feeling as people witnessed the village being slowly submerged under the polluted water. Today, the site has become a famous tourist spot.

Rosia Poieni Copper Mine Source: https://www.systext.org/sites/all/images/contenus_articles/Ill_Valo-Roumanie_Cuivre-Rosia-Poieni_S5.png

The Uncanny Encounter Geamana Village, Romania 76

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6902847/Romanianghost-village-submerged-toxic-lake-40-years-flooded-buildmine.html


Design Research

Before

After

Source: https://www.rferl.org/a/romania-sinking-village-geamana-waste-copper-mine/28436792.html https://www.amusingplanet.com/2014/06/geamana-romanian-village-flooded-by.html

77


Chapter 2

Source: https://www.rferl.org/a/romania-sinking-village-geamana-waste-copper-mine/28436792.html https://i.dailymailco.uk/1s/2019/04/09/12/12047384-0-image-a-47_1554808608124.jpg

78


Design Research

Located in a valley, Derwent is a village that has lain submerged more or less continuously since it was deliberately flooded during the Second World War to provide extra water for the growing cities of Sheffield and Nottingham, despite vehement protest from local residents. By 1945, Derwent village no longer existed and in its place lies a sheet of blue: Ladybower Reservoir. Due to the long-dry spring and intensely hot summer, Derwent is accessible once more, only the third time since it was abandoned in 1943. The village has previously reemerged twice in the last 70 years, once after the drought of 1976 and again in 1995 following a period of hot and dry weather.

The Reemerging Village

Derwent Village, United Kingdom

Source: https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/news/976/cpsprodpb/3CA9/production/_98992551_derwentspire.jpg https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/11/25/vandalism-theft-blight-emergence-historic-drowned-derwent-village/mine.html https://turnock.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/image040.jpg

79


Chapter 2

Before

After

Source: https://turnock.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/ashopton_viaduct.jpg

80


Design Research

The unusual phenomenon has attracted “a frenzy of interest from experts and sightseers alike�. People are flocking the site to explore the ruins. The ruins become reminders of how life used to be.

Source: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/ news/2018/11/25/vandalism-theft-blight-emergence-historic-drowned-derwent-village/

81


Chapter 3

82


Design Proposal

Chapter 3: Design intervention The Pits The Village The Gas Drilling Site The Rice Field The Commercial Area The Cottages

83


Chapter 3

84


Design Proposal

85


Chapter 3

Masterplan 86


Design Proposal

87


Chapter 3

Sectional Perspective A-A

88


Design Proposal

89


Chapter 3

Section B-B

90


Design Proposal

B B

91


Chapter 3

Section B-B

92


Design Proposal

B B

93


Chapter 3

94


Design Proposal

Chapter 3.1: The Pits

95


Chapter 3

Filling up sequence People living around the mudflow area have been living in constant state of fear. Their houses are constantly at risk of being destroyed by the mudflow as its eruption may escalate anytime without anyone knowing. In order to subsume their fear, they need to prepare for the worst. Grounds surrounding the mudflow embankment will have to be excavated. The thesis perceives such excavation process as a pure response to the situation. These pits will be enormous. Yet they are empty, only waiting to be filled with the mudflow. Filling up sequence of the pits is based on the site topography--highest point is located on the northwest, lowest point on the southeast.

Empty pits 96


Design Proposal

Angle of repose is the steepest angle of dip relative to the horizontal planc to which materials can be piled without slumping. Earth soil has a typical angle of repose from 30-45. This ensures slope stability of the excavated pits. Slope stability will increase when the soil are planted with vegetation. Pit slopes also need to be benched to aid stability and contain any slope failure. Downward ramps (haul roads) are also needed for vehicular access.

