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Digital Drawing for Designers A Visual Guide to AutoCAD 2015

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Digital Drawing for Designers A Visual Guide to AutoCAD 2015

Douglas R. Seidler

LEED AP , NCIDQ , Associate AIA , IDEC

Marymount University

FAIRCHILD BOOKS | an imprint of Bloomsbur y Publishing PLC

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Fairchild Books An imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Inc 1385 Broadway New York NY 10018 USA

50 Bedford Square London WC1B 3DP UK

www.bloomsbury.com First edition published 2007 Second edition published 2010 Third edition published 2012 This edition first published 2014 Š Bloomsbury Publishing Inc, 2014 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publishers. No responsibility for loss caused to any individual or organization acting on or refraining from action as a result of the material in this publication can be accepted by Bloomsbury Publishing Inc or the author. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Seidler, Douglas R. Digital drawing for designers : a visual guide to AutoCAD 2015 / Douglas R. Seidler. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-60901-989-1 (paperback) 1. Computer-aided design. 2. AutoCAD. I. Title. T386.A97S45 2014 620'.0042028553--dc23 2014025049 ISBN:

PB:

978-1-60901-989-1

Typeset by Ron Reeves Cover Design by Carolyn Eckert Cover Art by Douglas R. Seidler and Lori Anderson Weir Printed and bound in the United States of America

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for my father

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CO NT E N TS AT A GLAN CE

Preface Acknowledgments

HAND DRAWING AND DIGITAL DRAWING

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

xv xvii

1

Digital Drawing Tools Drawing Lines and Shapes Modifying Lines and Shapes Drawing with Accuracy and Speed

3 11 27 37

DESIGN DRAWINGS

51

Organizing Plans, Sections, and Elevations Drawing and Printing to Scale Text Styles and Sizes Hatches and Dashed Lines

53 81 103 113

ADVANCED DRAWING TOOLS

125

Stencils and Blocks Advanced Editing Tools Dimensioning Your Drawing Text Leaders Drawing Symbols and Attributed Text Linking Drawings/External References AutoCAD 360

127 137 149 177 189 203 215

Index Basic Metric Conversion Table Quick Reference Guide

231 237 238

vii

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EXT EN D E D CON T E N TS

Preface Acknowledgments

HAND DRAWING AND DIGITAL DRAWING

xv xvii

1

1 Digital Drawing Tools Traditional Drawing Tools Starting a New Drawing/Command Prompt Ribbon Interface Pan Zoom Viewcube/Additional Resources

3 4 6 7 8 9 10

2 Drawing Lines and Shapes Drawing Straight Lines Erasing Lines Horizontal and Vertical Lines Line Length Circles Rectangles and Polygons Arcs Ellipses Object Snaps Running Object Snaps Drawing Precision/Units Undo Learning Exercise

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

ix

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3 Modifying Lines and Shapes Moving Lines Copying Lines Rotating Lines Mirror (Reflect) Lines Stretching Lines Learning Exercise

27 28 29 30 31 32 33

4 Drawing with Accuracy and Speed Drawing Polylines/Grips Editing Polylines Trimming Lines Extending Lines Offsetting Lines Fillet Rectangular Array Polar Array Path Array Break/Explode Blend Learning Exercise

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

DESIGN DRAWINGS

51

5 Organizing Plans, Sections, and Elevations Line Weight Selecting Colors Drawing with Layers Drawing Floor Plans Drawing Scale and Detail Drawing Sections Drawing Elevations Drawing Exterior Elevations Drawing Interior Elevations Learning Exercise

53 54 55 56 58 62 64 68 70 72 74

6 Drawing and Printing to Scale Paper Layout Plot Styles Adding a Plot Style Drawing Templates Creating a Custom Layout Selecting a Paper Size Creating a Layout: 11"× 17" ANSI B Page Setup Manager: ANSI B Creating a Layout: 18"× 24" ARCH C

81 82 84 85 86 88 89 90 91 92

x | Extended Contents

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Page Setup Manager: ARCH C Creating a Layout: 24" × 36" ARCH D Page Setup Manager: ARCH D Adjusting and Creating Viewports Scaling/Locking Viewports Drawing to Scale with Viewports Plotting a Layout/Drawing Learning Exercise

93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

7 Text Styles and Sizes Text Height Annotative Text Text Styles/Fonts Adding Text Styles/Adding Text Adding Multiline Text Editing Text Learning Exercise 8 Hatches and Dashed Lines Boundary Hatch Hatch Patterns—Sections/Details Hatch Patterns—Plan/Elevation Linetypes/Dashed Lines LTScale /Adding Linetypes Learning Exercise

103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110

ADVANCED DRAWING TOOLS

125

113 114 116 117 118 119 120

9 Stencils and Blocks Stencils/Blocks Creating a Block Inserting Blocks Exploding Blocks/Exporting Blocks Editing Blocks Learning Exercise

