The In Vitro Meat Cookbook

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Beautifully illustrated, the book is half-f ic tion, half scientif ic inquir y W ired

Bizar re cook book from which you cannot cook V IC E

HET thE L AB GROWN K W E E K VI LNE VE ISt R O HAMBURGER AND 45 OTHER MKE A t K O O K B O E RECIPES COOKBOOK THE

Playing the ‘what if ’ game to get people talking about their food and the future A BC New s


Building Het Sieraad Postjesweg 1 1057 DT Amsterdam The Netherlands T +3 1 ( 0 ) 2 0 5 1 5 0 2 3 0 F +3 1 ( 0 ) 2 0 5 1 5 0 2 3 9 bis@bispublishers.nl w w w. bispu blisher s .nl E d i t i n g a n d d e s i g n : K o e r t v a n M e n s v o o r t a n d H e n d r i k -J a n G r i e v i n k I S B N 9 7 8 9 0 6 3 69 3 5 8 9 C o p y r i g h t Š 2 0 14 N e x t N a t u r e N e t w o r k a n d B I S P u b l i s h e r s . w w w. bis t r o-inv i t r o.com All right s reser ved. No par t of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any for m or by any means, elec tronic or mechanical, i n c l u d i n g p h o t o c o p y, r e c o r d i n g o r a n y i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r a g e a n d retrieval system, without per mission in writing from the copyright owners. Ever y reasonable attempt has been made to identif y owners of copyright. Any er rors or omissions brought to the publishers attention will be cor rec ted in subsequent editions.


the in vitro me at cookbook


CONTENTS

For e wor d 6 A H i s t o r y o f M e a t- E a t i n g

8

H o w t o M a k e a n I n V i t r o B u r g e r

10

Me at t he Fac t s

12

U nk now n is U nlove d?

14

W h a t ’ s y o u r P o s i t i o n?

16

1 . S A V E T H E P L A N ET

2. STOP HURTING ANIMALS

I n t r o d u c t i o n 19

Int r oduc t ion 53

P o s t b u r g e r 2 1

P i g i n t h e G a r d e n

55

K n i t t e d M e a t

23

Dodo Nugget s

57

Home Incu b ator

25

P ainle s s Foie Gr a s

59

I n V i t r o K e b a b

27

Cr uelt y-Fr e e Pe t Foo d

61

S e e - t h r o u g h S a s h i m i

29

Dino s aur ‘ W ing’

63

M agic Me at b all s

31

Meat Mo s s

65

K i d ’ s C o o k i n g K i t

33

B one P ic ker s

67

M i c r o b i a l C o o k i n g

35

M a r r o w E g g

69

L a b Pe ar l s

37

In V i t r o O y s t er s

71

R e d M e a t R e p l a c e r

39

T he T hr o at T ic k ler

73

L a b Sw e e t br e ad s

41

I n V i t r o A q u a r i u m

75

R u s t i c I n V i t r o

43

S p e c i a l : P i g i n t h e G a r d e n

77

S p e c i a l : H o n e s t f r o m t h e l a b

45

E s s a y : A n i m a l L i b e r a t i o n?

N o F u t u r e f o r Tr a d i t i o n a l M e a t : — Int er v ie w w i t h M ar k Po s t