Angle of repose 97


nd PitPit

1,640,600

1,640,600

Chapter 3

tMound VoMound lPuim e

Mound iltueme VoV luPom

VolumeMo PuitnPdit

9,543,800 Pit M VooM ulunom duned

9,543,800 Mound

VoV luomluem

9,262,100

9,262,100 9,262,100

9,262,100

2,838,800 4,365,900

2,838,800 4,365,900 2,838,800

4,544,300

4,544,300 4,544,300

4,544,300

6,122,900 4,534,100

6,122,900

2,299,600

2,299,600

1,374,200 2,360,300

1,374,200

2,299,600 2,299,600

662,800 662,800

662,800

604,146 6,413,500

604,146

662,800

1,616,600

1,640,600

1,616,600 9,591,800

2,911,000

2,911,000

1,640,600

9,543,800

1,640,600 1,640,600

9,543,800 9,543,800

9,543,800

2,360,300 2,360,300

6,413,500 6,413,500

9,591,800 9,591,800

11,005,20 11,005,200

11,005,200

2,713,200

4,534,100 4,534,100

2,713,200

4,365,900

4,365,900 4,365,900

4,365,900

2,235,600

2,235,600 2,235,600

6,122,900

6,122,900 6,122,900

6,122,900

26,770,900

26,770,90 26,770,900

1,374,200

1,039,500

1,039,500 1,039,500

604,146

6,701,200

6,701,200 6,701,200

Maximum 1,374,200

pit volume calculation 1,374,200 1,374,200

98

604,146

604,146 604,146


1,640,600

9,591,800

9,591,800

1,640,600

Design Proposal

9,543,800

11,005,20

9,543,800

P M V oliuut nmde Mound

ulPuneidm te VoMlVuoom

VPM oiltuom uned

0

9,262,100 4,365,900

2,838,800 9,262,100 4,365,900

2,838,800

2,838,800 2,235,600

2,235,600 2,838,800

0

6,122,900 4,544,300

6,122,900 4,544,300 4,534,100

4,534,100

26,770,900 4,534,100

26,770,90 4,534,100

1,374,200 2,360,300 2,299,600

2,360,300

1,039,500 2,360,300

1,039,500

0

1,374,200 2,299,600

604,146 662,800

604,146 6,413,500 662,800

6,413,500

6,701,200 6,413,500

1,616,600

1,616,600

1,640,600

9,591,800 1,640,600

9,591,800

1,119,500 9,591,800

2,911,000

2,911,000

9,543,800

11,005,200 9,543,800

2,713,200

2,713,200

4,365,900

2,235,600 4,365,900

Pm Mound ite Pit

0

0

0

0

0

Based on the predetermined angle of repose, the maximum amount of soil from each plot that can be excavated 26,770,900 6,122,900 This is to achieve6,122,900 is calculated. maximum efficiency of the pits, ensuring maximum amount of mudflow could be contained within each pit. 1,374,200

1,039,500 1,374,200

MoV u11,005,200 nodlu me

Volu me

2,360,300

6,701,200

6,413,500

1,119,500

9,591,800

7,459,500

7,459,500 11,005,200

11,005,200

11,005,20

1,129,500

1,129,500 2,235,600

2,235,600

2,235,600

26,770,900

26,770,900

26,770,90

1,039,500

1,039,500

1,039,500

99

604,146

6,701,200 604,146

6,701,200

6,701,200

6,701,200


Chapter 3

100


Design Proposal

Chapter 3.1: The Village

101


Chapter 3

Existing settlement

Aerial photo of the villages around the mudflow

(Source: Google Map, https://maps.google.com, 01 May 2020)

102


Design Proposal

Most of the villagers living around the mudflow have settled there for generations. They believe that Sidoarjo is their ancestor’s land and thus they have a very close affinity to the land. Even when their houses are at risk of being destroyed by the mudflow, they remain adamant and refuse to move. As such, instead of relocating them to a new location, which will split them from their neighbours and break their relationship with their original land, the project proposes to preserve the existing settlement in order to appease the villagers. Although this means that the villages will remain familiar to them, the grounds surrounding their villages will all be excavated to accommodate the mud. The familiar, idyllic setting of the village is juxtaposed against the unfamiliar and bizarre setting of the pits, located right outside their villages. Total area of the existing settlement that will be preserved, according to the different villages

Preserving the settlement

Source: Kecamatan Tanggulangin Dalam Angka 2018 (Tanggulangin District in Numbers 2018), https://sidoarjokab.bps.go.id

103


Chapter 3

104


Design Proposal

Chapter 3.4: The Gas Drilling Site

105


Chapter 3

Pit excavation is an extensive and expensive physical intervention. In order to incentivise the gas company to conduct the excavation process, the company will be allowed to exploit the natural gas reserves within the pits in the area once they are excavated. Financing the excavation process will entitle them to the right to exhaust the natural gas resources within the site as long as possible, until the mudflow comes. According to the local government regulation, gas drilling activities are currently permitted if they are located more than 2,500m away from the main source of eruption. Also, the operation areas have to be at least 100m away from the nearest settlement. Shaded areas indicate the permissible areas within site where gas drilling activities could be conducted.

