Welcome, To this new issue of our monthly digital lifestyle magazine for friends of Tunisia. Our magazines are now also published as part of the bluuprint publishing library, where you can find all our latest editions as well as past issues, plus many more free magazines and books to read. In this issue we look at items of current interest in Tunisia Topics, and complete our in-depth look at the archaeological wonder that is Dougga. There are all our regular lifestyle pages on healthy living, Tunisian cuisine, sport and books, and not forgetting our business directory. Throughout the magazine there are offers, many of which are free to enter, with great prizes available, and for those of you visiting Tunisia, there is our regular tourist guide and map, with a quick look at some of the main places of interest. So there really is something for everyone....
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In This Issue LIFESTYLE Tunisia Topics 08
Tunisia Tourism: On the up?
Tunisia celebrates a special Independence Day this year
Citizens of GCC countries plan to spend summer in Tunisia
Toluna launches online social voting community in Tunisia
Tunisia and France unite for solar future
110 million year-old dinosaur
skeleton discovered in south Tunisia
Discovering Tunisia's History Dougga ( Part V ) The Past and the Future
Healthy Living 26
Understanding fats for a healthy diet
April 2011 FEATURES Tunisian & Medterranean Cooking 32
Tunisian Tuna Brik Books
A History of Modern Tunisia Sport
Sami Trabelsi named Tunisias third coach this year
Tunisias Esperance win 5-0 to edge closer to the next round of the CAF Champions League
Tennis: GB defeat Tunisia in
Tunisia Tourist Map
Places of interest in Tunisia Business
47 REGULARS 52
The Birthday File
Tunisia Topics Tunisia Tourism: On the up? A few months ago in Hammamet, this former Mediterranean fisherman's village was a bustling, popular destination for European tourists. But, several weeks after Tunisia's "Jasmine Revolution," the white sand beaches of Hammamet are far from full. The old fortified town that is normally a busy attraction is still unusually quiet: Some museums and souvenir shops are closed, and waiters stand around in empty restaurants hoping for visitors to pass by. When the protests started in Tunisia in early December and made their way to Tunis, thousands of tourists left the resort towns, and after the fall of Ben Ali, the country saw a drop of 40 percent in the number of tourists in January.
By the end of January, the growth forecast for Tunisia had dropped from 5 percent to 2 percent, as the political unrest would hit the tourism sector the hardest. That proved an additional burden for this country of 10 million people because the tourism sector employs about 400,000 Tunisians and hundreds of thousands more live indirectly from it. Tourism brought in nearly 2.5 billion euros in receipts last year, which represents more than 6 percent of Tunisia's gross domestic product.. The interim government has since launched the â€œI love Tunisia, the place to be ... now!â€? campaign to attract people back to the country and tour operators have significantly slashed their prices. Today, a package vacation to the four-star Hammamet Regency can be booked for 200 euros instead of 450 euros a week â€” and steadily the tourists are returning.
Tunisia Topics Earlier this month, Tourism Minister Mehdi Houass said the Jasmine Revolution's overthrow of Ben Ali was " good promotion" that may help the sector because Tunisia had become famous worldwide. "The revolution has made our country known around the whole world," he said. "We want to tell all our friends [abroad] that they can come to Tunisia and experience an atmosphere of peace and freedom." Tunisia is hoping that European tourists will return to enjoy the country's 875 miles of Mediterranean coastline, Roman ruins and the Sahara desert. And surely now is the best time to do this with uncluttered beaches and a warm welcome from the thousands who rely on visitors for their livelyhood.
The Chich Khan hotel, a gigantic resort in Hammamet owned by the Spanish chain Iberostar, decided to keep its doors open throughout. “Currently, we mostly have Tunisian guests — February has been extremely slow,” said Walid Rakez, the assistant general manager of the hotel. “It's picking up slowly. I am very optimistic. People who want to discover the new free Tunisia will come in great numbers. I think we're going to see more of cultural tourism.” Tunisians, however, are not regretting the high economic price they are paying for overthrowing a dictator. “As the old expression goes: 'Dignity before bread,'” said Mohammed, a hotel reception manager on the southern island of Jerba, the other major tourist destination in Tunisia. “People are happy to be able to speak, to be free.”
Tunisia Topics Tunisia celebrates a special Independence Day this year Tunisians celebrated Independence Day with this year having a particular significance as it is the first national event after the January 14th revolution. Addressing the Tunisian people on the 55th anniversary of independence, during a ceremony at Carthage Palace and attended by Prime Minister Beji Caid Essebsi and members of the interim government, President Mebazaa underlined the revolution was an extension of the Tunisian people's fight for independence. It was also a testiment to the martyrs of the liberation movement who made the supreme sacrifice for Tunisia's glory so that the Tunisian people could live in freedom and dignity, he said. "The January 14th Revolution is a historical moment that deserves to be elevated to the rank of a National Day," underlined Mebazaa. Therefore, from next year, January 14th will be celebrated as Revolution and Youth Day, in tribute to the the two values immortilised by this event in Tunisia.
As regards the priorities for the future, Mebazaa explained that the Revolution helped to break for good with the former regime. "Today we are called on to materialise the objectives of the Revolution", asserted Mebazaa, citing in particular the achievement of the democratic transition towards a new regime which draws its legitimacy from the people, and is based on pluralism, freedom, equality and social justice.
