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HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATION

HELICOPTERS AND ART

BJ Coffman, Self Portrait, 2011. Digital Photograph

A Preflight Guide for New Teaching Artist


Effective teachers understand what it’s like to be a student.


HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATIO

Table of Contents Page 4: Introduction Page 5: Naval Flight School Page 6: Preflight, Flight, Post-flight Page 7: Aviation and Art Education Page 8 & 9: Preflight Page 10: Flight: Photograms Page 11: Flight: Pinholes Page 12: Flight: Digital Photography Page 13: Post-Flight Page 14: Learning Formats Page 15: List of resources

BJ Coman, Mapping US, 2012. Charcoal, ink, and gauche on aviation charts.


HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATION

My Background I grew up as a military child and have lived around the world. I began studying photography in high school and, in 2000, earned my degree from New Mexico State University with a B.F.A. in photography. After I began taking photography classes, I knew I wanted to teach and my immediate goal was to get my M. F. A. so I could teach college. However, after graduation, I wound up traveling around the country working many different jobs and trying to pay back my loans. I eventually joined the Coast Guard to help pay for school and to do something completely out of my comfort zone. While in the Coast Guard I applied to the flight program and moved to Miami after I graduated. After flying as a Search and Rescue pilot for four years, I received orders to return to flight school as an instructor pilot. Concurrent with this new role, I began taking courses towards a master’s in art education which has reinvigorated my motivation towards art and teaching art. During this program, I have focused on non-traditional forms o f a r t e d u c at i o n i n c l u d i n g democratic education, free schools, t e a ch i n g a r t i s t s, a n d o t h e r nonconventional for ms of education (see below). T he research I conducted on teachingartists has lead me to produce this guide to serve as a template for teaching when I enter an art class for the first time.

Changes in Art Education Education has changed dramatically over the past few hundred years, but the biggest changes have occurred in the last fifty years. The education model used by artists has typically centered on a master artists apprenticing and mentoring students who were often used as laborers in their studios. As formal education changed, who taught art and how they did it changed as

well. Today, in the American K-12 education system, art educators typically have a formal degree and background in educational pedagogy. As a result of the professionalization of classroom art teachers, the artistteacher model has become a rarity. In the 1960s, the Artists in t h e S ch o o l s p ro g r a m w a s implemented and its primary mission focused on bringing artists back into the classroom. This program, over the years, has taken many different forms as classroom teachers across the country used artists to supplement their curriculum. However, as increasing numbers of artists enter the classroom, their success has been spotty as teachers and administrators have seen a lack of classroom skills, knowledge of education practices, and management techniques they are accustomed to. To create a useful and symbiotic relationship between artists and these school systems, I created this guide in order to equip myself with tools, skills, and knowledge to transition from a flight instructor to becoming a successful teaching artist.

Experts as Teachers As I began to learn more about education, I also realized there are numerous fields that use experts and professionals as educators such pilots, nurses, policemen, and many other fields. In Naval flight training, pilots are used as instructors to teach the students how to fly and the culture of flying. While we (flight instructors) may be experts in aviation, we, like teaching artists, are hardly experts when it comes to education and receive very little training on how to manage our students. This framework is designed to look at how experts and professionals who teach can employ simple strategies to understand their students, themselves, and the role they play in shaping knowledge.

Artists in the Schools. Artists in the Schools program was first implemented in the 1960’s as art diminished in compulsory education. The NEA founded this program and it is still providing grants and funding to artists today.