Permissible gas drilling areas 106


Design Proposal

To prevent repeating mud flood disaster, gas drilling activities of Lapindo will be limited Maximum drilling depth of only 1,000m below surface will be allowed Mudflow eruption occured when the company drilled until 3,000m below surface Mudflow originates from the subsurface zone 1,5002,500m below the ground

Lapindo guarantees new gas drilling wells are safe to operate

Lapindo assures the public regarding the gas drilling safety as it follows the national regulation standard to keep a 100m setback distance from the nearest settlement Setback distance is the radius for a circular buffer around the drilling rig or pad site. The purpose of the buffer space is to protect public health, safety and welfare. Yet, it is important to highlight that such setback distance is often not based on technically reasons or scientifically proven. Rather, it is a form of highly politicised compromise between residents’ concerns about the proximity of gas wells to their homes, gas company’s rights to profit from gas drilling, and the government’s interest to extend its gas network infrastructure.

Setback distance as a political compromise

Source: https://katadata.co.id/berita/2016/01/08/cegah-banjir-lumpur-terulang-pengeboran-sumur-lapindo-dibatasi https://www.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/daerah/16/02/12/o2fxwo377-lapindo-jamin-pengeboran-sumur-baru-aman

107


Chapter 3

Drilling rig dimension

Minimum area needed for gas drilling operation is 100x100m. Setback distance from residential area is 100m.

Dimensions 108


Design Proposal

Natural wells have their highest production rates when they are initially brought to production. After a well starts to operate, its production rate will decline. The production would decline rapidly in the first few months, and then settle down to a slower decline that seems to last forever. When a new well is drilled, it usually penetrates a rock unit under pressure. Over time - as gas escapes from the well - the pressure in the formation goes down and so does the amount of gas released.

Daily production rate (Bcf/day)

Declining gas well production curve

Time (year)

Steepening natural gas decline rate in the U.S.

Given the rapid decline of the natural gas well productivity, each gas well has a limited useful life. A gas well will be abandoned when its yield becomes so little gas that it will be uneconomical to operate the gas well. Typically, the oil and gas company promises to provide a specific amount of gas per day and the pipeline company promises transmission capacity. Given the declining productivity of gas wells, gas company needs to keep drilling new wells to meet the amount of gas promised to the pipeline. This phenomenon is often called the “Red Queen Effect�.

Source: https://geology.com/royalty/production-decline.shtml

Limited useful life of a drilling well

https://seekingalpha.com/article/687501the-long-tail-of-natural-gas-production

109


Chapter 3

Given the limited useful life of a drilling well, coupled with the limited timeframe given to the gas company to exploit the gas reserves within the pit, the project assumes that the company will try to maximise its production output by drilling as many wells as possible in the excavated pit. The pit therefore has to be designed to accommodate the maximum number of drilling rigs and them to operate for the longest duration. To prolong the gas drilling operations, pits will be transformed into as a series of steps. This ensures that rigs on the higher platforms can still operate even when even mud has come and submerged those on lower levels. Once submerged, the drilling rigs will be left behind and serve a totem and reminder of what the place used to be.

Delaying time 110


Design Proposal

Existing settlement

1

2

3

4 Plot to excavate

Start

3

2

1

Furthest from settlement First to excavate

Existing settlement

1

2

3

4

Start

Lowest point First to drill

3

2

1

End Start

Drilling sequence will follow the excavation sequence accordingly. To respect the residential setback distance requirement and minimise complaints from residents, plots furthest from the settlement area will the first ones being excavated. They will be the deepest to excavate and the first to be drilled to extract natural gas.