127 128 129 131 132 133 134

10 Advanced Editing Tools Properties Palette Match Properties/Distance Scale/Scale Reference Audit/Purge Express Tools/Flatten Overkill/Layer Off/Layer On Layer Isolate/Layer Freeze/Layer Thaw Layer Lock/Layer Unlock/Layer Delete Layer Merge Learning Exercise

137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 xi

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11 Dimensioning Your Drawing Dimension Styles Dimensioning Walls and Corridors Dimensioning Windows and Doors Dimensioning to Structure Adding Linear Dimensions Adding Aligned Dimensions Adding Angular Dimensions Dimension Style: Tick Dimension Style: Arrow Dimension Style: Box Dimension Style: Dot Learning Exercise

149 150 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 162 166 170 174

12 Text Leaders Text Leaders Adding Text Leaders Multileader Style: Arrow Multileader Style: Dot Learning Exercise

177 178 179 180 182 184

13 Drawing Symbols and Attributed Text Drawing Symbols Creating Attributed Blocks Inserting Attributed Blocks Editing Attributed Blocks Drawing Name Symbol Detail Symbol Section Arrow/Elevation Arrow Grid Symbol Interior Elevation Symbol Learning Exercise

189 190 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200

14 Linking Drawings/External References Drawing with Overlays Drawing with XREFs XREF Manager Adding XREFs to Your Drawing Plan XREFs for Individual Designers Plan XREFs for Multiple Designers Elevation XREFs for Individual Designers Elevation XREFs for Multiple Designers Learning Exercise

203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212

xii窶ポ窶ウxtended Contents

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15 AutoCAD 360 AutoCAD 360 Web App Mobile App for iPad Mobile App for Android Uploading Drawings to AutoCAD 360 Opening Drawings Command Ribbon Drawing Tools Drawing Tools/Measuring Tools Edit Tools Markup Tools Layers/Layouts/Undo and Redo Sharing/Exporting Drawings

215 216 217 218 219 220 222 223 224 225 226 228 229 230

Index Basic Metric Conversion Table Quick Reference Guide

231 237 238

xiii

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PREFACE

Objective The original edition of this book was one of the very few AutoCAD books that focused on instruction for architecture and interior design students. This was critical to the book’s current success because most AutoCAD books are thick with technical language and excessively complex discussions about the software used to teach relatively simple tasks. The original edition solved this challenge by teaching through clear illustrations, limiting instruction to architectural drawings, and creating strong connections between AutoCAD and manual drafting. The second and third editions built on this success with updates to more than 20 command and interface changes released in AutoCAD 2011 and AutoCAD 2012. The revised edition also included a completely rewritten chapter on printing and updates for associative text and dimensions and a new chapter with instructions for Autodesk’s mobile AutoCAD apps. Now in its fourth edition, Digital Drawing for Designers continues to provide a visual, clear, and concise guide for interior design and architecture students to better understand digital drawing in AutoCAD. Revised for AutoCAD 2015, the book includes improvements and updates to 15 commands, including the new path array and blend tools. Also new to this edition is a rewritten chapter dedicated to AutoCAD 360, also known as AutoCAD mobile. AutoCAD 360 is Autodesk’s free mobile version of AutoCAD that runs on the Internet, iPhones, iPads, Android phones, and Android tablets. Audience and Prerequisite Knowledge AutoCAD continues to dominate the two-dimensional drafting marketplace for architects and interior designers. This book aims to help the design community by visually teaching for understanding. The numerous AutoCAD books can broadly be sorted into two categories— guides for dummies and exhaustive references—neither of which specifically addresses how professional designers use AutoCAD. Digital Drawing for Designers falls between these two categories, providing both a thorough primer for new learners and expanded conceptual discussion for design professionals. The progressive introduction of concepts (chapters build on previous chapters), digital exercises, and visual examples make this book easy to follow for learners new to AutoCAD. The only prerequisite for the book is a fundamental knowledge of manual drafting techniques.

xv

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AutoCAD Version Compatibility The instruction in this book is compatible with AutoCAD version 14 through version 2015. While most universities teach and use the latest version of AutoCAD, many professional offices do not update their AutoCAD software annually because of hardware requirements and professional education costs. I have written this book to help students switch between versions of AutoCAD as they transition from the classroom to the office.