More info on Democratic education. http://www.summerhillschool.co.uk/ http://www.brooklynfreeschool.org/

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HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATIO

The Flight

Naval Flight Training The Naval flight training program is designed to teach the basics of flight including aerodynamics, systems, weather, regulations, and survival skills. Flight training begins with Introductory Flight Screening to gauge the aptitude of students before they enter more arduous training. After successful completion of this civilian-run course, students then attend a six week series of courses called Aviation PreFlight Indoctrination (API). During this time, they attend classes on aerodynamics, engines, regulations, weather, and take weekly tests on these subjects. While mostly focused on academics, API also tests the fitness of trainees

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with water survival skills, physical fitness tests, and parachute training. Successful students are then sent on to primary flight training where they learn to fly an airplane. During this phase, they are i n t ro d u c e d t o e m e rg e n c y p ro c e d u re s, formation flight, and radio instruments. After they complete this stage (approximately 6 months), they attend advanced training in a helicopter or twin-engine airplane depending on their grades and desires. The training syllabus is laid out in an easy to read format and broken up into different stages to address specific skills students need to master to become competent pilots. The first

stage in the syllabus consists of classroom training coupled with computer aided instruction to prepare students for their flights. This phase is followed by familiarization flights where students focus on checklist, basic aircraft handling, and procedures. This phase normally consists of about 10 flights and a solo flight before they move on to basic instrument training. This phase also includes classroom instruction, computer aided training, and is followed by a series of flights in the aircraft. This formula for training continues through three more phases (formation, lowlevel navigation, and night vision goggles) before they graduate and move on to their fleet aircraft.


Flight school make up. Each year, Navy flight school graduates 700 helicopter pilots. There are three helicopter training squadrons that have a compliment of 60 instructors and 120

Who are the Players? The instructors at Naval Flight School are as diverse as the students they teach. They come from the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard and their experiences vary widely. When these pilots show up to instruct at flight school, they must retake the courses they took as a student and complete a syllabus to reacquaint them with the training helicopter and specific flight maneuvers. They are given one one-hour course on instructional techniques and they

learn the majority of how to teach on the job and from how they were taught as students. The only true commonality is the Multi-Service Pilot Training System (MPTS) curriculum guide which details what students should learn and know at different stages in their training. Other than this guide, which serves as an outline, each instructor pilot is free to run their cockpit classroom as they see fit.

The success of this syllabus and the students’ success relies heavily on prior knowledge, new knowledge, and putting them together in a dynamic environment. By flying with numerous people with different levels of knowledge and expertise, students receive a gamut of instructional techniques and styles they eventually bring with them into the fleet. What they learn and how they learned it comes full circle after their first tour when they return to flight school as instructors.

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HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATION

School Experience


HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATIO

Preflight, Flight, Post-Flight Aviation and What Does Naval Flight Training Have to do With Art Education? The use of experts to teach novices is not a new concept and is used in myriad professions. During my time in the University of Florida’s online Master’s in Art Education program, I have studied the history of art education, curriculum, issues in the genre, and have taken studio courses which I was able to relate to my daily job of flight instruction. At first, the comparison between art and aviation instruction was blurry, but as I learned more about how we learn, the similarities began to become clear. The rubrics, learning objectives, demonstration of knowledge, and assessments are all similar. The differences are merely what is taught and the context of learning.

Preflight, Flight, & Post-Flight There are three basic premises I found to be working in these environments that I was only aware of subconsciously. First. Naval flight training relies on students building knowledge and aptitude. The first part of the training assesses what students know and their aptitude to learn to fly and I identify it as pre-knowledge Second. There are topics students need to know but do not know yet. Through the classroom work and computer training, students become equipped with information to gain knowledge to be used in flight. Third. Each student receives grades and assessment of their flights after each flight. This assessment sets up challenges for them to focus on during the next flight and provides feedback on where they need to improve. I like to think of these phases of learning as Preflight, Flight, and Post-Flight.

Preflight The pre-knowledge stage is what I expect students to know already. I expect they have a working knowledge of systems, aerodynamics, radio communications, and the proper use of hand signals and safety equipment. Their pre-knowledge is developed in API and in the primary phases of flight school.

Flight Knowledge and information are based on the syllabus, coursework, and relevant literature. Students gather information and brief specific items for flights based on what they read but they are not expected to be able to use that knowledge in a pragmatic way. It is during the flight that students perform tasks and put the new information to use. In this stage, I, as the instructor, often demonstrate how to use the information and then let the student perform the task. In this phase, they need to know what they are doing right or wrong to change their behavior while stair-stepping the level of difficulty so they are not overwhelmed.