Many citizens of the GCC countries plan to spend summer in Tunisia and Egypt Many Gulf Cooperation Council citizens, from Qatar, UAE, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, say that they are planning to visit Tunisia or Egypt next summer as a way of supporting the tourism sector in these countries that remains affected by the recent uprising. The tourism industry in the Middle East in general suffered following the political unrest in the region, a senior official of the Arab Tourism Organisation revealed recently. Apparently, Egypt and Tunisia being the two most affected countries.
Asked if they would reschedule their travel plans next summer to visit any of the two countries, more than 66 percent responded in positive. A similar percentage of the surveyed also said they were interested to buy products from Egypt and Tunisia to support their economies. They called on shopps to display their products prominently so they can easily be identified.
Responding to a survey conducted by a local Arabic daily, a number of GCC citizens expressed solidarity with the mass uprising that led to the fall of the dictatorial regimes in these countries and said they were keen to support their economies, in whatever way possible.
Eighty-nine percent of the respondents said they were ready to provide financial support to Egypt and Tunisia and 11 percent said they were willing to invest in projects in these countries.
Seventy-seven percent of the respondents said they had plans to visit one of these countries soon while 66 percent of them said they would take up if any promotional offers are available.
Interestingly, a majority of the respondentsâ€”more than 50 percentâ€”said the revolution had helped them know more about these countries, especially Tunisia. Some said they had no idea about the tourist attractions in Tunisia until the uprising. Sources from the tourism industry say that they have been witnessing a steady increase in the number of people travelling to these countries, particularly after the uprising became a success.
Tunisia Topics Toluna Launches Online Social Voting Community in Tunisia In support of new Tunisian democracy, Toluna, the first social voting network has put together a special task force to launch toluna.tn, to allow the people of Tunisia to share their opinions and vote on a number of different topics. Founder and CEO of Toluna, Frederic Charles Petit commented, "The Tunisian people are very dear to my heart and therefore I wanted to give them the opportunity to be able to freely share their thoughts and opinions via Toluna's global online social voting community."
Toluna.com now has social voting communities in 35 countries across the world. Toluna is the world's leading independent online panel and survey technology provider to the global market research industry. The company provides online sample and survey technology solutions to the world's leading market research agencies, media agencies and corporations, from its 17 offices in Europe, North America and Asia Pacific. Unlike other panel providers, Toluna has developed a unique online community approach to the management of its panels. Through the use of web 2.0-based technology it has created the world's first social voting community site toluna.com, focusing on maximizing panellist engagement to offer increased survey responsiveness and data reliability to its clients. In addition Toluna is enabling organisations to generate valuable customer insight by creating, hosting and managing their own online communities using its software as a service community management solution; PanelPortal. Toluna's portfolio of research technology solutions also include QuickSurveys - an online self-service tool that enables you to ask 15 questions and receive 2,000 responses in a few hours, Interactive Voice Response, mobile survey capabilities and BrandSpector a new approach to measuring the efficiency and effectiveness of online advertising campaigns using Toluna's online panel.
Tunisia Topics Tunisia and France unite for solar future Tunisia and France have signed an agreement on an arrangement for the development and rational use of renewable energy. Initialed by the Tunisian Minister of Industry and Technology, Abdelaziz Rassaa, and French Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry, Eric Besson, the agreement aims to establish an institutional and technical cooperation for carrying out projects in the field of renewable energy. Under the agreement, which is part of the Tunisian Solar Plans (TSP) and Mediterranean Solar Plans (PSM), both parties will work to strengthen their energy cooperation, particularly through support and contribution to the implementation of common programmes and projects.
It requires both parties to identify and develop tools needed for the economic viability of renewable energies in Tunisia and establishing mechanisms for the development of electricity produced in Tunisia from renewable energy sources on the European markets. Both parties will be responsible for promoting opportunities in the financial management sector and the technological and scientific component for enhancing partnership between institutions engaged in research and development of solutions in terms of renewable energies.
Tunisia Topics 110-million-year-old dinosaur skeleton discovered in south Tunisia The nearly intact skeleton fossil of a dinosaur believed to have lived about 110 million years ago was recently discovered in south Tunisia, the official press agency reports. The fossil was found about 50 cm beneath the ground near the town of Tataouine, some 450 km south to the capital Tunis, by a team of researchers from Tunisia's national mining authority and Italy's Bologna University. According to an engineer working at the Tunisian mining authority, the dinosaur is 15 metres long. The skeleton has been taken to the mining authority before being sent to Bologna for scientific examination. It is expected to return to the Memory of the Earth Museum in Tataouine later. In 2010, fossils with large footprints of both herbivore and carnivore dinosaurs were found in the desert town of Chenini, which is near Tataouine. The first discovery of dinosaur fossils in Tunisia dates back to 1955. The fossils are currently displayed at the Tataouine Memory of the Earth Museum.
Dougga (Part V) : The Past and the Future For this, the fifth and final part of our in-depth look at Dougga, one of the greatest archaeological sites of the ancient world, we explore the layout and discoveries made thus far, and look to the future of this archaeological wonder. Dougga itself (or Thugga as it was often referred to in Latin texts), is mainly an ancient Roman city in northern Tunisian. It is the size of Dougga, as well as its well-preserved monuments and rich Punic, Numidian, ancient Roman and Byzantine history, that make it exceptional. The history of the settlement of Dougga is best known from the time of the Roman conquest, even though numerous pre-Roman monuments have been discovered during archaeological digs. Although not so well documented, these monuments are an indication of the site's importance long before the arrival of the Romans. The original city appears to have been founded in the 6th century BC, and was always an early and important human settlement, and although our knowledge of the city before the Roman conquest remains very imited, recent archaeological finds have revolutionised the image that we had of this period.