Content Overview We learn best when we can create connections between the new information we are learning and information that we already know. Chapters 1—4, therefore, introduce AutoCAD and digital drawing through the language and concepts of manual or hand drawing. Lines, circles, and arcs are the fundamental building blocks of all architectural drawings. Understanding how to use these building blocks in AutoCAD will allow you to create any type of drawing. Chapters 5—8 introduce you to graphic standards that will help you use AutoCAD to create drawings that communicate your design ideas. Understanding these standards keeps you in control of your drawing and allows you to “ask of the computer” rather than let the computer dictate how your drawings will look. You will learn organizational strategies to efficiently draw plans, sections, and elevations. Each chapter introduces these new skills using AutoCAD standards that can be adapted to any office environment. Chapters 9—14 introduce many advanced AutoCAD concepts, such as dimensioning drawings, creating your own drawing stencils (blocks), and linking drawings (XREFs). Learners who have a basic understanding of AutoCAD will appreciate the in-depth visual discussion about XREFs, editable blocks, dimension styles, and text leaders. By combining these advanced concepts with a strong foundation for drawing in AutoCAD, you will be prepared to work on or create any digital drawing. The final chapter introduces AutoCAD 360, Autodesk’s mobile AutoCAD application. The chapter includes instructions on using AutoCAD on the Internet, iPhones, iPads, Android phones, and Android tablets. The step-by-step guides in this book will help you master digital drawing while building your confidence and understanding of AutoCAD 2015. I hope that through the visual guides and pedagogical approach of this book you will become a better designer as you strengthen your visual communication skills through digital drawing.

xvi | Preface

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ACKN OW LE D GM E N TS

This book began in 2005 as a reader for a series of design drawing and AutoCAD courses offered by the Department of Interior Design at the New England School of Art and Design at Suffolk University. The strategies for teaching and learning used in this book are largely influenced by my experience teaching AutoCAD and by Teaching for Understanding, a course for design educators taught by Tina Blythe at the Boston Architectural College. I would like to thank my students and colleagues in design education whose discussions and critical feedback helped shape and test the pedagogical approach in this book. Special thanks are due to Cheri Kotsiopoulos, Kristine Mortensen, and Lori Anderson Wier for contributing their drawings to this book. I am very grateful for the time Laura Patrick gave to this edition. Laura’s enthusiasm for the mostly mundane tasks and her attention to detail were incredibly helpful in juggling the multiple updates and revisions for this edition. I also greatly appreciate the enthusiasm, guidance, and collaboration of the team at Fairchild Books and Bloomsbury. The efforts and talents of Priscilla McGeehon, Joseph Miranda, Stephen Pinto, Charlotte Frost, and Kirsten Dennison are more than I could have asked for in an editorial team. Finally, I would like to thank my mother for allowing me to take things apart, my father for teaching me to put things back together, and my sister for unwillingly donating her toys to this noble cause. To my wife, daughter, and son, thank you for your continued love, support, and enthusiasm for my writing.

xvii

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Hand Drawing and Digital Drawing

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ch a p te r 1 Digital Drawing Tools This chapter introduces you to AutoCAD’s digital drawing techniques and tools, using a visual vocabulary that you are already familiar with from your experience with manual drafting. One of the best ways to learn something new is to refer to something you already know. By the end of this chapter, you will be familiar with the AutoCAD equivalents to many of the drawing tools you use daily in manual drafting.

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T RA DIT I ONA L D R AW I NG TO O LS

Drafting Table • Used to hold your paper during the drawing process. AutoCAD is the digital equivalent of your drafting table. Pencil • Used to draw a line. The AutoCAD equivalent is the LINE command. • See page 12 to learn about drawing lines.

Parallel Bar, Triangle, T Square • Used to draw horizontal and vertical lines. The AutoCAD equivalent is ORTHO. • See page 14 to learn about drawing with Ortho.

Eraser • Used to erase lines that are no longer needed or were drawn in error. The AutoCAD equivalent is the ERASE command. • See page 13 to learn about erasing lines.

4  |  Digital Drawing for Designers: A Visual Guide to AutoCAD 2015

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Eraser Shield • Used to erase lines to a specific point. The AutoCAD equivalent is the TRIM command. • See page 40 to learn about trimming lines.

Architectural Scale/Ruler • Used to draw lines at a specific distance or length. The AutoCAD equivalent is the UNITS command. • See page 22 to learn about setting units.

Compass • Used to draw circles. The AutoCAD equivalent is the CIRCLE command. • See page 16 to learn about drawing circles.

Protractor • Used to draw lines at an angle. One AutoCAD equivalent is the ROTATE command, which allows you to rotate lines at an angle. • See page 30 to learn about rotating lines.

Chapter 1: Digital Drawing Tools  |  5

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STA RT I N G A NE W D R AW I N G/ CO MMAN D P R O MPT

Starting Your First Drawing When you first open AutoCAD 2015, you are greeted with a learn and create welcome screen. • Step 1: CLICK the APPLICATION MENU icon to open an existing drawing or start a new drawing. • AutoCAD lists recently open documents in the application menu. Click on any file to open the drawing. • Step 2: CLICK the NEW icon to start a new AutoCAD drawing. • Step 3: CLICK the ACAD template file in the select a template dialog box. • Step 4: CLICK the OPEN button to start a new drawing with the selected template.