Drilling sequence 111


Chapter 3

112


Design Proposal

Chapter 3.3: The Rice Field

113


Chapter 3

Since most of the grounds to be excavated are currently used as rice fields and owned by local residents, the excavation project can only be carried out if it gains approval from them. In order to appease the residents, they need to be properly compensated for their loss of agricultural land. This is done through the creation of rice terraces at the periphery of the existing settlement. The most arable layer topsoil excavated from the ground will be used to create the rice terraces, to ensure maximum rice productivity and output to people to enjoy. This intervention hopes to minimise resistance from the residents. Creation of the rice terraces offers a picturesque sight for people to enjoy. Here, one can marvel at the vast expanses of terraced, green rice paddies stepped along the newly constructed land mass. It is not improbable that this panoramic landscape could be established as a tourist destination for people to visit. At the same time, the rice terraces becomes a form of barrier that protects the inner villages from the mudflow. It gives people a greater sense of security while hiding the gas drilling actiivites happening inside the pit.

Compensating the residents 114

Source: https://cdn.idntimes.com/content-images/community/2019/01/496383902282202215333543-7641323006127967864-ncc9793e5ee6d18725eeb2023bc7946f8.jpg


Design Proposal

60m

60m

60m

In order to ensure that residents are properly compensated, the rice terraces created has to be able to yield enough rice output for people to enjoy. Rice terracing method, which has been practiced in different parts of Java, has been known to be able to boost rice output as water could be well-retained and recycled, ensuring nutrients could be properly absorbed. To ensure that the village can remain self-sufficient, the width of the rice terrace belt surrounding the village has to be at least 60 meter.

60m

Average rice consumption/capita = 114.6 kg Total rice consumption/year = 114.6 x 21,968 = 2,517,532 kg = 2,517 tonnes 1 year has 2 rice harvesting cycles, Total rice consumption per cycle = 2,517/2 = 1,258.5 tonnes Rice production per ha

= 7 tonnes

To meet rice consumption, Minimum rice farming area = 1,258.5/7 = 179.8 ha = 1,790,000 m2 If farming area needed is 1,790,000 m2, Minimum width of rice terraces = 60m

Rice output calculation 115


Chapter 3

Rice plant details 116


Design Proposal

Jajar Legowo rice planting pattern has been recently introduced by the govenment to boost rice output production by allowing enough distance between each row of rice plants to ensure enough sunlight exposure for the plants. This has been proven to increase the output by almost 25%, according to government sources.

Rice production output according to the different villages, based on the released government document

Jajar Legowo planting pattern

Source: Kecamatan Tanggulangin Dalam Angka 2018 (Tanggulangin District in Numbers 2018), https://sidoarjokab.bps.go.id

117


Chapter 3

118


Design Proposal

Chapter 3.4: The Commercial Area

119


Chapter 3

Larger businesses More permanent structure

Smaller businesses More temporary structure

To fully capitalise on the vast yet empty pits, the project speculates the possible emergence of new businesses to boost the economy on the pit slopes--ranging from micro businesses such as warungs run by local residents to restaurants to perhaps higher-end services such as resort and tourist attractions. Operation of drilling rigs that is labour-intensive also provides a market opportunity to the local residents to start their new businesses within the pits. The pit excavation suddenly offers new economic opportunities for the people. The pit becomes an extension of the existing settlement. The pits will be further stratified: small businesses will be located at the bottom of the pit to provide basic necessities while the ones on top will be allocated for businesses that require more investment. This stratification will also be further reflected in how the buildings are constructed. Since the shops at the bottom will be the first ones to be submerged, they will constructed using more temporary, cheaper materials such as bamboo. Only the ones located on top could be built using more permanent materials such as bricks and concrete structures.

Warungs (traditional provisional shops) are prevalent in most villages in Indonesia.

