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Switchyard Park Master Plan Bloomington, Indiana


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ANALYSIS Summary of Findings Railbanked Area LOMR Feasibility Study Priority Conservation Areas Pedestrian Considerations Traffic Study

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DESIGN WORKSHOP Public Input Framework Plan Concept Development Character Sketches Design Inspiration

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MASTER PLAN APPENDIX

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Contents

INVENTORY Historic Research Site Research Photography Figure Ground Parks Neighborhoods Historical Districts Transportation Natural Systems Previous Studies Economic Development Public Input Case Studies

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Table

INTRODUCTION Project Team Project Team, Acknowledgements Executive Summary

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I NT RODUCTIO N

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Many thanks to the members of the Switchyard Park Master Plan Project Management Team, Technical Review Committee, and Steering Committee who generously shared their time, expertise, and inspiration throughout the planning process. You were an essential part in creating a vision for Bloomington’s Community Park! Thanks also to community members who expressed their thoughts and desires for Switchyard Park at Public Meetings and other input events, by writing letters and emails, and by following the internet and social media activity for the park. Your input has shaped the design of Switchyard Park.

PROJECT TEAM Project Team Lead:

Parks and Recreation Economic and Sustainable Development/Arts Economic and Sustainable Development/Arts Economic and Sustainable Development/Arts Economic and Sustainable Development/Arts HAND Legal Mayor’s Office Public Works Public Works Engineering Economic and Sustainable Development/Arts Planning Department Utilities Police Department Fire Department Controller ITS

Streering Committee Joe Hoffman n David Walter Laurel Cornell Angie Shelton Rob McCrea Jim Rosenbarger Scott Jones/Lynn Schwartzberg Maggie Sullivan Chris Sturbaum Darryl Neher Susan Sandberg Tim Mayer Jack Baker Liz Sluder Skip Sluder Christy Gillenwalter/Larry Jacobs Mike McAfee Holly Vonderheit Tedd Green/David St. John Jim Murphy Ron Walker

Parks and Recreation Redevelopment Commission Tree Commission Environmental Resources Advisory Council Environmental Commission Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety Arts Commission Commission on Sustainability Council Member - District 1 Council Member - District 5 Council Member - At Large Council Member - At Large McDoel Neighborhood Association Broadview Gardens Neighborhood Association Broadview Gardens Neighborhood Association Chamber of Commerce Visit Bloomington IU Health Bloomington Hospital Cook Pharmica CFC Bloomington Economic Development Commission (BEDC)

Collaborative Support Provided by: Butler Fairman and Seufert, Inc. Civil & Structural Engineering, Hydraulics & Utilities

EDEN Collaborative Redevelopment Planning & Implementation

Greenstreet, LTD Market Feasibility & Development Financing

Bledsoe Riggert Guerrettaz, Inc. Survey & Utility Coordination

Bruce Carter Associates, LLC Environmental Remediation

Eco Logic, LLC Ecological Analysis & Restoration

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Ac kn owledg emen t s

Technical Review Committee Les Coyne Danise Alano-Martin Adam Wason Jacqui Bauer Miah Michaelson Lisa Abbott Margie Rice Brian Robinson Susie Johnson Justin Wykoff Adrian Reid Josh Desmond Pat Murphy Mike Diekhoff Roger Kerr Mike Trexler Rick Deitz

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RUNDELL ERNSTBERGER ASSOCIATES, LLC Landscape Architecture and Urban Design

Master Plan Project Management Team Dave Williams Parks and Recreation Mick Renneisen Parks and Recreation Steve Cotter Parks and Recreation Kristy LeVert Parks and Recreation Julie Ramey Parks and Recreation

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


DESIGN PROCESS The process involved in the creation of the Master Plan included four phases of work conducted over the course of eleven months with many opportunities for community involvement and participation. PHASES OF MASTER PLANNING PROCESS

PHASE ONE | Inventory and Assessment of Existing Conditions | October 2011- January 2012 PHASE TWO | Analysis of Opportunities and Constraints | January - April 2012 PHASE THREE | Design Workshop | May - June 2012

With the completion of the adjacent B-Line Trail in 2011, the City turned its attention to the creation of a vision for the future of the Switchyard… a bold vision that would transform the site into a signature urban park through innovative design and forward thinking, restorative environmental strategies… a vision that recalls the site’s unique history and identity while catalyzing future development in the surrounding community … a vision that reconnects the city and inspires civic engagement and celebration.

Armed with this understanding, a four day Design Workshop was conducted in May of 2012 to solicit community ideas for the design of the park; these ideas were then utilized by the design team to prepare two initial park development concepts that were presented back to the community on the final day of the workshop for public comment and consideration. Upon completion of the Design Workshop stage, the design team worked closely with Bloomington Parks and Recreation to prepare and refine

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

A detailed implementation strategy outlines potential project construction costs, a phased development approach for the park, and the use of various funding sources and mechanisms - both private and public - was prepared to guide the next steps toward implementation of the vision for the park. The Master Plan outlines a collective civic vision for Switchyard Park that if implemented, would bring multiple social, recreational, economic, and environmental benefits to generations of Bloomington citizens, re-energize the nearby community, and provide an economically and environmentally sustainable, destination urban park that is unique to Bloomington.

Process

A comprehensive inventory and analysis of the existing site comprised the first two phases of work and resulted in a thorough understanding of the conditions – natural, manmade, ecological, environmental, land use, and economic - impacting the site and the inherent opportunities and constraints to park development. In addition a series of comparable Case Studies of similar park projects from around the world was prepared to achieve a better understanding of potential lessons to be learned.

Key design elements and recommendations of the master plan include: • A multipurpose Events Lawn for large civic gatherings, festivals, and informal play • A linear “platform” of active park uses – skatepark , spray plaza, playground, community gardens, a grand shelter, entry pavilion, court games, public art, etc. – defined by the footprint of the former rail tracks • Parking areas with a total capacity of more than 550 parking stalls near new vehicular entrance points located off of Walnut Street, Rogers Street, and Grimes Lane • Nearly four miles of new multi-purpose trails to facilitate pedestrian and bicycle connectivity, access, and use • Comprehensive restoration of the Clear Creek Corridor from Grimes Lane to Country Club Road to include stream bank erosion control, removal of invasive species, enhancement of wetland areas, restoration of habitat with native trees, shrubs, and understory plantings • Environmental Remediation to include capping of soil to isolate existing soil pollutants. • Utilization of best practice stormwater management techniques - including permeable pavements, daylighting of underground pipes, bioswales, etc. - to reduce and cleanse stormwater runoff • Public art integrated throughout the park.

Plan

The master planning process was conducted in four distinct phases – Inventory, Analysis, Design Workshop (or Charrette), and Master Planning – and involved significant integration of community input and engagement through an interactive website, social media, an information station at the Bloomington Farmer’s Market, multiple public meetings, and a design workshop.

The Switchyard Park Master Plan outlines a series of improvements to the park that meets the following goals for the project: • A Signature, Destination Park • A Work of Art • Safe and Accessible for All • Connected to the Community • A Restored Natural Landscape • Uniquely Bloomington • An Innovative, Memorable & Dynamic Park Experience!!

Mas ter

This report is the culmination of a year-long master planning effort to craft a collective community vision for Switchyard Park. The work contained herein is the result of a collaboration between the design and planning team - led by Rundell Ernstberger Associates, LLC and including Butler, Fairman & Seufert, Inc., EDEN Collaborative, EcoLogic LLC, Bruce Carter Associates, LLC, Greenstreet, Ltd., Bledsoe, Riggert & Guerettaz, Inc., and Anderson Illustration, Inc. - and the City of Bloomington Department of Parks and Recreation, the Switchyard Park Steering and Technical Review Committees, a wide variety of stakeholder and interest groups, and members of the general public.

a preferred master plan concept, which was presented to the Switchyard Park Steering and Technical Review Committees and the larger community for further input and refinement, resulting in the final master plan.

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PHASE FOUR | Preliminary and Final Master Plan | June - September 2012

From 2005-2009, the City of Bloomington acquired 58 acres of former railroad yard on the south side of the city. Long known as the “Switchyard”, the site that once bustled with the activity and operations of Indiana’s famed Monon railroad had laid dormant and neglected since the late 1970’s, a long forgotten relic of its once thriving past, hidden by overgrown vegetation and compromised by its former industrial use.

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MASTER PLAN PROCESS


The purpose of the inventory phase was two-fold. First, in order to develop a park concept that functions efficiently and effectively, it was essential for the team to understand the physical, environmental, ecological, social, economic and development influences of the site. Equally important was the need to understand the site’s history, cultural characteristics, and significance to the community. Discovering these distinctive qualities and celebrating them through imaginative design was key to developing a community park unique to Bloomington.

Existing Studies/Reports/Plans (See pages 32 and 33) •City of Bloomington • Parks & Recreation Community Interest Survey • Growth Policies Plan • Unified Development Ordinance (Zoning Code) • Broadview and McDoel Gardens Neighborhood Plans • South Rogers Streetscape Identity Study • Bicycle & Pedestrian Transportation Plan • MPO Long Range Transportation Plan • 2003 Switchyard/CSX Corridor Master Plan •Peak Oil Task Force & Environmental Commission • Redefining Prosperity: Energy Descent and Community Resilience • Comprehensive Green Space Plan •Environmental Assessments • Phase I and II Environmental Site Assessments

PUBLIC and STAKEHOLDER INPUT (See page 44) Public input was an essential part of the planning process, and community members generously shared their thoughts and ideas for the park design at a farmer’s market. Throughout the course of the project, more than 300 comments were received, with many ideas for the park design.

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

•City of Bloomington • Utilities Department (CBU) • Utility Providers (Duke Energy and Vectren) • Transit • Parks and Recreation • Planning • Schools • Housing • Neighborhood Development • Public Works • Economic Development •Indiana Department of Environmental Management •Indiana Department of Natural Resources •Indiana Brownfield Program •CSX/Arcadis •Business owners adjacent to park site.

PROJECT CASE STUDIES (See pages 45 - 47) A series of case studies on best practices of parks as catalysts for economic development was prepared to illustrate and inspire the potential for the Switchyard Park. The study included lessons learned from successful urban parks and how they served as a catalyst for economic development and community revitalization.

The case studies demonstrate that urban parks come in a variety of shapes and sizes. It is critical to examine these case studies less for their overall design and visual appeal and more for the details of who, what, why and how. Each example has elements that could be relevant and comparable to Switchyard Park. Some case studies have characteristics that are not comparable to the Bloomington community. Such case study analysis requires the user to dig beyond the visual aesthetics of the site to understand the underlying economics, programming and capital commitment of the public and private sectors. The following Case Study “lessons learned” were applied to the Switchyard master planning process. •Design spaces that are inviting to all user and age groups •Use the site’s history and context to inform contemporary designs •Express and include the region’s natural character and ecological identity •Incorporate a variety of events and activities to encourage year-round use •Connect to and redevelop the park’s surroundings to be consistent with the park’s themes •Provide a world-class arts experience

Dog Park

Skate Park

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Study Area Assessments (See pages 5 - 31 and 34 - 43) •Historic •Land Use and Zoning •Economic Development Areas • TIF, CRED, BEAD, Character and Enterprise Zones •Adjacent Business and Housing •Nearby Parks and Greenways •Neighborhood Associations •Local Interest Areas •Utilities •Traffic Patterns • Vehicular, Pedestrian, Transit •Site Conditions • Soils • Floodway/Hydrology • Topography • Tree/Invasive Species Inventory • Habitat

Summary of Key Findings •Only remnants of the buildings, bridges and tracks that made up the McDoel Switchyard remain. •The former industrial activity has negatively impacted both the environmental and ecological health of the site. •There is community interest in referencing the history of the site in some way. •Several active neighborhoods abut the park, but little formal connection to these neighborhoods exists. •There appears to be adequate utility capacity (electric, gas and water) to support the development of future park amenities. •Duke Energy’s overhead lines in the park could be relocated underground for a fee. •A number of pedestrian corridors are planned in the project study area. Additional connections to and through the park site are desired. (Further study of pedestrian connections is included in the Analysis section.) •Several intersections in the project study area see traffic congestion during peak travel hours. (Further study of a proposed Hillside Drive Extension is included in the Analysis section.) •Transit routes currently run on Walnut Street and Rogers Street. Additional transit stops at the park entrances (or in the park) would provide better transportation access. •Much of the park site currently sits within a designated floodway, which curtails the types of amenities and development that can occur. (Further study of the floodplain is included in the Analysis section.) •The site has been highly disturbed and has experienced much invasive weed pressure. •The majority of the site is disturbed open area, populated with invasive vegetation. •Removal of trees from the riparian area has led to the invasion of exotic vegetation, increased stream bank erosion, and decreased the ability of the riparian area to filter pollutants. •Protection of existing riparian areas and wetlands, and restoration planning to address loss of habitat is key to the development of an effective stormwater management program and healthy stream corridor. •Two buried stream channels exist on the site, and offer opportunities for daylighting. •More than 1300 trees at least 6-inches in diameter were inventoried in the project study area. High-quality, canopy trees were found predominately in either riparian corridors or floodplain forest habitats. •Environmental remediation of the site will be necessary.

Stakeholder Groups During the Inventory Phase, the planning team also began a series of meetings with business owners, as well as state and local government representatives including:

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During the four-month inventory phase, the project team conducted study area assessments, reviewed past studies and current regulations and plans, conducted initial interviews with stakeholders and began an extensive public input process. The following conditions and existing information were researched and reviewed as a starting point for exploring the opportunities and limitations of the site.

• B-Line Trail Remediation Completion Report • Switchyard Phytoremediation Study • Switchyard Ecological Risk Assessment

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Phase One: Inventory and Assessment As the initial step in the master plan process, the Switchyard Park Master Plan team conducted a thorough inventory of the site, its surroundings and factors that might influence its development.

Performance Space/Amphitheatre

Playground (destination, adventure, contemporary)

Gardens (botanic/rooms) /Trees/Arboretum

East/West Pedestrian/Neighborhood Access

Keep it Natural, Restore/Remove invasives

Elder Activities/Accommodation 0

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Public Input Synopsis: Most Requested Amenities and Design Considerations

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Monon Railroad - The Hoosier Line The railroad line associated with McDoel Switchyard was owned by a series of companies including, initially, the New Albany and Salem Railroad. The original company was organized in 1847. Construction of the initial track north from New Albany followed a dirt road, and incorporated some of the road’s layout and grades. As a result, the railroad line was built for low speed operation. Over time the line was acquired by other companies, eventually becoming the Monon Railroad and later the CSX Railroad. The railroad line operated almost entirely in Indiana, linking major communities such as New Albany, Bloomington, Lafayette, Indianapolis, and Chicago, as well as smaller communities and six Indiana universities/colleges. The name “Monon” derived from a stream near Bradford Indiana. Potawatomi Indians named the stream “Monong” which means “to carry or swift running.”

McDoel Yard, date unknown. (Courtesy Tom Rankin.)

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The rail line transported students to Indiana University in Bloomington, Wabash College in Crawfordsville, DePauw University in Greencastle and Purdue University in Lafayette. Colors for the locomotives and passenger trains were Red & White on Grey for Indiana University, and Gold on Black for Purdue University. (Some accounts attribute the color scheme to Wabash College and DePauw University, respectively.) Those colors were used until the Monon merged with the L & N Railroad.

McDoel Switchyard

Researc h

The Switchyard Park area was once known as “McDoel Yards,” and was one of the largest facilities on the railroad line. Trains working locally out of McDoel traveled to Bedford, French Lick, Orleans, Gosport, Ellettsville and to Wallace Junction. At its peak, McDoel yards could hold 700 rail cars. Cars in the yard were sorted and placed in long haul freight trains and were delivered to Lafayette, Chicago, Indianapolis, Michigan City or Louisville and other destinations. Indiana limestone, mined from surrounding areas, often filled the rail cars and were shipped nationwide. The 105-foot diameter McDoel roundhouse had 17 bays, and a central turntable. It was tunneled with drains. Today the concrete pad that remains has several collapsed drains that may follow the pattern of those found in the 1913 and 1927 Sanborn maps. The roundhouse was surrounded by mechanics shops and a lumberyard, which no longer exist. The neighborhood surrounding the McDoel Switchyard included a mix of residential and commercial business,. For many years, the railroad was a major employer in the neighborhood, until the mid-1940’s when the automobile brought about greater mobility.

The McDoel Switchyard Today With the exception of an intact building at the north end of the park, only traces remain of the former switchyard. Remnants of track, utility poles, roads, bridges and building foundations hint at the site’s past industrial activity. A retaining wall along the east side of the park indicates that the site was once filled prior to the construction of the railroad track and switchyard. The former industrial activity has negatively impacted both the environmental and ecological health of the site.

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McDoel Yard, date unknown. (Courtesy Ron Marquardt.)

Switchyard office, circa 1917. (Courtesy John Stigall.) Sources: Monon Railroad Historical-Technical Society http://www.monon.org Bygone Places http://www.monon.monon.org/ Wanatah Historical Society http://www.wanatah.org/railroad.php Rick’s Monon Railroad Site http://mononrr.com/ 1913 Sanborn Map. (Courtesy of

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1900

1950

2000

1847 The New Albany and Salem Railroad, precursor to the Monon Railroad, is organized.

1910 McDoel retires in 1909 and the following year the switchyard is named in his honor. Yard capacity reaches 702 cars when a new roundhouse, turntable and water and coal stations are built.

1956 The railroad nickname “The Monon Route” leads to an official corporate name change to the Monon Line

2000 CSX Railroad begins to phase out its operations

1853 The NA&S line reaches Bloomington. 1854 The line inks the Ohio River (to the Great Lakes. 1859 The railroad line is reorganized as the Louisville, New Albany, and Chicago Railroad.

1961 New warehouse is constructed. 1919 The Showers Brothers Company builds a new kitchen cabinet factory on the former Dodds farm west of Rogers.

1967 The last passenger run occurs.

1923 A new turntable is added to the switchyard.

1971 The Monon merges with the L & N Railroad.

2001 City of Bloomington begins discussions to acquire segments of abandoned rail corridor and the switchyard. 2005 City of Bloomington purchases 3.1 mile of abandoned rail corridor from Adams Street to Country Club Dr. 2008 Ground-breaking for B-Line trail

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1850

1976 Dismantling of the switchyard begins.

1897 The line becomes The Chicago, Indianapolis and Louisville Railroad

2011 B-Line Trail construction completed.

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2009 City of Bloomington purchases five switchyard parcels totaling 27.7 acres.

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1892 A ten stall roundhouse is built at the switchyard, creating a south central Indiana regional hub.

1899 Controlling interest in the railroad is obtained by J.P. Morgan. W. H. McDoel is named president.

Rankin Collection)

Showers Building, date unknown. (Courtesy of the Dick Bowen/Tom

Switchyard roundhouse, date unknown. (Courtesy Steve Dolzall)

McDoel workers at office, circa 1927. (Courtesy Tanice Hinson)

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

McDoel roundhouse turntable, 1971. (Courtesy Gary Dolzall)

The B-Line Trail crosses through the park site.

McDoel Yard office, 1960’s. (Courtesy Lloyd J. Kimble)

B-Line Trailhead at north end of park.

Timelin e

Nothing remains of the accessory structures,and shops,visible in this early photograph (Courtesy of the Wiles Drug Collection.)

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I NV ENTO RY | His toric

Switchyard Park study area

1949 Aerial

Aerial Photographs Switchyard Park study area

1967 Aerial

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I NV ENTO RY | Switchyard Park study area

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1975 Aerial

Aerial Photographs

1998 Aerial

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Switchyard Park study area

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Bryan Park

Indiana University Campus

Multi-Family Residential

Multi-Family Residential

Bloomington South High School

Single Family Residential

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Commercial

Study

DOWNTOWN BLOOMINGTON

Clear Creek

Commercial

Ar ea

Commercial

Single Family Residential

Indiana University Hospital

Industrial

Single Family Residential Single Family Residential

Cook Pharmica RCA Community Park

Bloomington Country Club

Multi-Family Residential Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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B-Line Bridge at Grimes Lane

View North of B-Line Trail and Bridge

View South of Park site from Bridge

View SW To Adjacent Commercial Building

Clear Creek Runs Along East Edge of Park

Informal Trail Adjacent to Clear Creek

Bridge Remnants in Park

Site

Switchyard Trailhead from Bridge

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Park Site/Downtown Linked by B-Line Trail

Photography

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Remnants of Track Adjacent to Creek

Culverts at Clear Creek

Building Remnant/View Across Park

Warehouse Building Along B-Line

B-Line at Southern End of Park

View North from Southern End of Park

Site

View West Across Park

Photography

East Edge of Park Near Clear Creek

Rail bed at West Edge of Park

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Clear Creek/Park Site from Country Club Drive

Rogers Street Transit Stop and Housing

Residential Housing Typical West of Park

Walnut Street Commercial Area

Bloomington Transit Facility on Grimes Lane

Site

View from Park Towards Country Club Drive

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CSX Site at SE Edge of Park

View East Across Park from Hillside Drive

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Photography

Retail Area at Country Club Dr./Walnut St.

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I NV ENTO RY | Fig ur e G r oun d Stu d y Industrial Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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Bryan Park (33 Acres)

Frank Southern Ice Rink

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The Waldron, Hill and Buskirk Park Third Street Park (3.50 Acres) Seminary Park (1.2 Acres)

Parks

Building and Trades Park (3.15 Acres)

Rose Hill Cemetery

Broadview Park (.75 Acres)

RCA Community Park (47.6 Acres) Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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Elm Heights

Barclay Gardens Timber Ridge Pinestone Sunny Slopes

Bryan Park

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Prospect Hill

McDoel Gardens

Broadview Evergreen Village Autumn View

West Pointe

Broadview

Rockport R Hills

Southern Pines

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Old Crescent District Elm Heights Legg House

East Second Street

South Dunn House Laundry Company Building

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Monon Railroad

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Andrew Wylie House Bryan Park Coca-Cola Building Seminary Park

Westside Historical District

Dis tricts

McDoel Prospect Hill

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Steele Dunn

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Proper ties

West Side

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I NV ENTO RY | Utilities LEGEND

SUMMARY Sanitary Water Storm

Utility service to the study area is provided by the City of Bloomington Utilities, Vectren, and Duke Energy. Each has adequate infrastructure to support existing conditions and there appears to be sufficient capacity for further development. The City of Bloomington Utilities has water and sanitary sewer mains paralleling the east and west limits of the switchyard.

Data

Duke Energy has overhead lines surrounding the switchyard with several crossing the switchyard at Hillside Drive and south of the warehouse across from the Rogers Street substation. Duke indicted that the lines crossing the switchyard could be relocated underground although there would be a fee associated with that work.

Gas

Vectren has natural gas distribution surrounding the switchyard.

Hydrants

Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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I NV ENTO RY | Sidewalks & Bike Routes

SUMMARY

LEGEND Bike Lane Routes Proposed Bike Lane Routes Trails and Paths Proposed Trails and Paths

The 2008 Bloomington Bike, Pedestrian and Greenways System Plan is broken into high, medium, and low priority projects. The high priority planned projects that are within the vicinity of the Switchyard include: “B-line Trail: Central City,” “Walnut Street Bike Lanes,” “Rogers Street Side-path.” “Black Lumber Path” “Rogers Street Sidepath.”

Sidewalks

Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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I NV ENTO RY | Thoroughfare Plan LEGEND

SUMMARY Primary Collector Primary Arterial Proposed Secondary Arterial Secondary Arterial

This map shows the existing and anticipated roadway thoroughfares within the City and the map designates each roadway as a specific functional classification (e.g. arterial, collector and local street). Roadways serve two functions: facilitating through traffic movement and providing land access. The functional classification indicates the primary function of a particular roadway. The primary function of higher classified roadways (arterials) is to facilitate through traffic movement while the primary function of lower classified roadways (local streets) is to provide land access. The feasibility of a proposed Hillside Drive extension through the Switchyard Park site was reviewed and analyzed as part of this Master Plan.

Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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Transit Fa F Facility cility

Routes Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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I NV ENTO RY | Water Bodies & Flood Plain 20

Overview of Upper Clear Creek Watershed The project site is located within the Clear Creek watershed in about the center of Clear Creek-Jackson Creek sub-watershed. The watershed is highly urbanized, with urban land covering 82.6% of its 5.8 square miles Within Bloomington much of the course of Clear Creek and its tributaries are enclosed in storm sewers and channelized within stone walls. Clear Creek receives most of the non-point source pollution from the City of Bloomington, including runoff from major commercial areas on the west and east sides of town, the highest traffic areas, and much of the industry on the west side (Monroe Highway Department and Planning Department, 2004). Although systematic water quality data are limited for the project site, non-point pollution study conducted 25-years ago found the following (City of Bloomington and Monroe County, 1997): •Macrovertebrate communities intolerant of pollution are not present in the main channel of Clear Creek •Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores for supporting healthy fish communities were poor in the area of the project site. •Concentrations of E. coli bacteria exceeded Indiana standards for swimming at two sampling locations within the project area. •Clear Creek has been contaminated by PCBs from a number of sources, the main one being groundwater from Lemon Lane Landfill which discharges from the Illinois Central Spring. In 2000 a water treatment plant at the spring began treating for PCBs. In 2006 the water treatment plant was required to treat 99.9% of the PCB mass (USEPA, 2010). A review of E. coli monitoring data (CBU, 2009 to 2011) upstream and downstream of the Dillman Road Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), found that upstream concentrations range from 80 to 146 colonies/100 ml (except for one sample on October 21, 2010, which was greater than 300 colonies/100ml). Downstream concentrations range from 10 to 82 colonies/100 ml. Except for the one high sample, these ranges are within those considered acceptable for swimming. In 2001 the Bloomington Environmental Commission noted that the Clear Creek watershed had been described in IDEM reports as severely impaired for over ten years. A decade later the situation has not improved. IDEM’s most recent stream assessment identifies the Clear Creek-May Creek subwatershed as severely impaired by PCB contamination of fish, and the Clear Creek-Little Clear Creek Watershed as severely impaired by PCB and mercury contamination of fish and E. coli contamination (IDEM, 2012). In 2004 the IDNR Division of Fish and Wildlife performed a stream survey of Clear Creek extending 12 miles upstream from the confluence with Salt Creek (Kittaka, 2004). Available habitat was assessed using the Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index QHEI) and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was also used to assess stream health based on the fish community. The QHEI averaged 71, indicating acceptable habitat for fish and the IBI assessment rated all stations in the “Good” category. Water quality at the time of sampling was good at all stations.

Floodplain, Flow and Channel Characteristics. Clear Creek is a shallow perennial stream in the area of the project site. The project sites include the confluence of the main channel of Clear Creek and West Branch of Clear Creek which originates at the PCB-contaminated Illinois Central Spring. Both of these streams are third-order streams and below the confluence Clear Creek becomes a fourth order stream. Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in 2010 provides the most accurate delineation of the 100-year floodplain (Figures A.6 and A.7). The width of the floodplain of the main channel of Clear Creek generally ranges from 500 to 700 feet, with a maximum floodplain width of 1100 feet where the West Branch joins the main channel. A review of aerial photographs from 1939 to the present of the south part of the project area (where most of the floodplain is in private ownership) indicates that the channel north of the former City of Bloomington sewage lagoons has been quite stable except for the cutoff of the meander east of the lagoons which took place some time after 1967. The channel south of the former sewage lagoons have undergone more significant changes in the last seventy years. It was quite sinuous until the channel moved to the west in the late 1950s and since 1967 the main channel has been almost straight. The area of Clear Creek watershed that includes the project site has received little study at the state or national level. There are no USGS stream gauging stations in the watershed. Information available from IDEM and IDNR apply to lower reaches of the watershed. A preliminary reconnaissance of the stream channel indicates a shallow stream without deep pools, but a well established riffle and pool morphology resulting from a mix of exposed limestone bedrock in the channel and presence of limestone cobbles and boulders.

National Wetland Inventory The project site has four wetland areas marked on the National Wetland Inventory map originally prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service based on aerial photography from the 1980s. •Two of these areas are no longer present, though they still appear on the Digital NWI map. They were part of an old sewage treatment plant and were removed in the 1990s. •A pond, which aerial photograph review indicates was constructed in the mid-1970s, also appears to have been removed in the 1990s. •It is not clear why the area mapped as a forested wetland was delineated on the NWI map. Again, review of aerial photographs shows this area to be entirely or mostly open field from 1949 to 1967 and well-drained soils are characteristic of this area of the floodplain. A preliminary field reconnaissance of this area indicated that a hydrophytic vegetation community is probably not present in this area and that it would not be considered jurisdictional wetlands by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. A formal wetland delineation would be required to confirm this. The ecological assessment of the project area also identified potential wetland areas not currently shown on the NWI map. A field reconnaissance of these areas found the presence of obligate wetland species such as cattails and common rush. It appears that man-made alteration of site hydrology since the National Wetland Inventory Map was prepared, mainly through partial filling of the floodplain, has created conditions conducive for growth of wetland vegetation. These areas might be considered jurisdictional wetlands by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers or isolated wetlands by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management. A formal wetland delineation would be required to confirm this.

Indiana Watershed Map

Lower East Fork White River


I NV ENTO RY | Water

Clear Creek

Bodies & Flood Plain

Estimated Flood Zone 2010 Flood Boundary Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

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I NV ENTO RY | N atur al Resour c e s 22

NATURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY OVERVIEW A site assessment was performed to determine the state of the natural resources at the Switchyard Property. An ecological inventory was conducted for both the intact and disturbed plant communities. This ecological inventory included a habitat assessment, invasive species inventory, tree inventory and stream erosion evaluation. The invasive species inventory was conducted for the entire property to catalog on-site threats posed to natural systems. The tree inventory maps all canopy trees over 6 inches in diameter. A stream erosion map was created to show the varying streambank erosion along the Clear Creek stream. This information assisted with understanding both the constraints and the opportunities of this property. The land has been highly disturbed, and has experienced much invasive weed pressure, due to the rail industry and flooding. The greater than a century long pattern of disturbance at the Switchyard property has created an ideal environment for invasive plants. The invasive plant inventory identified over 25 species of invasive plants growing in the various habitats. These invasives range from small herbaceous plants like Garlic Mustard and Spotted Knapweed to a large 60 feet tall Tree of Heaven. There are invasive trees, shrubs, groundcovers, broadleaved herbs, grasses and vines present.

are scattered throughout and Disturbed Open dominates the central areas of the property. Specifics for each site are described below. Habitat: Forested Floodplain There are small fragments of floodplain forest throughout the Switchyard property which are not in the Clear Creek corridor. The largest forested floodplain parcel is located towards the southwest part of the property and is west of the park boundary in the Broadview neighborhood area. This area has some of the healthiest forest community on the entire property. The forest overall is again maplehackberry-sycamore as with the riparian areas. Other species such as Sassafras, Black Walnut, Wild Cherry, and Shagbark Hickory are also found. Invasive plant pressure is somewhat less here, when compared with the riparian forested areas. On either side of the gravel trail running parallel to the B-line Trail are ditches; the ditch on the west is long and narrow, while the area between the old trail and the B-line is a low lying wide swale with more consistent moisture. Sensitive fern and Christmas fern are established in one area, with Blackberry, Black Raspberry and woodland sedges and grasses (including Silky Rye) grow consistently through the area. There is one patch of sumac growing on the very northern end.

There is a healthy stand of native riparian trees running most of the length of Clear Creek through the Switchyard property. At the north end of the park, canopy trees had been cleared from the banks of Clear Creek, resulting in a major invasion of Japanese Knotweed which led to major streambank failure. This shows the importance of conserving the healthy stand of trees in the riparian corridor. There are also high quality native canopy trees located in the floodplain forest and along the old railway towards the west end of the property. There is a fairly high quality floodplain forest towards the southwest part of the property with mature trees and low levels of invasive plant pressure.

This habitat is characterized by two soil types, CriderUrbanland Complex, 2-6 percent slopes and CriderUrban land complex, 6 to 12 percent slopes. The CriderUrbanland Complex, 2-6 percent slopes “consists of gently sloping, deep, well drained Crider soil and areas of Urban land… The Crider soil in this unit has high available water capacicty, and permeability if moderate. Surface runoff from is medium. The organic content of the surface layer is low…” Crider-Urban land complex, 6 to 12 percent slopes soil has similar characteristics as Crider-Urbanland Complex, 2-6 percent slopes, but has greater slopes, slightly more shallow topsoil, and deeper subsoil. Water conditions are the same.