1

2

3

4

Drawing1.dwg

Command: Save

Using This Book This book introduces AutoCAD’s gizmos, buttons, and menus as it introduces drawing concepts and techniques. • Look for boxes like this one with tips, tricks, and featured downloads. • Use the index at the back of this book to quickly find additional information about a particular AutoCAD command or concept.

Dynamic Input Most commands in AutoCAD are started by typing on the keyboard. • Dynamic Input displays this text input next to the AutoCAD cursor. • The AutoComplete selection box lists all AutoCAD commands that match the letters you type on the keyboard.

Command Prompt AutoCAD commands are also displayed in the command prompt. • The command prompt area in AutoCAD also provides feedback about options during a command. Keep one eye on the command prompt as you work, and you will improve your AutoCAD learning experience.

Type a command

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R IB B O N INTE RFACE

AutoCAD Ribbon The ribbon interface in AutoCAD contains many of the commands and tools previously located in toolbars, drop-down menus, and dialog boxes. Because buttons in the ribbon interface change their appearance and location from one version of AutoCAD to the next, this book encourages you to use keyboard commands rather than buttons when drawing in AutoCAD.

Drawing1.dwg

Line

Polyline

Circle

Arc

Move

Rotate

Trim

Copy

Mirror

Fillet

Stretch

Scale

Array

Draw

Unsaved Layer State 0

Modify

Layers

1

Line

Polyline

Circle

Arc

• The ribbon is organized by tabs. Each tab contains a series of related panels. • The HOME TAB, selected in this example, contains multiple panels, including DRAW, MODIFY, LAYERS, ANNOTATION, and BLOCK.

Draw

2

• Steps 1—2: Pull a panel off the ribbon interface by CLICKING AND DRAGGING the panel toward the middle of the AutoCAD window.

Drawing1.dwg

Draw

Line

Modify

Polyline

Circle

Layers

Annotation

Block

Properties

Groups

Utilities

3

• Step 3: Minimize the ribbon panels to PANEL BUTTONS by CLICKING the SMALL ARROW BUTTON to the right of the last tab.

4

• Step 4: Minimize the ribbon panels to PANEL TITLES by CLICKING the SMALL ARROW BUTTON to the right of the last tab.

5

• Step 5: Minimize the ribbon panels to TABS by CLICKING the SMALL ARROW BUTTON to the right of the last tab.

Clipboard

Arc

Drawing1.dwg

Line

Polyline

Circle

Arc

Drawing1.dwg

Chapter 1: Digital Drawing Tools  |  7

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PAN

Pan When you draw in AutoCAD, your drawings are limited by the size of the screen. The Pan (P) command allows you to slide your drawing around on the screen in the same way you could move a piece of paper around your drafting table.

Drawing1.dwg

Drawing1.dwg

2

PAN

3

• Step 1: Type PAN and press ENTER. • Steps 2—3: Your mouse cursor will change to a HAND. With the mouse, CLICK AND DRAG in your drawing. Notice that the drawing follows your cursor around the screen. • Step 4 (not shown): Press the ENTER or ESCAPE key to end the Pan command.

Type a command

1

Pan with the Mouse You can also start the PAN command with the scroll wheel on your mouse. The scroll wheel is also a mouse button. • Step 1: CLICK AND DRAG using the mouse scroll wheel button. Notice the drawing follows your cursor around the screen. The PAN command automatically ends when you release the scroll wheel button.

1

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ZOOM

Zoom When you draw in AutoCAD, your drawings are limited by the size of the screen. The Zoom (Z) command allows you to move closer to and farther away from elements in your drawing.

Drawing1.dwg

Drawing1.dwg

2 3

ZOOM

Type a command

1

Drawing1.dwg

ZOOM

Drawing1.dwg

Zoom Window Zoom Window allows you to enlarge a specific part of your drawing by drawing a window around it. • Step 1: Type ZOOM and press ENTER. • Step 2: AutoCAD prompts you for the first corner of the zoom window. CLICK ONCE near the top left of the area you want to enlarge. • Step 3: AutoCAD prompts you for the second corner of the zoom window. CLICK ONCE near the bottom right of the area you want to enlarge.

Zoom Extents The Zoom Extents command enlarges or shrinks your drawing to fit entirely on the screen. • Step 1: Type ZOOM and press ENTER. • Step 2 (not shown): Type EXTENTS and press ENTER.

Type a command

1 Drawing1.dwg

Drawing1.dwg

Zoom with the Mouse Use the scroll wheel on your mouse to enlarge or shrink your drawing dynamically. The scroll wheel on your mouse is also a button. If you DOUBLE CLICK on the scroll wheel, AutoCAD will perform the ZOOM EXTENTS command.