Source: https://www.cendananews.com/wp-content/ uploads/2018/11/IMG_20181129_134456_ HDR-e1543559551672.jpg

Economic stratification 120

https://katadata.co.id/berita/2019/11/29/ warung-pintar-tokopedia-dan-ovo-kolaborasi-untuk-rambah-warung


Design Proposal

Phase One

121


Chapter 3

Phase two

122


Design Proposal

Phase three

123


Chapter 3

Mud encroaching

Phase one: normal business

124

Phase one: moving up


Design Proposal

Resuming business

Phase two

Phase three

125


Chapter 3

126


Design Proposal

Chapter 3.4: The Cottages

127


Chapter 3

Circulation access

Pit slope

Cottage

A series of private cottages will be constructed at the upper part of the pit to take advantage of the scenic, idyllic view. Form of the cottages takes reference from the traditional Joglo roof typology that is prevalent in East Java. It has also been widely adopted in many resort in Indonesia. The distinctive Joglo roof form will contribute to the overall picturesque image of the area. At the same time, similar to the “aesthetic mitigation� on the oil islands of THUMS, the series of cottages will act as a folly to camouflage the drilling operations taking place within the pit when seen from the existing settlements.

Architectural folly 128

Circulation access


Design Proposal

Upper roof tier

Platform

Ring beam

Lower roof tier

Soko guru (Main column)

Brick wall

Joglo roof structure 129


Chapter 3

The private cottages are built for people to stay and enjoy the scenery. View towards the pits and rice terraces needs to be maximised. Yet, fear of the possibly impending mud flood always remains. Thus, to allow the cottages to be used as long as possible, perhaps only the rooms on the upper level--the most premium ones--could enjoy the luxury of having full-height openings.

Maximising the view 130


Design Proposal

Before mudflow

After mudflow Once the mud comes and inundates the private cottages, the roofscape will be transformed into a public space for the people to explore through the addition of temporary bridges connecting to one another. The public will be allowed to explore, enjoy and appreciate the ruins for one last time before they completely disappear.

Roofscape 131


Chapter 3

Submerged cottage

Sectional perspective 132


Design Proposal

Bamboo scaffolding

Temporary bridges

Submerged cottages

133


Chapter 3

Temporary network of bridges

134


Design Proposal

Exploring the ruins

135


Chapter 3

Experiencing the sublime

136


Design Proposal

137


Chapter 3

Drilling rig as a datum of the increasing mud level

138


Design Proposal

139


Chapter 3

Final Panel 1/3

140


Design Proposal

Final Panel 2/3

141


Chapter 3

Final Panel 3/3

142


Design Proposal

143


Appendix

144


Appendix

Appendix Appendix A: Supplementary Site Information Appendix B: Contamination and Bioremediation Appendix C: Land Art

145


Appendix

Appendix A Supplementary Site Information

146


Appendix

To Surabaya

Toll ro

ad

Train ra il

way

Madura Strait

Ne wt oll

roa

d

Shrimp farming Lapindo Mudflow

Porong River

Borrow area Borrow area

Pulau Sarinah

To Malang

Mount Penanggungan

Porong and its surroundings

147


Appendix

Drainage system of mudflow

Discharge rate of mudflow Data obtained from Ministry of Public Works (Source: https://simantu.pu.go.id/personal/img-post/adminbalai6/ post/20190715163832__F__LPP_rev_28_Juni_2019_1.pdf, 2019)

148


Appendix

Mud

Soil

Total Area

7.1 km2

Daily Increase

V=40,000 m3

Annual Increase (h=20m)

V=14,600,000 m3 A=730,000 m2

Amount Displaced (h=20m)

V=14,600,000 m3 A=730,000 m2

Amount Needed (h=20m)

A=325,000 m2

Excess (h=20m)

A=400,000 m2

120000

Liquid 70% (h=20m)

V=10,220,000 m3 A=511,000 m2 94800

Solid 30% (h=20m)

V=4,380,000 m3 A=219,000 m2 74200

Approximate amount of mud erupted annually Data obtained from Ministry of Public Works (Source: https://simantu.pu.go.id/personal/img-post/adminbalai6/ post/20190715163832__F__LPP_rev_28_Juni_2019_1.pdf, 2019)

149


Appendix

Subdivision of Porong over the years

Surabaya River

Porong River

Porong

Majapahit Kingdom Period (9th C) Porong as a brackish area with minimal fresh water source was seen as a marginalised area in a Javanese traditional agricultural society

Penjarakan Porong Canal Kedungcangkring Porong Canal Kali Mati Kali Mati

Dutch Colonialisation Period (1870s) Sugarcane plantation and factories were developed in the area. The canal was designed as both flood control and irrigation to support the increase in agriculture production, especially sugarcane in the Porong Basin.