HABITAT INVENTORY Five habitats were determined to comprise the area within the Switchyard: Forested Floodplain, Forested Riparian, Wetland, Scrub Shrub and Tree, and Disturbed Open. The Forested Riparian follows the banks of Clear Creek with the Forested Floodplain bordering this habitat on the southern half of Clear Creek. Another section of Forested Floodplain is located on the western side of the B-line Trail, running the entire length of the property with a large section drifting out of the property boundary on the southwest end toward the Broadview Neighborhood. Wetland Habitats are located at various places on the property with the two most significant of these habitats being located in the southwestern corner and in the northeast spur which goes to Rogers Street directly south of the large warehouse. Scrub Shrub and Tree Habitats

Habitat: Forested Riparian The forested areas within one hundred feet of Clear Creek are fairly mature and have a higher percentage of native canopy trees than most areas within the switchyard. These trees are playing an important role in the health of the Clear Creek stream by stabilizing stream banks, and providing shade, both of which improve water quality. These trees are also providing habitat for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Characteristic overstory trees are Catalpa, Silver Maple, Beech, Sycamore, Hackberry, Tulip and Red Maple. One major threat to the health of the native canopy trees is the proliferation of invasive vines, especially Japanese Honeysuckle, Oriental Bittersweet, Purple Wintercreeper and Asian Clematis.

shrubs such as Bush Honeysuckle, Privet,and Multfilora Rose. The herbaceous understory consists of several aster and goldenrod species, Indian Tobacco, Boneset, and a variety or grasses and sedges. Blackberry thickets are also present in areas of open canopy. Both Udorthents loam and Haymond silt loam soils are identified on the soil maps. Udorthents have been greatly altered by man and are associated with parking lots, shopping centers, and subdivisions. They are found in upland disturbed areas and flood plains. The water capacity is “moderate and permeability is moderate or moderately slow. Surface runoff is slow to rapid. Organic matter content of the surface layer is low. “Haymond silt loam has high water capacity with moderate permeability. Surface runoff is slow and “organic matter content of the surface layer is moderate.”

Forested Floodplain

Habitat: Wetland Several wetland habitats are located throughout the site, and vary from open marsh-like wetlands to forested riparian wetlands. The wetlands would be classified as low to medium quality with all areas experiencing considerable invasive plant pressure. Due to adequate hydrology and the presence of hydrophytic vegetation it is believed that the wetlands do have high potential for restoration-enhancement, but would need a long term strategy for invasive plant control. Herbaceous species of interest found in the northern most wetland habitat include Blue Flag Iris, Swamp Aster, Dark Green Bulrush, Swamp Milkweed, Woolgrass, and Soft Stem Bulrush. Red Maple, Green Ash, Silver Maple and Cottonwood are the main trees found in these wetland habitats. This habitat is characterized by Haymond silt loam soils. “The available water capacity of this Haymond soil is very high, and permeability is moderate. Surface runoff from cultivated areas is slow. The organic matter content if the surface layer is moderate.” These soils are usually very level, deep, well drained, but are flood prone due to clay content. Thus, these areas are not suited for building or development.

Forested Riparian

Habitat: Scrub Shrub and Tree Areas on the northern end and central section of the property are Scrub Tree and Shrub Habitat. Non-native species dominate including invasive bush honeysuckle, Japanese honeysuckle, and Multiflora Rose. Few native understory woody plants have been noted so far, only Flowering Dogwood and Gray Dogwood. Gray Goldenrod, Aster species, Broomsedge, and sedges are the main herbaceous native species. The Scrub Shrub and Tree Habitats have Udorthents, loamy soil.

The understory shrub layer is dominated by invasive Wetland


What is an invasive species? The official federal definition of an invasive species is, “an alien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.” •Invading alien species in the United States cause major environmental damages and losses adding up to almost $120 billion per year. •There are approximately 50,000 foreign species and the number is increasing. •About 42% of the species on the Threatened or Endangered species lists are at risk primarily because of alien-invasive species. Negative Effects on Ecosystems: Exotic invasive plants can dominate urban forests and wetlands. Invasive plants alter ecosystem structure and function by changing soil chemistry, which can suppress or even extirpate most native competitors by preventing recruitment. Evidence has shown that invasive plants can alter soil ph, and slow nutrient cycling. Some invasive plants are allelopathic; i.e. they inhibit any other seeds

TREE INVENTORY •The tree inventory logged all trees in the Switchyard property over 6 inches in diameter at breast height. •Outside of park property, but within the study area only large specimen trees were inventoried. • A total of 1321 trees were inventoried and ranged in size from 6” DBH to a 62” Cottonwood • A total of 22 species of native canopy trees were identified in the inventory. •The trees were divided into the following categories by size class. • 6-10 “ DBH – 316 total trees • 11-15 “ DBH - 512 total trees • 16 -22” DBH - 382 total trees • 23- 32” DBH – 96 total trees • 33” + DBH – 15 total trees •The canopy trees were predominately found in either the Riparian forest or Floodplain forest habitats. • In areas where canopy trees were removed from the banks of Clear Creek, invasive plants pressure is high. These areas of clearing are directly correlated with massive stream bank failure. •The very limited quantity of hard mast producing trees such as Oak and Hickory, should be addressed in future restoration planning to increase wildlife habitat.

STREAM EROSION INVENTORY The area surrounding the switchyard is dominated by impervious pavement, such as rooftops and parking lots, and turf grass, which leads to a greater volume of runoff, velocity and sediment load. The removal of trees from the riparian area has facilitated the invasion of exotic vegetation. This has dramatically increased stream bank erosion, and significantly decreased the ability of the riparian area to filter pollutants.

Scrub Shrubs and Trees

Manmade Structure

Disturbed Open

Stable Streambank

Resour c e s

The inventory finds over 25 species of invasive plants on site, some of which are just starting to become established in our area. It was no surprise to find very common invasive plants such as Bush Honeysuckle, Japanese Honeysuckle and Multiflora Rose all of which have been well established in the Bloomington area for decades. However, the discovery of Pampas Grass, Miscanthus Grass and Asian Clematis were of more interest, because they are new invaders. Sites with industrial disturbance such as the Switchyard are usually the first points of invasion for new species because the transportation network brings in new plants, and the site is disturbed enough to allow them to establish without competition from native species.

The inventory was conducted in late fall through early winter, and we suspect a few herbaceous species may have been dormant.

N atur al

The combination of disturbance and heavy weed pressure resulting from years of railway activity has created a haven for invasive plants. The transportation of seeds and roots on rail cars have brought invasive plants from far and wide.

from germinating. The change in forest structure that invasive plants cause can effectively eliminate habitat for many plants and animals. Most invasive plants are also highly adaptable, which is a cause for great concern with the changing climate.

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INVASIVE SPECIES INVENTORY

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Habitat: Disturbed Open This is the predominant habitat of the project area and shows the legacy of industrial activity. This habitat is characterized by non-native weedy species such as Tall Fescue, Johnson Grass, Queen Anne’s Lace, Spotted knapweed, Teasel, Mullein and Chicory. Native herbaceous species include Wild Ryes, Broomsedge, Potentilla, Primrose, a few sedges, white Heath Aster, and a patch of Indian hemp on the southern end. Much of the scrub type growth that occurs sporadically throughout the open areas are invasive species such as Siberian Elm, Bush Honeysuckle and Multiflora Rose. A few smaller caliper trees are scattered lightly throughout including Sycamore, Eastern Red Cedar, and Black Walnut. Udorthents, loamy soil classifies this entire area.

The remaining riparian areas are experiencing pressure from invasive species, which will eventually degrade this important habitat so that it will no longer regulate water flow and temperature. Disturbance of the stream corridor and channelization have significantly decreased water quality and the quality of habitat Clear Creek provides. Protection of existing riparian areas and wetlands, and restoration planning to address loss of habitat is key to the development of an effective stormwater management program and a healthy stream corridor.

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

High Erosion Streambank

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I NV ENTO RY | Habit at Inventor y LEGEND LEGE Scrub, Shrubs, & Trees Forested Riparian Forested Floodplain Disturbed Open Areas Wetland

*All streams, tributaries, and ditches will need a jurisdictional determination to determine if they are waters of the U.S., and if impacts would require mitigation.

Switchyard Park study area (308 acers) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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*All wetland areas will need a wetland delineation to determine who has jurisdiction and if impacts would require mitigation.

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Tributaries, Streams, & Ditches

NOTES


I NV ENTO RY | I nvas is ve S pec ies

LEGEND Cattails - Typha spp.

Multiflora Rose - Rosa multiflora

Autumn Olive - Elaegunus angustifolia

Miscanthus - Miscanthus spp.

Poison Hemlock - Conium maculatum

Pampas Grass - Erianthus ravennae

Purple Winter Creeper - Euonymus fortunei

Black Locust - Robninia pseudoacacia

Japanese Knotweed - Polygonum cuspidatum

Japanese Knotweed - Polygonum cuspidatum

Reed Canary Grass - Phalaris arundinacea

Tree of Heaven - Ailanthus altissima

Common Reed - Phragmites australis

Siberian Elm - Ulmus pumila

Asian Clematis - Clematis terniflora

Privet and Bush Honeysuckle

Japanese Honeysuckle - Lonicera japonica

Privet, Bush and Japanese Honeysuckle

Callery Pear - Pyrus calleryana

Bush Honeysuckle - Lonicera spp.

Reed Canary Grass and Cattails Bush Honeysuckle, Japanese Honeysuckle, Tree of Heaven, Oriental Bittersweet, Purple Winter Creeper, Siberian Elm, and Privet Bush Honeysuckle, Japanese Honeysuckle, Privet, Oriental Bittersweet, Multiflora Rose Hydrology

Oriental Bittersweet - Celastrus orbiculatus

CSX Fence

Johnson Grass - Sorghum halepense Privet - Ligustrum vulgare Tree of Heaven - Ailanthus altissima Siberian Elm - Ulmus pumila

Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Switchyard Park study area (308 acers)

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I NV ENTO RY | Tree Inventor y LEGEND 6” - 10” (Not Displayed) 11” - 15” (512 Total) 16” - 22” (382 Total)

Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana (20)

23” - 32” (96 Total)

Red maple - Acer rubrum (135)

33” + (15 Total)

Hackberry - Celtis occidentalis (109) Sassafras - Sassagras albidum (6) Shagbark Hickory - Carya ovata (1)

American Elm - Ulmus americana (70)

Silver Maple - Acer saccharinum (81)

Basswood - Tilia americana (1)

Slippery Elm - Ulmus rubra (56)

Beech - Fagus grandifolia (7)

Sugar Maple - Acer saccharum (8)

Black Willow - Salix nigra (2)

Sycamore - Platanus occidentalis (159)

Box Elder - Acer negundo (141)

Tulip - Liriodendron tulipifera (2)

Catalpa - Catalpa Speciosa (28)

Walnut - Juglans nigra (101)

Cherry - Prunus serotina (173)

White Ash - Fraxinus americana (20)

Chinquapin Oak - Quercus muehlenbergii (1) Cottonwood - Populus deltoides (33)

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Green Ash - Fraxinus pennsylvanica (165)


I NV ENTO RY | Stream Inventor y

LEGEND Inflows (High Volume) Inflows (Small Culverts and Ditches) Foot Bridge Abandoned Bridge Abutment Erosion Low Erosion Medium Erosion High Manmade Stable Manmade Unstable Switchyard Park study area (308 acers) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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I NV ENTO RY

CrC

CrC - Crider silt loam CtB - Crider-Urban land complex CtC - Crider-Urban land complex Hd - Haymond silt loam, frequently flooded HtB - Hosmer-Urban land complex Ua - Udorthents, loamy Wa - Wakeland silt loam, frequently flooded

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US G S S oil

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S ur vey

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Norman Upland

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Indiana Physiographical Map

BdB


I NV ENTO RY |

667 - 693’

745 - 771’

693 - 719’

771 - 796’

719 - 745’

796 - 822’

822 - 850’

Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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Elevation Model

Topog r aphic

LEGEND EGEND

M ode l s

LEGEND EGEND 0 - 22.5°

112.5 - 157.5°

247.5 - 292.5°

Switchyard Park study area (308 acres)

22.5 - 67.5°

157.5 - 202.5°

292.5 - 337.5°

Switchyard Park (58 acres)

67.5 - 112.5°

202.5 - 247.5°

337.5 - 360°

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SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Aspect Model

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I NV ENTO RY | Env ir onmen t al

CLEAR CREEK - IDEM LISTED IMPAIRED STREAM

Ass e ssmen t

LEGEND Underground Storage Tank (UST) Brownfields Site RCRA File Exists Onsite Voluntary Remediation Project Site Water Wells Other - Includes Spills, Potential Brownfields/ Contaminated Properties Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trichloroethene (TCE) in Groundwater Petroleum Impacted Area CA&C FILL

Coal, Ash & Cinder Fill Areas

The City of Bloomington has extensively investigated the environmental condition of the switchyard property and the former CSX rail corridor. Since 2001, more than a dozen investigations and studies were completed to determine the type and extent of environmental conditions that may be present. These investigations included the collection of soil and groundwater from well over 100 locations. In addition, phytoremediation and bioremediation pilot studies by IU Bloomington researchers and an ecological risk assessment were conducted. Each of these studies and reports were reviewed by the project team in order to gain a thorough understanding of the environmental condition of the switchyard site. As well, the project team worked with the Indiana Department of Environmental Management and Indiana Brownfield Program staff to determine their requirements for remediation activities, and how anticipated new standards from IDEM may impact the remediation options for the park.

Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

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Community-wide studies and plans which may impact design and development of the Switchyard Park study area City of Bloomington Parks and Recreation Community Interest and Opinion Survey

MPO 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan Bloomington/Monroe County MPO

Redefining Prosperity: Energy Descent and Community Resilience

Bloomington Bike and Pedestrian Transportation and Greenways System Plan

Completed: 2011

Completed 2010

Completed: 2009

Completed: 2008

Need for Parks and Recreation Facilities At least 50% of respondent households indicated they have a need for the following parks/recreation facilities: walking and biking trails (74%), small neighborhood parks (61%), large community parks (59%), and greenspace and natural areas (53%).

Committed Projects The transportation plan takes into consideration improvement projects that have already been programmed for Fiscal Years 2006 through 2008 (aka committed projects). The majority of these projects are located outside of the functional study area of the McDoel Switchyard Park. The exception is the Country Club Drive and Rogers Street intersection which is planned to have left-turn lanes added.

Most Important Facilities Based on the sum of their top four choices, the facilities that respondents indicated were most important to their households included: walking and biking trails (55%) and small neighborhood parks (31%). Youth football fields (1%) were least selected as important to respondents. Need for Recreation Programs and Activities Respondents selected the following recreation programs or activities as those for which they had the greatest need: Farmers’ Market (71%), community events, concerts, movies, etc. (52%) and adult fitness, health and wellness programs (39%).

Potential Switchyard Spaces and Programs At least 35% of respondents indicated their household would use the following potential spaces or programs at the Switchyard: performance space (44%), area for special events/festivals (42%), playground (39%), nature preserve (38%), and shelter buildings (37%). Football fields (4%) were selected by the fewest number of respondents. Switchyard Spaces Respondents Would Use Most Often Based on the sum of their top four choices, respondents indicated they would use most often use the following spaces at the Switchyard: performance space (30%), playground (30%), nature preserve (28%), and area for special events/festivals (26%).

The MPO forecasting model shows that Grimes Lane from Rogers St to Henderson St is anticipated to experience traffic congestion in year 2030 based on the existing roadway configurations and committed projects. The plan does not outline a solution for mitigating the congestion along Grimes Lane nor does it list an improvement project in the recommended Capital Improvement Program (see below). Discussions with the City DPW indicate that a Hillside Drive extension may help alleviate the future congestion along Grimes Lane. The feasibility of a proposed Hillside Drive extension through the Switchyard Park site is under review. Long Range Transportation Capital Improvement Program The plan recommends short term (2009-2019) and long term (2020-2030) projects to meet future transportation needs and the estimated future funding sources. The CSX Corridor Trail (Phase III) from Adams St to Country Club Dr is listed as a short term project for the City which is within the functional study area of the McDoel Switchyard Park. This project has since been constructed and is better known as the “B-Line Trail”.

Benefits Most Important to Respondent Household Members. Based on the sum of their top three choices, the benefits that respondents indicated are most important to household members are: improving physical health and fitness (70%) and making Bloomington a more desirable place to live (47%). Promoting tourism to the City (4%) is the benefit least selected by respondents as important to their households.

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

A strategic plan for the City of Bloomington outlining the future bicycle and pedestrian transportation needs. These include trails, sidewalks and bike lanes. The plan also provides design guidelines for future bicycle and pedestrian facilities.

The Task Force examined the following community systems: municipal services, transportation, land use, housing, sustenance, and the economic context. Mitigation recommendations were made for each of these community systems. Recommendations relevant to the Switchyard Park Master Plan include the following:

Planned Projects The strategic plan for bike and pedestrian trial is broken into high, medium, and low priority projects. The high priority planned projects that are within the vicinity of the McDoel Switchyard are “B-line Trail: Central City,” “Walnut Street Bike Lanes,” “Rogers Street Side-path.” The Plan also includes the near-by medium and low priority projects “Black Lumber Path” and “Rogers Street Sidepath.”

Municipal Services •Explore hybrid energy (hydroelectric-solar) generation to complement existing power at the water treatment plant. •Encourage more rainwater capture by residents and the City •Develop a community compost program. •Establish waste reduction goals •Explore alternatives to asphalt. •Seek assistance with park maintenance from volunteers, neighborhood associations, etc. Bring daily necessities closer to where people live •Increase connectivity & the number of planned “lengthy corridors” for bicyclists. •Work toward a regional Comprehensive Land Use and Transportation Plan involving the City of Bloomington, Monroe County, and Indiana University that fosters bicycle, pedestrian, and transit-friendly changes in land use. Land Use •Through zoning and other land management tools, encourage the redistribution of land to bring about denser living arrangements, and a closer integration of residential and commercial activity, to reduce the amount of intra-city transportation. •Target public transit routes to help shape neighborhood development.

Studies

Most Important Recreation Programs and Activities Based on the sum of their top four choices, the recreation programs and activities most important to respondent households are: Farmers’ Market (62%) and community events, concerts, movies, etc. (39%). The least selected recreation program and activity was “youth health and wellness programs” (3%).

Year 2030 Traffic Forecasting The MPO maintains a Travel Demand Forecast Model for the purposes of forecasting future traffic volumes. The model is developed by projecting future travel patterns between the residential and non-residential areas of the MPO, designated as traffic analysis zones (TAZ). Collected traffic data, housing and employment data, existing roadway network configurations, and committed transportation projects are all data inputs for the model.

The Bloomington Peak Oil Task Force was charged with assessing Bloomington’s vulnerability to a decline in cheap oil and developing prudent strategies by which Bloomington might be made more resilient in the face of peak oil.

Pr ev ious

The MPO plan identifies and prioritizes transportation improvement projects needed for the next 25 years to maintain and improve the transportation facilities of the Bloomington area.

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A random sample of 708 households conducted to assess community attitudes about and preferences for parks and recreation.

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Synopsis of Previous Studies and Plans

Housing •Explore local power generation from renewable sources. Sustenance •Plant edible landscapes on public property. •Organize City-led horticultural services to include the collection, processing, and distribution of organic waste. •Dedicate public land to intensive gardening and farming. •Work toward a year-round regional farmers’ market. •Create a local, publicly-controlled seedbank. •Encourage water conservation through outreach and incentives. •Create community composting sites.

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•Create a trail profile consisting of a single, 12 foot wide asphalt pathway with 2 foot crushed stone shoulders. •Restore portions of the Clear Creek floodplain where practical. •Retain and enhance the majority of the existing riparian woodlands south of the former roundhouse. •Utilize the former roundhouse remnants to aid the interpretation of the Switchyard function. •Assign priority to the development of a natural, passive park with a restored ecology, and facilities tending toward more casual recreational uses. •Identify and set aside areas which are practical for the development of substantial recreational and institutional facilities in the long term future. These might include art centers, an amphitheater, or community center. •Encourage adjacent properties and structures to be reused and/or reconfigured in ways that address the trail and provide trail users with direct access to shops, restaurants, and similar uses. Ensure that new adjacent uses complement the trail. •Evaluate the potential of providing trailhead facilities at Grimes Lane, Country Club Road, and the Walnut Street frontage. •Create connecting pathways to the neighborhoods on the west side of the Switchyard as well as to Walnut Street and the public schools to the east. •Further evaluate vehicular access for the park. The most promising access point, at this time, appears to be the point at which the Indiana Railroad line crosses Rogers Street. •Seek opportunities to incorporate public art at strategic locations along the Rail Corridor and within the Switchyard. •Confirm the ability to create trail underpasses for crossings with the proposed Hillside Drive connection as well as the improved Country Club Road corridor. •Explore the feasibility of extending the Morton Street corridor south to Hillside Drive and beyond. •Evaluate the age and condition of utility pipes during trail construction and upgrade as needed. •Utilize bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques to treat environmentally contaminated areas within the Switchyard where existing contamination will be buried beneath clean fill. •Establish a property acquisition process to evaluate means for buying property or development rights for the properties immediately adjacent to Clear Creek. •Submit a corrected regulatory floodplain model to the State and to FEMA for clarifying the true extent of floodway limits.

Pr ev ious

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Synopsis of Previous Studies and Plans

Studies 32

studies and plans for areas related to the study site which may impact development and design of the Switchyard Park Master Plan McDoel Switchyard/CSX Rail Corridor Plan

South Rogers Street Identity Study

Broadview Neighborhood Plan

McDoel Gardens Neighborhood Plan

Completed: 2003

Completed: 2009

Completed: 2003

Completed: 2002

The study area for the 2003 Master Plan stretched from Country Club Road on the south end to Adams Street on the north, including the McDoel Switchyard site and the CSX Railroad Corridor. Portions of the study area were divided into ‘Character Districts’ with planning recommendations developed for each. Recommendations for the McDoel Switchyard Character District include:

The purpose of the South Rogers Street identity study was to provide a comprehensive plan that explored potential strategies to improve the look and feel of Rogers Street. The study area extends from Hillside Drive to the south, north to Kirkwood Avenue. The study was envisioned as an opportunity to create a plan that will take advantage of funding that is available through the Housing and Neighborhood Development Department (HAND). The plan created will serve as a road map for how these future public and private investments can be utilized. As part of this study, an implementation strategy was created. These strategies were created to allow the construction of big or small projects as funds are available. The end product of the South Rogers Street Identity Study is a document that can be used as a guide for each development project. The document can be referenced to understand the desired look and feel in distinct areas, proposed improvements, details of proposed elements and costs estimates for each. Goals established for the project are the following: •Separate neighborhoods need to be clearly identified as part of the overall project in order to maintain their individuality. •From the safety aspect, the project should address accessibility and pedestrian movement as there are currently major issues with this. •Project materials should be reminiscent of Bloomington. •Provide outdoor spaces for people to interact and gather. •Address intersections in order to enhance pedestrian and bicycle movement and safety. •Include public art in the design. •Respect the historic nature of the homes and businesses along the corridor. •Use color and materials to create excitement and interest.

The Broadview Neighborhood Plan created a vision and plan that focused on several goals including:

The McDoel Gardens Neighborhood Plan created a vision and action plan for the neighborhood which focused on five key areas:

GOAL 1: TO IMPROVE PUBLIC SERVICES THAT WILL CREATE A SAFER ENVIRONMENT FOR ALL AGES AND ABILITIES •Objective A: Enhance alternative modes of transportation choices with improved access and safety. •Objective B: Continually strive to improve storm water drainage and other public facilities in the neighborhood.

Preserve Homes Ensure single-family residential remains the predominant use for our neighborhood and retain it as a conservation district. Maintain a diversity of affordable homes: owner occupied and rental, while preserving scale and compatibility throughout the neighborhood.

GOAL 2: TO PROMOTE THE REUSE OF BROADVIEW ELEMENTARY SCHOOL •Objective A: Broadview Neighborhood Association (BNA) to investigate and identify desirable opportunities to reuse the school before it closes. •Objective B: Recognize the important role that the BES functions as a neighborhood focal point and community center. •Objective C: Regularly identify programs and/or services that can utilize the BES to better serve Broadview residents. •Objective D: Retain BES playground as a neighborhood park.

Find a Balance with Nature Develop natural spaces and structures that knit our community together. Enhance opportunities for the natural community and the built environment to work in harmony. Examples include the West Branch of Clear Creek and CSX switchyard, which could provide green spaces for neighborhood parks and pedestrian/ bicycle paths.

GOAL 3: TO STRENGTHEN THE NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATION •Objective A: Increase attendance/participation at BNA meetings. •Objective B: Develop a seasonal Broadview newsletter. •Objective C: Increase leadership skills of residents in Broadview. •Objective D: Develop neighborhood directory (services, interests, contact information, neighborhood watch, etc.). GOAL 4: TO ENCOURAGE PRIDE IN HOMEOWNERSHIP •Objective A: Preserve and maintain affordable single-family homes through home ownership. •Objective B: Annually identify and prioritize abandoned and/or neglected properties requiring the most immediate attention. GOAL 5: TO IMPROVE OUR PUBLIC IMAGE •Objective A: Continuously improve the general public’s perception of the Broadview Neighborhood. •Objective B: Improve the aesthetics of the Broadview Neighborhood (through enhanced landscaping). GOAL 6: TO ENCOURAGE NEW AND EXISTING SMALL BUSINESS •Objective A: Identify opportunities within the neighborhood, which will attract a variety of locally owned small businesses. GOAL 7: TO EDUCATE BROADVIEW RESIDENTS ABOUT AVAILABLE SERVICES •Objective A: Develop working relationships with the public sector and local service providers to identify the unique needs of the neighborhood and types of services available to Broadview residents.

Establish and Maintain Relationships with Stakeholders Foster Economic Sustainability Promote a balanced mix of residential and commercial activities. Attract innovative businesses to and encourage reinvestment and entrepreneurship in the neighborhood that will provide employment opportunities and produce living-wage salaries for residents as well as the community at large. Enhance Interconnectivity Establish up-to-date utility infrastructure, i.e., modern streets with curbing, sidewalks and lighting as well as good, bicycle and pedestrian friendly, physical and transit connections within the neighborhood and to other parts of the Bloomington community.


•RAIL-LEGACY INDUSTRIAL/COMMERCIAL: Properties that address the Switchyard because they are legacy properties that formally utilized the functions of the rail system. (The Thomson Warehouses, Grimes Lane Commercial Properties, etc.)

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Demograp h i c s

As the planning for the park itself evolves, this organization could then have ramifications about park development priorities and allocation of resources, i.e. “where might money be prioritized in certain sections of the park to match where there is investment potential for transformative real estate development?”

Ar ea

Corresponding Trade Areas As one of the stated goals of the Switchyard Park Master Plan is to not only create a grand park space in the City of Bloomington, but also spur real estate development on properties that are near and adjacent, these existing land use themes are helpful organizing tools to analyze markets for redevelopment investment. Because of the Switchyard’s linear orientation and large size, it becomes apparent that a specialized approach to analyze trade areas and derive marketplace conditions is required.

Tr ade

•RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOODS: Residential Neighborhoods that were and are buffered from the Switchyard by vegetation, terrain or physical barriers (fencing, roadways, etc.) (Primarily the Broadview Neighborhood Area, yet also the McDoel Gardens Neighborhood and Bryan Park Neighborhood)

|

•SOUTH WALNUT STREET COMMERCIAL: Auto-dependant commercial development that is focused on the South Walnut Corridor and has limited “address” or relationship to the Switchyard.

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Thematic Land Use Categories While the idea of the Switchyard property as a potential “grand park” for the City of Bloomington has been discussed for many years (and some formal planning has occurred to that end), from a current land use perspective it is, at this time, an old railroad switching yard site. Because of this site legacy, existing land uses generally fall into one of three categories or themes:

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TRADE AREA #1 MEASURED AS 1-, 3-, and 5-mile DISTANCES FROM GRIMES Relatively strong existing land use context/conditions at the north end of the park area (i.e. proximity to downtown Bloomington, the B-Line Trail and established neighborhoods) will likely create a logical trade area to assess. An analysis of the, 1, 3, and 5-mile trade areas (centered on the north end of the Switchyard and Grimes Lane) will assist to project real estate demand with a technique (concentric circles) that will be familiar to potential investors and suitable for this type of area.

| Tr ade Ar ea 1 34

Three Trade Areas/Markets •

TRADE AREA #1


The South Walnut Street retail corridor is a secondary impact area that will be analyzed with a different technique that is more suitable for its retail and auto-oriented conditions. Since retail capacity is directly related to consumer spending and automobile access via roadways, this trade area will be analyzed using 5, 10, and 15-minute drive times from the corner of South Walnut Street and Country Club Drive.

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TRADE AREA #2 MEASURED AS 5-, 10-, and 15-minute DRIVE TIMES FROM COUNTRY CLUB & SOUTH WALNUT 5-MINUTE DRIVE TIME RESULTS BELOW ONLY

| Tr ade Ar ea 2

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

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TRADE AREA #3 - RESIDENTIAL CITY OF BLOOMINGTON CORPORATE LIMITS To a large extent, residential market dynamics are dependent on larger regional trends, therefore net housing demand will be projected for the City of Bloomington using ESRI population and household growth projections. This overall demand can be “allocated� to local residential areas, including the Broadview Neighborhood and other adjacent areas that the planning process might deem suitable for residential land uses.


The Bloomington Urban Enterprise Association (BUEA) operates the Enterprise Zone to contribute to economic development efforts in Bloomington’s urban core. Indiana offers state tax benefits for Zone businesses, investors and residents. Pursuant to Indiana Code, businesses and investors who claim Zone-related tax benefits must remit a small portion of their savings to the BUEA, which in turn operates a variety of programs and services to further economic development within the Zone:

Enterprise Zone

•Enterprise Zone Investment Deduction (EZID): The EZID is a 79 percent, 10-year deduction on the increased property taxes resulting from the increased property value within the following a qualified investment. •Investment Cost Credit: An individual purchasing an ownership interest in a Zone business may be eligible to receive a tax credit of up to 30 percent of the purchase price. •Loan Interest Credit: A taxpayer may take a credit of 5 percent of the interest income received from a qualified loan made to a Zone business or resident. The loan must apply to purposes directly related to the business or increase the assessed value of real property in the Zone.

SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA

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Bloomington Urban Enterprise Zone (BUEZ)

|

Enterprise Zone

Enterprise Zone

Ec onomic

Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

0

40

N

0 20 0 10 0

Enterprise Zones

Thomson/Walnut/Winslow Tax Increment Financing (TIF) District

Downtown Tax Increment Financing (TIF) District Thomson-Walnut Tax Increment Financing (TIF) District

Expanded Downtown Tax Increment Financing (TIF) District SWITCHYARD PARK STUDY AREA

Thomson Tax Increment Financing (TIF) District Switchyard Park study area (308 acres)

Adams Crossing Tax Increment Financing (TIF) District

Are as

Expanded Adams Crossing Tax Increment Financing (TIF) District

Developm e n t

Bloomington currently has six TIF districts, which have all been established, or expanded, within the last ten years. Established in 1992 and amended in 1993, 2001 and 2002, the Thomson/Walnut/Winslow Tax Increment Financing district is the merger of three separate TIF districts within and around the Switchyard. The TIF district designation permits the City of Bloomington to finance the redevelopment of blighted areas and support the economic development of rapidly developing areas. Property tax revenues collected on the incremental increased assessed valuation of property in the area to be redeveloped or developed is deployed in the district to further economic development. Funds can be used for the acquisition of property for purposes of redevelopment or to finance infrastructure improvements to stimulate private sector investment and job creation.