ZOOM

Type a command

Chapter 1: Digital Drawing Tools  |  9

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V IEWCU B E /A D D I T I ONA L R ES O UR CES

2

1

1 2

Viewcube The Viewcube, located in the top right corner of your drawing, is an aditional tool to change the view of your drawing in the AutoCAD window. • Step 1: CLICK ONCE on either arrow to rotate your drawing. • Step 2: CLICK ONCE on the home icon to return the drawing to the original orientation.

Navigation Bar The Navigation Bar, located the right of your drawing, is an aditional tool to navigate your drawing in the AutoCAD window. • Step 1: CLICK ONCE on the PAN BUTTON to activate the pan command. • Step 2: CLICK ONCE on the ZOON EXTENTS BUTTON to fill the AutoCAD screen with your drawing.

Guide for Success I encourage new AutoCAD users to practice drawing as soon as possible. Consider the following challenges to help you through this book. • Draw the examples/projects provided at the end of each chapter. • Draw a room in your home. • Draw a design project you have already drawn by hand. Guided Discovery Exercises The companion download contains additional AutoCAD drawings that allow you to test your understanding of navigating AutoCAD drawings. Download the guided discovery exercises for this chapter at WWW.DDFDBOOK.COM/CH1.

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ch a p te r 2 Drawing Lines and Shapes Lines, circles, and arcs are the fundamental building blocks of all design drawings. By the end of this chapter you will have a strong understanding of the means and methods to draw these elements in AutoCAD. Consider the following questions as you work through this chapter: • What are the relationships between fundamental manual drawing skills and their AutoCAD command equivalents? • How are drawing units configured in an AutoCAD drawing? • What is drawing precision, and what tools help you achieve it in an AutoCAD drawing?

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DRAW I NG ST R A I G H T LI N ES

Line (Pencil) In AutoCAD, you use the Line (L) command to draw straight lines. The manual drafting equivalent to the Line command is drawing a line with a pencil and a straight edge.

Drawing1.dwg

4

5

Drawing Your First Lines in AutoCAD • Step 1 (not shown): Open AutoCAD on your computer. • Step 2: Type the command LINE and press ENTER. • Step 3: CLICK ONCE in the lower left of the AutoCAD drawing area. As you move the drawing cursor around the screen, notice how AutoCAD shows you a straight line. • Steps 4—6: CLICK in the drawing following the example on the left. • Step 7 (not shown): Press the ENTER key or ESC key to end the LINE command.

6

3

LINE

2

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ER ASING LINES

Erase (Eraser) In AutoCAD, you use the Erase (E) command to erase lines that are no longer needed or were drawn in error. Erasing All Lines in the Drawing • Step 1 (not shown): Type the command ERASE and press enter. • Step 2 (not shown): Type the command ALL and press ENTER. • Step 3 (not shown): Press ENTER to erase all lines in the drawing. Drawing1.dwg

2

Drawing1.dwg

3

4

Type a command

Erasing Picked Lines in the Drawing • Step 1 (not shown): Type the command ERASE and press ENTER. • Steps 2—4: CLICK ONCE on each line you want to erase. • Step 5 (not shown): Press ENTER to erase the selected lines.

Type a command

Drawing1.dwg

Drawing1.dwg

2

3 Type a command

Type a command

Erasing with a Window Selection Use a window selection to erase every line or object completely inside the window selection. • Step 1 (not shown): Type the command ERASE and press ENTER. • Step 2: CLICK ONCE on the left side of the objects you want to erase. As you drag the mouse to the right, you will see a blue window on the screen. • Step 3: CLICK ONCE on the second corner of the window selection. • Step 4 (not shown): Press ENTER to erase the selected lines.

Drawing1.dwg

Drawing1.dwg

2

Type a command

3 Type a command

Erasing with a Crossing Selection Use a crossing selection to erase every line or object that touches the window selection. • Step 1 (not shown): Type the command ERASE and press ENTER. • Step 2: CLICK ONCE on the right side of the objects you want to erase. As you drag the mouse to the left, you will see a green window on the screen. • Step 3: CLICK ONCE on the second corner of the window. • Step 4 (not shown): Press ENTER to erase the selected lines.

Chapter 2: Drawing Lines and Shapes  |  13

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HO RIZONTA L A ND V E RT I C AL LIN ES

Ortho (Parallel Bar Line, T Square) In AutoCAD, you use Ortho (F8) to draw horizontal and vertical lines much the same as you use a parallel bar or T square on a drafting table to draw horizontal and vertical lines. Drawing Horizontal and Vertical Lines • The F8 button on the keyboard toggles the Ortho mode between on and off. • Clicking the Ortho button at the bottom of the AutoCAD screen will also toggle the Ortho mode between on and off.