Places: Discovering Tunisiaâ€™s History
Places General layout
The city as it exists today consists essentially of remains from the Roman era dating for the most part to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The Roman builders had to take account of the site’s particularly craggy terrain and of earlier constructions, which led them to abandon the normal layout of Roman settlements.
Cisterns and aqueducts
Recent archaeological digs have confirmed the continuity in the city’s urban development. The heart of the city has always been at the top of the hill, where the forum replaced the Numidian agora. As Dougga developed, urban construction occupied the side of the hill, so that the city always remained compact in size and shape.
The six cisterns of Aïn El Hammam, situated close to the Temple of Juno Caelestis, have a total capacity of 6000m³ but are in ruins. They were fed by a spring 12 kilometres away and an aqueduct constructed during the reign of Commodus and restored in the last quarter of the 4th century AD.
Dougga has two networks of cisterns, in the north and in the west, one of which is particularly well preserved. An aqueduct leading to the city, located a short distance from the well-preserved cisterns, is amongst the best preserved examples of this type of structure in modern-day Tunisia.
Aïn Mizeb cisterns
Early archaeological digs concentrated on public buildings, which meant that private buildings tended at first to be uncovered at the ends of the trenches dug for this purpose. Later, trenches were cut with the purpose of exposing particularly characteristic private buildings.
Numidian residence Traces of a residence dating to the Numidian era have been identified in the foundations of the temple dedicated to Liber. Although these traces are very faint, they served to disprove the theories of the first archaeologists, that the Roman and pre-Roman settlements were located on separate sites. The two settlements evidently overlapped.
This site is still used once annually for a festival celebrating Mokhola, who was a female saint and benefactor of Moroccan origin according to local tradition. The veneration of Mokhola was traditionally accompanied by animal sacrifices, showing this tradition to have pagan origins.
The Aïn El Hammam cisterns in front of the Temple of Juno Caelestis
The object of veneration was originally the spring, known as fons moccolitanus. The second network of cisterns, the cisterns of Aïn Mizeb, is very well preserved. Located close to the Temple of Minerva, these eight domed reservoirs can hold 9000m³ and feature a basin into which they decant. The cisterns are fed by a spring located 200 metres away connected via an underground aqueduct. A final network of secondary cisterns is located in the vicinity of the Aïn Doura Bath, in the south-west of the site.
Streets Dougga’s streets are not laid out as prescribed by the normal theoretical model of a Roman settlement – around a cardo and a decumanus – as a result of the city’s unique design. The centre of the city was probably paved; the streets resembled meandering lanes. The city had sewers, as is evidenced by the access stones that are still in place in the streets. At the foot of the hill, there are traces of streets joining with the main road from Carthage.
Mosaic floor decoration in the house of Venus
Discoveries made at Dougga
This is a consequence of the discovery of Dougga’s works of art at a time when archaeological sites were robbed of their treasures and abandoned after a dig.
The site at Dougga has offered up numerous works or art, many of which have been removed and placed in museums, most notably the Bardo National Museum in Tunis.
This approach has made it possible to preserve a certain number of mosaics with their colours intact; other mosaics that were uncovered but not removed have suffered due to their exposure to the elements.
Works in situ Few works of art have been left in situ, with the exception of a sculpture of a togatus at the “square of the Rose of the Winds” and a number of mosaics, including those in the building known as the house of Venus and in particular at the Aïn Doura Bath.
A proposal to construct a museum on the site is being studied. It would serve in particular to house recent discoveries and those yet to be made.
Works at the Bardo National Museum Statues A number of heads of emperors have been discovered during the digs at the site. Amongst these, the portrait of Lucius Verus is particularly noteworthy: he is depicted with a generous head of hair, a full beard and a vivacity that makes it one of the most significant statues yet discovered in Roman Africa. This African masterpiece was realised in marble from Carrara and still has traces of colour amongst the hairs. The museum also houses a togatus that dates from the 3rd century AD. It depicts an aged man, who has a short beard and is dressed in a toga. It seems certain that this is a later work of art reflective of the contemporary taste in art. Mosaics The butler’s mosaic dating from the middle of the 3rd century AD features a drinking scene. Two characters
are serving two others, who are much smaller, from amphoras on their shoulders. The two amphoras bear the letters PIE (“Drink!” in Latin) and ZHCHC (“You will live” in Ancient Greek). The amphora bearers are flanked by another two characters, one of whom is carrying another amphora, the other of whom is carrying a branch of laurel and a basket of roses. This depiction is a greeting to all guests and a promise of hospitality. The same is true of another mosaic held at the museum which bears the phrase Omnia tibi felicia (May everything please you).
Ulysses and the sirens.
The mosaic of the victorious charioteer dates from the second half of the 4th century AD, and features the phrase Eros omnia per te (Eros everything for you). The depiction of the charioteer shows great attention to realism, as do the depictions of the horses, two of which are named Amandus and Frunitus after their characters. The horses are arranged symmetrically; such symmetries were very popular at the time. The charioteer is holding a whip, a crown made of branches and a palm branch. The starting blocks of the circus can be seen in the background. This work of art was found in a private residence and it appears that it must be interpreted as a monument donated by the owner celebrating the victory of a charioteer named Eros.