Switchyard Park (58 acres)

0

40

0

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

N

0 20 0 10

TIF Districts

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Thomson Community Revitalization Enhancement District (CRED) One of two Community Revitalization Enhancement Districts designated in Bloomington, the Thomson CRED allows the City of Bloomington to capture increased sales and income tax dollars generated by new business investment within the area and to use the funds for economic development purposes within the District. By using these incremental revenues, the City undertakes projects such as the creation of new infrastructure, beautification of the area or to reimburse capital investments made by businesses developing within the CRED. Bloomington Art & Entertainment District (BEAD)

Bloomington Arts and Entertainment District (BEAD) The Bloomington Entertainment and Arts District seeks to bring the business and creative sectors together to advance commerce and culture, build community and spur economic development.

| Thomson Community Revitalization Enhancement District (CRED)

Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

N

0

40

BEAD & CRED Districts

0 20 0 10 0

Ec onomic

Downtown Community Revitalization Enhancement District (CRED)

Bloomington Downtown Character Zone

Developm e n t

The Downtown Character Zone is intended to guide both new development and redevelopment activities as follows: •Ensure that new development is compatible in mass and scale with historic structures in the Downtown Core Character Area; •Draw upon the design traditions exhibited by historic commercial buildings by providing individual, detailed storefront modules that are visually interesting to pedestrians; •Promote infill and redevelopment of sites using residential densities and building heights that are higher in comparison to other Character Areas within the Downtown. Downtown Character Zone

Are as

Switchyard Park study area Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

0

40

38

N

0 20 0 10 0

Character Zones


PLANNING DEPARTMENT

PEAK OIL TASK FORCE and ENVIRONMENTAL COMMISSION

http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/49.pdf

http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/6239.pdf

Switchyard specifically referenced on Pages 66 and 67 as a “Critical Sub-area”

NOTE: The City is currently planning an update to this 2002 Growth Policies Plan. It is anticipated that the Switchyard Park Master Plan will assist in crafting further detailed subarea planning for this update. Anticipated completion of this update is 2013-2014.

Adopted Document of the City of Bloomington as a statement about future priorities regarding environmental and financial use of resources in light of a future with diminished automobile use as energy costs rise and supplies are reduced. Wide ranging implications for land use around the Switchyard from desired types of transportation access to building energy usage to environmental habitat.

City of Bloomington Unified Development Ordinance (UDO) (Bloomington’s Zoning Code) •

https://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/5795.pdf

Comprehensive Zoning Code Document that highlights standards for all properties that would surround the Switchyard Park area. Specific reference to the City Zoning Map is required to determine UDO applicability to a specific parcel of property. Specifically, floodplain regulations are very relevant to the Switchyard Area. The City Zoning Map can be downloaded at: http:// bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/1319.pdf

City of Bloomington McDoel Neighborhood Plan - 2002 •

http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/55.pdf

Adopted Neighborhood Plan of the City of Bloomington that offers guidance about issues relevant to land use, circulation, pedestrian accommodations and housing.

https://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/112.pdf

Greenspace Plan for the City of Bloomington that highlights opportunities for greenspace development.

2009 Greenhouse Gas Inventory •

http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/5047.pdf

Report of the City of Bloomington Environmental Commission highlighting areas of potential opportunity to reduce energy and improve overall environmental conditions. Key recommendations in areas of transportation planning, energy efficiency and building design and legislation.

City of Bloomington Broadview Neighborhood Plan - 2003 http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/54.pdf

Adopted Neighborhood Plan of the City of Bloomington that offers guidance about issues relevant to land use, circulation, pedestrian accommodations and housing.

TRANSPORTATION PLANNING City of Bloomington Platinum Bicycle Task Force •

Desire to reach platinum level (national rating by League of American Bicyclists) by 2016.

http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/4889.pdf

Currently developing reports and key strategies

City of Bloomington sponsored study of South Rogers Street streetscape and identity. Highlights potential land use and economic development opportunities in addition to potential infrastructure improvements.

2008 Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation & Greenways System Plan •

http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/57.pdf

Currently under potential modification with consultant team of Burgess and Nipple and Alta Planning in 2012 and 2013.

Pl an s

City of Bloomington South Rogers Streetscape Identity Study - 2009

Use

• •

2003 Towards a Comprehensive Greenspace Plan

Land

Ex is tin g

2009 Redefining Prosperity Report of the Peak Oil Task Force

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City of Bloomington, 2002 Growth Policies Plan (Bloomington’s Comprehensive Plan)

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CITY OF BLOOMINGTON ADOPTED PLANS (which mention or would affect development and land use in the Switchyard Park Master Plan Area):

MPO Long Range Transportation Plan 2005/06, update coming in 2012 •

http://bloomington.in.gov/media/media/application/pdf/63.pdf

• The feasibility of a proposed Hillside Drive extension through the Switchyard Park site is under review as part of the new plan update. •

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Plan includes complete streets policy if a project is using federal funds thru MPO.

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Public Semi-Private

Urban Residential

Parks & Recreation

Community Activity Center

Public Semi-Private Residential Core

Urban Residential

Urban Residential

|

Community Activity Center

G r owth

Parks & Recreation

Community Activity Center

Parks & Recreation

Parks & Recreation

Employment Center

Polic ies

Urban Residential

Urban Residential

Neighborhood Activity Center Parks & Recreation

Pl an

Residential Core

Residential Core

Employment Center

Neighborhood Activity Center Public Semi-Private

Public Semi-Private

Parks & Recreation

Employment Center Community Activity Center

Parks & Recreation Urban Residential

Urban Residential

Community Activity Center Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

0

Refer to Appendix A for Growth Policy District descriptions.

40

40

0 20 0 10 0

N


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Planned Unit Development Residential Multi-Family

Residential Multi-Family

Residential High-Density

Residential Multi-Family

Institutional Residential Core

Planned Unit Development

Commercial Arterial Commercial General

Commercial General

Residential Single Family

|

Residential Single Family

Zoning

Planned Unit Development Commercial Arterial

Commercial Downtown

Commercial Comm Co mmer erci cial a General Gen ner era Planned Unit Development

Commercial Arterial

Institutional

Institutional

Industrial General Residential Single Family

Residential Multi-Family Commercial Limited Medical Institutional

Residential Multi-Family

Residential Core Residential Core

Residential Multi-Family

Residential Core

Industrial General

Residential High-Density Institutional

Manufactured Home Park

Commercial Limited

Residential Single Family

Medical

Planned Unit Development

Commercial General

Institutional

Residential High-Density

Residential Multi-Family

Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

0

0 20 0 10 0

N

40

Planned Unit Development

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Residential Single Family Institutionall

Refer to Appendix B for Zoning District descriptions.

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I NV ENTO RY | Pen ding Pr ojec ts (a s o f 2.8.201 2) Switchyard Park study area (308 acres) Switchyard Park (58 acres)

0

40

42

0 20 0 10 0

N


Public Mtg

Web

10 2 2

3

1 1

1

4

1

2

1 2

BPR Email 18 24 1 2

Farmer's Market

Facebook 3 7 1

10 5 2

5 2 2 1

2 1

3 1

5 1 2

4 2

2 1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1 4

1 3

1 6

2 1 1 2 7

1

1 1

1 2

3 1 1

1 6 2

2 1

1 1

1 1 1

1 2

1 1 1 1

1

2

4 1 1 8

1

1 3

1 1

1 7 6 1 1 1 1 2

1

2 1

1

1

1 1

1 1

1 1 1

5

2

3

3 1

2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2

4 6

1

1

5 1

2 2

2 2

2 1

7 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 7 1 2 8 2 4 3 1 1 9 6 1 3 3 1 2 1 1

Children shared their ideas for the park by drawing pictures.

1 1

1

1

2 1 3 1 2

1

2 3 2

5 3

1

1

1

1

Comment was gathered at several Farmer’s Market sessions.

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Stakeholder Meetings In addition to general public comment opportunities, the Master Plan team conducted a series of initial stakeholder meetings with owners/representatives of businesses and facilities adjacent to the park including the following: •First Capital, Randy Lloyd •Cook Pharmica, Ted Green •Commercial property, John Goode •Crosley Warehouse, Victoria Schopp and Denny Smith •McDoel Business Center, Tom Brennan •All Source Packaging Group, Devin Robling •Twisted Limb Paperworks, Sheryl Woodhouse-Keese

15 1 2 1 1 1 2 7 11 1 4 1 1 2 4 3 19 9 9 3 1

Public input opportunities included: •Three public meetings •The Bloomington Farmer’s Market (six appearances) •The Senior Expo •A project website at www.switchyardpark.org with a comment mechanism. •A project Facebook page. •Regular meetings with the master plan Steering Committee and Technical Committee. More than 350 comments were received over the course of the project, with many ideas for the park design and desired park amenities. The most requested amenities and design considerations, in order of popularity, were: •Dog Park •Skate Park •Performance Space/Amphitheater •A Destination Playground •Gardens •East/West Pedestrian Connections •Keeping a Natural Park Environment •Elder Activities

1 1

1 2

7 1 7 6 1 3 1 13 2 1 2 1 7 11 1 5

I nput

1 1

44 38 10 2 2 1 6 2 3 5 1

Public

1 2 2 1 1

The Switchyard Park Master Plan included a collaborative public input process that spanned a six-month period and included many opportunities for community involvement and participation. The project team met with people of all ages, abilities, and interests, made presentation of project findings at various events and meetings, and provided a broad range of input avenues in order to ensure that interested Bloomington residents could share their thoughts, opinions and desires for the new park.

Total

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Amenities Dog Park Skate Park Performance Space/Amphitheatre Ice Skating Rink Disc Golf Putt Putt Limestone Art/History Grafitti Wall Art Walking Trails (Variety of Surfaces soft/paved) Waterway Trail Accessible Trail and Amenities (benches, restrooms, fountains, raised beds, wide paths) Observation Hill Water Feature Spray Park Swimming Pool Casting Pool/Fishing Pond Clear Creek Access Playground (typical, destination, adventure, contemporary) Senior Playground Activites for Those with Disabilities Merry-Go-Round/Amusement Park Restrooms Food Production: Community Garden; Solar Pit Greenhouse Gardens (botanic/rooms) /Trees/Arboretum Miniature Train Multi Use Grand Lawn (festivals, croquet, bocce ball) Multi Use Surface (rollerblade, in-line skating, hooping, fire dancing, performances) Fitness Circuit (Accessible) Bocce Ball Shuffleboard Outdoor Racquetball Equestrian Use Pickleball Basketball Court NOT Ballfields Ballfield (mixed use) Picnic areas Labyrinth Wetland Observation Deck Nature Center/Nature Education Misting Station Arbor/Gazebo/Shelters/Pavilions Secure Bike Parking Bike Rental Bike Maze/Park for Children BMX/Mountain Bike Course Velodrome Expand Bike Co-op Benches (near activities/trail) Parking Radio Controlled Car Track Soft Surface Trails Food Trucks/Café Petting Zoo Senior Center Windmill/Alternate Energy WiFi Activities Marathons/Runs Volunteers for Upkeep Design Considerations East/West Pedestrian/Neighborhood Access Loops to Other Parks/Trails Limit Vehicular Access/Cuts Hillside "Nay" Hillside "Maybe - for a Good Reason" Hillside "Yes" Extend Coolidge through Park Accessibility Elder Activities/Accommodation Activities to Encourage 'Eyes on Park' Safety Family Activities Mix of Passive/Active Recreation Sustainable/Permaculture Clear Creek Improvements (Natural) Shade Keep it Natural, Restore/Remove invasives Restore/Add Sustainable Stormwater Practices/ Wetlands Railroad History: Roundhouse Plaza/Building; Railroad Cars as Stage or museum; Name for Park; Playground Limestone History Lighting for Atmosphere

Senior Expo

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Public Input Overview

PUBLICINPUTSYNOPSIS

Additional stakeholder meetings were conducted on the first day of the design workshop. (See Design Workshop section)

Visitors to the Senior Expo discussed their preferences.

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Südgelände Nature-Park | Berlin, Germany

Discovery Park | Houston, Texas

| Case Studies

Location & Context: Size: Opened: Cost: Designer:

Former switchyard in Berlin, Germany 18 Hectares 2000 Initial Cost - $2.3 million - Annual Operations and Programming - $316,000 Oko - Con / Planland Working Group (planner) with ODIOUS (artist / walkway designer)

Description: The Tempelhof switchyard, was a former switchyard and one of Berlin’s busiest railyway sites. It was gradually scaled down after the Second World War and was eventually abandoned. Over thirty years without use, a species-rich natural oasis developed. Recently the site was repurposed as an ecologically and historically protected arts and leisure space, known as Nature-Park. Several buildings from the site’s previous life as a switchyard remain, including the “Brückenmeisterei“ (an administrative building) and a water tower. In the immediate vicinity is the 4,000 m2 former locomotive hall, which has been repurposed into an avant-garde arts venue with links between art, culture, education and sport, and a potential hostel. Visitors can also take part in a wide range of tours to find out about the site’s flora and fauna and habitat value. As a result of their efforts and financing from the Allianz Environmental Foundation and the Berlin Government, Nature-Park was developed into an ecologically and historically protected arts and leisure space and is now maintained by the Grün Berlin Limited under the authority of the Administration of Nature Protection. Nature-Park is also regarded by city officials and residents as a project that helps compensate for the environmental damage caused in the city center by the ongoing construction of new transportation facilities and buildings. Elements of Success: Access to untouched nature that has overgrown an urban artifact with educational programming. Preserving switchyard’s historical structures and tracks. Minimal intrusion, an appeal to avant-garde art, cultural, artistic, and theatrical performances.

Location & Context: Size: Opened: Cost: Designer:

Downtown Houston (set between the convention center, downtown, and two major sports venues) 12 acres April 2008 $125 million Hargreaves Associates with PageSoutherlandPage (architect) and Lauren Griffith Associates (local landscape architect)

Description: This parks was built to change perception of downtown and seed revitalization of the surrounding urban district. It was a partnership between the City of Houston and private philanthropists. The park is operated by Discovery Green Conservancy. The design had four goals - to create a world-class, urban park, to create an amenity for conventions and tourism, to help reshape the east side of downtown Houston; and to involve Houstonians in the park’s planning and design. The park is intended to be an active, urban space for all ages, to be a venue for small and mid-sized arts organizations, and to be an exemplar of sustainable practices. Elements of Success: There is intense programming, with over 800 public and private events a year, including farmers markets, art fairs, parades, free exercise classes, concerts, movies, and festivals, ice skating, and a model boat basin. More than 150 nonprofit organizations and corporations license space in the park for public and private events. A north/south street was converted to a park promenade and central activity spine. It links major sporting venues to the north and south. There is unique, iconic architecture, including two restaurants, a park administration building, underground parking for more than 600 vehicles, a bandstand, a small children’s performance space and shade structures of various sizes and configurations. Discovery Green has achieved LEED Gold certification. There are many interactive elements, 11 gardens, 4 water features, 2 hills, 2 restaurants, 2 outdoor catered-event areas, 2 outdoor market areas, a stage, 2 dog runs, 2 dog fountains, bocce ball courts, 2 outdoor library reading rooms with library services and Wi-Fi, a putting green, a playground, a jogging trail, and a shuffleboard court Economic Impact: The project has resulted in $8 of downtown construction for every $1 invested. There were over 1.7 million visitors in first two years. Since its announcement, over $530 million of development has been directly influenced by the park, and another $640 million has been indirectly influenced. There has been a broader economic impact from “significant media attention... all with the theme that there is a socially sensitive, in-step with the times side of Houston that may not have been well perceived before.” An adjacent residential town has been completed, an office tower is under construction, and two additional hotels will occupy the remaining open blocs next to the park. Annual expenses come to $3.5 million, with an annual operating revenue of $1.5 million from facility rentals and sponsorships. Discovery Green Conservancy is responsible for on-going fundraising , management and attracting financial support.

Economic Impact: There are 50,000+ visitors per year with ticket sales contributing to the yearly budget. Sources: www.gruen-berlin.de/parks-gardens/suedgelaende-nature-park/

Sources: Project for Public Spaces Economic Impact Case Study, www.worldarchitecturenews.com

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Robert C Beutter Park | Mishawaka, Indiana

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Circus Square Park | Bowling Green, Kentucky

|

Description: Circus Square Park, located on a 3.5 acre block in downtown Bowling Green, Kentucky, was developed as a key downtown recreational activity hub outlined in the 2002 Bowling Green Revitalization Strategy. Designed as a central gathering space, the park integrates the construction of a multipurpose civic park with the adaptive reuse of historic structures in celebration of the community’s heritage and its future. The park opened in the summer of 2008 and includes an interactive fountain, and a “Heritage Walk” which transverses the site from north to south. When fully developed, the Park will include a farmer’s market, an authentic “bowling green,” a performance plaza and green, civic gardens, and concessions in a historic Standard Oil service station. The park serves as an entertainment venue and is home to a series of community events, festivals and Elements of Success: summer concerts, as well as private and corporate events. The interactive fountain attracts regular visitors.

Economic Impact: While Circus Square was under construction, the Bowling Green Area Chamber of Commerce opened a new $4 million building just one block from the park site. In April, 2009, the $28 million Bowling Green Ballpark, home of the Bowling Green Hot Rods, also opened a short distance from the park. The Southern Kentucky Performing Arts Center (SKyPAC) is the newest edition to downtown Bowling Green. Scheduled to open March 10, 2012, this facility will offer arts and education opportunities for South Central Kentucky. Featuring more than 69,000 square feet and a 1,600-seat theater, the facility’s total construction costs are $28 million. Another planned downtown redevelopment project is a private investment mixed-use building across from Circus Square Park estimated at $25 million and featuring shops, restaurants, office space and condominiums.

Location & Context: Size: Opened: Cost: Designer:

Mishawaka, IN, on the former Ball Band / Uniroyal site 7 acres May, 2005 (Phase One), Fall, 2008 (Phase Two and Three) $3.8 Million (Phase One), $3.2 Million (Phase Two and Three) Rundell Ernstberger Associates, LLC

Description: Beutter Riverfront Park serves as the centerpiece of redevelopment at an abandoned downtown industrial site. The park’s highlight is a decorative race, a water feature which follows the route of a historic canal once used by industries. The race features a series of weirs, custom bridges, sculpture elements, and ornamental walks. Additional amenities include artwork, gardens, an outdoor performance area and event lawn, and a promenade along the river. The park was the first phase of a multi-phased riverfront improvement project that includes a pedestrian bridge and a North Shore Rivertrail System.

Studies

Bowling Green, Kentucky 3.5 Acres June 2008 $2.2 Million Rundell Ernstberger Associates, LLC

Case

Location & Context: Size: Opened: Cost: Designer:

Elements of Success: An abandoned industrial site was transformed into a park, creating a mixed-use urban development that renews the city’s relationship to the river. The highly programmed space is used for summer concerts and other community events throughout the year, typically attracting 500 to 800 people for each. Local residents view the park as a community landmark, and it is featured in local tourism and business development efforts. Economic Impact: Local businesses support park events and view the park as an important factor in Mishawaka’s economic health. In 2011, four new businesses remodeled existing buildings and relocated downtown. Downtown residential development includes new townhomes along the river (14 townhomes valued at +$300,000 and 11 more starting at $270,000)) Sources: www.reasite.com/

Sources: www.reasite.com http://southcentralky.com

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

45


I NV ENTO RY

Common Elements of Success from Case Study Research

Use the Site’s History and Context In Contemporary Ways and to Inform Contemporary Designs

Express and Include the Region’s Natural Character and Ecological Identity

Incorporate a Variety of Events and Activities to Encourage Year-Round Use

Connect to and Redevelop the Park’s Surroundings to Be Consistent with The Park’s Themes

Provide a World-Class Arts Experience

|

Design Spaces That Are Inviting to All User and Age Groups

Case Studies 46


During the Analysis Phase the project team further explored the inventory findings to more fully determine the inherent opportunities and constraints of the park site. This phase included many additional opportunities for public input to further an understanding of community preferences for the new park.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Railbanked Area (See Figure 3.01) A portion of the park site’s west edge, which includes the B-Line Trail, is designated as a railbanked area. Railbanking is a method by which lines proposed for abandonment can be preserved. Some railroad rights-of-way contain easements that revert back to adjacent landowners when an abandonment is consummated. However, if a line is railbanked, the corridor is treated as if it had not been abandoned. As a result, the integrity of the corridor is maintained. A railbanked line is subject to possible future restoration of rail service. The tracks and ties on a railbanked line can be removed. However, bridges and trestles must re-main in place, and the types of structures that can be built on the right-of-way are limited. Study of LOMR Feasibility (See Figures 3.02 and 3.03) The purpose of this study was to determine feasibility and prudence of a “Letter of Map Revision” (LOMR) to the Clear Creek Flood Insurance Study in and around the Switchyard. The LOMR would have many benefits, the foremost of which would be refining the limits of “Special Flood Hazard Areas” for insurance, design and construction purposes. Methodology and assumptions used to conduct the LOMR feasibility study were the following: •A survey was conducted in and around the area of the McDoel Switchyard. It included sufficient extents to model the Floodplain between Country Club Road and Allen St. •The existing flood model was reviewed •The existing flood model was updated into HEC-RAS program format, for the Switchyard area. HEC-RAS determines the elevations of the water as it proceeds downstream. •Existing flood flows were determined to be conservative. A draft flow model was generated for the Clear Creek basin. This

LOMR Feasibility Study Conclusions: •The IDNR Division of Water concurred with the project team’s proposed methodology, and that the proposed substantial revision may be acceptable. •The limits of the floodplain are reduced in some key areas around the perimeter of the Switchyard. On figure 3.03, the purple “revised” area indicates no change along West Branch of Clear Creek. The West Branch area would be revised if added to the LOMR scope. •Some floodplain limits were expanded, and businesses would be added to the “AE” region of the FEMA FIRM maps. This would require so businesses to acquire flood insurance. •The study determined that one critical item within the FIS model should be modified: the amount of water (flow) which is generated by the Clear Creek basin. The HEC-HMS model generated a 100-year flow which is over 60% less than that published in the FIS. The project team obtained one high-water testimony that supports the study results. That owner has been there since 1987. •The study determined that the revised model should be an appropriate flow for the stream reach. However, both IDNR and FEMA must approve the study methods and results. Either agency may overrule the study’s determination for purpose or preference. •When a LOMR is approved, there will be a delineated “Regulatory Floodway”. Newer maps differentiate the Floodway as narrower than the Floodplain. Fill may be placed anywhere outside the Floodway without flood impact, despite being within the Floodplain. For that reason, IDNR floodway permitting is not necessary outside the floodway. •A substantial area within the Switchyard would be excluded from the floodplain. At least a net 5.7 acres would be removed from the floodplain in the park, and based on proposed flows, over 42 acres in the study area would be removed. A large area would be opened up to development within the park. •A few houses and many businesses should be absolved of the need for insurance. If FEMA will not allow the decreased flows, 5 businesses would be added to the floodplain, 2 businesses removed, and two houses would be removed.

The remainder of the site is characterized as disturbed open land, and is a legacy of past industrial activity. This area offers marginal native habitat and greater invasive species pressures. From an ecologic perspective, this is the preferred area for active recreation uses.

Priority Conservation Areas (See Figure 3.04) Several areas within the Switchyard Park site should be priorities for ecologic restoration: the riparian corridor along Clear Creek and the existing tree line directly west of the B-line trail. The riparian corridor should be the highest priority for restoration as improvements here offer opportunities for high-quality habitat, stream bank stabilization and protection/improvements to stream health. Restoration and conservation of the site’s west tree-line would provide additional opportunities and would buffer and enhance the wooded areas located just outside the park

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

While these areas should be considered top priorities for restoration, other considerations such as the required environmental remediation may impact how restoration activities are conducted.

Pedestrian Considerations (See Figure 3.05) Pedestrian access to and across the park site is an important design consideration in keeping with PEAK Oil Commission recommendation to “Increase connectivity & the number of planned “lengthy corridors” for bicyclists.” The existing B-Line Trail offers a strong north/south pedestrian corridor through the park. However, east/west connections are limited. Currently, there are formal east/west connections at Grimes Lane and Country Club Drive at either end of the park. In addition, informal pedestrian connections have been made from Hillside Drive on the west side of the park, and from the Broadview and Bryan Park neighborhoods. These informal connections indicate a desire for east/west pedestrian corridors. The potential for additional pedestrian connections exists at various points, and would permit both access to the park as well as corridors through it. Connections on the east side of the park must address the crossing of Clear Creek and steep grades changes at the south end of the site.

mitigate traffic congestion at Walnut/Grimes, it would provide a future connection to Interstate 69. Environmental Remediation The City of Bloomington has extensively investigated the environmental condition of the switchyard property and the former CSX rail corridor. Since 2001, more than a dozen investigations and studies were completed to determine the type and extent of environmental conditions that may be present. These investigations included the collection of soil and groundwater from well over 100 locations. In addition, phytoremediation and bioremediation pilot studies by IU Bloomington researchers and an ecological risk assessment were conducted. Each of these studies and reports were reviewed by the project team in order to gain a thorough understanding of the environmental condition of the switchyard site. As well, the project team worked with the Indiana Department of Environmental Management and Indiana Brownfield Program staff to determine their requirements for remediation activities, and how anticipated new standards from IDEM may impact the remediation options for the park. These new standards will most likely include specific requirements for a range of recreational end uses such as paved trails, athletic fields, play areas, and picnic areas. Given the findings of past studies, environmental remediation will be necessary at the Switchyard Park site, and will impact some design decisions for the park. However, the extent and type of contamination at the Switchyard is generally the same as that found along the CSX rail corridor, which was successfully remediated as part of the B-Line Trail project. The predominant contamination in the switchyard property is 1-6 feet of Coal, Ash and Cinder fill.

I ntr oduc tion

The information gathered during the analysis phases enabled the team to make informed design decisions as the master plan moved forward into conceptual design of the park site.

property.

|

Key considerations of this phase included: •Reestablishing and enhancing the environmental health of the site •Pedestrian and vehicular circulation •The need for environmental remediation and its impact to park development •Potential recreation uses •Connection of the park to surrounding neighborhoods •Flood plain parameters •Opportunities for economic development based on market analysis

model would need to be finalized for submittal with a LOMR. •The study suggests that the updated survey and flood elevation data is more accurate than previous information. •New proposed floodplain boundaries have been generated and plotted on maps. These correspond to the Flood insurance rate map (FIRM) boundary for “AE”.

ANA LYSIS

PHASE TWO: ANALYSIS

Hillside Drive Extension Study (See Figures 3.06 and 3.07, and Appendix E) This study assessed the need and benefit of extending Hillside Drive through the park site. As part of the analysis, the project team reviewed the City of Bloomington’s Long Range Plan and its Thoroughfare Plan. The team also obtained existing peak hour turning movement counts at each of the study intersections from Department of Public Works. Hillside Drive Extension Study Conclusions: •The Hillside Drive Extension would achieve a moderate traffic congestion benefit. However for these improvements to be realized, it must extend past Rogers Street to at least Adams Street. In addition, Adams Street would need to extend to Tapp Road. Unless all of these improvements are made, the Hillside Drive extension would offer little congestion relief. •The extension would have significant negative impact to circulation within the park, particularly pedestrian circulation. •A series of bridges to cross Clear Creek and the B-Line Trail will be necessary with the construction of the Hillside Drive extension. (See Appendix E) Another potential road extension considered as part of this master plan study was Rockport Road. While this extension would not

47


ANA LYSIS | R ailbanked Ar ea LEGEND Switchyard Park Boundary Switchyard Park Study Area Railbanked Area

0

20

48

0 10 50 0

N

Figure 3.01


ANA LYSIS | E x is ting FI RM

FIRM (Flood Insurance Rate Map) LEGEND Switchyard Park Boundary Switchyard Park Study Area Existing Floodway

0

40

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

0 20 0 10 0

N

Figure 3.02

49


ANA LYSIS | Rev ised FI RM FIRM (Flood Insurance Rate Map) Potential Impact of Revised FIRM: • Buildings Removed from FIS* • Buildings Added to FIS • Area Removed from FIS • Area Added to FIS *FIS (Flood Insurance Study)

19 none 61.23 acres .34 acres

LEGEND Switchyard Park Boundary Switchyard Park Study Area Existing Floodway Revised Floodplain Using Revised Hydrology Flow Data 0

40

50

0 20 0 10 0

N

Figure 3.03


Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) 6" - 10" (Not Displayed)

Green Ash - Fraxinus pennsylvanica (165)

11" - 15" (512 Total)

Hackberry - Celtis occidentalis (109)

16" - 22" (382 Total)

Red Maple - Acer rubrum (135)

23" - 32" (96 Total)

Sassafras - Sassafras albidum (6)

' N 33"+ (15 Total)

ANA LYSIS

Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) (20)

Shagbark Hickory - Carya ovata (1) Silver Maple - Acer saccharinum (81) Slippery Elm - Ulmus rubra (56)

Basswood - Tilia americana (1)

Sugar Maple - Acer saccharum (8)

Beech - Fagus grandifolia (7)

Sycamore - Platanus occidentalis (159)

Black Willow - Salix nigra (2)

Tulip - Liriodendron tulipifera (2)

Box Elder - Acer negundo (141)

Walnut - Juglans nigra (101)

Catalpa - Catalpa Speciosa (28)

White Ash - Fraxinus americana (20)

|

American Elm - Ulmus americana (70)

Chinquapin Oak - Quercus muehlenbergii (1)

Priority Conservation Areas

Cottonwood - Populus deltoides (33)

Conser vati o n

' N

' N

' N

P r ior ity

Cherry - Prunus serotina (173)

Areas 0

20

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

0 10 50 0

N

Figure 3.04

51


ANA LYSIS |

Informal Connections Exist From Neighborhood to Park

Pedes tr ian Considerat i o n s

Informal Connections Exist From Neighborhood to Park

LEGEND Bike Lane Routes

Existing Connections

Proposed Bike Lane Routes

Potential Connections

Trails and Paths

Existing Circulation Routes

Proposed Trails and Paths

Potential Circulation Routes

Sidewalks

Switchyard Park Boundary

(From the 2008 Bloomington Bike, Pedestrian and Greenways System Plan)

Switchyard Park Study Area 0

80

52

0 40 0 20 0

N

Figure 3.05


Traffic Flow Pattern

D Walnut St.. & Country Club Dr. Intersection Rating

F Walnut St.. & Hillside Dr. Intersection Rating

ANA LYSIS

F Walnut St.. & Grimes Ave. Intersection Rating

| E x is ting Tr af fic

D Patterson Dr. & Rogers St.. Intersection Rating

Co n d i t i o n s

LEGEND F

Existing LOS (Level of Service) Rating during Peak PM Hour Existing Traffic Movement

0

40

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

0 20 0 10 0

N

Figure 3.06

53


ANA LYSIS

D Walnut St.. & Grimes Ave. Intersection Rating

E Walnut St.. & Country Club Dr. Intersection Rating

Improved Traffic Flow & Volumes

D Walnut St.. & Hillside Dr. Intersection Rating

| Tr af fic Consider ati o n s

Possible 2 Lane Rockport Rd. Extension Patterson Dr. & Rogers St.. Intersection Rating

C Possible 2 Lane Hillside Dr. Extension

Hillside Dr. Extension from Rogers St.. to Adams

Future Connection to Interstate 69

Adams St.. Extension from Rogers St.. to Adams

LEGEND D

Switchyard Park Hill Side Extension Predicted LOS (Level of Service) Rating

Other Hillside Road Considerations

Existing Traffic Movement

Rockport Road Extension

N

0

40

54

0 20 0 10 0

N

Figure 3.07


ANA LYSIS |

Switchyard Park Market Analysis Bloomington, Indiana May 4, 2012

Residential Demand Residential

Prepared By

Purpose

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd.

Retail

3

Drivers of Demand Residential

Office / Industrial

Retail

Analysis

www.greenstreetltd.com

Office / Industrial

Market

Current view of the West Northfield Drive focus area

Growth. New households are the primary driver of the long-term housing market. Population growth can come in one of three forms: • New householders coming of age (natural growth) • Households moving from other markets or regions (migration) • Households moving from elsewhere in the same market (mobility) Mobility Driven by Supply-Demand Imbalance. As lifestyle preferences continue to evolve to the benefit of centrally located, connected areas like the Switchyard, these groups could drive a shift in the type of housing that is demanded, but under-supplied in Bloomington.

This market analysis is intended to inform the design team by providing realistic estimates of the potential demand for single family and multi-family residential, office, industrial, and retail real estate around the Switchyard.

• Working single parents • Individuals who live alone • Young professionals

Small markets like Bloomington are subject to rapid and unexpected changes. The projections in this report are based on documented trends and expected demographic shifts; rather than limiting, specific forecasts, they are intended to give context and realistic ranges of possibility to land use decisions in the area. Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd.