0′–0″, 0′–0″, 0′–0″

MODEL

1:1

Drawing1.dwg

3 4

5

• Step 1 (not shown): Type the command LINE and press ENTER. • Step 2: CLICK ONCE in the lower left of the AutoCAD drawing area. • Step 3: Press F8 on the keyboard. As you move the drawing cursor around the screen, notice how AutoCAD limits the line extension to horizontal and vertical lines. • Steps 4—6: CLICK in the drawing following the example on the left. • Step 7 (not shown): Press ENTER on the keyboard to end the LINE command.

6

2

0′–0″, 0′–0″, 0′–0″

MODEL

1:1

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LINE LE NGTH

Drawing1.dwg

25

20

4

20

3

2

5

Drawing Lines at a Specific Distance • Step 1 (not shown): Type the command LINE and press ENTER. • Step 2: CLICK ONCE in the lower left of the AutoCAD drawing area. Press F8 on the keyboard to turn Ortho mode on. • Step 3: Drag the AutoCAD cursor upward on the screen. Type 20 on the keyboard and press ENTER. • Step 4: Drag the AutoCAD cursor to the right on the screen. Type 25 on the keyboard and press ENTER. • Step 5: Drag the AutoCAD cursor downward on the screen. Type 20 on the keyboard and press ENTER. • Step 6: Type CLOSE press ENTER. The Close command draws a line from the last point entered to the first point. (In this example, the Close command created a line from step 5 to step 2.)

CLOSE

6

Drawing1.dwg

Type a command

Skill Check Use the line command and ortho to create a drawing that matches this example.

Chapter 2: Drawing Lines and Shapes  |  15

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C IRC L ES

Drawing Circles In AutoCAD, use the Circle (C) command to draw a circle. The manual drafting equivalent to the Circle command is drawing a circle with a compass. We will look at the three most common methods to draw a circle in AutoCAD.

Circle Unless you specify otherwise, AutoCAD will draw a circle the same way you draw a circle with a compass. You need to know the center of the circle and the length of the radius.

Two-Point Circle When you draw a two-point circle, you draw a line that represents the diameter of the circle.

Three-Point Circle When you draw a three-point circle, you are defining three points on the edge of the circle. This method is used infrequently.

4 5

3

2

• Step 1 (not shown): Type CIRCLE and press ENTER. • Step 2: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the center of the circle. • Step 3: Drag the AutoCAD cursor in any direction on the screen. Type the circle’s radius and press ENTER.

10

3

4

• Step 1 (not shown): Type CIRCLE and press ENTER. • Step 2 (not shown): Type 2P and press ENTER. • Step 3: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the left edge of the circle. • Step 4: Drag the AutoCAD cursor to the right. Type the circle’s diameter and press ENTER.

3 5

• Step 1 (not shown): Type CIRCLE and press ENTER. • Step 2 (not shown): Type 3P and press ENTER. • Step 3: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the first edge of the circle. • Step 4: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the second edge of the circle. You will not see anything on the screen until you mouse click the second point of the circle. • Step 5: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the third edge of your circle.

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R ECTAN GLES AN D POLYG ONS

Drawing Rectangles and Polygons You can increase your drafting speed by allowing AutoCAD to help you create specific kinds of shapes, such as rectangles (REC) and polygons (POL). You can use the rectangle and polygon commands to create equilateral triangles, squares, pentagons, and hexagons. Rectangle AutoCAD will draw a rectangle or square when you provide the location of two opposite corners. (You are drawing the diagonal of the rectangle.)

Inscribed Polygon An inscribed polygon can have three or more sides and will fit inside a specified circle.

Circumscribed Polygon A circumscribed polygon can have three or more sides and will fit outside a specified circle.

30 @20,10

3

5

30

3

5

3

2 • Step 1 (not shown): Type the command RECTANGLE and press ENTER. • Step 2: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the lower left corner of the rectangle. • Step 3: On the keyboard, type @20,10 and press ENTER. AutoCAD will draw a rectangle that is 20" wide and 10" tall.

• Step 1 (not shown): Type POLYGON and press ENTER. • Step 2 (not shown): AutoCAD prompts you for the number of sides in the polygon. Type 5 and press ENTER to create a pentagon. • Step 3: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the center of the polygon. • Step 4 (not shown): AutoCAD prompts you to create an inscribed or circumscribed polygon. Type the letter I (for inscribed) and press ENTER. • Step 5: Drag the AutoCAD cursor to the right on the screen. Type 30 on the keyboard and press ENTER.

• Step 1 (not shown): Type POLYGON and press ENTER. • Step 2 (not shown): AutoCAD prompts you for the number of sides in the polygon. Type 5 and press ENTER to create a pentagon. • Step 3: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the center of the polygon. • Step 4 (not shown): AutoCAD prompts you to create an inscribed or circumscribed polygon. Type the letter C (for circumscribed) and press ENTER. • Step 5: Drag the AutoCAD cursor to the right on the screen. Type 30 on the keyboard and press ENTER.