Post-Flight One of the biggest tools we have as instructor pilots is providing constant feedback in the form of oral ‘debriefs’ and written grade reports for each flight. Students need to know how they performed and what their strengths and weaknesses are as well as a qualitative and quantitative feedback. This assessment is not only important for the students to know how well they are doing, but it also gives the next instructor an idea of where students may need to spend some extra time or receive a little extra coaching. For more information about how students learn and strategies for effective teaching... Ambrose, S., Bridges, M., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M., & Norman, M. (2010). How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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Aviation and Art Helicopters and Art As I moved through the master’s program, the link between instructing helicopters and my research on teaching artists became very clear. While, at first, I saw what I did and what teaching artists did as quite dissimilar, I began to realize what I do on a daily basis informed my research in art education and how I instruct. I realized my daily routine of preflight, flight and post-flight were exactly what I needed to implement as an artist to become an effective art instructor. To begin as a teaching artist, I needed to know what the students learned and their level of knowledge. This pre-knowledge can be assessed by visiting the classroom before taking on a teaching artist role. I have to understand what they have a working knowledge of to effectively teach to their respective levels and to give them the proper level of instruction. Along with understanding what they know, I must make my time with them important and instructive. To do this, it is necessary to look at their curriculum and national standards. Before I enter the class to teach I must also ascertain a certain level of pre-knowledge to be effective and pertinent to that specific class and environment. The knowledge I want these students to know is also an important part of the equation. Researching what they should know and have accomplished allows me to focus on lesson plan design for their learning level. Also, before entering the classroom, it is imperative to have the students research and read about the techniques to be introduced in order for them to have the background knowledge necessary for effective instruction. This knowledge can easily be disseminated by their regular classroom teacher or delivered online and prepares the students for studio time using these new techniques. This phase serves as a guide for students regarding specific parts of the processes and techniques they will learn and gives them ample time to experiment on their own. The last crucial facet I found invaluable is structured feedback. Just like we give our flight students qualitative and quantitative feedback, it is just as important to give feedback to art students. While this normally takes place as a critique, continuous feedback and challenges are important to gauge the students’ progress and understanding of the learning objectives. The next pages will apply these principles as three modules of photography I developed to aid me when I enter the classroom. They are broken up into what the student and educator pre-knowledge, three learning modules, and student and educator assessments.

The FLIP Classroom Model Having students use the internet and technology as a part of a syllabus is becoming more popular. In traditional classrooms, the majority of the time is spent teaching the students lessons with little time for them to practice during classroom hours. In a flipped classroom, the students come prepared to the class by completing media based lessons prior to the class. This allows the teacher more flexibility during class time to address specific needs of students and allows them to work at their own pace. Research and seminars on this method of instruction are being conducted and you can find more information here.

National Opinion Research Center: Recently completed a study called the Teaching Artists Research Project (http://www.norc.org/Research/Projects/Pages/Teaching-Artists-ResearchProject-TARP.aspx) which looked at the role of the arts, teaching artists, and the state of the arts in our schools. This is the first comprehensive study on teaching artists. It gives current issues, advice, strategies, and details the importance of teaching artists in our schools.

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HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATION

Art Education


HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATIO

Preflight (Artist/Educator)

What do Artist Need to Know? Prior to showing up for the first teaching session, many variables should be accounted for. In compulsory education, National Standards for Arts Education is a great starting place to understand what students should know and be able to do, states and local districts often have their own set of standards. When developing a syllabus, these standards play an important role and can serve as a starting point when developing a syllabus. To get help with these standards and to develop a module in sync with the class, meeting with and developing a relationship with the teacher is an important pre-flight component. Bringing in your work, sharing what you can offer, and having a plan are all legitimate, but you are still entering someone else’s classroom and environment. Asking them what they need

and how you can fit into that class’s curriculum helps foster a more collaborative environment. In addition to understanding where you fit in, you can also find out what resources the school has available. For instance, my module is based on photography, but if the school does not have any darkrooms or computers, I may need to either bring in my own supplies or rewrite the modules to fit the available resources. After finding the standards and meeting with the teacher, the next part of the pre-flight is to meet the students. This can take place during class where you can interact with them while they are making art, or it can be more individual and critique based. The purpose of meeting with them is to ascertain what their interests are, what skills they possess, and what they want to learn.