The Ulysses mosaic is a work inspired by the Odyssey. The Greek hero is seen standing on a boat that is decorated with a human head and a palm branch and that has two sails and a battering ram. Ulysses’s hands are tied to the main mast so that he will not succumb to the fatal charm of the sirens’ music. Ulysses’s companions are seated around him, their ears blocked with wax as described in the legend. Three sirens stand at the base of a rocky crag. They are depicted with the bust of a woman, but with the wings and legs of a bird. One of them holds a flute, the second a lyre, while the third, who does not carry an instrument, is believed to be the singing siren. In front of Ulysses’s boat, there is a small barque with a fisherman holding a lobster, the depiction of which is over-sized. The mosaic has been dated to around 260-268 AD.
Neptune and the pirates
The mosaic Neptune and the pirates originates from the same style as the preceding work. It depicts the punishment of pirates on the Tyrrhenian Sea, merging themes linked to Dionysus and more common marine themes. The god is standing, ready to throw his spear. He is supported by a maenad, a satyr and aged Silenus, who is holding the ship’s rudder. A leopard is attacking one of the pirates, who are transformed into dolphins as soon as they recognise the divine nature of their adversary. To the left, genii have boarded another ship, while to the right, fishermen are attempting to catch an octopus with a net.
The mosaic of the cyclopses forging Jupiter’s thunderbolts from the floor of a frigidarium depicts three cyclopses: Brontes, Steropes and Pyracmon (Arges). They are depicted naked, forging Jupiter’s thunderbolts, which Vulcan, seated in front of them, is holding on an anvil. This last element has been lost. The mosaic dates to the end of the 3rd century AD and was discovered in the Bath of the Cyclopses.
Dougga Works held in other museums The bilingual inscription from the mausoleum taken by consul Read is still at the British Museum. No attempt has been made to return it to the monument at Dougga. The inscription shows the same text in both the Punic language and the Libyan language.
Rediscovery and future of the site The city appears to have experienced an early decline, as evidenced by the relatively poor remains from the Christian era. The Byzantine era saw the area around the forum transformed into a fort; several important buildings were destroyed in order to provide the necessary materials for its construction. Dougga was however never completely abandoned, and for a long time, it was the site of a village populated by the descendents of the cityâ€™s former inhabitants, as shown by the small mosque situated in the Temple of August Piety and the small bath dating to the Aghlabid period on the southern flank of the forum. The first Western visitors to have left eyewitness accounts of the ruins reached the site in the 17th century. The best-preserved monuments, including the mausoleum, were described and, at the end of this period, were the object of architectural studies.
Cyclopses forging Jupiterâ€™s thunderbolts The establishment of the French Protectorate in Tunisia in 1881 led to the creation of a national antiquities institute (Institut national du patrimoine), for which the excavation of the site at Dougga was a priority from 1901, parallel to the works carried out at Carthage. The works at Dougga concentrated at first on the area around the forum; other discoveries ensured that there was an almost constant series of digs at the site until 1939. Alongside these excavations, work was conducted to restore the capitol, of which only the front and the base of the wall of the cella were still standing, and in particular between 1908 and 1910 to restore the mausoleum
Dougga Dougga ruins among the olive trees
After independence, other buildings were excavated, including the Temple of Caracallaâ€™s victory in Germany. During the same period, the last inhabitants of the site were evicted and relocated to a village located on the plain several kilometres from the antique site, which is named New Dougga. In 1991, the decision was taken to make the site into a national archaeological park. A cooperative scientific programme aims in particular to promote the study of the inscriptions at the site and the pagan temples. In 1997, Dougga was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. Despite its importance and its exceptional state, Dougga remains off the beaten track for many tourists (the site receives around 50000 visitors per year).
In order to make it more attractive, the construction of an on-site museum is being considered, while the Institut national du patrimoine has established a website presenting the site and the surrounding region. For the time being, visitors with sufficient time can appreciate Dougga, not only because of its many ruins, but also for its olive groves, which give the site a unique ambiance.
Photos sourced from Pradigue/Profburp/Giorces/Wiki
Sorting out the fats Eating low fat food doesnâ€™t mean we should give up fat entirely, but we do need to educate ourselves about which fats should ideally be avoided and which ones are more heart-healthy.
Letâ€™s be clear: we need fat in our diet. As the most concentrated source of calories (nine calories per gram of fat compared with four calories per gram for protein and carbohydrates), it helps supply energy. Fat provides linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid for growth, healthy skin and metabolism. It also helps absorb fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E and K). And, let's face it, fat adds flavour and is satisfying, making us feel fuller and keeping hunger at bay. Although all fats have the same amount of calories, some are more harmful than others: saturated fats and hydrogenated fats in particular.
U n d e r s ta n d i n g F a ts fo r a H e a l th y D i e t
Understanding Fats Saturated Fats These fats are derived from animal products such as meat, dairy and eggs. But they are also found in some plantbased sources such as coconut, palm and palm kernel oils.
These fats are solid at room temperature. Saturated fats clog our arteries and directly raise total and LDL (bad) cholesterol levels. Avoid them as much as possible.
Hydrogenated Fats These are actually unsaturated fats, but they can raise total and LDL (bad) cholesterol levels while also lowering HDL (good) cholesterol levels. Hydrogenated fats are used to extend the shelf life of processed foods, typically biscuits, cakes, fries and donuts. Any item that contains “hydrogenated oil” or “partially hydrogenated oil” likely contains these fats. Hydrogenation is the chemical process that changes liquid oils into solid fats. The tide is slowly turning against hydrogenated fats, as now most food manufacturers are required to list the hydrogenated fat content on food labels.