You have created a five-sided polygon that sits inside a circle with a radius of 30".

You have created a five-sided polygon that sits outside a circle with a radius of 30".

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A RCS

Drawing Arcs The Arc (A) command allows you to draw part of a circle. The manual drafting equivalent to the Arc command is drawing a circle, semicircle, or arc with a compass. We will look at the three most common methods to draw an arc in AutoCAD. Arc—Three Points Unless you specify otherwise, AutoCAD will draw an arc based on three points along the arc.

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Arc—Center, Start, End Using the Center option, AutoCAD will draw an arc the same way you would draw with a compass. You will need to know the center of the arc, the start point, and the end point.

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• Step 1 (not shown): Type ARC and press ENTER. • Step 2: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the first point of the arc. • Step 3: Drag the AutoCAD cursor in any direction on the screen. CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the second point of the arc. • Step 4: Drag the AutoCAD cursor in any direction on the screen. CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the third point of the arc.

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Arc—Start, Center, End This is a variation on the previous method of drawing an arc. You will need to know the start of the arc, the center point, and the end point.

• Step 1 (not shown): Type ARC and press ENTER. • Step 2 (not shown): Type the letter C (for center) and press ENTER. • Step 3: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the center of the arc. • Step 4: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the start of the arc. • Step 5: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the end of the arc.

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• Step 1 (not shown): Type ARC and press ENTER. • Step 2: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the start of the arc. • Step 3 (not shown): Type the letter C (for center) and press ENTER. • Step 4: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the center of the arc. • Step 5: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the end of the arc.

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E LLIPSES

Drawing Ellipses An Ellipse (EL) looks like a stretched circle. AutoCAD creates the shape of an ellipse by two axes that define its length and width. The longer axis is called the major axis, and the shorter axis is called the minor axis. Ellipse—Two Axes Unless you specify otherwise, AutoCAD will draw an ellipse based on the length of the two axes.

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Ellipse—Center, Axis, Axis AutoCAD can draw an ellipse based on the center point and the length of the two axes.

Ellipse—Angled AutoCAD can draw an ellipse tilted on an angle. The angle of an ellipse is set by the first axis you draw.

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• Step 1 (not shown): Type ELLIPSE and press ENTER. • Step 2: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the start of the first axis. • Step 3: Drag the AutoCAD cursor in any direction on the screen. CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the end of the first axis. • Step 4: Drag the AutoCAD cursor in any direction on the screen. CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the end of the second axis. You can specify distances in the ELLIPSE command the same way you specify distances in other commands, such as line and circle.

• Step 1 (not shown): Type ELLIPSE and press ENTER. • Step 2 (not shown): Type the letter C (for center) and press ENTER. • Step 3: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the center of your ellipse. • Step 4: Drag the AutoCAD cursor in any direction on the screen. CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the end of the first axis. • Step 5: Drag the AutoCAD cursor in any direction on the screen. CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the end of the second axis.

• Step 1 (not shown): Type ELLIPSE and press ENTER. • Step 2: CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the start of the first axis. • Step 3: Turn off ortho. Drag the AutoCAD cursor in any direction on the screen. CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the end and angle of the first axis. • Step 4: Drag the AutoCAD cursor in any direction on the screen. CLICK ONCE in the drawing to locate the end of the second axis. The axes in an ellipse are always perpendicular to each other. You can also use the Rotate command to change the angle of an ellipse you have already drawn.

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O B J EC T S N A PS

Object Snaps In a good AutoCAD drawing, lines connect to each other at precise points (the end of a line, middle of a line, or intersection of two lines). Object snaps allow you to start or end lines at a precise point relative to something you have already drawn.

Using Object Snaps Object snaps can be activated during most AutoCAD commands. While you are in a command, hold down the SHIFT key and RIGHT CLICK to activate the Object Snap menu. Select the desired object snap and continue with your command.

ENDPOINT—Snaps to the endpoint of a line, circle, or arc. Also snaps to the closest corner of a square, rectangle, or polygon. Endpoint can be used as the first or second point when drawing a line. MIDPOINT—Snaps to the midpoint of a line or arc. Also snaps to the midpoint of any side of a square, rectangle, or polygon. Midpoint can be used as the first or second point when drawing a line. INTERSECTION—Snaps to the intersection between any two of the following: line, arc, circle, square, rectangle, or polygon. Intersection can be used as the first or second point when drawing a line.

PERPENDICULAR—Snaps to create a new line that is perpendicular to a line, arc, circle, square, rectangle, or polygon. Perpendicular is mostly used as the second point when drawing a line.

CENTER—Snaps to the center of an arc or circle. Center can be used as the first or second point when drawing a line.

QUADRANT—Snaps to one of the four quadrants of an arc or circle. Quadrant can be used as the first or second point when drawing a line.