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

2

• Seniors • Empty Nesters • Gen Y / Millennials (b.1980-1999) Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd.

4

55


Residential

Office / Industrial

Projected Household Growth Retail

Residential

Office / Industrial

Retail

40,000

35,000

Projected Household Growth 2012 – 2015, 2015 - 2020

|

Bloomington Households

ANA LYSIS

Residential Demand Methodology

% Attached %Detached

Market

% Owner Occupied

Projection

Though population growth outpaced household growth between 2000 and 2010, that trend is projected to reverse over the next decade as most growth will be in smaller, one and two person households.

34,027 31,801

30,000 28,899 26,468

25,000 22,866 20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

Potential Demand

1990

Analysis

Sources: Greenstreet Ltd. Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd.

5

Projected Population Growth Residential

140,000 Bloomington Population

Population

100,000

Source: 2012 ESRI Market Report, US Census Bureau, Stats Indiana

2015

2020

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd.

7

Attached vs. Detached Product

Office / Industrial

Retail

Residential

Office / Industrial

Retail

130,014

127,695

124,776

120,563 108,978

64%

80,000

60% 60,000

2010

Projection

Monroe County Population 120,000

2000

64,983

80,405

57%

65% 83,002

67% 87,109

69,291

40,000

20,000

Monroe County’s population has been “urbanizing,” as the percent of County residents living in Bloomington has increased since 2000.

Detached / Single Family For Sale

Attached / Multi-Family For Sale

1990

2000

2010

Source: 2012 ESRI Market Report, US Census Bureau, Stats Indiana

56

2015

2020 Sources: www.rentblurb.com; www.sublet.com

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd.

6

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd.

8


Residential

Office / Industrial

Bloomington Percent Own & Rent Retail

3.1%

3.4%

5.8%

100%

0.5%

2.5%

80%

37.1%

37.0%

36.5%

80%

36.5%

39.7%

60%

60%

50%

50% 59.6%

54.5%

5.5%

5.0%

5.0%

63.3%

64.0%

62.0%

31.2%

31.0%

33.0%

2015

2020

Renting is nearly twice as prevalent as owner occupancy in Bloomington, and local and national trends are causing renting to gain more market share. The drivers: students, less aggressive mortgage practices, economic hardship among potential buyers, and a mobile workforce.

60.3%

58.7%

40%

Since 1990, attached (multi-family) dwelling units have become more prevalent in Bloomington, accounting for nearly 2/3 of all residential units. Attached units are especially popular in connected, walkable areas near IU or downtown, and some attached units have already been approved near the Switchyard on Grimes.

59.8%

61.0%

63.0%

30% 20%

36.2%

32.9%

10%

0%

0% 1990

2000 Detached

Mobile/Other

2015

1990

2020

Source: U.S. Census Bureau; Esri; STATS Indiana Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 9

Attached Product: Own vs. Rent Residential

Office / Industrial

2000 Owner-Occupied

2010 Renter-Occupied

Source: U.S. Census Bureau; Esri; STATS Indiana Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 11

Vacant

SF Permit Trends & Projection Retail

Residential

300

Apartment: Attached units for rent

Condo: Attached units for sale

200

150

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 10

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

93

100

50

50

0 2001 Sources: www.rentblurb.com; www.sublet.com

Retail

Projection

Single family permits peaked in the early 2000s, then fell dramatically during the Great Recession. Based on population growth and household size projections, Bloomington may begin a “new normal” of 2006 level of single family permits, averaging around +/- 100 per year. The two tranches indicate the projection horizons: 2012 – 2015 and 2015 – 2020.

250

Office / Industrial

Analysis

Attached

2010

Bloomington Detached Residential Permits

10%

6.8%

Market

70%

20%

5.1%

|

70%

30%

Retail

90%

90%

40%

Office / Industrial

Projection

Projection 100%

Residential

ANA LYSIS

Bloomington Attached & Detached

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Sources: Monroe County Building Department, Bloomington Planning Department, Greenstreet Ltd. Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 12

57


ANA LYSIS

MF Permits v. Constructed Units Residential

Variables Affecting Residential Capture

Office / Industrial

Retail

Residential

Office / Industrial

Retail

1,200

• Actual population growth could be higher or lower depending on Bloomington’s ability to attract and retain major employers (affecting migration rates).

Bloomington’s system of 3 and 5 year building permits allows for a delay in units delivered, as evidenced by HAND’s tracked number peaking shortly after the Building Department’s permit number. The apparent discrepancy in total number of units is likely due to slightly different definitions of “multi-family,” but these trends do make sense from as a basic check.

1,000

• The Switchyard’s capture rate could be higher if the park becomes a significant regional destination, creating a local housing preference (affecting mobility patterns).

800

|

• Since late-2008, lenders have been more willing to finance multi-family projects than single family. Recently, the Switchyard area has had attached residential proposals along Grimes and Rogers.

HAND Annual Net Change in MF Units 600

Market

• Bloomington has several designated growth areas, but a finite amount of growth potential. The success of development around the Switchyard will depend in part on whether the City makes the area a priority.

400

• Based on the City’s selected priority areas, a variety of tools can be deployed to encourage growth: zoning, the comprehensive plan, development incentives, tax credits, and / or special districts like a PUD or Indy’s Smart Growth District.

200 Building Department MF Permits (Units)

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

Analysis

Sources: Monroe County Building Department; Housing and Neighborhood Development; Dave Harstad, Integra Realty; Greenstreet Ltd. Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 13

MF Permit Trends & Projection Residential

Sources: Greenstreet Ltd. Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 15

Land Zoned Residential

Office / Industrial

Retail

Residential

Bloomington Total Area: Land Zoned Residential:

600

Projection

Office / Industrial

Retail

16,861 acres 6,363 acres

Bloomington Attached Residential Permits

500

400

300

200

200

100

0 2001

Due to several large downtown apartment projects, multi-family permits peaked around 2003 and bottomed in 2009, when only 79 multi-family permits were approved. Multi-family permits have outpaced single family every year since 2001, and that trend is projected to continue.

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

123

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Sources: Monroe County Building Department, Bloomington Planning Department, Greenstreet Ltd. Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 14

58

Sources: Bloomington Zoning GIS Layer Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 16


Residential

Monroe County: Industry Analysis Office / Industrial

Residential

Retail

Projected Bloomington Annual Absorption

Switchyard Area Capture Rate 5%

10%

15%

20%

Annual Detached

50

3

5

8

10

Annual Attached

123

6

12

18

25

Switchyard Area Capture Rate

Units

5%

10%

15%

20%

Annual Detached

93

5

9

14

19

Annual Attached

200

10

20

30

40

EMERGING STRENGTHS

HIGH PERFORMERS

2,000 NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance

1,500 1,000

0

NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services

NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services

500 NAICS 48-49 Transportation and warehousing

NAICS 54 Professional and technical NAICS 52 Finance and insurance services

NAICS 42 Wholesale trade

-500

NAICS 51 Information

NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration

NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing

NAICS 44-45 Retail trade NAICS 23 Construction

-1,000 NAICS 31-33 Manufacturing

-1,500 -2,000

DECLINING INDUSTRIES 0.2

0.4

0.6

RETENTION TARGETS 0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

Market

Projected Bloomington Annual Absorption

Retail

|

Units

Medium-Term Projection 2015-2020

Net Change in Employment 2001 - 2010

2,500

Near-Term Projection 2012-2015

Office / Industrial

Dot size = relative employment

ANA LYSIS

Residential Capture Potential

2010 Location Quotient Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Greenstreet Ltd. Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 19

Monroe County: Industry Targets Residential

Office / Industrial

Retail

Analysis

Sources: Greenstreet Ltd. Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 17

Office & Industrial Demand Residential

Office / Industrial

Retail

Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Greenstreet Ltd. Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 18

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 20

59


Industrial Demand Methodology Residential

35,000

Though Bloomington’s unemployment rate remained low relative to Indiana and the U.S., Bloomington employed labor force has shrunk since 2007, while the unemployment rate has climbed from 3.4% to 7.1%. 34,961 32,803

30,000

31,529

31,338

32,829

32,803

32,844

35,421

36,186

Office / Industrial

35,994

Retail

Office / Industrial

Retail

Employment Projection

12% 34,960

34,263

33,011

31,457

10%

|

25,000 8% 20,000

Market

6% Indiana

United States

15,000

Residential

4%

Bloomington MSA

% Industrial (Blue Collar)

Unemployment Rate

40,000

Bloomington Employment

ANA LYSIS

Employment Trend

% of Workers, % of Space by Industrial Sector

SF per Employment

10,000 2% 5,000

Demand Potential

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Analysis

Sources: Indiana Department of Workforce Development, Esri 2012 Market Profile

Sources: Greenstreet Ltd.

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 21

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 23

Office Demand Methodology Residential

O&I Capture Potential Office / Industrial

Retail

Residential

Demand Projection 2012-2020

Employment Projection

% Office (White Collar)

Demand Potential

60

Retail

Switchyard Area Capture Rate

Square Feet

5%

10%

15%

20%

Annual Office

55,000 45,000

2,750 2,250

5,500 4,500

8,250 6,750

11,000 9,000

Annual R&D / Flex

15,000 10,000

750 500

1,500 1,000

2,250 1,500

3,000 2,000

Annual Manufacturing

50,000 40,000

2,500 2,000

5,000 4,000

7,500 6,000

10,000 8,000

Annual Warehousing

55,000 45,000

2,750 2,250

5,500 4,500

8,250 6,750

11,000 9,000

Annual Small Shops

60,000 50,000

3,000 2,500

6,000 5,000

9,000 7,500

12,000 10,000

Annual Cold Storage

30,000 25,000

1,500 1,250

3,000 2,500

4,500 3,750

6,000 5,000

Annual Industrial Total

200,000 150,000

10,000 7,500

20,000 15,000

30,000 22,500

40,000 30,000

% of Workers Using Office Space

SF per Worker Office

Projected Bloomington Annual Absorption

Office / Industrial

Sources: Greenstreet Ltd.

Sources: Greenstreet Ltd.

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 22

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 24


ANA LYSIS

Variables Affecting O&I Demand Residential

Office / Industrial

Retail

As laptops, phones, and tablets increase business efficiency, office space per worker is declining sharply. Offices averaged 500 to 700 sq. ft. per worker in the 1970s and 250 sq. ft. per worker in the 1990s, but some experts say that the current average is 175 sq. ft. and that office footprints could be as small as 50 sq. ft. per worker by 2015.

|

Retail Demand Residential

Office / Industrial

Retail

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 25

Land Zoned Business / Industrial Residential

Bloomington Total Area: Land Zoned Business: Land Zoned Industrial:

Office / Industrial

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 27

Drivers of Retail Demand Retail

16,861 acres 670 acres 126 acres

Residential

Office / Industrial

Retail

Analysis

Sources: Office Walls are Closing in on Corporate Workers, LA Times; Greenstreet Ltd.

Market

Not all white collar workers require physical office space (i.e. salesmen), and not all blue collar workers require industrial space (i.e. truck drivers). Office and industrial demand will shift as the portion of workers needing work space changes.

Households. Retail follows rooftops. Population and household growth increase density in the trade area, making a site more attractive to retailers. In general, most retailers will consider demographics, density, and total population in the one, three, and five mile trade areas. Access. Many retailers have requirements about average daily traffic (ADT) and ingress/egress to arterial roads, as well as road visibility, signage and parking. Consumer Spending. Household spending is directly related to household income, and different retailers will target areas with particular incomes. Consumer spending was fairly strong in 1Q 2012, but sales volume has not driven retail demand. Non-store retailers (i.e. Amazon, Ebay, Schwann’s) are the fastest growing retail sub-sector, and e-sales outpaced in-store sales for the first time in the 4Q 2011. Other Retail. Most retailers actively seek co-location opportunities with other retailers that serve a similar clientele. Known as the cluster effect, retail is more likely to locate where their “sister stores” already operate, particularly anchor stores that attract a lot of customers.

Business / Office Industrial Sources: Bloomington Zoning GIS Layer

Sources: Greenstreet Ltd.

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 26

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 28

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

61


Southside Retail Leakage Residential

Means of Transportation to Work

Davis, CA 9.9 sq. mi.

Boulder, CO 25.4 sq. mi.

Madison, WI 84.7 sq. mi.

Walking

11.8%

2.6%

9.1%

9.3%

Biking

2.6%

19%

10.5%

5%

Public Transportation

6.8%

7.2%

9.5%

8.5%

Total Non-Automotive

21.2%

28.8%

29.1%

22.8%

Retail

Even in the few communities where a large share of commute trips are by foot or bicycle (and Bloomington could become one with more bike access), trail users generally don’t stop to support boutique shops and restaurants all along the trail corridor. Instead, successful trails often connect residential areas to established nodes of business and retail activity (commuting). Sources: Esri Community Analyst Online, 5 minute drive time from S. Walnut and Country Club

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 29

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 31

Bloomington’s Retail Market Residential

Some Demand for Neighborhood Retail Office / Industrial

Retail

No Physical Stores

Bloomington’s population does not support all of the retail in town; as the regional center, Bloomington’ stores serve a larger commercial trade area. Like many other regions, Bloomington’s retail market is over-supplied, resulting in limited retail demand.

10-15,000 sq. ft.

-$80

-$70

-$60

-$50

-$40

-$30

-$20

-$10

$0

Million Dollars

$10

Residential

Drinking Places - Alcoholic Beverages Special Food Services Limited-Service Eating Places Full-Service Restaurants Direct Selling Establishments Vending Machine Operators Electronic Shopping & Mail-Order Houses Other Miscellaneous Store Retailers Used Merchandise Stores Office Supplies, Stationery & Gift Stores Florists Other General Merchandise Stores Department Stores Excluding Leased Depts. Book, Periodical & Music Stores Sporting Goods/Hobby/Musical Instr Stores Jewelry, Luggage & Leather Goods Stores Shoe Stores Clothing Stores Gasoline Stations Health & Personal Care Stores Beer, Wine & Liquor Stores Specialty Food Stores Grocery Stores Lawn & Garden Equip & Supply Stores Bldg Material & Supplies Dealers Home Furnishings Stores Furniture Stores Auto Parts, Accessories & Tire Stores Other Motor Vehicle Dealers Automobile Dealers

Office / Industrial

Retail

No Physical Stores No Physical Stores

115-130,000 sq. ft. 10-15,000 sq. ft.

75-85,000 sq. ft.

10-15,000 sq. ft.

-$40

LEAKAGE

Analysis

Sources: 2010 ACS 3-Year Estimates; Proximity to Trails and Retail: Effects on Urban Cycling and Walking, Krizek and Johnson 2006

SURPLUS

Market

While the B-Line is a desirable amenity, bike and pedestrian trails typically have a tough time supporting a large retail market. B-Line trail users have not been studied yet, but anecdotal evidence suggests that a large portion of users are out for fitness or recreation purposes, thus unlikely to stop at interim shops and restaurants with any regularity.

Drinking Places - Alcoholic Beverages Special Food Services Limited-Service Eating Places Full-Service Restaurants Direct Selling Establishments Vending Machine Operators Electronic Shopping & Mail-Order Houses Other Miscellaneous Store Retailers Used Merchandise Stores Office Supplies, Stationery & Gift Stores Florists Other General Merchandise Stores Department Stores Excluding Leased Depts. Book, Periodical & Music Stores Sporting Goods/Hobby/Musical Instr Stores Jewelry, Luggage & Leather Goods Stores Shoe Stores Clothing Stores Beer, Wine & Liquor Stores Specialty Food Stores Grocery Stores Lawn & Garden Equip & Supply Stores Bldg Material & Supplies Dealers Home Furnishings Stores Furniture Stores Auto Parts, Accessories & Tire Stores Other Motor Vehicle Dealers Automobile Dealers

62

Office / Industrial

At a more micro-level, there may be opportunities for smaller, locally-focused retailers (map and following chart show the 5 minute drive time from the intersection of Country Club and S. Walnut St.).

LEAKAGE

|

Bloomington 19.9 sq. mi.

SURPLUS

ANA LYSIS

Trails and Retail

20-25,000 sq. ft.

7-10,000 sq. ft. 10-15,000 sq. ft. 10-15,000 sq. ft. 20-30,000 sq. ft. -$30

-$20

-$10

$0

$10

$20

Million Dollars

Sources: Esri 2012 Retail MarketPlace Profile for Bloomington, IN

Sources: Esri 2012 Retail MarketPlace Profile (5 min drive from S. Walnut & Country Club); Dollars & Cents of Shopping Centers, ULI

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 30

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 32

$30


Residential

Office / Industrial

Land Zoned Commercial

Retail

Residential

Office / Industrial

Bloomington Total Area: Land Zoned Retail: Based on surplus / leakage within 5 minutes of S. Walnut & Country Club (2012 numbers)

Retail Demand Potential

Retail

16,861 acres 1,248 acres

Switchyard Capture Rate 5%

10%

15%

20%

Retail (Low)

250,000

13,000

26,000

37,000

50,000

Retail (High)

300,000

16,000

31,000

47,000

60,000

|

Square Feet

ANA LYSIS

Near-Term Retail Capture Potential

Market

Sources: Bloomington Zoning GIS Layer Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 35

Variables Affecting Retail Demand Residential

Office / Industrial

Real Estate Demand Summary Retail

• Since retailers depend on access to their market, and since Bloomington already serves a regional consumer base, the addition of I-69 should positively affect local retail activity by improving access. • Automobiles account for over 80% of Bloomington’s work trips, and at least that many of the MSA’s shopping trips are made by car. Absent a major mode shift, retailers need easy access to parking in order to survive in Bloomington. • Retail demand could be affected positively or negatively by changes in consumer spending patterns, which could be brought on by increased incomes, new product needs, or gentrification. • A degree of population growth is assumed in the projections, but Bloomington could beat projections and expand the retail trade area’s population in a number of ways: • Increasing residential density • Attracting major employers / increasing employment density • Growth on the fringes of the trade area, including the remainder of Monroe County and the rest of the Bloomington MSA

Annual Units

Annual Sq. Ft

Density / LCR

Annual Acres

Detached

12

-

7 du/ac

1.7

Attached

25

-

15 du/ac

1.7

Office

-

5,000

40%

.3

Industrial

-

9,000

40%

.5

Retail

-

20,000

25%

1.8

37

34,000

TOTAL

Analysis

Sources: Greenstreet Ltd. Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 33

6.0

• These figures represent an estimated development potential around the Switchyard, driven by population and employment growth, as well as retail sales and consumer spending. • Capture rates will depend on the permitted land uses around the Switchyard, and whether the area’s surrounding uses compliment desired land use (see previous table). Alignment of zoning and permitted uses should be considered.

Sources: 2010 ACS 3-Year Estimates, Greenstreet Ltd. Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 34

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 36

63


ANA LYSIS

Fostering Culture & Context

O&I Demand Assumptions Residential

Warehouse

Manufacture

Fabricate

Innovate + Create

Character

Building + Lot

Hand + Machine

Mind + Hand + Machine

Mind + Hand

Mind

Value Creation

$

$$

$$$

$$$$

$$$$$

Barrier to Entry

Low

Low

Moderate

Moderately High

Very High

Differentiation

Low

Low

Moderate

Moderately High

Very High

Workforce Education / Training

High School

Associate, High School

Bachelors, Associate, High School

Masters, Bachelors, Associate

PhD, Masters

Wages

Minimum +

Minimum +

Mid-Minimum

High-Moderate

High

Large lot

Factory/industrialism

Industrial urbanism

Creative urbanism

Inspired, boutique

Open space

Buffers and separated uses

Efficient and flexible

Co-creative environments

Co-creative environments

Logistics, transportation access

Access to raw materials, logistics

Synergy of services

Lifestyle amenities

University access

|

Market Segment

Quality of Space

Market

Service retail, light industrial

Office / Industrial

Retail

Incubate

Education, housing, live/work, service retail, office light industrial

Transportation Needs

Shipping corridors

Shipping corridors

Multiple modes, ease of truck movement

Multiple modes including transit within 1/4 mile

Multiple modes including transit within 1/4 mile

Real Estate Needs

Very large footprint simple low-investment buildings, empty lots

Large-footprint sites, simple low-investment buildings

Medium-sized space with energy, water, transport

Small-moderate footprint space, adaptive use

Diverse, small, flexible, agile space, adaptive use and new construction

Critical Network

Transportation

Raw material providers, storage and waste recyclers

Related service providers, transportation

Related service providers, material providers

University research and development knowledge clusters

2012 Office Market (Measured) • Inventory = 2.4 msf • 23,227 white collar employees • 93 sf / white collar worker 2020 Office Market (Projected) • Demand = 2.7 msf • 28,323 white collar employees • 85 sf / white collar worker

2012 Industrial Market (Measured) • Inventory = 9.8 msf • 2,945 blue collar employees 2020 Industrial Market (Projected) • Demand = 11.3 msf • 3,391 blue collar employees

Analysis

Sources: Urban Land Institute; Greenstreet Ltd.

Sources: Greenstreet Ltd.

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 37

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 39

Sources American Community Survey Bloomington Parks Department Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri) Monroe County Building Department Office Walls are Closing in on Corporate Workers, LA Times Proximity to Trails and Retail: Effects on Urban Cycling and Walking, Krizek and Johnson Summit Realty Group (Dave Harstad, Senior VP & Managing Broker) Urban Land Institute

Appendix Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 38

64

U.S. Census Bureau

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 40


GREENSTREET LTD. has been engaged to analyze and assess the market factors that can affect development potential around the Switchyard in Bloomington, IN. Key variables governing the supply and demand of residential, retail, and office uses have been considered as outlined in accordance with the Scope of Services agreement.

(continued)

Limiting Conditions

Analysis

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 41

Market

This report is based on information that was current as of the date of the report and GREENSTREET has not undertaken any update of its research effort since such date.

|

Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that the data contained in this study reflect the most accurate and timely information possible and it is believed to be reliable. This study is based on estimates, assumptions, and other information developed by GREENSTREET from its independent research efforts, general knowledge of the industry and consultations with the Client and its representatives. No responsibility is assumed for inaccuracies in reporting by the Client, its agent and representatives or any other data source used in preparing or presenting this study.

ANA LYSIS

Limiting Conditions

(continued) The report may contain prospective financial information, estimates or opinions that represent our view of reasonable expectations at a particular point in time, but such information, estimates or opinions are not offered as predictions or assurances that a particular level of revenue or profit will be achieved, that events will occur, or that a particular price will be offered or accepted. Actual results achieved during the period covered by our analysis may vary from those described in our report and the variations may be material. Therefore, no warranty or representation is made by GREENSTREET that any of the projected values or results contained in this study will actually be achieved. Possession of this study does not carry with it the right of publication thereof or to use the names “GREENSTREET” in any manner without obtaining prior written consent. No abstracting, excerpting, or summarization of this study may be made without first obtaining prior written consent. This report is not to be used in conjunction with any public or private offering of securities or other similar purpose where it may be relied upon to any degree by any person other than the Client, without first obtaining prior written consent.

Switchyard Park | May 4, 2012 | © Greenstreet Ltd. 42

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

65


The inventory and analysis phases culminated in a four-day design workshop held in May, 2012 at which two design concepts were developed for the park site.

Overall Park Theme - Switchyard Park Will Be... • A Signature, Destination Park • A Work of Art • Safe and Accessible for All • Connected to the Community • A Restored Natural Landscape • Uniquely Bloomington • An Innovative, Memorable & Dynamic Park Experience!! Design Elements Restore and Sustain • Natural Setting • Stream Restoration • Habitat Conservation • Increase Tree Canopy/Biodiversity • Native Plant Communities • Natural Stormwater Management • Constructed Wetlands • Daylight Culverts

Experience • Gardens • Functional Art • Stream Access • Railroad/Limestone History Interpretation • Education Opportunities • Festivals and Events Gather • Grand Lawn • Performance Space • Large Shelter • Multi-Generational Connect • Variety of Trails and Loops • Wetland Boardwalk • Main Park Entrance • Multiple Access Points • Parking and Accessibility

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN S

Pedestrian Access While the B-Line provides pedestrian access from the north and south, many stakeholders requested additional pedestrian access from the east and west in order to provide better to connection to neighborhoods and the high school. Informal pedestrian connections already exist from Hillside Drive, and the Broadview and Bryan Park neighborhoods. Connections to these neighborhoods as well as consideration of other potential access points were identified. Conservation/Restoration Areas Using the habitat inventory and tree inventory conducted in the Inventory and Analysis phase of the Master Plan, the team identified priorities for conservation and/or restoration of natural systems in the park. These include the Clear Creek stream channel and riparian buffer, wetlands and existing wooded areas. Passive recreation opportunities, such as trails or overlooks would be complimentary uses for these areas of the park. Recreation Development Areas A portion of the park was identified as suitable for recreation development. It includes those areas of the site which were part of the active switchyard and rail lines, and offer marginal habitat and ecologic benefit in its existing condition. Both passive and active recreation opportunities are suitable for these areas. Each concept explored the spatial design of park elements and the interface of the park with the surrounding neighborhood. Concept Plan Overview The framework plan formed the basis for the team’s development of two design concepts on the second and third day of the Design Workshop. The two resulting concept plans have some similarities, as well as distinct differences. These similarities include: • A concentration of active amenities along the park’s west and north edges. These edges were highly developed when

Concept Plan One Description (See Figures 4.02 and 4.03) This concept references the history of the Switchyard, by creating a ‘platform’ area with a concentration of proposed amenities along what was once a corridor of rail lines on the west edge of the park. Other features of this concept include: • A large event pavilion at the northeast end of the lawn provides a stage for community events and performances. • Earth berms in the Great Lawn provides definition to the space and seating areas during performances. • Sports courts, a community garden and an orchard at located at the north end of the park. • Plant beds along the B-Line and interspersed in the platform area provide opportunities for colorful gardens. • A variety of picnic shelters throughout the park accommodate groups of different sizes. Concept Plan Two Description (See Figures 4.03 and 4.04) A series of semi-formal and informal outdoor rooms respectful of and augmenting the riparian corridor, with earth sculpting to shape both active and passive spaces. • A lawn forecourt and a welcome bridge create an entrance experience as patrons travel from the north end of the park to the great lawn and activity area. • A newly created water channel that serves as a linear water feature and organizing edge for such amenities as a skate park, a spray park, and playground located along the park’s main activity room. • An amphitheater located off of a new park entrance on Rogers Street. • Terracing in the great lawn area to emphasize the 25-foot change in grade that occurs from the north end of the park to its south end.

I ntr oduc ti on

Refresh • Picnic Shelters • Restrooms • Food Vendors • Benches and Seating

Vehicular Access The majority of the park property has limited access to adjacent roads. While this creates a buffer for the park from nearby activity, it also limits the potential vehicular access points. As well, because the length of the park stretches for 1.2 miles, multiple entrance points and parking areas are desired. The team identified two potential primary vehicular access points, and six potential secondary access points.

the Switchyard was active, and have little natural habitat left. • Restoration of natural systems and habitat along the Clear Creek corridor, where remnants of natural systems remain. • Expansion of existing parking at the north end of the park and additional parking at new vehicular park entrances off of Rogers Street and Walnut Street. • Additional pedestrian circulation and access to the park through a variety of hard and soft-surface trails. • A great lawn serving as a transition from the highly active platform area to a restored natural corridor along Clear Creek and the east edge of the park. • A dog park and passive recreation opportunities at the park’s south end.

|

Play • Water Play • Unique Play Experience • Street Style Skate Park • Court Sports • Dog Park

PARK CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT (See Figure 4.01) Framework Plan Development Once the overall park theme and design elements had been identified, the team gave careful consideration to how those elements might best be placed within the park site to minimize conflicting park uses, to preserve natural areas, to build connections with the surrounding neighborhoods and to allow points of access to the park. As a result, a broad framework plan was developed to delineate those areas in the park best suited for vehicular and pedestrian access; conservation and restoration of natural habitat and ecologic systems; and recreation development.

WO RKSHOP

The design workshop began with a full day of stakeholder input from various community groups, organizations, and businesses. During a series of small-group sessions and a public meeting, stakeholders generously shared their thoughts, concerns, preferences and dreams for the park site. Adding this feedback to the public input received prior to the design workshop, the project team developed an overall theme and specific design elements to guide the park design.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

D ES IG N

PHASE THREE: DESIGN WORKSHOP

Concept Presentation At the end of the Design Workshop, the project team presented the two concepts, as well as character sketches of proposed park amenities and design inspiration photos at a public meeting, which concluded the Design Workshop phase.

67


D ES IG N WO RKSHOP | What We He ard 68

STAKEHOLDER MEETINGS| May 14, 2012 The team met with key stakeholder groups throughout the first day of the Design Workshop, documenting the thoughts and ideas of community members for the Switchyard Park design. In addition, an open mic session was held at the end of the day to allow an opportunity for public input. More than 70 people shared their vision and desires for the park as summarized here. Park Board | 8:30 am • Program Elements: ○ Event space ○ Playground ○ Keep it natural ○ Restoration of natural systems ○ Shelters / Rental Facilities • Balance between “natural” and active • 50 Years from today the Park will be known for: ○ Event space ○ Restored ecology ○ A premier central park ○ Unique connection with B-Line Bloomington Arts Commission | 9:00 am • Possible Art Influences for the Park: ○ Visual arts ○ Presentation/performance art ○ Allow groups of artist to interact with environment • Engage users physically and visually • Speak to history through interpretive art • Outdoor performance spaces and permanent stages for events from 50 to thousands Bloomington Parks & Recreation Employees | 9:30 am • Program Elements: ○ Green space / arboretum / native plant communities ○ Festival, event and performance spaces ○ Interpretive education of site history ○ Soft surface track ○ Street-style skate park ○ Playgrounds + splash pad ○ Commercial spaces surrounding park ○ Reception hall rental facility ○ Permanent maintenance facility • Running water invites interaction and people • Universal Design is very important

Bloomington Tree Commission | 10:00 am • Main goals: Increase tree canopy, increase tree diversity, use native species where possible • Program Elements: ○ Stream access ○ Wetland / riparian landscape ○ Birding ○ Shade structures where trees aren’t appropriate • Make East/West connections to park Historic Preservation Commission | 10:30 am • Preserve/enhance naturalized areas along stream • Possible reuse of old Gas Station(s) to site • Opportunity for historical interpretation ○ Use formal railroad poles / signs ○ Interpretive signs/structures ○ Oral interpretations by history groups • Reconstructing old structures is NOT necessary • Name park amenities based on historical features Neighborhood Groups | 11:00 am/3:00 pm/3:30 pm • Program Elements ○ Dog Park ○ Pedestrian connection from east /west ○ Safe connections across busy streets like Walnut ○ Natural areas with native plants ○ Enhance safety ○ Unique playground ○ Restored train or small kid’s train ○ Community gardens or orchard ○ Open space for informal sports ○ Parking/rest rooms ○ Shade structures with water and adequate power ○ Rental space for family events and parties ○ Water features,spray park ACHIEVE/ALC (Active Living Coalition) | 11:30 am • Switchyard an important part of overall parks network • Multigenerational amenities • Program Elements: ○ Accessibility and universal design ○ Unique destinations for visitors with disabilities ○ Compelling destination through art or unique features ○ Bike, walk, run destinations ○ Dog-friendly

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

○ Keep floodways green ○ Educational opportunity for water quality and conservation ○ Signage with destinations and times ○ Passive open lawn for pick-up games ○ Outdoor events space ○ Small coffee shop, juice bar, or restaurant ○ Rest rooms • 50 years from now, the park will be known for being a symbol of a great healthy Bloomington! Environmental Resources Advisory Council | 12:00 pm • Program Elements: ○ Natural areas and rain gardens ○ Historical interpretation through site elements ○ Parking lots around perimeter ○ Use impervious surfaces and bio-retention ○ Create thematic zones • Stream: provide viewing points; bridge crossings; control erosion along banks with plants; wide riparian buffers ; improve water quality of runoff • Daylight the 2 tributaries • Allow for natural flooding with elevated boardwalks • Large turf areas not desirable • No Hillside through the park – keep as an “oasis” • Maintain buffer of high intensity use surrounding Bike and Pedestrian Commission | 12:30 pm • Program Elements: ○ Cyclocross ○ Destinations by bike ○ Promote ped/bike traffic to existing commercial ○ Connection opportunity ○ Dog park • Not Desirable: too much parking • Need urban off-road cycling facilities • B Line: a separate trail in park for various uses might be appropriate Bloomington Department of Public Works | 2:00 pm • Context sensitive connection of Hillside through park is desired

Downtown Bloomington Inc./Convention Center | 2:30 pm • Program Elements: ○ Amphitheater with railroad history theme ○ Safety / walkability – signage catered to pedestrians ○ Rest stops, signage, water, emergency stations ○ Bike or segway rental ○ Include limestone history in park • Historical Interpretation: simple signage with complimentary materials • A “destination” park • B-Line: an opportunity to extend downtown all the way to Switchyard MPO Citizens Advisory Commission | 4:00 pm • Program Elements: ○ Create loops within park ○ Smaller access points with parking from dead ends ○ Interpretive signage ○ Interpretive railroad elements • East/west connectivity is a Bloomington issue • Hillside as a woonerven or buckle Open Mic Session | 5:00 – 6:30 • Park should be truly accessible: parking access, trail loops, • Botanical Garden: walking paths, water features • Natural features/trees • Variety of terrain • Places to rest with arms • Camera Obscurer, Life Size Checker / Chess Board • Non-paved trail parallel to B Line • Coordinate with City Police early on in planning • Incorporate limestone features into design • Performance Venue (with limestone) • Stone Belt heritage is important • Access from neighborhoods is important • City needs small-scale performance venues • Make access safe • Preserve the natural character of existing site • Ped /Bike bridge at Hillside • Linear Rock Garden • Native Plants “Ornamental Garden” • Safety concern – need easy enter/exit points • Dog park should be at north or south end • Consider maintenance and ability to take care of the Park


Pkg.