Understanding Fats Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats are two types of unsaturated fatty acids. They are derived from vegetables and plants. Monounsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature but begin to solidify at cold temperatures. This type of fat is preferable to other types of fat and can be found in olives, olive oil, nuts, peanut oil, canola oil and avocados. Some studies have shown that these kinds of fats can actually lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and maintain HDL (good) cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats are also liquid at room temperature. These are found in safflower, sesame, corn, cottonseed and soybean oils. This type of fat has also been shown to reduce levels of LDL cholesterol, but too much can also lower your HDL cholesterol.
Omega-3 fatty acids These are â€œessentialâ€? fatty acids, which means they are considered critical for our health but cannot be manufactured by our bodies. Good sources include cold-water fish, flax seed, soy, and walnuts. These fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and also boost our immune systems. So read those food labels carefully and choose your fats wisely. And as a rule of thumb, liquid fats are better for you than solid fats.
Tunisian & Mediterranean Cooking In Tunisia, briks are very popular and delicious snacks and appetizers. The recipes can vary depending on personal taste, but this is a variation on the idea using spring roll wraps and is quick and easy to make.
capers and olives and mix well. Add the mashed potato and mix again. Wrap and fry like spring rolls. Position one wrapper like a diamond with one point facing you. Place about 1 tablespoon of filling across the bottom about 2" from the lowest corner. Fold the bottom corner up over the filling. Fold the left and right corners to the center and press down firmly to seal, forming an envelope. Finish by rolling up, sealing the top corner with a little bit of flour paste as a glue.
Ingredients 1 to ½ potatoes, peeled and cubed ½ medium onion, diced Extra virgin olive oil 2 (5oz) cans of tuna, well drained 1 Tbsp parsley, chopped 1 Tbsp cilantro, chopped 2 Tbsp capers ½ cup green olives, pitted and sliced Salt and pepper to taste Spring Roll Wrappers Oil for frying
Deep fry the spring rolls a few at a time, until crisp and golden. Drain on paper towels.
Step by step Place the potatoes in a pan, cover with water and bring to a boil and cook until very tender. Drain well and then mash, season with salt and pepper to taste and set aside.
Note: Spring roll wrappers can be found in any Asian shops and most supermarkets, or you can have a go at making your own with just;•1 cup all-purpose flour •1/4 teaspoon salt •3/4 cup water
In a small frying pan, fry the onion in olive oil until softened. Set aside.
In a large bowl, stir the salt into the flour. Mix the water into the flour to form a batter. Cover and leave to rest for 1 hour.
Put the drained tuna in a bowl and break up the chunks, add onions, parsley, cilantro,
Spray a non-stick pan with cooking spray and when hot, turn the heat down to low
and add a heaped tablespoon of the batter to the middle of the pan. Quickly spread out evenly to form a circle 5 - 6 inches in diameter. Continue smoothing out the batter and cook briefly, until it is cooked on the bottom and the edges curl slightly.
Take care not to overcook. Remove carefully and refrigerate or freeze until ready to use. The amount of water needed will depend partly on the dryness of the flour, but the batter should be well mixed and fairly thick, but still thin enough to drop off the back of a wooden spoon.
A History of Modern Tunisia
Kenneth Perkins' book traces the history of Tunisia from the midnineteenth century to the present. After initially examining the years of French colonial rule from 1881 to 1956, when the Tunisians achieved independence, he describes the subsequent process of state-building, including the design of political and economic structures and the promotion of a social and cultural agenda. In conclusion, Perkins reviews the years since 1987, when a new regime came to power. Perkins' informed introduction is a necessity for those who study the region, and also for travellers who want more comprehensive information than most guidebooks offer. Kenneth Perkins is Professor of History at the University of South Carolina.
amazon.co.uk A History of Modern Tunisia (Paperback)
Kenneth J. Perkins (Author)
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Sami Trabelsi named Tunisia's third coach this year Former Tunisia international Sami Trabelsi has been named as the country's third national team coach in as many months. The 43-year-old, who previously coached Tunisia's Olympic team and played at the 1998 World Cup, is tasked with securing a berth at the 2012 African Nations Cup finals, being co-hosted by Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. Trabelsi's appointment was decided at a meeting of the Tunisian Football Federation on Thursday and comes after he led home-based players to success in last month's African Nations Championship in Sudan. Trabelsi replaces Ammar Souyah, who was appointed in February to replace Faouzi Benzarti but departed without taking charge of a single game. Benzarti had been brought back to the job a few weeks earlier but quit in the wake of the popular uprising in the north African country that led to the toppling of the government.
Benzarti later said he had been pressurised into taking the post by then-president Zine al-Abdine Ben Ali. Tunisia are still in the running to grab one of the two automatic qualification spots from their group but have three crunch matches to come over the next few months. Trabelsi will debut at the helm of the team when they meet Oman in a friendly in Muscat on March 29th.