For more information on how to make your own syllabus, see the following: http://www.icp.org/museum/education/teacher-resources http://digitalarted.blogspot.com/2008/07/how-to-start-digital-photography-class.html http://www.insideoutproject.net/#@section=home http://masters-of-photography.com

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Preflight

For ming relationships with the students is important prior to starting an instructional session with them. In addition to getting to know them as individuals, you can also assess their level of art making. With these relationships formed and your role and goals with them defined, you can now move on to guiding them through your curriculum. For more on the National Standards for Arts Education see: http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/educators/ standards/national/arts-standards/9-12/visualarts/visual-arts-1.aspx For more on State Standards for Arts Education see: http://www.aep-arts.org/research-policy/statepolicy-database/aep-2010-2011-state-policysurvey/

Pre-syllabus activities There are myriad of ways to get students interested in photography and your lesson. The resources online are vast and provide numerous artists and images students can research. It is easy to create a blog, website, or other media that you can point students to before starting a lesson. The image above is taken from my website. Students and teachers can browse my lessons, biography, links, art work, and other information about photography. It can also be used as a resource for students and teachers to aid in their preflight of the lessons.


Preflight (Students)

What do We Want Students to Understand?

What do Students Already Know?

This is a complicated question and one that should involve the student and their teacher. Traditionally, the instructor’s role has been to share their knowledge with their students for them to gain an understanding of the material. While lecturing has its’ place, new understandings about how students construct knowledge make the student/teacher relationship more symbiotic rather than didactic in nature.

When approaching a school or other learning environment, I need to know what students have learned and their goals. While developing a module for teaching we, as professionals and experts, have jargon and nomenclature specific to our fields which students may or may not know. Prior to the first lesson, having students complete a worksheet, or pre-arrival syllabus is important in that it introduces students to specific jargon, information, and ideas in that specific field.

In the book, How Learning Works, (see blue box on page 6) the authors suggests that a students’ prior knowledge is the basis for new learning. They also point out the difference in types of knowledge- procedural and declarative. These types of knowledge are evidenced in what students are able to state (declarative), and what they are able to do (procedural). While both these types of knowledge are important, it is also necessary for them to be able to activate both types of knowledge to form new learning. In addition to gaining knowledge, students are becoming more active in their own education. For educators to help them in this endeavor, it’s important for us to be co-learners in the classroom. This isn’t to say that students and teachers are equal, but, rather, that the teachers role is that of a guide through the students education. Due to this changed role of the teacher, we need to understand what they know and are able to perform before guiding them to new knowledge.

For example, in this photography module, I expect students to know the following prior to the first lesson: • How to develop and print black and white film and negatives. • Types of cameras, their parts and functions, and how to use them. • The history of photography and influential photographers. This pre-arrival syllabus can be disseminated in many ways. It can be web based, where you, the teaching artists, has a website that has information about what you want students to know. It can also be a handout that is given to the students, or it can be taught by you or the classroom teacher as part of the overall module.

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HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATION

Preflight


HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATIO

PHOTOGRAMS Photograms (see blue box) have been one of my favorite photographic processes. When I began to learn about photography in high school, we created photograms before we even picked up a camera. While I was in college, I was drawing and painting life sized images and I wanted to translate those paintings and drawings into p h o t o g r a p h s. A f t e r n o t m a k i n g a photogram for more than 10 years, I looked back at some of my work and hit on using this technique to carry my paintings into photography.

Flight

BJ Coffman, Circus, 2000. Color Photogram. 84� x 60�.