150

Uprising in 1904 led by Kasan Mukmin against the Dutch Locals were not given a choice what or when to cultivate


Appendix

Renokenongo

Besuki

Toll road

Industrialisation Period (1980s) Industrialisation of Surabaya led to the development of transportation infrastructures. First project of toll road was developed between Surabaya and Pasuruan/Malang, passing through Porong. More than 500 new factories were built and growth of new settlements due to urban sprawl in Surabaya

Increase in built-up areas to accommodate the need to Surabaya marginalises the agricultural sector in Sidoarjo. Toll road causes division of more villages in Porong.

Renokenongo Renomencil

Lapindo Mudflow (2006) Industrialisation of Surabaya led to the development of transportation infrastructures. First project of toll road was developed between Surabaya and Pasuruan/Malang, passing through Porong. More than 500 new factories were built and growth of new settlements due to urban sprawl in Surabaya

Location of the drilling point is Renomencil, which has been rather abandoned for cultivation because of physical boundary of the toll road.

151


Appendix

Section

Volume (mil m3)

14m 500m

-21m

54

December 2007 15m 500m

-30m

70

June 2008

15m 500m

87

-39m

December 2008 15m 500m

103

-47m

June 2009 15m 500m

119

-55m

December 2009 16m 500m

-63m

June 2010

Approximation of mudflow sectional growth (Source: Istadi et al. 2009)

152

136


9170100

Appendix

DESA KALISAMPURNO DESA KALITENGAH

DESA GEMPOLSARI

9169200

Kali Ketapang

DESA KALIDAWIR

DESA KETAPANG

Kali Ke

tapang

DESA WUNUR

9170100

DESA KEDUNGBENDO

DESA PAMOTAN

KEL. SIRING DESA RENOKENONGO 9170100

DESA GLAGAHARUM

KEL. JATIREJO

KEL. GEDANG

9170100

DESA BESUKI

DESA KEBOGUYANG

DESA KD. CANGKRING KEL. MINDI

Train rail

Kali Porong 687000

rong

Kali Po

Kali Porong

way

9170100

DESA PEJARAKAN

688000

689000

690000

691000 Embankment collapse Protest

Locations of embankment collapse and protest 153


Appendix

Population density before eruption

Data obtained from Sidoarjo Statistical Institute (Source: https://sidoarjokab.bps.go.id/ publication/2017/09/12/879653636132d983335ed801/kecamatan-tanggulangin-dalam-angka-2017.html)

154


Appendix

Land price

Settlement distribution

155


Appendix

04 December 2006

Presidential Decree 14/2007

Presidential Decree 48/2008

Presidential Decree 40/2009

Expansion of disaster zone* according to Presidential Decree Disaster zone defined as inhabitable area due to mudflow activity. People living within the zone are expected to leave immediately

156


Appendix

Presidential Decree 37/2012

157


Appendix

Madura Strait

2005

Madura Strait

2005-2010

Area: 5.00 ha

Area: 78.20 ha

Madura Strait

Madura Strait

2010-2015

Area: 90.40 ha

Evolution of Pulau Sarinah

158

2015-Present

Area: 90.40 h + 6.20 ha


Appendix

15,530 ha

5,672 ha

10,261,800 kg

4,144 ha

area of shrimp farming

total shrimp production in 2013

area affected by mudflow

area of shrimp farming in Jabon

3,257

Penaues Vannamei1

farmers in the industry

30%

total fisheries export

Sidoarjo Regency

Penaues Monodon

15,530 ha 23%

2

Fishery area

Milkfish Chanos chanos3

Porong River

Seaweed Glacilaria sp4

Madura Strait

Fish farming in Sidoarjo 1. (Source: http://www.netfish.in/product/vannamei-prawnshrimp-frozen/) 2. (Source: https://fjb.m.kaskus.co.id/product/ 59981121de2cf23f298b4578 3. (Source: https://www.seafoodwatch.org/seafood-recommendations/groups/milkfish/overview) 4. (Source: https://www.orafarm.com/product/ pom-pom-gracilaria/)

Source: screen capture from Google by author, 2019.