SPORT Tunisian giants Esperance defeat ASPAC 5-0 to edge closer to the next round of the CAF Champions League In their first official game since the Jasmine revolution, Tunisian champions Esperance delivered a demonstration of power against Benin champions ASPAC, beating them 5-0 in Rades in the CAF Champions League round 16 first leg. The Tunisians largely dominated the game and had the match in their pockets once Youssef Msakni (8th and 15th minutes) and Malian striker Draman Traore (12th minute) had bagged goals in quickfire succession inside the opening 15 minutes. Cingo Maxime (25) and Oussama Darragi (32) completed the rout to give them 5-0 first half lead. But that was all the action and the hosts didn't exert any more pressure in the second half, sitting on their huge home advantage that kills off any hopes of a comeback during the return leg in two weeks. Esperance suffered their own such humiliation when they were crushed by Congolese side TP Mazembe 5-0 in last year's CAF Champions League final first leg.
Tennis: GB defeat Tunisia in Davis Cup James Ward was the hero as Britain’s Davis Cup squad celebrated victory over Tunisia at the Bolton Arena. Ward gained two of the three wins that settled the Euro-Africa World Group II tie, including a singles win over Tunisian number one, Malek Jaziri. The 24-year-old Londoner twice came from a set down to beat Jaziri 8-6 in a dramatic closefought fifth set.
Ward’s win, after whitewashing Sami Ghorbel on the opening day, secures a meeting with Ireland or Luxembourg in July. Britain’s other weekend win came in the doubles where Jamie Murray and Colin Fleming defeated Jaziri and Slim Hamsa. And Jamie Baker beat Hamza 6-1, 6-4 in the dead rubber to complete a final 4-1 triumph. “We have to be pleased with the win,” said British captain Leon Smith. “It’s another step in the right direction.But we should be winning matches at this level.”
TUNISIA is a beautiful country with many places of interest well worth a visit. The information on these pages is a quick guide to just some of those, but by no means a comprehensive list of all that Tunisia has to offer. TUNISIA is situated on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, bordered by Algeria in the west and Libya in the southeast. An abrupt southern turn of its shoreline gives Tunisia two faces on the Mediterranean with a coastline 1,148 kilometres in length. Despite its relatively small size, Tunisia has great geographical and climatic diversity. An extension of the Atlas Mountains, traverses Tunisia in the north to the Cape Bon peninsula. The Sahil is along Tunisia's eastern Mediterranean coast famous for its olive groves and beaches. Inland from the Sahil are the Steppes. Much of the southern region is semi-arid and desert leading into the Sahara.
TUNIS is the capital of Tunisia, and is divided into the old city, known as the medina, and the new city (ville nouvelle in French). Although located on the Mediterranean coast, it is spared much of the tourist beaches and resorts, which lay to the north and south.
With a population of over 1,500,000, the city still has the feel of being small and compact.The must-see attractions of the capital are The Souq, which is known as one of the most authentic and hassle-free in all of Northern Africa.
Bardo Museum, occupying the 13th century palace of the Ottoman-era ruler and renowned for its extensive collection of Roman mosaics.
Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul. Built in 1882, this is the largest surviving building from the colonial era, in the neoRomanesque style. Zitouna Mosque. The largest mosque in Tunisia and an important landmark, dating from the 8th century, although the distinctive square minaret is a later 19th century addition.
Tourist Guide The ruins of CARTHAGE, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a former city of the Pheonician and Punic periods dating from the 6th Century BC, and are situated 12 km north of Tunis. This was the base of a powerful empire spanning the entire south Mediterranean and home to a population of the order of half a million people. Its most famous general was Hannibal who famously crossed the Alps to battle the Romans. In 146BC the city finally fell to Rome and its destruction ordered by the Senate. The site was later redeveloped by the Romans and Carthage became the capital of the province of Africa.
SFAX is the country’s second city by virtue of it’s population and it’s prowess as a large industrial centre. Situated on the east coast of Tunisia, 270 km south of Tunis, the city was founded in AD 849 and is a thriving Mediterranean port sited on the Gulf of Gabes. From here, you can also take the ferry to Kerkennah Island where you can wander around in a land, virtually unspoilt by modern standards.
Tourist Guide SOUSSE is a popular destination, with tourists from Britain, Germany and many East European counties visiting the area. It is one of Tunisiaâ€™s oldest cities, and boasts an authentic medina, which has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
MONASTIR is a city situated 165km southeast of Tunis and 24 km east of Sousse, on the eastern Mediterranean coast. It is an ancient city dating from Phonecian times, and it is believed it takes itâ€™s name from the French "monastĂ¨re" (monastery). It is the site of a busy international airport which caters mainly for tourist flights from Europe. Sights to see are theimposing Ribat, which is a fortified monastery located next to the sea with great views from its walls and towers. It has been used in several films as a stand in for Jerusalem, most notably "Monty Python's Life of Brian".
Situated on the Mediterranean coast it has good beaches and many first class hotels. Most of Sousse's sights are located within the medina, the labyrinth which is at the heart of the city. The Great Mosque is a tranquil place despite its location in the middle of the city. Built in 850 AD, it is simple and austere in the Aghlabite style. The Ribat, whilst not as impressive or extensive as the one in Monastir, is a fortified holy site well worth visit. It served as home to a branch of Islamic warriors very similar in nature to the Hospitaller Knights that lived in Rhodes. Climbing to the top of the watch tower affords you fantastic views over the Medina.
Also, there is the impressive Mausoleum of Habib Bourguiba in the centre of a large cemetery in Monastir, which is the resting place and home of the founding president of modern Tunisia.
Tourist Guide HAMMAMET is a resort town located in the south east of the northern peninsula of Cap Bon in the Governorate of Nabeul, on the northern edge of the Gulf of Hammamet.It lies just 65km south of Tunis and 85km north of Sousse and was one of the first tourist destinations in Tunisia. Due to its fine beaches it has become a popular destination for European visitors particularly for itâ€™s swimming and water sports, with a population that regularly quadruples due to tourists in the summer months. The area is particularly known for its jasmine, and this is how the more recent, adjacent tourist resort of Yasmine Hammamet came by its name.