D ES IG N

Potential Parking Area Existing Wetland Conservation/Restoration Pedestrian Access t St. Walnu

Primary Access, Vehic. & Ped.

Pkg. Secondary Access Vehic. & Ped.

Secondary Access Vehic. & Ped.

Pkg.

Existing C hann el

Pkg.

Pkg. Ped. Access

Ped. Access

Ped. Access

Framework

Developable Area

Country Club Dr.

Grimes St.

Secondary Access Vehic. & Ped.

Conservation

Ped. Access

Secondary Access Vehic. & Ped. 1.2 miles (6,300 feet)

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN S

Plan

Primary Access, Vehic. & Ped.

|

750 feet

Secondary Access Vehic. & Ped.

Secondary Access Vehic. & Ped.

WO RKSHOP

Park Boundary Existing Road Clear Creek B-Line Trail Pedestrian Access Pedestrian Access

Rogers St.

Figure 4.01

69


DESIG N WO RKSHOP

11

7

22

22 13 20

12

|

6

14

1

What

1

3 4

2

8

9

15

3

19

We

1

He ard

11

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

70

18

10 5

3

21

16

17

20

14

Parking Bike Rental Restrooms/Maintenance Community Garden/Orchard Street Skate Park Great Lawn

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Shelter Basketball Courts Bocce/Pickleball Courts Interactive Water Play New Entrance Pavilion/Performance Stage

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Limestone Creek Terrace Dog Park Vendors Shelter Gardens Play Environment

19. 20. 21. 22.

Gateway/Portal B-Line Trail Soft Surface Trail Clear Creek Renewal

Figure 4.02


D ES IG N

WO RKSHOP |

C o n c e p t

O n e

B i r d ’ s

E ye 71 Figure 4.03

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN S


D ES IG N WO RKSHOP

11 22

22

19

|

1 1

C o n c e p t

17

8 4 1

12 6

9

20

14

10

7

7 21

16

2

20

18

23

19

15

5

3 13

Two

1

P l a n

11

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

72

6

22

Parking Welcome Bridge Restrooms/Maintenance Community Garden Skate Room Great Lawn

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Picnic Rooms Basketball Courts North Forecourt Spray Park New Entrance Grand Shelter/Performance Stage

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Amphitheater Dog Park Vendors Linear Water Feature Perennial Garden Rubber Mound Play

19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Earth Forms B-Line Trail Soft Surface Trail Clear Creek Renewal Informal Lawn

Figure 4.04


D ES IG N

WO RKSHOP |

C o n c e p t

Two

B i r d ’ s

E ye 73 Figure 4.05

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN S


D ES IG N WO RKSHOP |

Gateway Art

Limestone Creek Terrace

Creekside Villages

Character

B-Line Platform

Sketc hes 74

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN


D ES IG N WO RKSHOP

Walnut Entry Overlook

Dog Park Vista

Character

Street Style Skate Place

|

Soft Trail Vista

Sketc hes

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN S

75


D ES IG N WO RKSHOP |

Interactive Water Play

B-Line Trail

Terraced Great Lawn

Character

Picnic Shelters Along the B-Line

Sketc hes 76

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN


D ES IG N WO RKSHOP

The B-Line Platform

|

Community Garden

Character Sketc hes

Limestone Creek Terrace

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN S

77


D ES IG N WO RKSHOP

Switchyard Park Will Be: • A Signature Destination Park • A Work of Art • Safe and Accessible for All • Connected to the Community • A Restored Natural Landscape • Uniquely Bloomington • An Innovative, Memorable & Dynamic Park Experience!! Cumberland Park l Nashville, Tennessee

Waterfront Park l Louisville, Kentucky

Discovery Green Park l Houston, Texas

Cumberland Park l Nashville, Tennessee

Source: Bloomington Arts Commission

Cumberland Park l Nashville, Tennessee

2 Arcs l Artist Bernard Venet

|

Main Street Square l Rapid City, South Dakota

Des ig n I nsp i rat i o n 78

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN


D ES IG N

Washington Park l Cincinnati, Ohio

Cumberland Park l Nashville, Tennessee

High Line l New York City

Ruth Lilly Visitors Pavilion l Indianapolis Museum of Art l Indianapolis, IN

Landform Sculpture l Artist Lorna Green

Cumberland Park l Nashville, Tennessee

Burnham Pavilion l Artist Zaha Hadid

|

Main Street Square l Rapid City, South Dakota

WO RKSHOP

Cumberland Park l Nashville, Tennessee

Des ig n I nsp i rat i o n

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN S

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The entrance pavilions, play environment and spray plaza form the core of the Platform activities, located near the center of the site and easily accessible from the 410-space parking area to the west served by new park entry points along Rogers Street. The entrance pavilions feature two separate buildings that form a gateway entrance into the park; the buildings would contain restrooms, concessions, and some park maintenance/storage functions. The play environment differs from a traditional playground by including custom-designed play features such as climbing walls, mounds, and rope structures that encourage active play and create an innovative, artistic play experience; a nearby shelter provides space for picnics and small gatherings.

The following pages provide illustrations of the final Master Plan and more detailed recommendations related to environmental remediation, ecological restoration, stormwater mitigation, utilities, access and circulation, land use, and potential catalyst projects in areas surrounding the park.

I ntr oduc tion

The arrangement of active uses along the B-Line Trail recalls the long north to south stretches of parallel railroad sidings that once dominated the Switchyard landscape. Features such as the playground, spray plaza, skatepark, entry pavilions, grand shelter, north forecourt, and garden beds take on a variety of linear forms that reinforce the historic trace of tracks and train cars that once sat side by side in the same location. Dubbed the “Platform,” this linear park element is further defined by a ground plane of paver materials and plantings of trees and perennials. The B-Line passes along the western edge of the platform allowing users to walk, run, or ride uninterrupted along the entire length of the park or peel off and easily access the many activities of the Platform.

East of the Platform, the 7.5- acre Great Lawn provides space for large civic events, performances and informal play. Featuring a performance stage and pavilion, seating berms and terraces, a trace of the former railroad roundhouse, shade trees, native plantings, and surrounding pathways, the Great Lawn can accommodate gatherings up to 10,000+ people in multiple configurations as well as informal play and picnics. A limestone creek terrace provides access to Clear Creek east of the Great Lawn, allowing for seating and enjoyment of the riparian environment.

Final Recommendations • The master plan includes enhancements to the Clear Creek stream channel – including restoration of meander to the section within the park boundaries, natural stone weirs to encourage aeration and varying depths, bank stabilization and erosion control – wetland restoration, invasive species removal, native tree, shrub and understory plantings, and a soft surface trail system utilizing both restored and new bridges across the channel. • As a vast majority of the Clear Creek corridor is privately owned, the master plan recommends a long term strategy of consisting of conservation easements or land donations to enable the restoration of the corridor. • This master plan is based on the pursuit of a revised LOMR (Letter of Map Revision) to redefine the floodplain limits, as outlined in the Analysis Phase of the master plan. • Benefits of the revised LOMR range from reduced numbers of flood insurance policies, to a smaller floodplain, and a smaller floodway. Sizing of new bridges along the stream will also be smaller. • The majority of stormwater will be handled through infiltration. Increased vegetation and ground cover will reduce runoff of contaminates and erosion of the existing stream banks. Installation of pervious pavers in the parking lots will add to the ability to treat storm-water on site. Installation of storm-water treatment structures in and around the proposed parking lots is essential to maintaining run-off of debris and contaminants within the urban park.

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Master Plan Narrative (See Figure 5.01) The overall design concept begins with an organization of design elements that responds to the existing site conditions. Active design components are concentrated along the western edge of the site in a linear fashion, which helps to activate the B-Line, promote safety and surveillance of park activities, and focus more intensive park development in areas that were previously disturbed and developed by the railroad. More passive design components are then concentrated along the eastern side of the site, which better accommodates the larger open spaces of the park, preserves the vegetation along the riparian corridor, reduces impacts to the floodway, and employs a lighter “footprint” of park activities in the more highly sensitive natural areas.

Moving further north along the B-Line, the Platform takes on a different appearance with bridges that carry the B-Line and the pathway along the eastern edge of the Platform across a stream corridor formed by daylighting of underground culvert pipes. A skatepark featuring a circuit of linear skating elements is located adjacent to the stream, which provides some separation between the skate and spray areas. The North Forecourt, featuring a 510foot long formal lawn area, lies north of the skatepark; bounded by walkways, trees, and a northern gateway marker for the park, the forecourt will accommodate formal and informal gatherings and civic events. North of the forecourt a secondary park entry off of Grimes Lane provides access to a 65-space parking area, a bike rental facility, a basketball court, bocce and pickle ball courts, a restroom and maintenance facility and a community garden center.

rooms” are established between the two parallel trails to provide safe access and surveillance of the trail. The Indiana Railroad trail continues north to connect with the existing sidepath along Rogers Street.

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The master plan outlines a bold vision that would transform the former switchyard site into a signature urban park through innovative design and forward thinking, restorative environmental strategies. This vision incorporates the site’s unique history and identity while establishing a premier destination that can foster future development in the surrounding community. It aims to create a park experience that is unique to Bloomington through reconnection of the site with the city, the treatment of the entire site as a work of public art, and the establishment of public open space for civic engagement and celebration.

The spray plaza features in ground spray nozzles that can be programmed for animated spray patterns and dramatic nighttime lighting effects; a small shelter is also included within the spray plaza zone to provide shade and picnic opportunities. Between the spray and play areas lies an open entrance plaza featuring raised garden beds with seatwalls; the entry plaza serves as the primary B-Line crossing point for park visitors. On the east edge of the Platform are a series of raised, display garden beds that form the transition to the Great Lawn; a Grand Shelter that accommodates up to 500 people is located along this edge as well. An artistic gateway feature spans the B-Line and forms the southern terminus of the Platform.

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PHASE FOUR: MASTER PLAN The final Master Plan for Switchyard Park is a result of community input on the two alternative plans prepared at the Design Workshop, which helped to inform decisions made by the design team and the Parks Department for the final direction of the master plan.

To the northeast of the Great Lawn, a new park entry point is established off of Walnut Street, creating an entry drive that accesses a 85-space parking area and connects to Hillside Drive. A park shelter is situated atop the highest point in the park north of the entry drive, overlooking the Clear Creek corridor and the Great Lawn beyond. South of the Great Lawn, a nearly 7-acre area is set aside between the B-Line and the Clear Creek Corridor for a dog park, which can be divided into two 3.5-acre parcels for proper management and rotation of use. Each section of the dog park includes appropriate containment fencing, access control, entry plaza and shelter. South of the dog park the existing B-Line Trail is enhanced with native plantings, connections to the adjacent neighborhood, and a restroom/maintenance building at the southern terminus at Country Club Road. The existing Indiana Railroad soft-surface path which parallels the B-Line will be groomed and upgraded for universal accessibility, while “picnic

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14 1. Grimes Lane Entrance and Parking • Modifications to an existing entrance and parking lot provide approximately 65 parking stalls.

3. Sports Courts • Basketball, bocce ball and pickleball courts provide active recreation opportunities for people of varying ages, interests, and abilities. 4. Restrooms/Maintenance • A new building will house public restrooms and maintenance facilities to serve the north end of the park.

9. Stream Daylighting/Entrance Bridges • Daylighting of a stream channel restores a natural system, and provides stormwater mitigation. • Two pedestrian bridges span the stream, and create a sense of arrival for the main activity platform.

6. Hillside Drive Entry • A new pedestrian corridor terminates in a small plaza and creates an east/west corridor through the park to adjacent neighborhoods.

10. Walnut Street Entrance and Parking • A new entrance loop and parking provide approximately 85 parking stalls close to the Great Lawn and stage. • Pedestrian walks link the entrance to park amenities, neighborhoods and the Black Lumber Trail. • Distinctive art and signage will punctuate the entrance

13. Native Plantings • Swaths of native plantings withstand Indiana climate extremes, reduce the need for mowing, and allow for greater percolation of stormwater.

11. Walnut Entrance Picnic Shelter and Overlook • The higher elevation at the overlook/picnic shelter provides a unique vantage point to view the park.

14. Rogers Street Entrance and Parking • A portion of the new Rogers Street entrance follows a former rail spur and includes a pedestrian corridor. • The new parking area provides approximately 410 parking stalls in close proximity to the platform amenities.

7. North Forecourt • This lawn area serves as a gathering place for smaller community and private events. 8. Street Skate Park • Obstacles in the skate park will replicate elements found on the street’ such as stairs, railings, planters and benches.

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Figure 5.02

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2. Bike Rental • An existing building will be renovated to house amenities such as the Bloomington Community Bike Project, bike rentals, and a bike repair station.

12. Stream Relocation and Ecologic Restoration • A segment of Clear Creek will be relocated to follow a more natural channel alignment. Existing bridge structures will be reused when possible. • Invasive removal and reforestation along the stream will improve natural habitat and stream health.

5. Community Garden • Raised beds provide a garden space to accommodate people of all ages and abilities. • A structure provides shade and storage space. Fencing and plant beds direct access to the garden.

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15. Gateway Entrance • The Gateway structure marks the park entrance and houses restroom and maintenance facilities. • The distinctive building creates a sense of arrival and direct pedestrian access points to the park.

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16. Vendors • Flanking either side of the Gateway Entrance are two paved courts which provide space for vendors. • The flexible space can accommodate food trucks, booths or tents to provide a variety of event opportunities. 17. Platform • This highly active area has a concentration of amenities, structures and recreation opportunities. • The shape and extent of the Platform reference the rail lines that once served the switchyard. • Structures and plant beds line up in a grid pattern that echoes the footprint of boxcars lined up along the rail.

18. Interactive Water Play • This spray park will serve as both a play area and an attractive water feature with interesting lighting and spray patterns. 19. Play Environment • The play area will provide unique play experiences with distinctive play equipment. 20. Large Shelter • This open-air picnic shelter overlooks the great lawn and is sized to accommodate large events and gatherings. 21. Great Lawn • The lawn areas are shaped with terraced earth sculptures that create outdoor rooms and serve as seating areas during events. • The lawn also provides unstructured space for casual gatherings and recreation.

22. Pavilion/Performance Stage • The performance stage will provide an new outdoor venue for community events and performances. • Maintenance, storage and utilities to support performance and event requirements will built into the structure.

• Picnic areas with shelters for small gatherings are nestled between the B-Line Trail and the soft surface trail on the west edge of the park. • In addition to a pleasant picnic experience, these areas provide passage between the two trails.

23. Limestone Creek Terrace • A series of limestone terraces serve as a transition from the lawn to Clear Creek and allow limited access to the water. 24. Dog Park • The fenced dog park will have two separate use zones to allow for continued use during maintenance and lawn regeneration. • One side of the dog park can be closed for maintenance or restricted for use while the other side is still in play.

26. Soft Surface Trail • An existing trail through a wooded area on the west side of the park follows a former rail spur. • Additional soft surface trails are proposed for the area eatt of Clear Creek. 27. Neighborhood Connections • New connections to the surrounding neighborhoods create dedicated access points to the park.

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Figure 5.06

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Figure 5.09


For the purposes of this Remediation Scope of Work and Cost Estimate, remediation costs which are “included” are generally those costs, supplemental to the park construction, which are necessitated by the cleanup of site soils.

ACTIVE PARK AREA Most of the surface soils in this area are impacted and remediation is recommended. 12 inches of soil cover or a hard surface (pavement) will be placed over the active, high use park area. This remediation activity will be conducted during the proposed Great Lawn, Walnut Street, and South Park redevelopment phases.

• Impacted soil that is located outside of the Clear Creek flood zone, and is not to be covered by paved or hardscape areas, will be covered in place with 12 inches of clean topsoil. • Impacted soil located outside of the Clear Creek flood zone and will be covered by paved or hardscape areas will be covered in place by the pavement or hardscape itself. Any impacted soil

INDIANA RR LINE This area has the potential for little or no remediation. It is recommended that additional sampling be completed on this area to determine if soil cover is needed. This remediation activity will be conducted during the proposed Great Lawn and South Park redevelopment phases. OUTSIDE LIMITS OF PROPERTY CURRENTLY OWNED BY THE CITY This area includes the properties adjoining the switchyard property to the east (excluding the CSX property) as well as the property west of the switchyard and adjoining the southern warehouse property to the south. These areas are shown in the redevelopment plan as part of the future park property. No environmental investigations are known to have been completed on these properties at this time. It is recommended that investigations be completed in these areas to determine if there are environmental conditions and if remediation is needed consistent with the end-use. This investigation and remediation (if necessary) activity will be conducted during the proposed Great Lawn, Walnut Street, and South Park redevelopment phases. HOTSPOT REMOVAL Some limited areas may require soil removal and offsite disposal and/or capping greater than 12 inches. It is not anticipated that these areas will be large. However, the size and extent cannot be determined without a final Remediation Work Plan and soil testing or similar document approved by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management. This remediation activity may be conducted during all redevelopment phases. Engineering

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Rem e d i at i o n

• Impacted soil that is located within the Clear Creek flood zone as defined by IDNR and FEMA, will be excavated to a depth of 12 inches, replaced with 12 inches of clean topsoil, and contoured to match the pre-existing grade. The removed fill material will be moved to designated locations on site and replaced before being covered with 12 inches of clean topsoil. Note that moving excess soil (impacted or otherwise) within the limits of the site is considered part of the grading plan and is not included in the remediation cost. It is assumed that all excess, impacted soil (with the exception of hot spots) will remain on the switchyard property.

CSX RAILROAD PROPERTY TO SOUTHEAST This area is the former creosote plant site. Contamination on this property is currently being addressed by the property owner. This site does have future park use potential.

Env ir onmen t al

Construction The recommended remedial action for the switchyard property based on the master plan is divided into seven areas:

SOUTH B-LINE AREA This section of the site is planned to be limited only to trail use. IDEM Remediation Closure Guide has a trail standard, and based on the sampling done along this portion of the property, the soils do not exceed the trail standard. Because of this, remediation is not anticipated to be required in this area, provided the use restriction is met (trail use only). This activity will be conducted during the proposed South Park redevelopment phase.

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All other aspects of park construction including design and construction of all on-site structures and buildings, recreational fields, parking lots, roads, trails, utilities, landscaping, signage, etc. are outside or "not included" in this Scope of Work and Cost Estimate. This plan assumes that, like the B-Line Trail Phases 1 and 2, an integrated remediation and construction process will be implemented. As demonstrated in the B-Line projects the integrated approach is practical and significantly lowers the cost of remediation.

CLEAR CREEK BANK AREA It is recommended that additional sampling be completed along Clear Creek to save trees rather than remove them and cover with one foot of soil. Doing this will minimize the number of trees removed and potentially save costs by minimizing the amount of soil cover material needed. This investigation and remediation (if necessary) activity will be conducted during the proposed Great Lawn and Walnut Street redevelopment phases.

It is anticipated that, similar to those for the B-Line Trail, the remediation portions of the Plans and Specifications will be approved by the IBP in lieu of a RWP. The Environmental Consultant will conduct all investigations in support of the remediation design and remediation. It is recommended that the Environmental Consultant assist the civil engineer in preparation of remediation design and bid specifications. The environmental consultant will observe, monitor, document and confirm all remediation aspects. Upon completion of the remediation, the Environmental Consultant will prepare a Closure Report documenting the remediation and the report will be submitted to the Indiana Brownfield Program with a request for a Site Status Letter.

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The goal of the remediation is to cover or remove all areas where contaminants in the surface soil exceed the IDEM’s Remediation Closure Guide (RCG) recreational screening levels (RSLs). The screening levels are based on the direct soil exposure pathway for a recreational end-use. Previous subsurface investigations on the corridor outlined the areas where much of the contaminated soil is located. Impacted surface soil will be covered in place with clean topsoil or by impermeable surfaces (paved and other "hardscape"), or removal and replacement with clean topsoil or hardscape surfaces.

that is required to be removed in order to accommodate the construction of the paved or hardscape feature will be moved to designated locations onsite and re-emplaced before being covered with 12 inches of clean topsoil.

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Remedial Design Summary (See Figure 5.10)

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Anticipated no remediation needed. Data indicates area passes current IDEM Remediation Closure Guide trail standard.

Potentially little or no remediation needed. Additional soil sampling recommended. At most a one-foot cap is anticipated.

Minimal tree removal in this area is preferred. Additional investigation needed. One-foot soil cover in some locations is anticipated.

Property owner currently conducting environmental remediation. Potential future park use.

Outside of currently owned property. Additional investigation needed to determine remedial action.

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Note: Further site investigation may disclose limited areas that will require soil removal and offsite disposal and/or capping greater than a one-foot depth.

Figure 5.10


Clear Creek • Improve water quality • Control streambank erosion using native plants • Provide wildlife habitat.

Stabilize Eroding Streambanks with Minimal Disturbance. Grading of the streambank as a stabilization method will be confined to a few areas, and to keep disturbance to a minimum, live staking will be used for some of the more inaccessible high erosion areas. Figure 5.11 identifies four major elements for

Invasive Species Management Plan. In order to reach the conservation goals we are recommending a phased approach to converting the plant communities to a more native state. Invasive species removal is required to a greater or lesser degree in all restoration areas (understory restoration, canopy tree planting and wetland restoration). Treating over 25 species of invasive plants in one season is unrealistic; therefore we have created several groups of species for invasives treatment to spread over a three-to-five year period. The restoration plan focuses on land owned by the City of Bloomington and slated for the Walnut Street entry and Great Lawn & Platform Amenities phases. The plan for the South Park Amenities phase is the same except for the addition of wetland restoration.

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Land Ownership. Much of channel and floodplain of Clear Creek within the south part of the Switchyard Park study area is in private ownership and any stream and riparian floodplain restoration will have to take this into account.

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Many high quality trees are being overtaken by invasive vines such as Oriental Bittersweet, Purple Wintercreeper and Japanese Honeysuckle. The invasive plant removal phase will deal with this vertical invasion, but it will be a long term challenge to keep the vines out.

Potential Wetland Mitigation The Switchyard Park Master Plan would fill in the potential wetland in the northwest part of the Great Lawn and Platform Amenities Phase area. If this is area found to be a jurisdictional or isolated wetland, then wetland mitigation would be required.

Res to rat i o n

Canopy Tree Preservation. Running most of the length of Clear Creek through the Switchyard property, is a healthy stand of native riparian trees. There are also high quality native canopy trees located in the floodplain forest adjacent to Clear Creek and along the old railway that runs along the west end of the property. These two areas form the priority conservation areas for the future Switchyard Park. A priority of restoration will be to conserve as many healthy native canopy trees as possible. Environmental remediation will dictate “hotspot” areas of contamination and tree removal may be inevitable in these areas.

Stream Channel Floodplain Access and Protection. Most of the stream channel and floodplain in the South Park Amenities Phase of the project area is in private ownership, including the wetland areas north of West Country Club Drive. Implementation of proposed restoration in the South Park area will depend on the extent to which land under private ownership can be acquired or protected. Any restoration in this area would be coordinated with implementation of the Draft Property Control Strategy included in the Appendix.

Elements of the native species restoration plan include: • Seeding of native grasses, sedges and forbs in riparian and floodplain forested areas. • Planting of native shrubs to enhance the understory where there is an existing canopy (green areas in Figure 4.2). The understory shrub layer in both riparian and floodplain forests are dominated by woody invasive plants such as Multiflora Rose, Bush Honeysuckle, and Common Privet. Restoring the understory will focus on removing invasive species, planting desirable native understory shrubs and trees such as Spicebush, Viburnum, Dogwoods and Paw Paw, and seeding the understory with a native seed mix. • Planting of native trees in riparian and floodplain corridor of Clear Creek where an established canopy is absent. Areas adjacent to Clear Creek in the floodplain slated in the master plan for conservation will also be planted with native canopy trees. In essence all of the conservation areas minus the wetlands will be forested. The species selected for reforestation will provide potential nesting habitat for the Indiana Bat a federally endangered species. We recommend using a combination of containerized and bare root trees and shrubs. Containerized plant material will establish quickly but is more expensive, and it is possible to have major losses during cycles of droughts or floods. Most mitigation requirements for reforestation call for 200 canopy trees per acre and over 100 understory trees and shrubs per acre. We recommend overplanting to compensate for inevitable losses due toweather extremes and animal browsing. We recommend a 10 foot x 10 foot spacing using a ratio of 2:1 ratio of canopy trees to understory shrubs. This will equal 291 trees per acre, and 144 understory shrubs. • Planting of native wetland species in wetland areas

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Conservation Goals: Switchyard Park • Promote diversity of native flora and fauna • Restore and manage healthy urban forest ecosystem • Environmental public outreach and education.

Preserve/Minimize Impact on Riffle and Pool Structure. The approach to stabilizing eroding streambanks described above will help preserved the existing riffle and pool structure of Clear Creek. Another way to minimize impacts would be to use embankments for existing stream crossings whenever possible for construction of pedestrian bridges across the stream.

The native species restoration strategy goes hand in hand with the phased invasive plant removal. Therefore the plan will be to stabilize the site over the first two years with temporary seed mixes of native grasses and cover crops. This will allow the use of broadleaf specific herbicides to be used over the native grasses without harming them. This will be critical in slowly converting the site from highly invasive to highly native and controlling erosion during the process. Permanent native seed mixes are fairly expensive and they shouldn’t be sown until there is adequate control of the invasives.

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The proposed restoration strategy for the park has three major elements: • Preserving and/or minimizing impacts on existing features of ecological value • Management of invasive species • Restoration of native species

In high erosion areas grading will be done if necessary and stabilization will be accomplished with erosion control fabric, seeding, live staking and tree and shrub planting. There are a few areas with unstable limestone walls which will require similar treatment. Limestone from the man-made walls will be used to anchor the base of the erosion control fabric at the edge of the stream. If more anchoring material is required, natural limestone cobbles from the stream channel may be used as well, provided this does not compromise the existing riffle and pool configuration of the stream. In medium erosion areas stabilization will be accomplished with erosion control fabric, seeding, live staking and tree and shrub planting. In low erosion areas stabilization will be accomplished with seeding and tree and shrub planting.

Native Species Restoration Plan. Reestablishment of native species involves a number of elements, some or all of which may be involved in different phases of the Switchyard Park Master Plan.

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The Switchyard property has a long history of human disturbance and environmental abuse. This is evident in both the contamination of the soils, and the abundant presence of invasive plant species on site. Ecological restoration of the Switchyard property will be very challenging. The conservation goals for this project need to be in line with the realities of the site conditions. It is important for all stakeholders to understand that this is a heavily industrialized site and does not have the restoration potential of a “nature preserve”. There is however, the potential to greatly improve the ecological character and functions of Clear Creek, the floodplain forests and the existing wetlands on site.

channel erosion control and streambank stabilization

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Switchyard Park Restoration Overview (See Figures 5.11 and 5.12)

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LEGEND CONDITION: Unstable Limestone Wall EROSION CONTROL METHOD: Remove Wall, Grade, Erosion Control Fabric, Seeding, Live Staking

CONDITION: Medium Erosion EROSION CONTROL METHOD: Erosion Control Fabric, Seeding, Live Staking, Tree & Shrub Planting

CONDITION: High Erosion EROSION CONTROL METHOD: Grading, Erosion Control Fabric, Seeding, Live Staking, Tree & Shrub Planting

CONDITION: Low Erosion EROSION CONTROL METHOD: Seeding, Tree & Shrub Planting

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Figure 5.11


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LEGEND FLOODPLAIN RESTORATION (7.5 ACRES) Invasive Removal, Tree and Shrub Planting, Seeding

WETLAND RESTORATION (3.2 ACRES) Invasive Removal, Seeding, Plugging (Wetalnd boundaries will require further investigation.)

UNDERSTORY RESTORATION (44 ACRES) Invasive Removal, Shrub Planting, Seeding

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Figure 5.12

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As part of the final master plan, the project team determined the feasibility of various types of Stormwater BMP (Best Management Practices) in and around the Bloomington Switchyard Park. (See Figure 5.14)

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The recommendations were based on many considerations which included: existing utilities, site conditions, long term transportation plans, long term utility plans, soil conditions, and environmental concerns. Specific findings that impacted the recommended BMP’s were: • Soil samplings indicate the presence of shallow bedrock thought-out the site. • Soil samplings also indicate the presence of contaminants that will need to be removed or capped with additional soils. • The flood basin for Clear Creek extends across a major portion of the Switchyard Park site.

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Based on the final conceptual park plan the following findings and recommendations were made for the master plan design. • Conventional Stormwater detention in the park is not feasible due to several factors. • Soil borings indicate shallow bedrock • Environmental analysis indicates contaminates in the soils that would require costly remediation. • Daylighting the two existing box culverts under the former railway will allow for the better drainage flow, allow for treatment of storm-water prior to entering Clear Creek, and allow for a more natural setting in the park. • Installation of storm-water treatment structures in and around the proposed parking lots is essential to maintaining run-off of debris and contaminants within the urban park. • Increased vegetation and ground cover will benefit the park area from runoff of contaminates and erosion of the existing stream banks. • Installation of pervious pavers in the parking lots will add to the ability to treat storm-water on site, Figure 5.13 shows possible layouts for pavers in the parking lot at the Rogers Street entrance. Permeable paving in other proposed parking area would follow a similar installation pattern. • Installation of pervious pavers will allow for subsurface storage of groundwater and groundwater infiltration. Installing pervious pavement for the pedestrian trails will slow the runoff within the park.

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Figure 5.13 Permeable Pavement is recommended for the parking bays in all parking lots.

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Asphalt Pavement Examples of Permeable Pavement Installations

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The utility plan for the McDoel Switchyard Park gives consideration to three major components: the need to accommodate the City of Bloomington Utilities Department’s (CBU) plans for a new relief sewer; the relocation of Duke Energy’s overhead lines that cross the parkway; and the extension of electric, water, and wastewater service to the anticipated park amenities. Due to the existing infrastructure adjacent to Switchyard Park there are many options to obtain the necessary utilities to support any phase of park construction independently.

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Distribution of Utilities within the Park The overall concept for the distribution of utilities throughout the park consists of developing a utility corridor for water and electric service. The proposed route of this corridor runs parallel to the anticipated alignment of CBU’s relief sewer along the northeastern edge of the park, then south to a point where it crosses the B-Line trail toward the southwest. From there it travels along the western edge of the park south to County Club Road. Within this corridor this plan proposes an 8-inch water main extending from an existing Grimes Lane Main to the existing County Club main. Also included is a 4-inch conduit with a series of manholes to distribute electrical power. Water and electricity can be extended from the utility corridor to each facility or group of facilities requiring service. Depending upon how the park is constructed adjustments to the proposed utility corridor concept may be required.

| Utilities

The Great Lawn and Platform Amenities Phase encompasses the bulk of the utility corridor. Water service will be extended to restrooms, the interactive water play area, drinking fountains, irrigation systems, and fire hydrants as necessary. Electrical service will be provided for power and lighting of the platform, paths, the pavilion/performance stage, and restrooms. Two lift stations will be required to address wastewater disposal. One lift station will be placed near the platform to serve the restrooms and interactive water play area. This lift station will pump to the existing 24 inch sewer main just west of the platform area. The other lift station will be installed at the restroom near County Club Road and pump to the existing 24 inch sewer main along the west side of the railroad corridor.