159


Appendix

Drying seaweed

Working area

Sieving seaweed

Packing seaweed

Storage area

Seaweed and fish farming area

Seaweed and fish farming area (Source: Photo by author, 2019)

160


Appendix

Mudbrick production

Ojek driver resting area

Pump and pipes

Activities around mudflow embankment (Source: Photo by author, 2019)

161


Appendix

Appendix B Contamination and Bioremediation

162


Appendix

Distribution of Cd in Sidoarjo Mudflow

Distribution of Hg in Sidoarjo Mudflow

Element

Average

Std Dev

Distribution of Se in Sidoarjo Mudflow

Distribution of Pb in Sidoarjo Mudflow

Avg in clay soil

Distribution of detected metal contaminants in the mudflow (Source: Suprapto and Gunradi, n.d.)

163


Appendix

Installing silver and chromium plate

Collecting result from neighbours

Metal plate will turn black when exposed to sulfur gas

Detecting surfur gas in the air using metal plates installed across villages Source: Photo courtesy of Anton Novenanto, 2019

164


Appendix

Phytoremediation is one of the ways to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil. Listed above are various metal-absorbing plants that are able to clean soil. Indian mustard is one of the few “hyperaccumulators� that are able to accumulate metals in their shoots. Despite the high metal content in the soil, these plants are able to continue growing without suffering from poisoning, far in excess of the levels found in the majority of the species.

Possible ways of bioremediation (Source: https://alos.nyc/Dark-Ecology-of-Magnitogorsk)

165


Appendix

“Bioremediation is a soft bioengineering technique to clean up contaminated lands/sites using microbes (bacteria or fungus), plants (terrestrial and aquatic) and earthworms. It is also a technique to stabilize the eroded lands and prevent soil erosion. Bioremediation works carried out by the microorganisms are called ‘micro-remediation’ while those performed by plants are called ‘phyto-remediation’. Earthworms have also been found to perform some environmental cleaning jobs and is termed as ‘vermi-remediation’”.

Various types of vegetation that have the potential of performing bioremediation are listed here.

Possible ways of bioremediation (Source: Sinha et al. 2010)

166


Appendix

Different parts of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). a) Leaves b) Baby plant c) Rhizome d) Flower

“Water hyacinth is found to be suitable for controlling the urban and different types of waste water coming from the industry. It is also demonstrated that among the aquatic plants, water hyacinth is a decent and viable possibility for nutrient uptake and improving the water quality�

Possible ways of bioremediation: Water Hyacinth (Source: Rezania et al. 2015)

167


Appendix

Appendix C Land Art

168


Appendix

Shift

Richard Serra, 1970-1972

Shift is a large outdoor sculpture by American artist Richard Serra, located in King City, Ontario, Canada about 30 kilometers north of Toronto. The work was commissioned in 1970 by art collector Roger Davidson and installed on his family property. Shift consists of six large concrete forms, each 20 centimetres thick and 1.5 metres high, zigzagging over the northwest portion of the 4.03 hectares property’s rolling countryside. In 1990 the Township of King voted to designate Shift and the surrounding land as a protected cultural landscape under the Ontario Heritage Act. The slope of the concrete planes dispersed in the rolling topography forms a horizontal datum from which one can perceive and measure the fluctuations of the natural landscape. The sculpture thus becomes an index of the landscape’s form and would have no meaning unless it could be positioned in the context

Possible ways of bioremediation: Water Hyacinth (Source: Rezania et al. 2015)