BIZERTE is located on the north coast of Tunisia, 65 km north of Tunis and 15 km from Cap Blanc (the northern-most point in Africa). Noted for its beautiful forests, beaches and scenery, it is known as the oldest and most European city in Tunisia. Originally founded around 1000 BC by Phoenicians from Tyre, it is was also the last town under French control after the rest of the country won its independence.
Tourist Guide Sidi Bou Said PORT EL KANTAOUI is a purpose built tourist and residential area began in 1979. It is situated 8km north of Sousse and 65km south of Hammamet, centered around a marina and traditional-style buildings with narrow streets. There is the waterfront with walkway, jetty and yacht pier, the open â€œsquareâ€? in front of the "gate", followed by another pedestrian area containing a musical fountain, shops and restaurants. To the north, there is a golf course as well as a number of hotels. To the south, there is an amusement park and more hotels.
Port El Kantaoui SIDI BOU SAID is a beautiful and typical Tunisian village just 20km north of the capital Tunis. The best time to visit is autumn or spring, out of the tourist season, when you can still walk the narrow streets, around white and blue traditional houses, enjoying the views. The village is quite small, and perched on a hill, you can enjoy amazing views of the Mediterranean and Bay of Tunis. EL KEF is a small city in northwest Tunisia, built onto the southern face of the Jebel Dyr Mountain, which is part of the Tebersouk Mountains, at the east end of the High Atlas Mountains. It is a relaxed town, offering an authentic taste of Tunisia with some interesting sights to see. The main attraction is the Byzantine Kasbah. Noticeable from almost any part of the city, it rises out of the old medina and used to be a site of a series of fortresses dating back to the 5th century BC.
Tourist Guide KAIROUAN, a Muslim holy city, ranks 4th after Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem as a place of pilgrimage. Situated 55km inland from Sousse, it's mosques and cultural history have seen it added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Itâ€™s main sights are The Great Mosque, one of the finest Islamic buildings in North Africa, and Bi'r Barouta, which is a Well at the place where the city was founded, and one of the holiest sites in the city for Muslims. The Medina in general is a nice place to wander around, although it may well look familiar as it was used in Raiders of the Lost Ark to double for Cairo.
TOZEUR is a city in south west Tunisia, around 450km from Tunis. With thousands of palm trees, Tozeur is a large oasis from which exported dates are very well known. In ancient times, the oasis was important for the caravan routes through the Sahara, and was an important Roman outpost. From Tozeur there are a selection of camel trips available to explore the edge of the Sahara.
Tourist Guide El Jem
EL JEM is a small town in the east of Tunisia, 60km south of Sousse, that houses the remains of a UNESCO World Heritage listed Roman amphitheatre. Formerly the Roman town of Thysdrus, one of the most important in N. Africa after Carthage. The Amphitheatre was built in the middle of the 3rd century AD, but fell into disrepair, with its blocks being used for building the surrounding town and also the Great Mosque in Kairouan. Declared a World Heritage site in 1979, it was more recently used for filming scenes from the Oscar winning film Gladiator. DOUZ is a small town in south-central Tunisia, often known as the "Gateway to the Sahara". The town has grown up around a large palm oasis that is a large producer of "diglat noor" dates.
Regions of Tunisia
Tunisia is made up of 24 Governates (administrative regions) (1) Ariana (Aryana), (2) Beja (Baja), (3) Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus), (4) Bizerte (Banzart), (5) Gabes (Gabis), (6) Gafsa (Gafsah), (7) Jendouba (Jandouba), (8) Kairouan (Al Qayrawan), (9) Kasserine (Gasryn), (10) Kebili (Guebilli), (11) El Kef (El Kaf), (12) Mahdia (Al Mahdiya), (13) Mannouba (Mannouba), (14) Medenine (Midnin), (15) Monastir (Munastir), (16) Nabeul (Nabul), (17) Sfax (Safaqis), (18) Sidi BouZid (Sidi BouZid), (19) Siliana (Siliana), (20) Sousse (Soussa), (21) Tataouine (Tatawin), (22) Tozeur (Touzer), (23) Tunis, (24) Zaghouan (Zaghwen)
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Monthly Horoscope for April ARIES (Mar. 21- April 20) Empty promises will cause confusion. You may not be able to help someone as much as you would like, but your support will be invaluable. Eliminate situations that are no longer to your advantage. Don't invest too much of your own money.
TAURUS (Apr. 21- may 21) You can accomplish a lot if you are dealing with other people's money or possessions this month. Visitors may relieve the tension. You should not get involved in joint ventures. Don't make those you live with feel unloved or unworthy.
GEMINI (May 22-June 21) Your nerves are frayed this month, and you may find it difficult to discuss personal matters with family members. You are best to deal with those outside your family. Problems with appliances or electrical gadgets will drive you crazy.
CANCER (June 22-July 22) Think twice before you speak. Avoid lending money or belongings to friends. You can meet a new romantic partner or secure the love connection you already have by going out and entertaining yourself. You need to be careful not to make promises that you can't fulfill.
LEO (July 23-Aug 22) Seminars will provide you with knowledge and amusement. Your partner may be less than willing to accommodate you this month, so you can ask for favours but don't take them for granted. You can make changes to your home that will be pleasing to all concerned.