Plan

It is anticipate that the Walnut Street Entry Phase will require water and electricity only. Water system improvements include a 6-inch main extension from College Avenue at Southern Drive to Walnut Street with individual service extensions for drinking fountains, an irrigation system, and fire hydrants as necessary. Electricity is available from the existing grid on the west side of Walnut Street to be distributed for lighting at the entrance, along the drive, parking areas, and paths and convenience power at the shelter. Existing utility infrastructure could provide utility connections for the North Park Amenities Phase. The phase includes construction of a portion of the proposed utility corridor. Water service will be extended to the restrooms, drinking fountains, community garden, and great lawn. In addition, this phase call for one lift station to provide wastewater service. It will pump to the Grimes Lane sewer. The northern portion of the electrical distribution system will be constructed along the utility corridor and power will be distributed as necessary. The only utility currently anticipated for the South Park Phase is electricity.

98

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

CBU’s Relief Sewer CBU plans to construct a new relief sewer for their sanitary sewer system to replace the Grimes Street lift station. The Grimes Street lift station, located along the west bank of Clear Creek just south of Grimes Lane, pumps flows from the sewer along the east bank up to the Roger Street sewer. CBU’s plan is to construct a new 42-inch to 48-inch or possibly larger sewer to run from Davis Street south to the Dillman Road Wastewater Treatment Plant. The desired path for the new sewer is through the switchyard site. CBU’s sanitary sewer system is in compliance and there is currently no regulatory requirement to construct the new relief sewer. This project is being considered in anticipation of increased future demands and has not yet been fully designed. It is possible that the McDoel Switchyard Park will be constructed in advance of the relief sewer construction. The following utility plan (see Figure 5.15) includes a conceptual route for the sewer to allow advance construction by CBU to coincide with the phasing of the park. This route may run along the eastern edge of the northern linear portion of the park south to the junction of the existing B-Line Trail, cross the trail toward the southwest, and then follow the abandoned railroad line along the western edge of the park south to County Club Road and beyond. Once designed, the portion of the relief sewer that will be located in the park could be constructed and preserved until the balance of the sewer is constructed. Manholes along the sewer would be strategically located to allow vehicular access by CBU for routine maintenance. Further coordination with CBU will be necessary as the park construction and/or relief sewer iprogresses.

Duke Energy Overhead Lines Duke Energy has existing overhead electrical lines that cross the switchyard at Hillside Drive and a point just south of the warehouse across from the Rogers Street substation. The crossing of these overhead lines coincides with the Walnut Street Entry and the North Park Amenities Phases of the park. There are currently four circuits that cross the switchyard; one to the north along Hillside and the other three to the south. The three circuits south cross the switchyard and then divide and run north and east. This plan proposes that these overhead crossings be rerouted underground through two concrete duct banks. The proposed duct banks would be approximately 24-inch square placed a minimum of 30 inches below grade. Each duct bank would contain four 6 inch conduits encased in concrete. Each conduit would carry one circuit leaving four spare conduits for the future. A switchgear would most likely be set southeast of the warehouse to allow electrical service to be distributed into the park. The relocation of the overhead lines could take place during either the Walnut Street Entry Phase or the North Park Amenities Phase; whichever phase is constructed first. The cost associated with this work is currently shown in the Walnut Street Phase.


MA S T E R PL AN | Utilities Plan 0

40

0 20 0 10 0

N

LEGEND UTILITIES CORRIDOR • Water and Sewer Mains, and Electric Feed for Park • CBU Relief Sewer UNDERGROUND DUCT BANK • Duke Energy

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Figure 5.15

99


MA S T E R PL AN | Ac c es s and

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

0

• A series of hard and soft trails provide looped paths and a variety of pedestrian experiences within the park. • New pedestrian connections to the surrounding neighborhoods provide greater access to the park, and increased east/west connectivity. • The B-Line Trail is maintained along the west edge of the park to provide a direct route through park amenities with minimal interruptions. • Hard surface trails have been sized to provide periodic vehicular access for maintenance and events. • Where feasible existing trails and bridge structures have been incorporated in the master plan to make use of existing resources and minimize construction costs .

40

Pl an

Vehicular Circulation Proposed vehicular access to the park occurs at the existing entrance on Grimes Street, as well as four new access points on Rogers Street and Walnut Street. Vehicular traffic is kept to the edges of the park to minimize pedestrian and vehicular conflicts and to create a park where visitors can experience a sense of ‘getting away’ within the urban fabric of the city. • The paved trail system within the park provides additional vehicular access for maintenance vehicles and event setup. • The Walnut Street entrance loop begins near the Black Lumber Trail and connects to Hillside Street via South College Avenue. • A portion of the Rogers Street entrance occurs along a former rail spur and loops through a new parking area. • Given the heavy traffic that occurs on Walnut Street and Rogers Street, new vehicular stoplights should be considered at each new entrance. Pedestrian Circulation

0 20 0 10 0

Cir cul at i o n 100

N

Vehicular Access Vehicular Circulation (550 Parking Stalls) Pedestrian Access Pedestrian Circulation B-Line Trail (1.2 miles) Pedestrian Circulation Hard Surface (3.1 miles) Pedestrian Circulation Soft Surface (1.6 miles)

Figure 5.16


Proposed Strategies | Proposed Land Use Map

101 Figure 5.17

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN


Proposed Strategies | Potential Catalyst Projects 102

Potential P otential B Bus us Maintenance Facility M aintenance F acility Expansion E xpansion

Potential P otential W Walnut alnut S treet R edevelopment Street Redevelopment Potential P otential W Walnut/ alnut/ Grimes G rimes Mixed-Use Mixed-Use Redevelopment R edevelopment

Potential Monroe Oil Site Redevelopment

Proposed Matt Press Redevelopment

Potential Warehouse Reuse/Redevelopment Planned Monon Crossing Residential/ Commercial Project

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Potential Mixed-Density Residential Infill Concepts depicted are not intended to represent a planned development, proposed land acquistion, or recommendation of this master plan. They simply suggest the type of development that may be possible on certain properties adjacent to the proposed park.

Figure 5.18


The existing warehouse structure at the corner of Grimes Ln. and Patterson St. provides an opportunity for new lofts along the northern corner of the park on a 4.9 acre parcel. Option one consists of reusing the existing infrastructure to develop 130 new residential units, including lofts and walk-ups.

Resident Loading Dock

Private Courtyard

B-L

INE

• Reuse and preserve features of existing warehouse structure • Provide views of and pedestrian access to Switchyard Park • Develop rear walk-up style units with upper floor views of park • Reuse existing loading docks and movein docks for new residents • Create gateway signage at significant corners of parcel

TRA

IL

Harding Street Lofts - Indianapolis

Park View Loft Courtyard View Loft WAREHOUSE OPTION ONE - REUSE

Cotton Mill Condos - New Orleans, LA

Possible Green Roof

CONSIDERATIONS:

Higher Density/ Value Residential

Rear Parking

• Develop higher-density (60 DUA) residential use along park for higher value units • Provide views of park through upper-level balconies and large park-facing windows • Rear parking to maximize park frontage • Pedestrian connections to Switchyard Park

Maximize Views of Park

INE

TRA

IL

N

B-L

Large Viewing Windows WAREHOUSE OPTION TWO - REDEVELOP

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

GRIM

ES L

Upper Level Balconies

Option two for the redevelopment of the Grimes Ln. and Patterson St. warehouse consists of redeveloping the parcel to accommodate higher density residential units. This option illustrates up to 300 new residential units at about a 60 Dwelling Units Per Acre (DUA) density.

Eddy Street Commons - South Bend, IN

Concepts depicted on these sheets are not intended to represent a planned development, proposed land acquistion, or recommendation of this master plan. They simply suggest the type of development that may be possible on certain properties adjacent to the proposed park.

Proposed Strategies|Potential Catalyst Projects

CONSIDERATIONS:

Rear Townhome

Post Midtown Square - Houston, TX

103 01


N WAL UT S

• Develop street-front retail uses along Walnut St. and Grimes Ln. • Utilize existing creek as a pedestrianoriented canal • Develop a residential street-wall along proposed canal • Address public spaces with residential frontage and place parking in rear • Provide pedestrian connections to Switchyard Park

S LN

E RIM

G

T.

Proposed Strategies|Potential Catalyst Projects

should be addressed as a significant gateway for the area through street-front retail and residential uses, plus the development of a pedestrian-oriented canal. New development should address the street and public spaces with hidden, rear parking.

Public Canal

Walnut StreetFront Retail

River Walk - San Antonio, TX

Rear Parking

Walnut/Grimes Mixed-Use Development

Cosmopolitan on the Canal - Indianapolis

Residential Corridor

Park-Front Residential

CONSIDERATIONS: On-Site Rain Garden Opportunity sites exist along Walnut St. for mixed-use infill development. The illustrated example is a 13.2 acre, underutilized site across from Bloomington South High School. • Maximize park-front residential units • Provide commercial infill along Walnut St. - Potential for educational institution • Provide shared parking along Walnut St.

Mixed-Use at 96th/Meridian St - Indianapolis

Shared Parking

Walnut Street Redevelopment

104

CONSIDERATIONS: Park Connections The corner of Grimes Ln. and Walnut St.

Canal-Front Residential

T ST. U N L A W

Walnut Retail or possible education/ institutional use

Concepts depicted on these sheets are not intended to represent a planned development, proposed land acquistion, or recommendation of this master plan. They simply suggest the type of development that may be possible on certain properties adjacent to the proposed park.

Higher Density Residential at 96th/Meridian - Indianapolis


Existing Road Network

CONSIDERATIONS:

Trail Connection to Park

RO G

ER

SS

T

Opportunity sites exist along Rogers St. for mixed-density residential infill. New residential development along Rogers St. should consist of higher density DUA than existing development. New development should address Rogers St. and the Switchyard Park.

Mix of Residential Densities

New Rogers St. Streetwall

• Infill existing opportunity sites and greenfields with mixed-density residential uses • Utilize existing road network for new neighborhood streets • Provide pedestrian trails to Switchyard Park • Create a new Rogers St. residential streetwall • Maximize park front residential development opportunities

Mixed-Density Housing

Mixed-Density Housing

Mixed-Density Infill CONSIDERATIONS:

od dS t ee tr et Neighborhood Street Width

A Walnut St. entrance to the Switchyard Park should be utilized as a gateway entrance for the east side of the Switchyard Park. This provides an opportunity to celebrate and increase visibility of the park along a major vehicular corridor.

NUT L A W

ST.

Park Entry Archway Boulevard Entrance Walnut Gateway

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

• Create visible gateway signage at park entrance • Develop low-intensity neighborhood streets to provide a better transition from Walnut St., which serves as a major arterial street • Develop a boulevard street entrance to provide a transition from a vehicularoriented area to a pedestrian-oriented park

Central Park Entrance Gateway - Manchester, England

Concepts depicted on these sheets are not intended to represent a planned development, proposed land acquistion, or recommendation of this master plan. They simply suggest the type of development that may be possible on certain properties adjacent to the proposed park.

Harris-Stowe State University Gateway Entrance - St. Louis

Proposed Strategies|Potential Catalyst Projects

Residential Park Corridor

105 01


106


Intent Fostering a vibrant downtown area is crucial to the principle of compact urban form. The Downtown area is a mixed use, high intensity activity center serving regional, communitywide, and neighborhood markets. Bloomington must strive to improve downtown as a compact, walkable, and architecturally distinctive area in the traditional block pattern that serves as the heart of Bloomington while providing land use choices to accommodate visitors, business, shoppers and residents.

Intent Urban Residential areas include those parts of the city developed after the Core Residential areas were built-out. Some minor development is still taking place in these areas. This category identifies existing residential areas, with densities generally ranging from 2 units per acre to 15 units per acre. Additionally, this category also includes some large underdeveloped parcels, known as new urban growth areas as well as individual vacant lots and smaller acreages, known as neighborhood conservation areas. Urban Residential areas have good access to roads, public water and sewer, and other public services. When development occurs in new urban growth areas, the goal should be to encourage higher densities, ensure street connectivity, and protect existing residential fabric. For particularly large parcels such as the Ramsey Farm (corner of Sare Road and Moores Pike), zoning incentives to allow for a mixed-use development pattern should be established. Neighborhood conservation areas encompass neighborhoods with established and stable residential environments. The vast majority of these areas are fully developed or expected to be developed in a relatively short timeframe. The fundamental goal for these areas is to encourage the maintenance of residential desirability and stability. Where new infill development is proposed, it should be consistent and compatible with preexisting developments.

Dis t ri c t s

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

URBAN RESIDENTIAL

Polic y

Intent This category encompasses those neighborhoods surrounding Bloomington’s downtown and Indiana University. These areas are neighborhoods of cottages and bungalows (some architecturally and historically distinctive) built at higher densities than more recent residential development.

Urban Services Core Residential Areas have full accessibility to necessary urban services. Therefore, the main objective for these areas is to maintain adequate levels of urban service and where possible to improve the capacity and aesthetics of all urban services. In some core neighborhood areas, existing utilities infrastructure is outdated and deficient, and must be upgraded, with assistance from the City, as a component of infill development. • Promote neighborhood enhancements of public improvements such as sidewalks, streetlights, street trees and landscaping, and playgrounds and play areas. • Opportunities to repair and upgrade underground utilities must be pursued in order to preserve the capacity of aging utilities in the urban core. • When major utilities projects are required, other urban amenities (sidewalks, landscaping, etc.) should be upgraded simultaneously to reduce the need for multiple construction processes.

Site Design The majority of core neighborhoods have been built out, so major changes will occur with redevelopment and property turnover. Redevelopment and rehabilitation of existing structures should respect the unique character and development pattern of the Core Residential areas. Core Residential development should emphasize building and site compatibility with existing densities, intensities, building types, landscaping and other site planning features. • The Zoning Ordinance should include new site planning standards that reflect existing patterns of development in core neighborhoods (Form Districts). • Residential parking should be encouraged to utilize garages accessed by alleys to the rear of properties, while front yard parking be prohibited.

G r owth

CORE RESIDENTIAL

Land Use The predominant land use for this category is single family residential; however, redevelopment has introduced several uncharacteristic uses such as surface automobile parking, apartments, offices, retail space and institutional activities. This district is designed primarily for higher density single family residential use. The existing single family housing stock and development pattern should be maintained with an emphasis on limiting the conversion of dwellings to multi-family or commercial uses, and on encouraging ongoing maintenance and rehabilitation of single family structures. Multi-family (medium and highdensity) residential and neighborhood-serving commercial uses may be appropriate for this district when compatibly designed and properly located to respect and compliment single family dwellings. Neighborhood-serving commercial uses, and possibly even office uses, may be most -appropriate at the edge of Core Residential areas that front arterial street locations. More specific land use policies include: • Allow multi-family redevelopment along designated major streets, in transition areas between the downtown and existing single family residential areas, and when appropriately integrated with adjacent uses per adopted form district requirements. • Explore opportunities to introduce nodes of appropriately designed, neighborhood scaled commercial uses within the core neighborhoods. • Discourage the conversion of single family homes to apartments. • Utilize targeted tax abatements and grant programs in specific neighborhoods to provide incentives for increased owner occupancy and affordable housing construction ading deficient utilities in core neighborhoods.

• In new development or redevelopment projects, utilities should be placed underground and located so as to minimize potential conflicts with trees and other landscaping features. • The City should reduce cost barriers for affordable housing providers by upgrading deficient utilities in core neighborhoods.

|

Urban Services Downtown Bloomington, as the developed core of the City, has been provided with the full range of typical urban services. It has access to all sewer and water utilities, a developed roadway network, public open spaces, and transit services. However, if downtown is to continue to flourish, many of these services must be enhanced or expanded. As downtown develops and redevelops, the City must take advantage of opportunities to improve the entire portfolio of public urban services to meet growing demand. The following policies should guide such efforts. • Downtown streetscapes should be enhanced by identifying gateway corridors and developing streetscape improvement projects (i.e. the recently completed East Kirkwood Streetscapeproject). • Utilities improvement projects, especially those dealing with stormwater drainage facilities, must be coordinated with streetscape improvement projects to minimize impacts on downtown businesses and residents. • Transit facilities (i.e. benches, shelters, and pull-offs) must be integrated into the downtown streetscape to facilitate efficient public transit service.

Site Design Consistent site planning is crucial to maintaining the urban look and feel of the existing downtown as it is complemented by compatible future development. However, site planning standards must ensure the integration of retail, office, institutional, and residential uses that are compatible in scale and design to existing structures. Parking must be dealt with in a manner to not discourage or harm the pedestrian nature of the downtown while at the same time providing sufficient parking to support the diverse land use mix of the downtown. • Downtown must continue to be developed at a human scale, with pedestrian amenities such as street trees, sidewalks, and lighting. Existing amenities should be targeted for improvement where necessary. • Design standards must be developed that incorporate a broad spectrum of economic, architectural, engineering, aesthetic, and historic preservation considerations. For example, these design standards would address such elements as building setback, height, roof orientation and blank wall control. • New construction in the downtown should conform to historic patterns of building mass, scale, and placement within a given site. • Buildings must be constructed to match established setbacks from public streets, typically along the edge of the public right-of-way. • In order for higher residential densities to be developed downtown, increased building heights should be encouraged beyond the Courthouse Square. • Blank wall controls must be enacted to prevent large stretches of walls without architectural features (such as windows, doors, or other elements) along street frontages. • Curb cuts along downtown streets are strongly discouraged. Rather, site access should be primarily from sidewalks for pedestrians or alleys for vehicles. • Downtown greenspace should be improved by encouraging plazas and common streetscape themes, in coordination with new development and redevelopment. • Develop revised parking requirements for the Downtown Commercial zoning district in order to provide appropriate levels of parking for high density residential development projects.

Core Residential areas are characterized by a grid-like street system, alley access to garages, small street setbacks, and a mixture of owner occupants and rental tenants. The unique character, urban form and land use pattern of the near-downtown residential areas must be protected and enhanced.

A

Land Use A mix of office, commercial, civic, high-density residential and cultural land uses are recommended for the downtown. New residential, retail, and office growth must be redirected to the downtown if Bloomington is to slow the sprawl at the city’s edge. Several land-use policies are necessary to achieve the active and engaging downtown that is so important to this community. • The Downtown area should be targeted for increased residential density (100 units per acre) and for intensified usage of vacant and under-utilized buildings. • New surface parking areas and drive-through uses should be limited, if not forbidden, within the Downtown area. • Office space along the Courthouse Square block faces should be limited at the street level and concentrated in upper stories of buildings, with retail activities preferred along the ground level of the Courthouse Square and Kirkwood Avenue between Indiana Avenue and Rogers Street. • The mix of retail goods and services must be expanded and diversified at both the neighborhood and community scales of activity, including such uses as groceries, drug stores, and specialty item stores. • Multi-story parking garages should be constructed as an alternative to surface parking lots, allowing for more land to be developed as mixed-use buildings.

• Appropriate areas must be identified within downtown for the expansion and development of open space, including linear greenways as well as spaces similar to People’s Park. • In new development or redevelopment projects, utilities should be placed underground and located so as to minimize potential conflicts with trees and other landscaping features.

AP P EN DIX

DOWNTOWN DISTRICT

A


AP P EN DIX A | G r owth Polic y Dis t ri c t s A

Land Use Single family residential development is the primary land use activity for this category with some additional uses such as places of religious assembly, schools, home occupations, and multifamily housing. For development in new urban growth areas, the GPP recommends: • Develop sites for predominantly residential uses; however, incorporate mixed residential densities, housing types, and nonresidential services where supported by adjacent land use. Urban Services Urban Residential Areas have full accessibility to all modern urban services. Thus, the main objectives for these areas are to maintain adequate levels of service and when possible improve the capacity and aesthetics of all urban services. Examples of new infrastructure projects include the provision of new sidewalk links, the construction of new bike paths, and the replacement of utility infrastructure. In addition, participation in programs such as the City’s Council of Neighborhood Improvements Grant Program can allow neighborhoods to upgrade street lighting, signage, and landscaping. • In new development or redevelopment projects, utilities should be placed underground and located so as to minimize potential Site Design Urban Residential Areas contain a mixture of densities, housing types (single family vs. multifamily), and street networks (gridbased vs. curvilinear). The site design goals for development in urban growth areas and neighborhood conservation areas are different. Site design goals for future development in new urban growth areas include: • Optimize street, bicycle, and pedestrian connectivity to adjacent neighborhoods as well as to commercial activity centers. • Ensure that each new neighborhood has a defined center or focal point. This center could include such elements as a small pocket park, formal square with landscaping, or a neighborhood serving land use. • Ensure that new common open space is truly usable and accessible. Provide linkages between such open space and other public spaces. • Provide for marginally higher development densities while ensuring the preservation of sensitive environmental features and taking into consideration infrastructure capacity as well as the relationship between the new development and adjacent existing neighborhoods. Site design goals for neighborhood conservation areas acknowledge that the majority of these neighborhoods have been built out and that changes will probably occur with redevelopment or rehabilitation. • Redevelopment or rehabilitation of existing structures or development of single lots or small parcels should respect the unique character and development pattern of the neighborhood. The development should emphasize building and site compatibility with existing densities, intensities, building types, landscaping and other site planning features.

NEIGHBORHOOD ACTIVITY CENTER (NAC) Intent The Neighborhood Activity Center (NAC) is a mixed commercial node that serves as the central focus of each neighborhood. The NAC must be designed so that it serves the neighborhood adequately without attracting an influx of usage from surrounding areas. It must also be located so that it is easily accessible by pedestrians, minimizing automotive traffic throughout the neighborhood. The Neighborhood Activity Center will provide small-scale retail and business services within the context of neighborhoods while maintaining compatibility within the existing fabric of development. It should be noted that while several NACs have been identified on the land use map, more could be designated in the future as further study is done and appropriate locations have been identified. Land Use A NAC should contain a mix of neighborhood scale retail and office space, as well as services such as day care and higher density housing. Housing elements are ideally integrated with nonresidential elements such that housing units are situated above commercial and office space. In some cases, a NAC can be located within the center of a Core Residential or Urban Residential area, most probably through the redevelopment of an existing nonresidential use (i.e. the K & S Country Market on East 2nd Street). In other cases, a NAC will need to be located closer to the neighborhood edge in order to ensure greater compatibility and financial viability. • The main focus of the NAC should be commercial uses at a scale that serves the immediate neighborhood, including such services as small food stores, video rental, or small cafes. • Office uses and public/semi-public uses are acceptable when built to generate minimal traffic attraction to the neighborhood. • Residential uses should be limited to multifamily development, ideally on floors above street level commercial uses. • Commercial uses should be restricted to ensure their neighborhood focus. Urban Services A Neighborhood Activity Center will be placed in a developed neighborhood, where most urban services have been previously provided. This includes access to sewer, water, electricity, and gas lines that should already be serving the existing neighborhood. This type of development is intended as an alternative to new commercial growth in areas where such utilities do not already exist. • Public Transit as an urban service must be a key element in the location of the NAC, providing access to people outside the neighborhood without the need for personal vehicles. All newly developed NAC’s must be located within walking distance (5- 10 minutes) of a major public transit stop. • The roadways that a NAC is developed around should be Collectors (Secondary or Primary) as designated on the City’s Master Thoroughfare Plan. • The development of an NAC should include coordination on

the completion of an adequate sidewalk network throughout the immediate neighborhood it serves, if no such network exists at the time of development. • In new development or redevelopment projects, utilities should be placed underground and located so as to minimize potentia Site Design Compatibility with surrounding established neighborhoods is one of the most important factors in the development of a Neighborhood Activity Center. Although it represents the smallest scale of commercial land use, the NAC is a high-density node of activity that will affect a neighborhood. The introduction of a commercial node into a primarily residential area requires great sensitivity to the design and scale of the existing structures, as well as responsiveness to the needs of the surrounding residents. NAC’s must relate to surrounding residential neighborhoods and not adversely affect the livability of these neighborhoods through traffic, lighting, noise, litter or other impacts. The careful combination of pedestrian facilities and structural features will help to define the streetscape of the NAC. • The height of new commercial structures in a NAC shall be limited to three stories in order to minimize the impact of such uses on surrounding residents. • Sidewalks, street trees, pedestrian-scale lighting and other decorative features must be standard elements of the NAC streetscape. • Bus stops, bus pull-offs, or shelters shall be incorporated to maximize transit trips to the NAC. • In order to define the center, buildings should be pushed to the front edge of the site, framing the four corners of the commercial node at the street intersection. • Any parking that is provided for a NAC should be primarily serving any residential units that are a part of the development rather than used as an attractor for commercial users. • Parking should be located in the side or rear of buildings, and can be made accessible from an improved alley system in order to minimize street cuts in front of buildings. • All parking areas should also be heavily landscaped in order to soften their impact on the neighborhood.

COMMUNITY ACTIVITY CENTER (CAC) Intent The Community Activity Center is designed to provide communityserving commercial opportunities in the context of a high density, mixed use development. The CAC must be designed to serve not only the pedestrian traffic from nearby neighborhoods, but also a community-wide group of users that may drive a personal vehicle to the CAC. Parking will become more important in this area than the NAC, but should still be kept to reasonable levels and skillfully designed to avoid large open areas of asphalt. Land Use The Community Activity Center is a mixed commercial node, larger in scale and higher in intensity than the Neighborhood Activity Center. The CAC will incorporate a balance of land uses to take advantage of the proximity to goods and services. Rather than serving a single neighborhood, commercial uses in and surrounding

the CAC will be developed so as to be accessible to multiple neighborhoods by non-motorized means, without becoming a major destination for the entire City and/or region. As the central commercial node of the surrounding area, public gathering space is an ideal addition to the mix of uses. Residents will need outdoor space to access, and public open space can provide a valuable amenity to customers of the commercial units. In accordance with their greater scale, commercial uses in a Community Activity Center will have more intense site development. Average square footages of commercial spaces should be greater than those of the Neighborhood Activity Center. • The primary land use in the CAC should be medium scaled commercial retail and service uses • Residential units may also be developed as appropriate when uses are arranged as a central node rather than along a corridor. • Provision of public spaces should be used as an incentive to allow additional residential units or commercial space to be developed as part of the planning approval process. Urban Services Like Neighborhood Activity Centers, Community Activity Centers should be located within or very near to existing developed neighborhoods. This is essential in reducing the need for extensions of sewer, water, and road facilities. The City may consider upgrading utilities in areas designated for Community Activity Centers in order to provide an incentive to develop or redevelop these locations. • Public Transit access should be a major component of the urban services provided for any Community Activity Center. • Community Activity Centers should be connected to a future city-wide greenway system in order to create adequate public recreation space as well as an alternative means to access the development. • A Community Activity Center should be located at an intersection which is made up of designated Collector or Arterial streets, in order to provide automobile access without overwhelming the pedestrian aspects of the development. • In new development or redevelopment projects, utilities should be placed underground and located so as to minimize potential conflicts with trees and other landscaping features. Site Design • Community Activity Centers will be integrated into existing development, and CAC design should be sensitive to the surrounding context. As with similar land use districts defined in this plan, an increased emphasis must be placed on urban design and the creation of a distinctive design style in each area. A formal streetscape will help to define a Community Activity Center as a distinct node of activity serving a group of neighborhoods. The CAC should take on the form of an urban center, with a pedestrian focus and several floors of usable space, both commercial and residential. • Buildings should be developed with minimal street setbacks to increase pedestrian and transit accessibility. • Parking should be located and designed with an emphasis on minimizing pedestrian obstacles to accessing businesses. • Street cuts should be limited as much as possible to reduce


EMPLOYMENT CENTER

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Intent Parks/Open Space areas should provide opportunities for both active and passive recreation activities, as well as be accessible to people throughout the community. This requires a system of parks of various sizes at convenient locations. There should be large community parks accessible on a community scale, as well as smaller neighborhood sized parks that are focused more on serving their immediate surroundings. The intent of this land use category is to maintain and expand the inventory of public/private open spaces and recreational opportunities for the citizens of Bloomington. Land Use The Parks/Open Space land use category encompasses both public and private open spaces and recreational areas. On the public side, it includes all parks and recreational facilities owned and operated by the City of Bloomington. In the private realm, it includes floodways, areas designated in developments as large

Site Design Traditionally, parks and open spaces have not had to struggle with issues of compatibility with surrounding uses. The vast majority of community residents are very accepting of such facilities, and would gladly live in close proximity to a park or other open space. The key in developing such sites is to maximize accessibility by creating them at the proper scale in convenient locations relative to neighborhoods. • Park facilities should be designed to provide a mixture of both passive and active recreation experiences. • Common open space which is set aside as part of new

Dis t ri c t s

Land Use The Public/Semi-Public/Institutional designation encompasses properties controlled by public and private institutions and developed for: 1) schools (including Indiana University), 2) nonprofit facilities, 3) government facilities, and 4) hospitals, medical parks, and assisted care facilities. In order to better address land use impacts that result from institutional uses, the following strategies should be utilized:

PARKS, RECREATIONAL OPEN SPACE

Urban Services While most urban services are not necessary for the use of land as parks or open space, there are several issues that must still be considered. Urban services relating to accessibility of park spaces as well as on-site convenience facilities are important to the development of successful parks. • All Parks/Open Space areas should be made accessible for public use through the provision of sidewalk or greenway facilities. • Parks planning should coordinate closely with existing and future transit routes so that people without access to cars can reach community-scale parks. • Because restroom facilities are typically provided in larger parks, availability of City sewer and water services is important.

Polic y

Intent The intent of the Public/Semi-Public/Institutional area is to provide adequate land to support compatible government, nonprofit and social service land use activities. These uses are distributed community-wide, and special attention should be paid to how these uses interact with adjacent properties, especially residential uses.

Site Design All uses in this category should respect and compliment the existing character of their surrounding land uses. Inparticular, the following site design guidelines should be incorporated into facility development. • Uses in this category should provide measures to mitigate undesirable operational impacts such as light and noise pollution, traffic congestion, and spillover parking. • Assisted care facilities should contain sufficient room for parking expansion and recreational space to ensure the possibility of future conversions to multi-family use.

G r owth

Urban Services The provision of urban services is essential to the development of Employment Center sites. Large conglomerations of corporate headquarters and industrial buildings will need a high level of service from utilities and roadways. Likewise, businesses must have access to new technologies such as fiber optic connections in order to be successful in developing markets. The City must take a proactive role in extending such services to high profile, high priority Employment Center sites as an incentive for recruitment. • The City must continue its policy of including fiber optic conduit with roadway projects, as well as build upon the initial

PUBLIC/SEMI PRIVATE/INSTITUTIONAL

Urban Services No Public, Semi-Public, or Institutional use should be allowed to locate at a site which does not already have adequate public services to support the use. In particular, it is critical that new schools developed by MCCSC as well as new medical and assisted care facilities be easily accessible via all modes of transportation. Additionally, the City should emphasize the construction of greenways and sidewalks to ensure that existing and proposed MCCSC facilities are easily accessed by bicyclists and pedestrians. • In new development or redevelopment projects, utilities should be placed underground and located so as to minimize potential

conservancy easements, and private golf courses. The City of Bloomington Parks Department has a master development plan for its facilities which should be recognized as a guiding force for future Parks/Open Space development. Land use goals for future Parks/ Open Space development include: • Create a large neighborhood or even community-scale park facility in the eastern portion of the Planning jurisdiction. A potential location for such a facility is the northeast corner of Smith Road and Moores Pike. • Increase the size of the existing Southeast Park by requiring land dedication at the northwest corner of the Ramsey Farm (Property located at the southwest corner of Moores Pike and Sare Road). • Link existing and future City Parks with greenway trail facilities through the implementation of the Alternative Transportation & Greenways System Plan. • Expand the acreage of the Twin Lakes Park facility through additional land dedication or conservation easements on the Brown and Ooley properties (north and west of the Park). • In coordination with the City Parks Department, analyze the proximity of park facilities to existing and future residential development. Use this analysis to establish possible Parks Department priorities for future facility revelopment. • Require new subdivisions and land developments to set aside easily accessible and usable common open space. • Increase the amount of preserved land for parks and open space in the southwest portion of the City where there are large portions of greenspace. This may be done by requiring developments to dedicate land or use conservation easements for preservation.