169


Appendix

Phase—Mother Earth Nobuo Sekine, 1968

Mono-ha: Things-in-themselves Mono-ha was an art movement based in Japan, active from around 1968 to 1975. The artists tended to present natural and industrial materials such as stone, soil, wood, paper, cotton, steel plates, and paraffin—”things” (mono)—on their own or in combination with one another. Their aim was simply to bring ‘things’ together, as far as possible in an unaltered state, allowing the juxtaposed materials to speak for themselves. Hence, the artists no longer ‘created’ but ‘rearranged’ ‘things’ into artworks, drawing attention to the interdependent relationships between these ‘things’ and the space surrounding them. The aim was to challenge pre-existing perceptions of such materials and relate to them on a new level. In 1968, assisted by his friends, Nobuo Sekine constructed an earthwork titled Phase—Mother Earth for the first Suma Rikyu Park Contemporary Sculpture Exhibition in Kobe. The work consisted of a hole dug into the ground, 2.7 metres deep and 2.2 metres in diameter, with the excavated earth compacted into a cylinder of exactly the same dimensions. “Faced with this solid block of raw earth, the power of this object of reality rendered everybody speechless, and we stood there, rooted to the spot… I just wondered at the power of the convex and concave earth, the sheer physicality of it. I could feel the passing of time’s quiet emptiness… That was the birth of ‘Mono-ha’.”

(Source: Sekine, N., Aru kankyô bijutsuka no jiden, unpublished manuscript.

170


Appendix

City

Michael Heizer, 1970-1972

City, Michael Heizer’s life-long project, is quite possibly the largest piece of contemporary art ever attempted. Because the artist is a very private individual, little is known about City, except that he has been working on it since 1972 (he claims 1970). Located in the remote desert of Nevada, City comprises five phases, each consisting of a number of structures referred to as complexes. For the longest period of time, however, the location of City has been the subject of much speculation and could only finally be located through the use of aerial satellite of Google map

Source: https://someprefernettles.files.wordpress.com/2017/01/ michael-heizer-city-hiko-nevada-started-1972.jpg?w=700 https://cdn.archpaper.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/4590-180-Copyright-Triple-Aught-Foundation-view-1_labeled.jpg (Source: https://www.thelivingmoon.com/47john_lear/ 02files/Nevada_Michael_Heizers_City.html)

https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-c5tutWsr2tA/VR15vBrEPxI/ AAAAAAAARSk/8zAiPMvQy3o/s1600/heizer-city.jpg

171


Appendix

Olympic Mountain Project and Vertical Kilometer Walter de Maria, 1970

Shift is a large outdoor sculpture by American artist Richard Serra, located in King City, Ontario, Canada about 30 kilometers north of Toronto. The work was commissioned in 1970 by art collector Roger Davidson and installed on his family property. Shift consists of six large concrete forms, each 20 centimetres thick and 1.5 metres high, zigzagging over the northwest portion of the 4.03 hectares property’s rolling countryside. In 1990 the Township of King voted to designate Shift and the surrounding land as a protected cultural landscape under the Ontario Heritage Act. The slope of the concrete planes dispersed in the rolling topography forms a horizontal datum from which one can perceive and measure the fluctuations of the natural landscape. The sculpture thus becomes an index of the landscape’s form and would have no meaning unless it could be positioned in the context

Source: https://someprefernettles.files.wordpress.com/2017/01/ michael-heizer-city-hiko-nevada-started-1972.jpg?w=700

172


Appendix

The Monument of Fascism Jochen Gerz and Esther Shalev-Gerz, 1986

Originally, an inscription invited the passer-by to inscribe their names on the column. Over the course of seven years, a period during which many individuals did inscribe their name in the thin layer of soft lead, the column was gradually lowered into the ground. First unveiled in 1986, the column totally disappeared into the ground on 10 November 1993. This trace, or index of a process which has taken place, stands alone in the now empty site for the monument

Source: https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-c5tutWsr2tA/ VR15vBrEPxI/AAAAAAAARSk/8zAiPMvQy3o/s1600/ hizer-city.jpg

173


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Profile for Bonaventura Kevin

NUS Architecture Thesis - Confronting the Unknowable  

National University of Singapore M.Arch Architecture Thesis 2020 Link to video: https://vimeo.com/414478123

NUS Architecture Thesis - Confronting the Unknowable  

National University of Singapore M.Arch Architecture Thesis 2020 Link to video: https://vimeo.com/414478123

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