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R UN N IN G O B J EC T SNAPS

F3 0′–0″, 0′–0″, 0′–0″

MODEL

Running Object Snaps Object snaps can be set to activate automatically as you draw in AutoCAD. (You do not need to use the shift right-click method described on the previous page.) • Press the F3 button on the keyboard to toggle the Running Object Snap mode between on and off. • Clicking the SNAP button at the bottom of the AutoCAD screen will also toggle the Running Object Snap mode between on and off. 1:1

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Setting the Running Object Snaps When you use running object snaps, it is important to be specific about which object snap modes you want turned on. • Step 1 (not shown): Type the command OSNAP and press ENTER. • Step 2: UNCHECK the OBJECT SNAP TRACKING ON option. • Step 3: Check only the following Object Snap modes: ENDPOINT MIDPOINT CENTER INTERSECTION • Step 4: CLICK the OK button. These four running object snaps will increase your accuracy and productivity for almost everything you draw in AutoCAD. To temporarily activate a single object snap mode, press the SHIFT and RIGHT CLICK on the mouse.

Drawing Tip It is recommended that you disable the PERPENDICULAR and NEAREST running object snaps. These two object snaps (in Running Object Snap mode) are responsible for most drawing inaccuracies.

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DRAW I NG P R ECI S I ON /U N ITS

Drawing Precision There are many things to consider when evaluating the craft of a manually drafted drawing. For example, you must keep your lead or pencil sharp, maintain a clear and legible line weight, and draw line length with precision. Mastering these skills in AutoCAD will help you tremendously when you start your first drawing.

Setting Imperial Drawing Units Most likely, you will want to draw in AutoCAD using the imperial units feet and inches. We will use feet and inches as the primary drawing units in this book. • Step 1 (not shown): Type UNITS and press ENTER. • Step 2: Set the Length Type to ARCHITECTURAL. • Step 3: Set the Length Precision to 1/32". • Step 4: CLICK the OK button.

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Setting Metric Drawing Units • Step 1 (not shown): Type UNITS and press ENTER. • Step 2: Set the Length Type to DECIMAL. • Step 3: Set the Length Precision to 0.00. • Step 4: CLICK the OK button.

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Drawing Tip In a good AutoCAD drawing, lines are drawn at precise lengths (e.g., 1'-6"). If you are precise when drawing lines in AutoCAD, you will find huge benefits at later stages in your project.

Methods to enter 2' 6" • Type 2'-6" and press ENTER. • Type 2'6" and press ENTER. • Type 2.5' and press ENTER. • Type 30" and press ENTER.

Pressing the SPACE BAR in AutoCAD is the same as pressing ENTER. Use the hyphen (-) instead of the space bar when entering units.

Methods to enter 2' 6½" • Type 30.5" and press ENTER. • Type 2'6-1/2" and press ENTER.

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UNDO

Using the Undo Command The Undo (U) command allows you to step backward in your drawing and undo the last command. For example, if you erased a line that you did not want to erase, the Undo command would put that line back in your drawing. AutoCAD will undo back to the point when you opened your drawing. Undo Quickly The quickest way to use the Undo command is to press the CTRL key and the letter Z at the same time (CTRL+Z). This will undo the most recent command. Use CTRL+Z multiple times to undo a series of commands.

caps

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The shortcut for the Redo command is CTRL+Y. This will redo the last undo.

S Z

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alt Undo Multiple Steps The Undo command also allows you to undo several steps at once. This is helpful if you know that you want to undo the last five commands. • Step 1: Type UNDO and press ENTER. • Step 2: AutoCAD will prompt you for the number of commands you want to undo. Type 5 and press ENTER. AutoCAD will undo the last five commands. If you want to undo back to the point when you opened your drawing, ask AutoCAD to undo an extremely large number of commands (e.g., 10,000).

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L E A RN I N G E X E R C I SE

Drawing1.dwg

Learning Exercise The following exercise will help you better understand drawing shapes and lines using object snaps. • Open a new AutoCAD drawing. • Set your UNITS to ARCHITECTURAL. • Draw a RECTANGLE 20" wide by 10" high.

Type a command

Drawing1.dwg

• Draw a CIRCLE from the lower right ENDPOINT of the rectangle. The radius of the circle is the MIDPOINT of the rectangle.

Type a command

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Drawing1.dwg

• Draw two lines that start at the INTERSECTION of the circle and the rectangle.

Type a command

Drawing1.dwg

• Draw three lines using the ENDPOINT and MIDPOINT object snaps.

Type a command

Guided Discovery Exercises To complete the guided discovery exercises in this chapter, download the support files at WWW.DDFDBOOK.COM/CH2.

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Digital Drawing for Designers 2015  

Preview of Digital Drawing for Designers 2015, by Douglas R. Seidler