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Land Use Employment Center land uses should focus on corporate headquarters and industrial uses, which will provide a stable employment base for the greater Bloomington community. The concept is similar to the traditional business or industrial park, but with the inclusion of supporting commercial uses and a higher degree of planning for the entire development. The commercial uses integrated within an employment center must be at a scale that serves the employment center but does not generate significant additional business from the community at large. Land use goals for Employment Centers include: • Development phasing must emphasize the creation of the office and industrial base before the commercial areas are developed to serve them. • Employment Centers should be located in close proximity or contain commercial and housing opportunities to minimize the traffic generated by their employee base. • Locations with easy access to State Road 37 should be emphasized in efforts to recruit Employment Center site users. Development of employment center sites shall be consistent with the policies outlined in the State Road 37 Corridor Plan, which is referenced in this document.

Site Design Compatibility for employment centers refers as much to a consistent design theme throughout the center as to its compatibility with surrounding land uses. With the exception of high-intensity, mixed-use sites in and around the downtown area, employment centers will require large tracts of land in order to be usefully developed. Many of the areas designated have not had significant development in their vicinity at this time, so off-site impacts on surrounding uses will be measured over time. A significant focus of these developments must then be internal planning and design. • Recreational trails should be incorporated in order to provide open space as well as an alternative means of travel to work if connected to a city-wide system of trails. • Common space serving the various areas of the development should also be provided to allow employees to eat meals or take a brief break. • Landscaped, boulevard style entrances should be incorporated to provide distinctive entry features and provide site users with a means to identify the development. • Where Employment Center sites have exposure to multiple street frontages, a 360 degree building profile should be utilized. Building architectural themes should be replicated throughout the Employment Center site.

• City Planning Department staff should meet regularly with institutional organizations such as Indiana University, Monroe County Community School Corporation (MCCSC), Monroe County government, and Bloomington Hospital to coordinate future facilities needs in advance of land acquisition/construction. • Non-profit land uses should be located in every sector of the community to provide a balanced distribution of services. • Bloomington Hospital and its ancillary medical district are encouraged to expand without ncroachment into established residential neighborhoods such as McDoel Gardens and Prospect Hill.

A

Intent The Employment Center district should contain a mix of office and industrial uses providing large-scale employment opportunities for the Bloomington community and the surrounding region. Bloomington must continue to stress job creation as the community grows, and the provision of well-planned employment centers will allow Bloomington to keep pace with the new economy. These centers must be carefully designed to provide essential services such as sewer, water, and fiber optic connections to the internet, as well as aesthetic amenities like landscaping and bicycle/walking paths. These elements will work together to create high quality development sites where large-scale employers may locate their facilities and offices.

fiber optic ring that has been installed in the community. • Utilities must be judiciously extended to important employment sites to remove a portion of the cost barrier to the development of new Employment Centers. • Employment Center developments must not have an undue impact on existing local roadway networks, and should also have carefully planned internal roadway systems to create efficient flows of traffic. • Coordination with Public Transit as well as providing support for bicyclists and pedestrians will create a wider employee base as well as reduce the traffic impacts of an Employment Center. • In new development or redevelopment projects, utilities should be placed underground and located so as to minimize potential

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interruptions of the streetscape. • Incentives should be created to encourage the inclusion of second-story residential units in the development of Community Activity Centers. • In order to buffer pedestrians on busy corridors as well as reduce off-street parking needs, on-street parking and tree plots should be encouraged in new developments and maintained on built roadways.

A


AP P EN DIX B | Zoning Dis tr ic ts B

development should be easily accessible to pedestrians and bicyclists, should feature both passive and active amenities, and should be centrally located within development areas. • During the development review process, floodways and other environmentally constrained areas should be placed in conservancy easements in order to protect these environmentallysensitive features.

Commercial downtown (CD)—District intent. The CD (commercial downtown) district is intended to be used as follows: Protect and enhance the central business district, which contains many unique and historic structures. Promote high density development of mixed uses with storefront retail, professional office, and residential dwelling uses. Promote a diversity of residential housing for all income groups and ages. Development should incorporate pedestrian-oriented design (scale and massing) and accommodate alternative means of transportation. Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: The downtown is targeted for intensified usage of vacant and under utilized buildings and sites. Space on the first floor of downtown buildings should be commercial with residential uses on the second floor and above. Encourage proposals that further the growth policies plan goal of sustainable development design featuring conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and resource consumption. 20.02.380 - Commercial downtown (CD)—Permitted uses: Amusements, indoor, Antique sales, Apparel and shoe sales, Art gallery, Artist studio, Arts/crafts/hobby store, Assisted living facility, Bank/credit union, Bar/dance club, Barber/beauty shop, Bed and breakfast, Bicycle sales/repair, Billiard/arcade room, Bookstore, Brewpub, Business/professional office, Cellular phone/ pager services, Coin laundry, Community center, Computer sales, Convenience store (with gas or alternative fuels)*, Convenience store (without gas), Copy center, Day-care center, adult, Day-care center, child, Department store Drugstore, Dry-cleaning service, Dwelling, multifamily*, Dwelling, single-family (detached)*, Equipment/party/event rental (indoor), Fitness center/gym, Fitness/training studio, Florist, Furniture store, Garden shop, Gift shop/boutique, Government office, Government operations (non-office), Grocery/supermarket, Group care home for developmentally disabled*, Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, Hardware store, Health spa, Home electronics/appliance sales, Hotel/motel, Jewelry shop, Library, License branch, Liquor/tobacco sales, Lodge, Medical care clinic, immediate, Medical clinic, Museum, Music/media sales, Musical instrument sales, Office supply sales, Park, Parking garage/structure, Pawn shop, Pet grooming, Pet store, Photographic studio, Place of worship, Police, fire or rescue station, Post office, Radio/TV station, Recreation center, Research center*, Restaurant, Restaurant, limited service, Retail, low intensity, School, preschool, School, primary/secondary, School, trade or business, Shoe repair, Social service, Sporting goods sales, Tailor/seamstress shop, Tanning salon, Tattoo/piercing parlor, Theater, indoor, Transportation terminal, Utility substation

and transmission facility*, Veterinarian clinic, Video rental Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. 20.02.390 - Commercial downtown (CD)—Conditional uses. Communication facility*, Historic adaptive reuse* Homeless shelter, Jail*, Juvenile detention facility*, Light manufacturing, Rehabilitation clinic Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. 20.02.400 - Commercial downtown (CD)—Development standards. Cross reference: See Chapter 20.03, Overlay Districts for development standards applicable to the site’s specific downtown design overlay. Maximum structure height: Primary structure: See Chapter 20.03, Downtown Design Overlays. Accessory structure: 25 feet.

Commercial arterial (CA)—District intent. The CA (commercial arterial) district is intended to be used as follows: Identify locations for higher intensity commercial developments along major thoroughfares. Ensure that new developments and redevelopment opportunities incorporate a balanced mix of retail, office and multifamily residential uses. Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: Site plan design of retail centers should ensure access to all modes of transportation. Redevelopment and expansion of commercial uses should incorporate improvements to access management, signage, and landscaping. Encourage proposals that further the growth policies plan goal of sustainable development design featuring conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and resource consumption. 20.02.340 - Commercial arterial (CA)—Permitted uses: Amusements, indoor, Antique sales, Apparel and shoe sales, Art gallery, Atist studio, Arts/crafts/hobby store, Assisted living facility, Auto body shop*, Auto parts sales, Bank/credit union, Banquet hall, Bar/dance club, Barber/beauty shop, Bed and breakfast, Bicycle sales/repair, Billiard/arcade room, Boat sales, Bookstore, Bowling alley, Brewpub, Building supply store, Building trade shop, Business/professional office, Car wash*, Cellular phone/pager services, Check cashing, Coin laundry, Community center, Computer sales, Convenience store (with gas or alternative fuels), Convenience store (without gas), Copy center, Country club, Day-care center, adult, Day-care center, child, Department store, Drive-through, Drugstore, Dry-cleaning service, Dwelling, single-family (detached)*, Dwelling, upper floor units, Equipment/party/event rental, indoor, Equipment rental, outdoor, Fitness center/gym, Fitness/training studio, Florist, Furniture store, Garden shop, Gas station, Gift shop/boutique, Golf driving range, outdoor, Government office, Government operations (non-office), Grocery/supermarket, Group care home

for developmentally disabled*, Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, Hardware store, Health spa, Home electronics/appliance sales, Hotel/motel, Jewelry shop, Library, License branch, Liquor/tobacco sales, Lodge, Medical care clinic, immediate, Medical clinic, Miniature golf, Mini-warehouse facility, Mortuary, Museum, Music/media sales, Musical instrument sales, Nursing/convalescent home, Office supply sales, Oil change facility, Park, Parking garage/structure, Pawn shop, Pet grooming, Pet store, Photographic studio, Place of worship, Plant nursery/greenhouse, Police, fire or rescue station, Radio/TV station, Recreation center, Research center, Restaurant, Restaurant, limited service, Retail, low-intensity, Retail, outdoor, Rooming house, School, preschool, School, primary/secondary, School, trade or business, Sexually oriented business, Shoe repair, Skating rink, Social service, Sporting goods sales, Tailor/seamstress shop, Tanning salon, Tattoo/piercing parlor, Theater, indoor, Transportation terminal, Utility substation and transmission facility*, Vehicle accessory installation, Vehicle repair*, Vehicle sales/rental, Veterinarian clinic, Video rental Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. 20.02.350 - Commercial arterial (CA)—Conditional uses. Amusements, outdoor, Communication facility*, Crematory, Historic adaptive reuse*, Homeless shelter, Impound vehicle storage, Kennel*, Manufactured home sales, Rehabilitation clinic, Theater, drive-in Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. 20.02.360 - Commercial arterial (CA)—Development standards. Minimum lot area for subdivision: 32,670 square feet. Minimum lot width: 130 feet. Minimum front building setback: 15 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan; or the average of the front setbacks of the existing primary structures on the same block face, whichever is less. Minimum side building setback: 7 feet. Minimum rear building setback: 7 feet. Maximum impervious surface coverage: 60% of the lot area. Maximum density: 15 units/acre (2,904 square feet per dwelling unit). Dwelling unit equivalents: Five-bedroom unit = 2 units; Four-bedroom unit = 1.5 units; Threebedroom unit = 1.0 unit; Two-bedroom unit with less than 950 square feet = 0.66 of a unit; One-bedroom unit with less than 700 square feet = 0.25 of a unit; Efficiency or studio unit with less than 550 square feet = 0.20 of a unit. Minimum parking setback: Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front building wall. For through lots, this required setback shall only be located on the street with the highest thoroughfare plan classification. Side: 7 feet adjacent to nonresidential zoning districts; 15 feet adjacent to residential zoning districts. Rear: 7 feet adjacent to nonresidential zoning districts; 15 feet adjacent to residential zoning districts.

Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 50 feet. Accessory structure: 30 feet

Commercial general (CG)—District intent. The CG (commercial general) district is intended to be used as follows: Provide areas within the city where medium scale commercial services can be located without creating detrimental impacts to surrounding uses. Promote the development of medium-scaled urban projects with a mix of storefront retail, professional office, and/or residential dwelling units creating a synergy between uses where stand-alone uses have traditionally dominated. Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: Site plan design should incorporate residential and commercial uses utilizing shared parking in order to ease the transition to residential districts. Street cuts should be minimized in order to enhance streetscape and improve access management. Encourage proposals that further the growth policies plan goal of sustainable development design featuring conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and resource consumption. 20.02.300 - Commercial general (CG)—Permitted uses: Amusements, indoor, Antique sales, Apparel and shoe sales, Art gallery, Artist studio, Arts/crafts/hobby store, Assisted living facility, Auto parts sales, Bank/credit union, Banquet hall, Bar/ dance club, Barber/beauty shop, Bed and breakfast, Bicycle sales/ repair, Billiard/arcade room, Bookstore, Bowling alley, Brewpub*, Business/professional office, Car wash*, Cellular phone/pager services, Coin laundry, Community center, Computer sales, Convenience store (with gas or alternative fuels)*, Convenience store (without gas), Copy center, Day-care center, adult, Day-care center, child, Drive-through*, Drugstore, Dry-cleaning service, Dwelling, single-family (detached)*, Dwelling, upper floor units, Equipment/party/event rental (indoor), Fitness center/gym, Fitness/training studio, Florist, Furniture store, Garden shop, Gas station*, Gift shop/boutique, Government office, Government operations (non-office), Grocery/supermarket, Group care home for developmentally disabled*, Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, Hardware store, Health spa, Home electronics/appliance sales, Jewelry shop, Library, License branch, Liquor/tobacco sales, Lodge, Medical care clinic, immediate, Medical clinic, Mortuary, Museum, Music/media sales, Musical instrument sales, Nursing/convalescent home, Office supply sales, Oil change facility, Park, Parking garage/ structure, Pawn shop, Pet grooming, Pet store, Photographic studio, Place of worship, Plant nursery/greenhouse, Police, fire or rescue station, Recreation center, Restaurant, Restaurant, limited service, Retail, low intensity, Rooming house, School, preschool, School, primary/secondary, School, trade or business, Shoe repair, Skating rink, Social service, Sporting goods sales, Tailor/seamstress shop, Tanning salon, Tattoo/piercing parlor, Transportation terminal, Utility substation and transmission facility*, Vehicle accessory installation, Veterinarian clinic, Video rental Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05,


20.02.310 - Commercial general (CG)—Conditional uses. Historic adaptive reuse*, Homeless shelter, Rehabilitation clinic Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. 20.02.320 - Commercial general (CG)—Development standards. Minimum lot area for subdivision: 21,780 square feet.

The CL (commercial limited) district is intended to be used as follows: Provide small scale retail goods and services required for regular or daily convenience of adjacent residential neighborhoods. Create an environment of well-planned, visually appealing commercial developments that are quiet and well buffered from adjacent residential areas. Preserve existing neighborhood serving commercial uses with context sensitive regulations where other more intensive or permissive commercial zoning districts (e.g., CG, CA, CD) are not appropriate or desired. Promote the development of small scale, mixed use urban villages with storefront retail, professional office, and residential dwelling uses. Development should incorporate pedestrian oriented design (scale and massing) and accommodate alternative means of transportation. Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: Commercial and office uses should be at a scale that serves the immediate neighborhood. Residential uses should be limited to multifamily development on floors above the street level commercial uses. Pedestrian scale lighting, building forward design, transit accessibility, and reduced parking should be incorporated into the site plan design. Encourage proposals that further the growth policies plan goal of sustainable development design featuring conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and resource consumption.

20.02.280 - Commercial limited (CL)—Development standards. Minimum lot area for subdivision: 5,000 square feet.

Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards.

Maximum density: 15 units/acre (2,904 square feet per dwelling unit). Dwelling unit equivalents: Five-bedroom unit = 2 units; Four-bedroom unit = 1.5 units; Three-bedroom unit = 1.0 unit; Two-bedroom unit with less than 950 square feet = 0.66 of a unit; One-bedroom unit with less than 700 square feet = 0.25 of a unit; Efficiency or studio unit with less than 550 square feet = 0.20 of a unit. Minimum lot width: 50 feet. Minimum front building setback: 15 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan; or the average of the front setbacks of the existing primary structures on the same block face, whichever is less. Minimum side building setback: 7 feet. Minimum rear building setback: 10 feet. Maximum impervious surface coverage: 50% of the lot area.

20.02.430 - Industrial general (IG)—Conditional uses. Amusements, outdoor, Crematory, Food production/processing, Gravel/sand/cement production, Heavy manufacturing, Historic adaptive reuse*, Juvenile detention facility*, Kennel*, Salvage/ scrap yard

Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. 20.02.270 - Commercial limited (CL)—Conditional uses. Billiard/arcade room, Historic adaptive reuse*, Library, Museum. Place of worship, Police, fire or rescue station, Recreation center, School, preschool, School, primary/secondary, Veterinarian clinic

Minimum parking setback: Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front building wall. Side: 7 feet. Rear: 7 feet. Maximum area of any individual commercial tenant: 5,000 square feet gross floor area. Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 40 feet. Accessory structure: 20 feet.

Industrial general (IG)—District intent.

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. 20.02.440 - Industrial general (IG)—Development standards. Minimum lot area: 21,780 square feet. Minimum lot width: 100 feet. Minimum front building setback: 25 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan. Minimum side building setback: 20 feet. Minimum rear building setback: 20 feet. Maximum impervious surface coverage: 70% of the lot area. Minimum parking setback: Front: 25 feet from the proposed right-of-way or ingress/egress easement. Side: 10 feet. Rear: 10 feet. Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 60 feet. Accessory structure: 35 feet.

Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: Ensure that institutional uses are adequately distributed throughout the community to prevent segments from being under served. Institutional uses should be located in areas that contain adequate public services. In particular, educational uses must be accessible via all modes of transportation. Encourage proposals that further the growth policies plan goal of sustainable development design featuring conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and resource consumption. 20.02.500 - Institutional (IN)—Permitted uses: Cemetery/ mausoleum, Communication facility, Community center, Fraternity house/sorority house, Golf course, Government office, Government operations (non-office), Group care home for developmentally disabled*, Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, Library, License branch, Museum, Outdoor Storage*, Park, Parking structure, Place of worship, Police, fire or rescue station, Post office, Recreation center, School, preschool, School, primary/secondary, School, trade or business, Transportation terminal, University or college, Utility substation and transmission facility* Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards.

Dis tr ic ts

Commercial limited (CL)—District intent.

Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards.

20.02.420 - Industrial general (IG)—Permitted uses: Auto body shop, Beverage bottling, Bottled gas storage/distribution, Building trade shop, Business/professional office, Communication facility, Convenience store (with gas or alternative fuels)*, Distribution facility, Equipment rental, outdoor, Gas station*, Government operations (non-office), Heavy equipment sales/rental, Impound vehicle storage*, Light manufacturing, Manufactured home sales, Outdoor storage*, Police, fire or rescue station. Print shop, Radio/TV station, Research center, School, trade or business, Sexually oriented business, Testing lab, Tool and die shop, Utility substation and transmission facility*, Warehouse, Welding

The IN (institutional) district is intended to be used as follows: Provide regulations for properties owned by state, county, city, and quasi-public institutions; including but not limited to parks, schools, cemeteries, golf courses, and other facilities.

20.02.510 - Institutional (IN)—Conditional uses. Crematory, Day-care center, adult*, Day-care center, child*, Historic adaptive reuse*, Homeless shelter jail*, Jail*, Juvenile detention facility*, Prison*, Rehabilitation clinic Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards.

Zoning

Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 50 feet. Accessory structure: 30 feet.

Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: Provide for appropriate lot sizes, setbacks, buffering, and loading/storage area designs to ensure compatibility between industrial uses and surrounding properties. New industrial land uses should have adequate access to arterial level streets and should avoid locations adjoining residentially zoned properties. Encourage proposals that further the growth policies plan goal of sustainable development design featuring conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and resource consumption.

Institutional (IN)—District intent.

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Minimum parking setback: Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front building wall. For through lots, this required setback shall only be located on the street with the highest thoroughfare plan classification. Side: 7 feet adjacent to nonresidential zoning districts; 15 feet adjacent to residential zoning districts. Rear: 7 feet adjacent to nonresidential zoning districts; 15 feet adjacent to residential zoning districts.

The IG (industrial general) district is intended to be used as follows: Accommodate existing and future industrial uses that provide basic employment needs for Bloomington and the surrounding region. Ensure that industrial uses mitigate the potential negative impacts to surrounding properties in terms of noise, vibration, outdoor storage, and harmful air or water quality.

B

Maximum density: 15 units/acre (2,904 square feet per dwelling unit). Dwelling unit equivalents: Five-bedroom unit = 2 units; Four-bedroom unit = 1.5 units; Three-bedroom unit = 1.0 unit; Two-bedroom unit with less than 950 square feet = 0.66 of a unit; One-bedroom unit with less than 700 square feet = 0.25 of a unit; Efficiency or studio unit with less than 550 square feet = 0.20 of a unit. Minimum lot width: 85 feet. Maximum impervious surface coverage: 60% of the lot area.

20.02.260 - Commercial limited (CL)—Permitted uses: Antique sales, Apparel and shoe sales, Art gallery, Artist studio, Arts/crafts/ hobby store, Barber/beauty shop, Bed and breakfast, Bicycle sales/repair, Bookstore, Brewpub*, Business/professional office, Coin laundry, Community center, Computer sales, Convenience store (without gas), Copy center, Day care center, adult, Day care center, child, Drugstore, Dry-cleaning service, Dwelling, singlefamily (detached)*, Dwelling, upper floor units, Fitness/training studio, Florist, Garden shop, Gift shop/boutique, Government office, Grocery/supermarket, Group care home for developmentally disabled*, Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, Hardware store, Health spa, Jewelry shop, Medical clinic, Music/media sales, Musical instrument sales, Park, Pet grooming, Pet store, Photographic studio, Restaurant, Restaurant, limited service, Retail, low-intensity, Shoe repair, Social service, Sporting goods sales, Tailor/seamstress shop, Tanning salon, Utility substation and transmission facility*, Video rental

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SC: Special Conditions Standards.

20.02.520 - Institutional (IN)—Development standards. Minimum lot area: 21,780 square feet. Minimum lot width: 50 feet. Minimum front building setback: 15 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan. Minimum side building setback: 10 feet. Minimum rear building setback: 10 feet. Maximum impervious surface coverage: 60% of the lot area. Minimum parking setback: Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front building wall. Side: 10 feet. Rear: 10 feet. Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 50 feet. Accessory structure: 30 feet.

Planned Unit Development (PUD)—District intent. The purpose of the planned unit development (PUD) is to encourage flexibility in the development of land in order to promote its most

B


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appropriate use; to improve the design, character and quality of new developments; to encourage a harmonious and appropriate mixture of uses; to facilitate the adequate and economic provision of streets, utilities, and city services; to preserve the natural, environmental and scenic features of the site; to encourage and provide a mechanism for arranging improvements on sites so as to preserve desirable features; and to mitigate the problems which may be presented by specific site conditions. It is anticipated that planned unit developments will offer one or more of the following advantages:

B | Zoning Dis tr ic ts

(a) Implement the guiding principles and land use policies of the growth policies plan; specifically reflect the policies of the growth policies plan specific to the neighborhood in which the planned unit development is to be located; (b) Buffer land uses proposed for the PUD so as to minimize any adverse impact which new development may have on surrounding properties; additionally proved buffers and transitions of density within the PUD itself to distinguish between different land use areas; (c) Enhance the appearance of neighborhoods by conserving areas of natural beauty, and natural green spaces; (d) Counteract urban monotony and congestion on streets; (e) Promote architecture that is compatible with the surroundings; (f) Promote and protect the environmental integrity of the site and its surroundings and provide suitable design responses to the specific environmental constraints of the site and surrounding area; and (g) Provide a public benefit that would not occur without deviation from the standards of the Unified Development Ordinance. 20.04.020 - Planned Unit Development (PUD)—Permitted Uses: The permitted uses in a PUD district ordinance are subject to the discretion and approval of the plan commission and common council. The permitted uses shall be determined in consideration of the growth policies plan, the existing zoning district designation of the area being rezoned to a planned unit development, the land uses contiguous to the area being rezoned to a planned unit development, and the development standards and design standards of the Unified Development Ordinance. 20.04.020 - Planned Unit Development (PUD)—Development Standards: The development standards in a PUD district ordinance are subject to the discretion and approval of the plan commission and common council. The development standards shall be determined in consideration of the growth policies plan, the existing zoning district designation of the area being rezoned to a planned unit development, and the development and design standards of the Unified Development Ordinance. 20.04.030 - Planned Unit Development (PUD)—Qualifying Standards: The area designated in the PUD map must be a tract of land under single ownership or control. Single control of property under multiple ownership may be accomplished through the use of enforceable covenants or commitments that run to the benefit

B

of the zoning jurisdiction. The minimum gross area required for a planned unit development is five acres. The minimum gross area may be waived by the plan commission if it is demonstrated that granting such waiver is consistent with the district intent as specified in Section 20.04.010, District intent. A planned unit development may be established in any district except for the commercial downtown (CD) zoning district. 20.04.040 - Planned Unit Development (PUD)—General Standards: Any qualifying parcel may be rezoned to a planned unit development zoning district after compliance with this chapter, plan commission review, and common council approval. The requirements of Chapters 20.05, Development Standards and 20.07, Design Standards of the Unified Development Ordinance shall apply to planned unit developments unless alternate standards are deemed appropriate by the plan commission and common council. Any lessening of the required standards of the Unified Development Ordinance shall be directly linked to the intent of planned unit developments, specified in Section 20.04.010, District intent, as determined by the plan commission and common council. The PUD district ordinance shall indicate the land uses, development requirements, and other applicable specifications that shall govern the planned unit development. If the PUD district ordinance is silent on a particular land use, development requirement, or other specification, the standard of the zoning district specified in the PUD district ordinance or the applicable regulations shall apply. The development requirements that apply to the specified zoning district shall apply to the planned unit development zoning district unless the PUD district ordinance specifies an alternate standard. The PUD district ordinance may set land use, development requirement, or other specifications for aspects of the development on which the Unified Development Ordinance is otherwise silent, but may specify alternatives only to the standards of the provisions listed below, and may not specify alternatives to any requirement of this UDO that is not listed below: (1) Chapter 20.02, Zoning Districts; and (2) Chapter 20.05, Development Standards. The preliminary plan shall show the conceptual location of all proposed improvements.

Medical (MD)—District intent. The MD (medical) district is intended to be used as follows: Provide for the location and regulation of hospital uses and associated medical facilities. Ensure that medical land uses do not negatively impact adjoining residential land uses through control of lighting, noise, traffic congestion, and spill-over parking. Encourage the continuation of Bloomington Hospital’s medical care and related services to the entire community, regardless of ability to pay, by ensuring that Bloomington Hospital meets its long-term space utilization needs. Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: Bloomington Hospital is encouraged to expand without encroachment into established neighborhoods such as McDoel Gardens and Prospect Hill. Proposals for new or expanded medical facilities should be scrutinized in recognition of community interest, public heath needs, and impacts on Bloomington Hospital so long as

Bloomington Hospital continues to provide its current level of community service. Encourage proposals that further the growth policies plan goal of sustainable development design featuring conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and resource consumption. 20.02.540 - Medical (MD)—Permitted uses: Day-care center, adult, Dwelling, single-family (detached), Dwelling, upper floor units, Fitness center/gym*, Fitness/training studio*, Group care home for developmentally disabled*, Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, Medical care clinic, immediate, Medical clinic, Nursing/convalescent home, Police, fire or rescue station, Testing lab*, Utility substation and transmission facility* Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. 20.02.550 - Medical (MD)—Conditional uses. Ambulatory surgical care, Communication facility*, Day-care center, child*, Drugstore, Florist, Gift shop/boutique, Historic adaptive reuse*, Homeless shelter, Hospital, Outpatient care facility, Parking garage/structure, Place of worship, Rehabilitation clinic, Research center Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. 20.02.560 - Medical (MD)—Development standards. Minimum lot area: 10,890 square feet. Minimum lot width: 65 feet. Minimum front building setback: 25 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan. Minimum side building setback: 10 feet, plus an additional 4 feet for every story over two (2) stories if abutting a residential zoning district. Minimum rear building setback: 10 feet, plus an additional 4 feet for every story over two (2) stories if abutting a residential zoning district. Maximum impervious surface coverage: 60% of the lot area. Maximum density: 15 units/acre (2,904 square feet per dwelling unit). Dwelling unit equivalents: Five-bedroom unit = 2 units; Four-bedroom unit = 1.5 units; Threebedroom unit = 1.0 unit; Two-bedroom unit with less than 950 square feet = 0.66 of a unit; One-bedroom unit with less than 700 square feet = 0.25 of a unit; Efficiency or studio unit with less than 550 square feet = 0.20 of a unit. Minimum parking setback: Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front building wall. Side: 10 feet. Rear: 10 feet. Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 80 feet. Accessory structure: 25 feet.

Residential single-family (RS)—District intent. The RS (residential single-family) district is intended to be used as follows: Provide for the development of single-family

neighborhoods while ensuring compatibility with existing patterns of development. Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: On vacant tracts, develop sites for predominantly single-family residential uses; however, consider mixed residential densities, varied housing types, and nonresidential services where supported by adjacent land use patterns. Ensure new developments contain a high level of street connectivity and are supported by adequate public services. 20.02.060 - Residential single-family (RS)—Permitted uses: Accessory chicken flocks*, Community garden*, Dwelling, singlefamily (attached)*, Dwelling, single-family (detached), Group care home for developmentally disabled*, Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, Park, Urban architecture, Utility substation and transmission facility* Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. 20.02.070 - Residential single-family (RS)—Conditional uses. Bed and breakfast*, Community center, Historic adaptive reuse*, Museum, Place of worship, Police, fire or rescue station, Recreation center, School, preschool, School, primary/secondary Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. 20.02.080 - Residential single-family (RS)—Development standards. Minimum lot area for subdivision: 8,400 square feet. Minimum lot width: 60 feet. Minimum front building setback: 15 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan; or the block face average setback of the existing primary structures on the same block face, whichever is more. Attached frontloading garage or carport, 25 feet from the proposed right-ofway indicated on the thoroughfare plan. Minimum side building setback: 8 feet, plus 4 feet for each story above the ground floor. Lots of record that are less than 60 feet in width may reduce the required setback up to 2 feet. Additions to existing structures may utilize the existing side setbacks, provided that the gross floor area of the existing structure is not increased by more than 50%. In no case shall the setback be less than 4 feet. Minimum rear building setback: 25 feet. Additions to existing structures may utilize the existing rear setback, provided that the gross floor area of the existing structure is not increased by more than 50%. In no case shall the setback be less than 10 feet. Maximum impervious surface coverage: 40% of the lot area Maximum number of primary structures: One (1). Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 40 feet. Accessory structure: 20 feet.

Residential multifamily (RM)—District intent. The RM (residential multifamily) district is intended to be used as follows: Allow medium density residential development to ensure an adequate mix of housing types throughout the community.


Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: Discourage the location of student-oriented housing distant from the main Indiana University Bloomington Campus. Restrict the location of new multifamily development to areas serviced by public transportation. Encourage proposals that further the growth policies plan goal of sustainable development design featuring conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and resource consumption.

20.02.160 - Residential multifamily (RM)—Development standards. Minimum lot area for subdivision: 21,780 square feet. Minimum lot width: 85 feet. Minimum front building setback: 15 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan; or the block face average setback of the existing primary structures on the same block face, whichever is more. Minimum side building setback: 15 feet. Minimum rear building setback: 15 feet. Maximum impervious surface coverage: 40% of the lot area. Maximum density: 7 units/acre (6,223 square feet per dwelling unit). 21 units/acre (2,074 square feet per dwelling unit) for the total net acreage (gross acreage minus acres set aside due to environmental constraints) provided that the maximum gross density does not exceed 7 units per acre (6,223 square feet per dwelling unit) over the entire development. Dwelling unit equivalents: Five-bedroom unit = 2 units; Four-bedroom unit = 1.5 units; Threebedroom unit = 1.0 unit; Two-bedroom unit with less than 950 square feet = 0.66 of a unit; One-bedroom unit with less than 700 square feet = 0.25 of a unit; Efficiency or studio unit with less than 550 square feet = 0.20 of a unit. Minimum parking setback:

20.02.180 - Residential high-density multifamily (RH)— Permitted uses: Assisted living facility, Bed and breakfast, Community center*, Community garden*, Dwelling, multifamily, Dwelling, single-family (attached), Dwelling, single-family (detached)*, Group care home for developmentally disabled*, Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, Nursing/convalescent home, Park, Rooming house*, Urban architecture, Utility substation and transmission facility* Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. 20.02.190 - Residential high-density multifamily (RH)— Conditional uses. Day-care center, adult*, Day-care center, child*, Historic adaptive reuse*, Library, Museum, Place of worship, Police, fire or rescue station, Recreation center, Rehabilitation clinic, Restaurant, limited service*, Retail, low intensity*, School, preschool, School, primary/secondary Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. 20.02.200 - Residential high-density multifamily (RH)— Development standards. Minimum lot area for subdivision: 21,780 square feet. Minimum lot width: 85 feet. Minimum front building setback: 15 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan; or the block face average setback of the existing primary structures on the same block face, whichever is more. Minimum side building setback: 15 feet. Minimum rear building setback: 15 feet. Maximum impervious surface coverage: 50% of the lot area. Maximum density: 15 units/acre (2,904 square feet per dwelling unit). 30 units/acre (1,452 square feet per dwelling unit) for the

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Minimum parking setback: Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front building wall. Side: 10 feet. Rear: 10 feet. Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 50 feet. Accessory structure: 20 feet.