I believe that a strong base including the understanding of light, shadow, and composition are skills students can use when creating any form of art and when making photographs. Preflight (student): Developing black and white film and paper, principles of photography, understanding negatives. Research and be able to talk about the work of two photographers who have used photograms in their work. Have students bring in 5-10 different objects to be used in this lesson. Preflight (instructor): Introduce my own work based on photograms and show progress of my art that propelled me to work in the media. Flight: 1. Give a brief lecture about the history of photography to include photograms and feature artists who have used them in their work. 2. Give a brief demonstration of how to make photograms using different objects, lighting sources, and papers. 3. Have students create their own images using objects they brought in for the class. After the initial images are made, critique the images and have the students present one image for a critique at the beginning of the next class. Post-Flight: At the start of the next class, have students write a one-page description of their work, present it to the class, and conduct a critique of their work.

Photograms: Photograms are often referred to as shadow pictures because objects are place directly onto the paper and the shadows they leave behind after exposure to light create the images. The image on the left is made by using rolls of color paper rolled out on the floor and the models are arranged in total darkness on the paper. The exposure is from colored lights and can range from 2-20 minutes.

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CAMERA-MAKING

Pinhole Cameras. Pinhole cameras originate from the original form of photography- the camera obscura. Pinhole cameras can be made from almost any materials including shoe boxes, cookie tins, cardboard, wood, and many other materials. Normally, photographic paper is put on the opposite side of the lens and, when the light strikes the paper, a negative is made which can then be printed by exposing the image onto a blank sheet of photographic paper. The image on the left was taken with a pinhole camera that has a digital camera attached to it. After the images were transferred to a computer, color corrections and other edits were made.

BJ Coffman, Fair, 2011. Digital Pinhole Photograph.

Preflight (student): Students should research information on making pinhole cameras on www.makezine.com and www.instructables.com. Students should find materials to make a pinhole cameras and research metering systems. Preflight (instructor): Bring in example pinhole camera and images. Prepare presentation on camera making and artists who have used pinholes in the work. Bring extra boxes, tins, tape, and tools for students to make their own cameras. Flight: 1. Ask students about the cameras they saw and show them examples of pinhole cameras and images. 2. Begin construction of pinhole cameras. 3. After construction of the cameras, give a demonstration on how the load the film, estimate exposures, and process and print the negative. 4. The students will create a 1-3 photograams and present one for critique during the next class. Post-Flight: Have students critique each others work at the start of the next class. Focus on exposure, framing, and technique. Ask what changes they would make to the cameras and how they can improve on their design and construction.

Pinhole camera making (see blue box) is another one of my favorite photographic techniques. Making a pinhole requires an understanding of how images are made and the affects of different lenses and exposure times. It also requires much trial and error when making and printing images and allows students to be as creative as they want to be when constructing their cameras. Camera making does not stop at pinholes. Many other types of cameras exist such as scanner cameras, digital pinholes, camera obscura, and lomographic images. Constructing pinholes is merely a first step to creating more complex self-made cameras. 11

HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATION

Flight


HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATIO

D I G I TA L P H O T O G R A P H Y Preflight (student): Students should research and become familiar with artists who use photo manipulation software and computers to create images. Students should bring in 2-3 examples of photographs that were altered and be able to discuss the techniques they used. Also, students will read Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction and complete a basic Photoshop tutorial on iTunes. Preflight (instructor): Prepare a presentation about different photo manipulation techniques including darkroom processes, developing alterations, on-film techniques, and computer aided manipulations. Flight: 1. Students should present their artists and talk about the images and the techniques the artist used. 2. Instructor goes over reading and discusses how photography has changed over time with technology. 3. The instructor will go over the basics of photoshop and different input techniques. 4. Students will import images into photoshop and create a digital image with a pre-determined theme.

Flight On top of my love for traditional photography, I have been using Photoshop in my work for some time. Digital image making has grown over time, but digital tools remain amplifications of analog techniques. I believe both analog and digital formats have a place in photography and it is important for students to understand the benefits of each. This module focuses on the pluralistic role of photography in our society and how imaging software has helped to democratize the digital image. Giving students an understanding of how these tools came about and their function will help them decipher images they are bombarded with everyday.