VIRGO (Aug. 23 -Sept. 23) Minor health problems will cause setbacks if you haven't taken proper care of yourself. Your creativity will help you in coming up with unique ideas. You're in the mood to get out and visit friends. Assist a relative or good friend by setting of a budget for them.
Monthly Horoscope for April LIBRA (Sept. 24 -Oct. 23) Your efforts will be rewarded handsomely. In your need for activity, be careful of the groups you join or the people you associate with. A new image can be the result if you change your look.
SCORPIO (Oct. 24 - Nov. 22) Be extra careful this month and don't reveal any personal details. Rewards for past good deeds will be yours. Your partner will not be willing to listen to your constructive criticism. Do not sign your life away.
SAGITTARIUS (Nov. 23 -Dec. 21) Your interest in helping others may take you back to school. You can clear up important legalities and sign contracts this month. Don't turn down an invitation or a challenge that could enhance your chances of meeting someone special. Don't sign up for too many extra activities or you'll have trouble fulfilling all your obligations.
CAPRICORN (Dec 22.- Jan. 20) Your hypnotic eyes will capture the hearts of those who interest you. Travel opportunities look positive, but be cautious while driving. Join humanitarian groups and let your leadership ability take over. Responsibilities with respect to older relatives may be a burden.
AQUARIUS (Jan. 21 -Feb. 19) Your goals will be in reach if you direct your energy wisely. You need to distance yourself from certain situations for a little while first. You should get into programs that will enhance your appearance and help you to be the best that you can be. Find out exactly what's expected of you and you'll be surprised to find out how capable you are.
PISCES (Feb. 20-Mar. 20) You may need to make a few alterations to your living arrangements. You will do well with clients this month. Don't sign up for too many extra activities or you'll have trouble fitting everything in. Be innovative.
If itâ€™s your birthday this month . . . April 1st: Debbie Reynolds (1932) Ali MacGraw (1938) Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873) 2nd: Marvin Gaye (1939) Emmylou Harris (1947) Alec Guinness (1914) Hans Christian Andersen (1805) 3rd: Eddie Murphy (1961) Marlon Brando (1924) Doris Day (1924) 4th: Anthony Perkins (1932) Muddy Waters (1915) Heath Ledger (1979)
7th: Billie Holiday (1915) Jackie Chan (1954) Francis Ford Coppola (1939) David Frost (1939) James Garner (1928) Ravi Shankar (1920) Russell Crowe (1964) 8th: Mary Pickford (1893) Julian Lennon (1963) Kofi Annan (1938) 9th: Hugh Hefner (1926) Paul Robeson (1898) Dennis Quaid (1954) Rachel Stephens (1978) 10th: Omar Sharif (1932) Max von Sydow (1929) Steven Seagal (1951) 11th: Joel Grey (1932) Joss Stone (1987)
12th: David Letterman (1947) Herbie Hancock (1940) Tom Clancy (1947) Claire Danes (1979) Andy Garcia (1956) 13th: Thomas Jefferson (1743) Gary Kasparov (1963) Al Green (1946) 14th: John Gielgud (1904) Rod Steiger (1925) Julie Christie (1940) Sarah Michelle Gellar (1977)
5th: Colin Powell (1937) Gregory Peck(1916) Bette Davis (1908) Spencer Tracy (1900) 6th: Butch Cassidy (1866) Andre Previn(1929) Marilu Henner (1952)
Who do you share yours with . . . 15th: Leonardo da Vinci (1452) Emma Thompson (1959) Claudia Cardinale (1939) 16th: Charlie Chaplin (1889) Henry Mancini (1924) Peter Ustinov (1921) Wilbur Wright (1867) Martin Lawrence (1965) Ellen Barkin (1955) Dusty Springfield (1939) 17th: William Holden (1818) Nikita Khrushchev (1894) 18th: Hayley Mills (1946) James Woods (1947) 19th: Eliot Ness (1903) Dudley Moore (1935) Jayne Mansfield (1933) Hayden Christensen (1981) Paloma Picasso (1949) Maria Sharapova (1987) Kate Hudson (1979) Ashley Judd (1968)
22nd: J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904) Jack Nicholson (1937) Yehudi Menuhin (1916) Lenin (1870) Peter Frampton (1950) 23rd: Shirley Temple Black (1928) William Shakespeare (1564) Lee Majors (1940) Roy Orbison (1936) Michael Moore (1954) 24th: Barbra Streisand (1942) Shirley MacLaine (1934) 25th: Ella Fitzgerald (1918) Al Pacino (1940) Renee Zellweger (1969) 26th: Carol Burnett (1936) Duane Eddy (1938) Jet Li (1963) 27th: Ulysses S. Grant (1822) Sheena Easton (1959) Jack Klugman (1922) 28th: Saddam Hussein (1937) Ann Margret (1941) Jay Leno (1950) Penelope Cruz (1974)
20th: Adolf Hitler (1889) Harold Lloyd (1893) Luther Vandross (1951) Jessica Lange (1949) Ryan O'Neal (1941) 21st: Elizabeth II (1926) Charlotte Bronte (1816) Charles Grodin (1935) Andie MacDowell (1958)
29th: "Duke" Ellington (1899) Michelle Pfeiffer (1958) Daniel Day-Lewis (1957) Andre Agassi (1970) Uma Thurman (1970) 30th: Willie Nelson (1933) Kirsten Dunst (1982)