Residential core (RC)—District intent. The RC (residential core) district is intended to be used as follows: Protect and enhance the core residential areas with emphasis on discouraging the conversion of dwellings to multifamily or commercial uses. Increase the viability of owner-occupied and affordable dwelling units through the use of small-lot subdivisions, accessory dwelling units, and compatible property improvements. Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: Explore multifamily redevelopment opportunities along designated arterial streets, in transition areas between the downtown and existing single-family residential areas, and when supported by adjoining land use patterns. Neighborhood-serving commercial and office uses may be appropriate at the edge of core residential areas that front arterial streets. 20.02.100 - Residential core (RC)—Permitted uses: Artist studio*, Community garden*, Dwelling, single-family (detached), Group care home for developmentally disabled*, Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, Park, Urban architecture, Utility substation and transmission facility*

Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 35 feet. Accessory structure: 20 feet.

Dis tr ic ts

Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards.

intent. The RH (high density multifamily) district is intended to be used as follows: Allow high-density residential development to ensure an adequate mix of housing types throughout the community. Continue the viability of existing high-density residential developments surrounding Indiana University and the downtown. Plan commission/board of zoning appeals guidance: Discourage the location of student oriented housing distant from the main Indiana University Bloomington Campus. Restrict the location of new multifamily development to areas serviced by public transportation. Encourage proposals that further the growth policies plan goal of sustainable development design featuring conservation of open space, mixed uses, pervious pavement surfaces, and reductions in energy and resource consumption.

Zoning

20.02.150 - Residential multifamily (RM)—Conditional uses. Bed and breakfast*, Day-care center, adult*, Day-care center, child*, Historic adaptive reuse*, Library, Museum, Place of worship, Police, fire or rescue station, Restaurant, limited service*, Retail, low intensity*, School, preschool, School, primary/secondary

Residential high-density multifamily (RH)—District

existing primary structures on the same block face, whichever is less. Additions to existing structures may utilize the existing front setback. Attached front-loading garage or carport, 25 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan. Minimum side building setback: 6 feet, plus 4 feet for each story above the ground floor. Minimum rear building setback: 25 feet. Additions to existing structures may utilize the existing rear setback, provided that the gross floor area of the existing structure is not increased by more than 40%. In no case shall the setback be less than 10 feet. Maximum impervious surface coverage: 45% of the lot area.

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Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards.

Maximum structure height: Primary structure: 40 feet. Accessory structure: 20 feet.

total net acreage (gross acreage minus acres set aside due to environmental constraints) provided that the maximum gross density does not exceed 15 units per acre (2,904 square feet per dwelling unit) over the entire development. Dwelling unit equivalents: Five-bedroom unit = 2 units; Four-bedroom unit = 1.5 units; Threebedroom unit = 1.0 unit; Two-bedroom unit with less than 950 square feet = 0.66 of a unit; One-bedroom unit with less than 700 square feet = 0.25 of a unit; Efficiency or studio unit with less than 550 square feet = 0.20 of a unit.

B

20.02.140 - Residential multifamily (RM)—Permitted uses: Artist studio, Community center*, Community garden*, Dwelling, multifamily, Dwelling, single-family (attached), Dwelling, singlefamily (detached)*, Group care home for developmentally disabled*, Group care home for mentally ill*, Group/residential care home*, Park, Recreation center*, Rooming house*, Urban architecture, Utility substation and transmission facility*

Front: 20 feet behind primary structure’s front building wall. Side: 7 feet. Rear: 7 feet.

AP P EN DIX

Facilitate compact development patterns in locations where there are high levels of public infrastructure capacity.

Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, SC: Special Conditions Standards. 20.02.110 - Residential core (RC)—Conditional uses. Bed and breakfast*, Community center, Historic adaptive reuse*, Museum, Place of worship, Police, fire or rescue station, Recreation center*, School, preschool, School, primary/secondary Editor’s note— * Additional requirements refer to Chapter 20.05, CU: Conditional Use Standards. 20.02.120 - Residential core (RC)—Development standards. Minimum lot area for subdivision: 7,200 square feet. Minimum lot width: 55 feet. Build-to line: 15 feet from the proposed right-of-way indicated on the thoroughfare plan; or the block face average setback of the

B


AP P EN DIX C | Env ir onmen t al St ud i e s C

2001-2003 Phase I ESA’s A Phase I ESA was conducted by BCA (BCA 2001, BCA 2003a, BCA 2003b, BCA 2003c) on the CSX Railroad Corridor, McDoel Yard, former Indiana Creosoting and related adjoining sites in Bloomington in 2001-2003. Within the area of the switchyard, the following areas of environmental concern were identified: 1. Some areas of the railroad ballast had visible CA&C base. 2. Minor oil staining was present on the ties and rail ballast throughout the length of the rail line. 3. A 150,000 gallon AST containing fuel oil was documented on the switchyard property. Although no known releases were found, the tank was apparently situated within earthen containment, and complete records of its use and decommissioning are unavailable. Release from the tank and the associated piping would have directly impacted soil and possibly groundwater. In addition, former employees reported that routine small releases occurred. 4. Releases in the form of oils, solvents, and fuels are possible from the turntable, roundhouse, machine shops, and outbuildings associated with the roundhouse. Because of the long history or railroad use and locomotive maintenance, the report states that it is likely that at least some residual soil and/or groundwater contamination remains. 5. A potential exists for at least small releases of contaminants to the soil and/or groundwater from open dumping and burning as well as chemical dumping. 6. Coal, ash, and cinders were present in the McDoel Yard. Coal combustion byproducts often have high levels of metals and PAHs. The leachability of these contaminants is usually low. 7. Electrical transformers were found on the switchyard property and appeared to be old. These transformers likely belonged to the local power company. Potential for impact from adjoining sites, including: • Creosoting plant site adjoining to the southeast • K&W Products, 227-241 W Grimes Lane – It is likely that contamination exists on the switchyard property near this site. Contamination was found on this site, and evidence indicated that the source was the rail yard according to the owner’s consultant. The nature of the contamination is unknown. • IU Bus Garage, 120 W Grimes – Potential exists for contamination from waste oil handled on this site which adjoins the switchyard • South Walnut Street Businesses – There is limited potential that contamination from these sites would impact the switchyard. Extent of contamination from these sites, if any, is unknown. • Clear Creek – This adjoins the switchyard to the east. Records were found indicating numerous releases have occurred and may impact the switchyard, and Monroe County Health Department records indicate that Clear Creek has received PCB contamination.

2003 Phase II ESA A Phase II ESA (BCA 2003d) was conducted by BCA dated November 25, 2003 to confirm the presence or absence of the Recognized Environmental Conditions (REC’s) identified in the Phase I ESA throughout the Corridor and McDoel yard. The following environmental conditions were investigated as a part of this report: Fuel oil AST – Switchyard A 150,000 gallon above ground fuel oil tank (AST) was located in the switchyard from at least 1915 until 1973. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) were detected in soil and groundwater samples around the AST area. Since the completion of the Phase II, IDEM rules have changed. TPH is no longer a chemical of concern according to current IDEM guidance. In addition, no benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and zylenes (BTEX) was found in any of the groundwater samples; therefore, the sample results in the area of the fuel oil AST are not a concern. The absence of significant BTEX or PAHs in the groundwater suggests that the diesel has degraded over time and the residual has relatively low toxicity. Roundhouse, turntable, oil house, maintenance buildings – Switchyard The results of the investigation in this area indicate that the only concern is related to coal, ash, and cinders. No other chemicals of concern were identified exceeding closure levels. Yard office fueling area and floor tile – Switchyard The results of the investigation in this area indicate that no chemicals of concern were identified exceeding closure levels related to petroleum. Floor tiles in the building were tested and found to contain asbestos. It was recommended that an Asbestos Maintenance Plan be prepared for the yard office or the floor tile be removed from the facility. K&W Products, 227-241 W Grimes The site was a manufacturer of chemicals for the automobile industry for many years and stored chemicals in underground tanks. No field evidence of contamination was observed in two probes on the CSX property adjacent to the site. No VOCs, diesel or gasoline range TPH was detected in samples from this location. MJ Dallas, 1710 S Walnut The site has been a car lot since at least 1986 and is an active low priority Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) site. No field or laboratory evidence of petroleum was observed in soil samples from two probes along the property. Wee Willie’s spill report, 1724 S Walnut A 1992 spill report in the Monroe County Health Department files indicates that containers were found on the CSX property behind Wee Willies Restaurant. The report indicated that a bucket of Texaco fluid (trichloroethylene) was found with its top rusted open, an open 5 gallon bucket of paint-like material was on bare ground, and a 55-gallon drum labeled regular gasoline

was fond with other trash. No indication of the exact location of the materials was given, and no indication of what was done was provided. The health department report does not give evidence for release to the environment. A monitoring well was found on the CSX property behind Wee Willies, but CSX has no knowledge of its origin. A sample from the well was found to contain 8.8 ppb trichloroethylene (TCE) which is above the RISC default residential limit of 5 ppb. No significant PID readings were obtained from a limited soil gas survey of the area and no VOCs were detected in the soil or groundwater adjacent to the monitoring well. The presence of TCE in the groundwater could be a residual from minor spillage in 1992. However, no apparent continuing source in the soil was found. The TCE could also be due an upgradient source (there are present and former automotive sites located upgradient). Coal, Ash & Cinders – Switchyard and rail corridor Coal ash and cinders was used extensively as fill in the McDoel Yard and along the CSX corridor. Cinder fill is typically present to a depth of two to six feet in the switchyard in layers of cinder and gravel. Cinders were placed on the surface throughout the switchyard, but in many areas a topsoil has developed above the cinder fill. Arsenic, lead, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination was found throughout the switchyard and rail corridor. Indiana University Bus Garage, 120 W Grimes The oil staining observed in the Phase I was investigated. No field evidence of contamination was observed. No contamination was found in shallow soils or groundwater associated with this area of concern. Amoco Oil Bulk Storage Site, 29 W 1st The site has been an active bulk site since at least 1927. Pipes were still present on the CSX RoW that were probably part of a rack that was used prior to the 1970s to off-load petroleum products from rail cars. Field evidence of the petroleum was observed in probes adjacent to the pipes at depths of 9.5 to 12 feet. Gasoline range TPH was detected in one of three probes at 8-12 feet at 2,200 ppm, well above the IDEM limit. Evidence of contamination was observed at a depth of 8 to 12 feet, but no evidence of contamination was found in more shallow intervals. Based on the absence of evidence of shallow contamination, it is likely that the petroleum observed at 8-12 feet migrated laterally from the adjoining bulk plant and probably did not originate from surface spills during off-loading of fuel from rail cars. Bloomington Hospital Maintenance Facility, S Morton Bulk petroleum storage plants and an auto repair shop formerly occupied this site and were situated across Morton Street from the railroad. Field evidence of petroleum was observed in one of two probes at 10-12 and 16-20 feet. No BTEX was detected in the groundwater sample collected from this location.

Petroleum detected at this location likely originated from an offsite petroleum source located upgradient. Because BTEX was not found in any of the groundwater samples, the results in this area are not a concern per current IDEM guidance. The absence of significant BTEX or PAHs in the groundwater suggests that the diesel has degraded over time and the residual has relatively low toxicity. Clear Creek Sediment Clear Creek acts as the receiving water for the West and East Forks of Clear Creek and surface and subsurface releases from north Walnut Street south through Country Club Drive. Information from the Monroe County Health Department indicates that Clear Creek has received PCB contamination. With the exception of a single set of pole-mounted transformers near the roundhouse, no use or disposal of PCBs on the site has been identified. Three sediment samples from the bank of the Clear and two sediment samples from upstream locations on the West Fork of Clear Creek were tested for PCBs and SVOCs. Low levels of SVOC and PCBs were detected in all of the samples, but were below RISC default residential limits. No PCBs were detected in samples containing waste oil from the maintenance shed area. The source of PCBs detected in the sediment is likely runoff from upstream sources. Indiana Woodtreating Site, Country Club No additional investigation of the former creosoting site was performed for this Phase II assessment. On-going investigation is being conducted by CSX.

2005 Phase II ESA – CSX Railroad Corridor A Phase II ESA (BCA 2005) was conducted by BCA dated September 15, 2005 to confirm the presence or absence of the Recognized Environmental Conditions (REC’s) identified in the Phase I ESA throughout the CSX railroad corridor. The following environmental condition was investigated as a part of this report: Coal ash and cinders was used extensively as fill along the CSX corridor. Cinder fill is typically present to a depth of one to three feet in the switchyard in layers of cinder and gravel. Cinders were placed on the surface throughout the switchyard, but in many areas a topsoil has developed above the cinder fill. Arsenic, lead, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination was found throughout the rail corridor

2006 Supplemental Phase II ESA A Supplemental Phase II ESA (BCA 2006) was conducted by BCA in 2006 to evaluate the potential for migration of Chemicals of Concern (CoC’s) to groundwater and their impact on the groundwater, weather Coal, Ash, and Cinders (CA&C) was present in all locations along the corridor, what, if any, existing surface materials are below RDCL’s and where acceptable surface materials are thick enough to prevent direct exposure to CA&C.


ATC Associates completed a Limited Subsurface Investigation on the CSX rail corridor property from 2nd Street to Grimes Lane in August 2008. This investigation was conducted to address the areas of concern identified in previous investigation reports. Based on the soil analytical data, twenty-nine of the thirty near surface soil samples collected during this investigation exhibited levels of one or more constituents of concern that exceed the IDEM RISC DCL for commercial land use. The near surface soil samples were collected at a depth of one to two feet below ground surface (ft-bgs). Based on the groundwater analytical data collected, groundwater samples collected from all six boring locations exhibited levels of one or more constituents of the IDEM RISC RDCLs.

AECOM completed a conceptual site model and environmental data gap analysis for the site in 2009. In general, few chemicals are present at concentrations exceeding IDEM risk based default closure levels for human receptors. A screening of data against residential, industrial, and draft recreational closure levels show fewer exceedances of the recreational criteria thereby suggesting that closure of the site according to a recreational land use may be favorable. In the case of ecological receptors, several chemicals detected at concentrations that exceed default USEPA ecological screening levels. It should be noted that such exceedances do not categorically mean that ecological receptors are at risk of adverse effects but rather that additional evaluation of risk to this receptor group may be warranted.

8-2009 Remediation Completion Report – B-Line Trail Phase 1 BCA completed the design, engineering and remediation oversight of the Phase 1 of the B-Line Trail which extended from Rogers Street to 2nd Street in downtown Bloomington. The report documented the remediation conducted for the B-Line Phase 1 remediation project. Per the design, the existing site grade was generally maintained. Surface soil was removed from areas of surface exceedances and replaced by topsoil, pavement, or alternate impervious material such as pavers. All impacted soil removed from the site was disposed at a licensed landfill. The corridor was subdivided into four areas based on surface impacts: • Area A - Surface exceeded the RCL-direct and was removed and replaced. • Area B - Clean surface cover soil was already placed over impacted materials (south of Rogers Street). • Area C - Existing surface materials do not exceed the RCLDirect. • Area D - Less than 12 inches of impacted fill overlies native soils (between 2nd Street and Convention Center Crossing).

2010 McDoel Switchyard Ecological Risk Assessment An ecological risk assessment was completed by Indiana University students Emily Kerr, Katie Mauldin, Nancy Rachlis, and Shaun Ziegler. The report concluded that, in its current condition, the switchyard poses a significant ecological risk. Furthermore, the risk would be mitigated with the use of a soil cover on the site.

St ud i e s

2008 Limited Subsurface Investigation – Former CSX Rail Corridor

2009 Preliminary Conceptual Site Model and Environmental Data Gap Analysis

A Phytoremediation Study was conducted by Indiana University professors Heather Reynolds and Lauren Smith, both of the Department of Biology. The study included microcosms with soil from the McDoel site and plant species known to accumulate lead, arsenic and PAHs. The study did not demonstrate potential for phytoremediation of lead, arsenic, and PAHs under the experimental conditions. However, the concentrations of lead and arsenic in the soil used for the study were well below the concentrations found at many locations on the site (and below likely closure goals), making plant uptake less likely. Further, some laboratory testing results suggest experimental error and require additional study to troubleshoot.

Env ir onmen t al

The recommended remedial action was to either cover all areas where shallow soil (0-12”) exceeded RCL-direct for one or more analytes with a walking/biking trail of pavement or an alternate impervious surface, or to cover the impacted area with 12 inches of topsoil with vegetative cover. Since existing grade had to be maintained, an equivalent amount of impacted fill would be removed and disposed at a landfill prior to placement of the pavement and soil cover.

In subsurficial soils, metals, PAHs, and TPHs were detected at higher than RISC RDCLs.

09-2011 McDoel Switchyard Phytoremediation Study

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Soil probes in this investigation confirmed that the CA&C was present at most locations along the length of the corridor and to the limits of the property at most locations as well. Several areas along the corridor were identified as having sufficient cover (≥12”) to prevent direct exposure to CA&C and include areas recently landscaped between 7th Street and Rogers Street as well some areas between the Convention Center Crossing (CCC) and 2nd Street.

AECOM completed a Phase II ESA on the switchyard property in July 2009. Soil samples were collected from 60 locations on the property. Fourty-four subsurface samples were collected on the site and a surface soil sample was collected from all 60 locations. Metals were found to be prevalent in the surficial soils throughout the switchyard and PAHs were also detected across the site in surface soil material. In addition, TPH exceeded the IDEM RISC Residential Default Closure Level (RDCL) in nearly all sample locations.

received dated October 5, 2010 and included an Environmental Restrictive Covenant (ERC) on the site limiting the use of the land. The ERC was recorded in the Monroe County, IN Recorder’s office on November 8, 2010. The limitations in the ERC include restrictions on excavating the site, prohibiting the use of the site for residential or agricultural purposes, and requiring the site cover to be maintained.

C

A total of 40 soil samples were taken within 12 inches of the surface and analyzed. Arsenic exceeded the RCL-direct in 21 samples and lead exceeded the RCL-direct in two. Benzo(a) pyrene (BaP) exceeded the RCL-direct in 18 samples and Benzo(b) fluoranthene, Ideno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and/or Dibenzo(a,h) anthracene exceeded the RCL-direct in 11 samples.

2009 Site Investigation Report

AP P EN DIX

Although some metals (antimony, arsenic, lead and thallium) were found in the CA&C at this site (or commonly on similar sites) in excess of the RISC RCL-migration, the metals were generally found not to have the potential to migrate based on SPLP extraction and analysis. Where a single metal (antimony) was found to have the potential to migrate, no actual migration was observed in deeper samples. Although groundwater was generally not encountered in this investigation, where present, testing generally indicated that it was not impacted by dissolved phase migration of CoCs.

Remediation requirements per the approved plan were met throughout the Phase 1 portion of the B-Line Trail. Site closure for the B-Line Trail Phase 1 was requested. A Site Status Letter was

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

C


AP P EN DIX D | N on -native Her bac eous Pl an t s D

SWITCHYARD PARK Non-native Herbaceous Plants Non-native species noted with an asterix * Non-native invasives noted with two asterix ** Alliaria petiolata** Andropogon virginicus Apoycynum cannabinum Arctium minus * Burdock Asclepias incarnata Milkweed Aster falcatus Aster Aster puniceus Aster sp. Brassica sp. Campanulastrum americana Bellflower Carex sp. Centaurea maculosa* Knapweed Chicorium intybus* Daucus carota* Lace Dipsacus fullonum* Elymus canadensis Elymus villosus Eupatorium perfoliatum Festuca arundinacea* Iris virginica Lobelia inflata Oenothera biennis Primrose Onocloa sensibilis Perilla frutescens* Phytolacca americana Polygonum sp. Polystichum acrosticoides Potentilla sp. Ranunculus sp. Rubus allegheniensis Rubus occidentalis Scirpus atrovirens Bulrush Scirpus cyperinus Scirpus validus Bulrush Solidago canadensis Goldenrod Solidago nemoralis Sorghum halapense* Verbascum thapsus*

Garlic Mustard Broomsedge Indian Hemp Common Swamp White Prairie Swamp Aster American Spotted Chicory Queen Anne’s Teasel Canada Wild Rye Silky Wild Rye Boneset Fescue Blue Flag Iris Indian Tobacco Common Sensitive Fern Beefstake Plant Pokeweed Christmas fern Blackberry Black Raspberry Dark Green Woolgrass Soft Stem Canada Gray Goldenrod Johnson Grass Mullein


Project Summary The purpose of this project was to determine bridge sizes that would adequately maintain the flow of Clear Creek through the bridge without having backwater greater than 0.14 feet.

Width

Beam Type

Maximum Roadway Elevation

Backwater

Notes/Concerns

At Grade

46’-0”

43’-0”

CB 21”x 36”

715.00 ft.

-0.17 ft.

No channel clearing and no additonal fill for abutments or roadway.

At Grade (with reduced LOMR)

46’-0”

43’-0”

CB 21” x 36”

715.00 ft

0.14 ft.

No channel clearing and no additional fill for abutments or roadway.

0.12 ft.

There will be significant channel clearing and the B-Line elevation will be raised approximately 6 feet. There will be additional roadway fill and some embankment fill. The vertical alignment extends beyond thge scope of the project. It does not meet INDOT criteria for vertical alignment.

0.14 ft.

There will be minor channel clearing and the B-Line will be raised approximately 4 feet. There will be additional roadway fill and some embankment fill. The project limits extend beyond the scope on the east side due to vertical alignment criteria.

Above Q100

Above Q100 (with reduced LOMR)

43’-0”

3 ft. Hybrid Bulb-T

3 ft. Hybrid Bulb-T

724.96 ft.

721.49 ft.

Br i d g e

Recommendations • Any of these bridge types are acceptable, depending upon local preference of minimization versus occasional inundation. • The “reduced flow” version appears to be viable, based upon the findings of the LOMR study. LOMR would need to be approved prior to any design based upon these flows and flood elevations.

90’-0”

43’-0”

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Key Findings • The attached layout sheets exhibit size, scale, and location of each scenario. • Staying above the flood elevations would significantly increase the size of this structure, if the Flood Insurance Study flows are not reduced via LOMR. • The “at grade” scenarios are the same regardless of flood flow. • The “B Line” Trail would need to cross or bridge over Hillside Avenue in any of the proposed scenarios. It would not fit under the bridge unless the bridge and road were raised up substantially.

200’-0”

Hillside

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Summary of Key Meetings Discussed the “at-grade” options with INDOT Hydraulics unit. The City would need to sign a letter indicating that they understand the bridge will flood and may catch debris.

Bridge

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Methodology/Assumptions • The first two bridges were modeled based on the 100-year flows. • The other two bridges were based off the flow of a reduced LOMR. • Each flow had two different kinds of bridges: “at grade” and “above 100-year flood elevation”. • The “at-grade” option would be acceptable if federal money were used to build, however the road and bridge would occasionally flood. • The “at grade” bridges were assumed to have no rise in the roadway alignment and would not differ significantly from the B-Line Trail elevations. • The “above Q100” bridges were designed based on the INDOT requirement of one foot of bridge freeboard. These roadway alignments would be raised significantly and would affect the B-Line Trail.

Hillside Drive over Clear Creek

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Study of Bridge Options at Hillside Drive

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SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN


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Year One: Implement initial treatment of Group I invasives

Year Three: Concentrate efforts on Group II species, while also treating any surviving or reinvading Goup I species.

Group I Invasive Removal

Group II Invasive Removal

Year Two: Implement initial treatment of Group II invasives, and follow up on Group I treatments Group II Invasive Removal Metholodogy Cut Stump, Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Cut Stump, Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Scientific Name Albizia julibrissin Alianthus altissima Elaeagnus angustifolia Ligustrum vulgare Lonicera japonica Lonicera mackii Polygonum cuspidatum Pyrus calleryana Rhamnus frangula Rosa multiflora Ulmus pumila

SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Metholodogy Cut Stump, Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Cut Stump, Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray

South Park Amenities Phase: Start Year One treating invasive wetland plants and continue treatment for two years before planting native wetland vegetation Wetland Invasive Removal Common Name Reed Canary Grass Common Reed Cattails

Scientific Name Phalaris arundinacea Phragmites australis Typha Spp.

Symbol Pa Pau Ts

Methodology Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray

Follow three-year plan to eradicate invasives from floodplain and riparian forest as specified for walnut street/great lawn phases. Non Management Species The following is a list of invasive species which are not cost effective to control with contractors. Plants like Garlic Mustard are biennials which need to be hand pulled and bagged before going to seed each year. It is our recommendation that the Parks Department set up volunteer labor to deal with a few of these species. Poison Hemlock is also a biennial and is very tough to control. Due to toxicity this plant should not be controlled by volunteers. New research in effective treatment methods of Poison Hemlock will hopefully make this species cost effective to control. Non Management Species Common Name Garlic Mustard Poision Hemlock Black Locust (Over 6" DBH)

Scientific Name Alliaria petiolata Conium maculatum Robinia pseudoacacia

Symbol Ap Cm Rp

Re moval

Scientific Name Celastrus orbiculatis Clematis terniflora Dipsacus fullonum Erianthus ravennae Euonymus fortunei Miscanthus spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Sorghum halapense Common Name Mimosa (Under 6" DBH) Tree of Heaven Autumn Olive Common Privet Japanese Honeysuckle Bush Honeysuckle Japanese Knotweed Bradford Pear (Under 6" DBH) Buckthorn (Under 6" DBH) Multiflora Rose Siberian Elm (Under 6" DBH)

Scientific Name Celastrus orbiculatis Clematis terniflora Dipsacus fullonum Erianthus ravennae Euonymus fortunei Miscanthus spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Sorghum halapense

Plan t

Common Name Oriental Bittersweet Autumn Clematis Common Teasel Ravenna Grass Purple Wintercreeper Miscanthus Black Locust (Under 6" DBH) Johnson Grass Follow Up From Group I Methodology Foliar Spray Basal Bark Treatment, Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Cut, Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray Foliar Spray

Common Name Oriental Bittersweet Autumn Clematis Common Teasel Ravenna Grass Purple Wintercreeper Miscanthus Black Locust (Under 6" DBH) Johnson Grass

I nvas ive

Methodology Cut Stump, Foliar Spray Basal Bark Treatment Basal Bark Treatment Cut Stump, Foliar Spray Cut Stump, Foliar Spray Cut Stump, Foliar Spray Cut Stump, Foliar Spray Cut, Foliar Spray Cut Stump, Foliar Spray Basal Bark Treatment Cut Stump, Foliar Spray Basal Bark Treatment Foliar Spray Cut Stump, Foliar Spray Basal Bark Treatment

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Scientific Name Albizia julibrissin Albizia julibrissin Alianthus altissima Elaeagnus angustifolia Ligustrum vulgare Lonicera japonica Lonicera mackii Polygonum cuspidatum Pyrus calleryana Pyrus calleryana Rhamnus frangula Rhamnus frangula Rosa multiflora Ulmus pumila Ulmus pumila

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Common Name Mimosa (Under 6" DBH) Mimosa (Over 6" DBH) Tree of Heaven Autumn Olive Common Privet Japanese Honeysuckle Bush Honeysuckle Japanese Knotweed Bradford Pear (Under 6" DBH) Bradford Pear (Over 6" DBH) Buckthorn (Under 6" DBH) Buckthorn (Over 6" DBH) Multiflora Rose Siberian Elm (Under 6" DBH) Siberian Elm (Over 6" DBH)

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Walnut Street Entry & Great Lawn & Platform Amenities Phase:

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Walnut Street Entry and Great Lawn & Platform Amenities Phase: Year One: Seed temporary mix in any areas with high erosion potential, or areas void of vegetation Temporary Seed Mixes

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Common Name Grasses Native Species: Beak Grass Bottlebrush Grass Virginia Wild Rye Riverbank Wild Rye Switchgrass

Scientific Name Diarhenna americana Elymus hystrix Elymus virginicus Elymus riparius Panicum virgatum

Cover Crop Species: Annual Rye Grass Seed Oats

Lolium multiflorum Avena sativa

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Year Two: Seed permanent seed mixes in areas with adequate control of invasive plant species Seed temporary mixes in areas with low to moderate control of invasive plants or areas which have erosion potential Floodplain& Riparian Permanent Seed Mix

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Common Name Grasses and Sedges Carex frankii Carex granularis Carex grayi Carex lupulina Carex muskingumensis Carex normalis Carex tribuloides Carex vulpinoidea Elymus riparius Elymus virginicus Glyceria striata Hystrix patula Forbs Side Flowering Aster Swamp Aster Panicled Aster Hairy Wood Mint Autumn Sneezeweed False Sunflower Cardinal Flower Great Blue Lobelia Water Horehound Monkey Flower Smooth Penstemon Green-Headed Coneflower Brown Eyed Susan Late Goldenrod Culver's Root Golden Alexanders

Scientific Name Frank's Sedge Meadow Sedge Burr Sedge Common Hop Sedge Palm Sedge Spreading Oval Sedge Pointed Oval Sedge Fox Sedge Riverbank Wilde Rye Virginia Wild Rye Fowl Manna Grass Bottlebrush Grass

Aster lateriflorus Aster puniceus Aster simplex Blephilia hirsuta Helenium autumnale Heliopsis helianthoides Lobelia cardinalis Lobelia siphilitica Lycopus americanus Mimulus ringens Penstemon calysosus Rudbeckia laciniata Rudbeckia trilobum Solidago gigantea Veronicastrum virgincum Zizia aurea

Year Three: Install trees and shrubs in floodplain reforestation areas Install understory trees and shrubs for understory restoration Seed permanent seed mixes across the entire site unless already established.

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SWITCHYARD PARK MASTER PLAN

Understory & Reforestation Plant List Common Name Canopy Trees Silver Maple Ironwood Shellbark Hickory Hackberry Kentucky Coffeetree Black Walnut Sycamore Bur Oak Pin Oak Shumard Oak Slippery Elm

Scientific Name Acer saccharinum Carpinus caroliniana Carya lacinosia Celtis occidentalis Gymnocladus dioicus Juglans nigra Platanus occidentalis Quercus macrocarpa Quercus palustris Quercus shumardii Ulmus fulva

Understory Trees & Shrubs Serviceberry Paw Paw Button Bush Redbud Silky Dogwood Witch Hazel Spice Bush Ninebark Swamp Rose Elderberry Blackhaw Viburnum

Amelanchier canadensis Asiminia triloba Cepahalanthus occidentalis Cercis canadensis Cornus amomum Hamamelis virginiana Lindera benzoin Physocarpus opulifolius Rosa palustris Sambucus canadensis Viburnum prunifolium

South Park Amenities Phase: Year One to Three: Follow three year re-vegetation plan specified for walnut street/great lawn phases Year Two: Install native wetland plugs once adequate control of invasives plants has been achieved Wetland Restoration Plug List Common Name Wetland Plugs Graminoids Frank's Sedge Crested Sedge Fox Sedge Soft Rush Softstem Bulrush Three Square Bulrush Forbs Swamp Milkweed Shining Aster Swamp Aster Wild Senna Pink Turtlehead Sneezeweed Blue Flag Iris Swamp Blazing Star Blue Lobelia Cardinal Flower Monkey Flower Obedient Plant Orange Coneflower Arrowhead Riddell's Goldenrod Blue Vervain Culver's Root

Scientific Name Carex frankii Carex cristatella Carex vulpinoidea Juncus effusus Scirpus validus Scirpus pungens Asclepias incarnata Aster firmus Aster puniceus Cassia hebecarpa Chelone obliqua Helenium autumnale Iris virginica shrevei Liatris spicata Lobelia siphilitica Lobelia cardinalis Mimulus ringens Physostegia virginiana Rudbeckia fulgida Saggitaria latifolia Solidago riddellii Verbena hastata Veronicastrum virginicum

Switchyard Park Master Plan  

Master Plan for the Switchyard Park property in Bloomington, Indiana by Rundell Ernstberger and Associates