Post-Flight: Students will present their images during the next class session and be displayed along with an artist’s statement about their work and influences.

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iTunes and online learning Apple iTunes has numerous tutorials that are free to download. Also, scores of websites exist that give students access to free tutorials on using photoshop. In your preflight, choose the ones that work best for you and provide links on your website to them so students can easily get the information they need. Another method of distributing this


Assessment In the example modules, assessments take place before, during and after each module. This affords students feedback before getting too far on a project if their goals are misaligned. In the book, How Learning Works, the authors talk about these different levels of assessment to keep students in line with the goals of the project. Also, Marilyn Stewart and Sydney Walker authored, Rethinking Curriculum in Art, which discusses the role of assessment in Backwards Design. Through this book and other sources regarding Backwards Design, the literature shows assessment

plays an important part in learning through providing proper feedback, challenges, and critique.

questionnaire to help you with this assessment. 1.

How helpful were the lessons to

The second part of assessment concerns how I can improve the lessons

your own art making?

and my teaching strategies. Keeping a notebook with ideas for new classes and assignments is vital, but feedback from

pre-flight homework give you a better understanding of the topics at hand?

your students and their teachers is second to none. To grow as teachers and professionals, feedback on our effectiveness is key to making ourselves better and understanding ourselves as educators. Below is a list of a few questions that can be used on a

2.

3.

How did the presentations and

What information did you find

most helpful on the website? 4.

HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATION

Assessment

Post-Flight

What would you change about

the modules? Explain. 5. How will these lessons impact your own art making?

Remember, although this assessment is for you, it is important for students to speak freely in order to get optimal feedback. Have them complete these questionnaires anonymously either online, or in print, with the goal of enhancing your lessons for the next class.

This sample rubric comes from http://incredibleart.org/Files/Rubric.htm and is an example of a grading structure. When thinking about grades and grading criteria, it is essential to speak with the classroom teacher to develop a rubric. They may have a different system, they understand the standards, and they are the ones who are qualified to give their students grades. When thinking about rubrics and assessment for students, think of these rubrics as a tool for you to use when preparing for your classroom time. Realize the students are graded and will be graded by their teachers and this rubric merely serves as a guide when creating your lessons.

BJ Coffman, El Paso Nothing, 2011. Digital File.

Backwards Design Stewart, M. & S. Walker (2005). Rethinking Curriculum in Art. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications. This book is extremely helpful in understanding how to design curriculum using the Backwards Design method. It has a great Appendix and gives examples of complete lesson plans.

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HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATIO

Learning Formats Overarching Understandings Understand the history of photography and explain how photography has been used in art. Explore the use of photography as a democratic medium through traditional and non-traditional techniques and artists. Describe how technology impacts photography.

Overarching Essential Questions How is photography uniquely situated to be a democratic medium? How has photography changed over time and what affect does technology have on photographic images? How do we use photography to communicate?

What will Students Understand? The history of photography and its use in art. How technology has impacted photography and its use as a social medium. The main components of the camera and basic developing techniques. How to create and manipulate photographs digitally.

Core Questions How do cameras ‘make’ images? How does technology impact how we interpret images? How do images tell stories? Do photographs always tell the truth? What do images reveal about us?

Module Format This list of resources for learning more about curriculum design is not comprehensive, but it serves as a starting point for new teaching professionals. Stewart, M. & S. Walker (2005). Rethinking Curriculum in Art. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications. Wiggins, G. and J. McTighe (2005). Backward design. In G. Wiggins and J. McTighe, Understanding by Design (p. 13-34). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. http://teachingforartisticbehavior.org/ http://www.democraticeducation.org/

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Post-Flight Which One to Choose? There are many different learning formats available each having their own benefits. The most prevalent model is Discipline Based Art Education (DBAE), which is the model most colleges and universities employ. This model focuses on four major components: history, aesthetics, criticism, and art making (see blue box). Another learning model is Visual Culture Art Education (VCAE), which asserts that we must be able to discern and decipher the meaning of all the images we encounter in our daily lives including art, advertisements, billboards, candy wrappers, and etcetera. While fairly new, VCAE has been growing in popularity and use throughout the United States. In addition to DBAE and VCAE, many other models exists including: democratic education, Teaching for Artistic Behaviors (TAB), and many more. In addition to these different views on teaching art, the context which art is taught also varies. Charter, home, magnet, free schools, prisons, community centers, galleries, and museums are all examples of where art is taught. With so many choices and ways to teach it is often difficult to decipher which one best fits your needs. When choosing which format to follow, the most important thing to consider is how will your format inform the student and enable their learning. It is not necessary to pick one approach and stick with it, but to tailor your approach to the students and their learning environment. The example modules in this guide use a hybrid of what I have learned as a flight instructor and the backwards design. For more information on backwards design, VCAE, DBAE, and other curriculum design tools see the examples in the grey boxes.


Conclusion & Resources

We have all had numerous teachers, good and bad, throughout our lives. As I began to instruct helicopters, I began to think about the good and bad flight instructors I had and the differences between them. I remember one flight where I just didn’t understand where I was in space or how to get myself out of the jam I created. My instructor saw that I was frustrated and, instead of failing me, calmly talked me into just concentrating on my procedures one step at a time to realize where I was and what I needed to do. After I began teaching, I used her method of instruction as an example of how I wanted to teach. There is more to learning about how to teach, though, than using mimicry. Although I used this method as a I began to instruct, I quickly realized that each student came with their own needs and aptitudes. Reliance on how I was taught and, therefore, how I was instructing, was limited and I began to look to other instructors for advice. My teaching style became a stew blending together myriad teaching styles and techniques based on others’ past experiences and some of my own. During my time as an instructor and within this master’s program, I began to understand that this style of teaching was exactly what frustrated me with some of my teachers from the past. Instead of understanding me and teaching to me, they merely taught how they were taught and students had to be homogeneous in order to succeed in the program. I am not suggesting this approach is not valid, but it is only part of the toolbox we need as teachers. We must gain an understanding of the motivations, needs, and aptitudes of our students. We must provide information and instruction to them that is relevant. We must provide them with goals and challenges pursuant with their levels of knowledge. Finally, we must give appropriate feedback so they can self-assess and focus on material which they are deficient.

Teaching Artist Resources http://www.summerhillschool.co.uk/ http://www.brooklynfreeschool.org/ https://www.fi.ncsu.edu/project/fizz/ http://www.norc.org/Research/Projects/Pages/ Teaching-Artists-Research-Project-TARP.aspx http://www.icp.org/museum/education/teacherresources http://digitalarted.blogspot.com/2008/07/howto-start-digital-photography-class.html http://www.insideoutproject.net/ #@section=home http://masters-of-photography.com http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/educators/ standards/national/arts-standards/9-12/visualarts/visual-arts-1.aspx http://www.aep-arts.org/research-policy/statepolicy-database/aep-2010-2011-state-policysurvey/ www.makezine.com www.instructables.com http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0rq7h3ckaDs&feature=plcp http://www.teachingartists.com/ http://www.artscorps.org/ http://tajournal.com/ http://incredibleart.org/links/toolbox/links.html http://www.warehouse514.com

Colophon: The production of this guide is a result of a public school education followed by six years at a state college. During the last two years at UF, I have become an instructor pilot, got engaged, and learned a ton about who am I as a teacher and the kind of teacher I aspire to be. If it wasn’t for the support of my fiance, my family, the Coast Guard and tuition assistance from them, the Navy for allowing me to go to grad school, and the support and patience from the professors at UF, this guide probably would not exist. Thank you to every one who has helped me on this journey.

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HELICOPTERS AND ART EDUCATION

Post-Flight

Helicopters and Art Education  

A guide for teaching artists