— by Cor van der Weele and 47

C l e m e n s D r i e s s e n s

79


3. FEED THE WORLD

4. E X P L OR E NE W FO OD C U LT U R E S

Int r oduc t ion 9 1

Int r oduc t ion 1 25

Dis a s t er B ar s

93

Meat F lo w er s

M e d i c i n a l M e a t B e a n s a n d R i c e

95

O r igami Meat

129

M e a t P o w d e r

97

Meat Fr ui t

131

99

C ar ner y Br e w pu b

133

M e a t F e t i s h i s m

135

C up I t

127

Ve gan G el at in

10 1

S c r a p J e r k y

103

Meat C oc k t ail

137

G i a n t S t e a k

105

I n V i t r o I c e C r e a m

139

Pe el a ble S au s age

107

Meat P aint

141

B acon on a Roll

109

Mu s c le M a s s Ro a s t

14 3

L a bc hop s 111

C ele br i t y C u b e s

14 5

Meat C ac tu s

113

I n V i t r o M e

147

S p e c i a l : K n i t t e d M e a t

115

S p e c i a l : T h e C a r n e r y

14 6

Essay: Growing the Future of Meat — b y C hr is t in a A gap ak is

Essay: The Car ner y 1 17

— b y I s h a D a t a r a n d R o b e r t B o l t o n

151

P h o t o g r a p h y S e c t i o n

158

C olophon 18 6

5


FOREWORD

by koert van mensvoort

Hello meat lovers, hello vegetarians! We need to talk about the future of meat. With the world’s population expected to reach nine billion people by 2050, it becomes impossible to produce and consume meat like we do today. Climate change, energy use, animal diseases and global food shortages are just some of the problems facing us, not to mention the issue of animal welfare on factory farms. Will we soon be limited to eating rice, beans and seaweed burgers? Insects perhaps? Some researchers expect that in vitro meat, grown from stem cells in a bioreactor, could provide a sustainable and animalfriendly alternative to conventional meat and in 2013 the world’s first lab grown burger was cooked. Nevertheless, many people still find it an unattractive idea to eat meat from a lab. And rightly so. Because before we can decide whether we will ever be willing to consume in vitro meat, we must explore the new food cultures it may bring us. Although it is tempting to think we will simply mimic the hamburgers, sausages and steaks we already have, in vitro technology also has a unique potential to bring us new food products, tools and traditions we can hardly imagine today. This cookbook aims to move beyond in vitro meat as inferior fake-meat replacement, to explore its creative prospects and visualize what in vitro meat products might be on our plate one day. Recipes range from knitted meat, to meat fruit and meat ice cream.

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The recipes are organized in four chapters, each focusing on a meat-related issue that may be addressed with in vitro meat: 1. Growing meat sustainably. 2. Avoiding harm to animals. 3. Preventing food shortages. 4. Exploration of new food cultures. In addition to this you will find essays, interviews, and graphs that provide for background information on the technology, its history, promises, potential pitfalls and moral implications. Because in vitro meat is still in an early phase of development, it is a cookbook from which you cannot cook, just yet. The number of stars with each recipe indicates its technological feasibility. One star means that the dish is far from being realized, while five stars means it might soon go into production.

All recipes have been created by a team of chefs, designers and artists. While some dishes are innovative and delicious, others are uncanny and macabre. Our aim is not to promote lab-grown meat, nor to predict the future, but to visualize a wide range of possible new dishes and food cultures to help us decide what future we actually want. Bon appetit!

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a hi s t or y of me at— e at ing

2.600.000 YEARS ago Pre-humans have just star ted making stone tools and use them to eat scavenged meat.

1493 Christopher Columbus brings cattle to Nor th America.

2.000.000 YEARS ago Having no weapons, prehumans begin hunting by ambushing wild animals.

1860 The average US livestock far mer feeds 5 people.

1876 The f irst cattle feedlot is used in the US instead of a pasture. Hello moder n fac tor y far ming!

250.000 YEARS ago Pre-humans begin u s i n g f i r e t o c o o k their meat.

1885 The f irst cell culture is created by Wilhelm Roulx. I t s u r v i v e s f o r a f e w days.

19 3 1 Winston Churchill proclaims his suppor t for the science of growing l a b m e a t i n a n e s s a y, a n d later in speeches.

194 4 T he word “vegan” is coined by Donald Wat son. Before this time, a vegan diet was refer red to as “ P y t h a g o r e a n .”

19 5 0 s L arge numbers of American far mers begin to keep their animals indoors to increase produc tion.

19 94 McDonald s sell s it s 10 0 billionth hamburger s i n c e 19 4 8 , a n d s t o p s counting.

19 9 5 US FDA approves the use of in-vitro techniques for commercial meat produc tion.

19 9 9 Willem van Eelen receives the f irst patent for in-vitro meat produc tion techniques.

8


8000 BCE The pig is only the second species af ter the dog to be domesticated. Cattle and Poultr y w o u l d s o o n f o l l o w.

76 0 0 B C E E xtinc tion of the mammoth, the last of the giant land mammals to sur vive from the Pleistocene era, signals the end of easy hunting for prehumans.

1894 French chemist Pier reEugene-Marcellin Ber thelot predic t s labgrown meat.

19 6 0 The average US livestock far mer feeds 25.8 people.

2003 Oron Catt s and Ionat Zur r sample their in-vitro steak , grown from skeletal frog cells.

19 14 F i r s t o u t b r e a k o f F o o t- a n d Mouth disease occurs in the USA , a result of increasingly crowded far m conditions.

1976 Microwave sales sur pass g a s r a n g e sales.

19 8 2 First veggie burger is created and marketed in the UK by Gregor y Simms.

2005 The average US livestock far mer feed s 155 people.

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170 0 BCE The f irst ice house is built for preser ving meat and other foods; a domeshaped struc ture with a s n o w - c o v e r e d f l o o r.

19 16 The f irst fast food re st aur ant , White Castle, opens in Witchita, USA .

19 8 8 Major mad cow d i s e a s e o u t­b r e a k , a result of the new prac tice of using animal remains in animal food.

2013 Mark Post presents the f irst labgrown hamburger resulting from his research. It is sampled in front of an audience in London.


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Postburger

In August 2013, Professor Mark Post unveiled the world’s first hamburger made entirely from lab-grown meat. Fashioned from 20,000 strands of muscle fiber, the prototype cost a staggering €250,000 to make. As technology advances, postburgers should be so cheap that they become standard in fast food outlets around the world. Despite being blander than conventional ground beef, the Postburger’s low price, safety and eco credentials could win over the food industry and consumers alike.

Bleeding Burger 1 beet 1 slice Gouda cheese 1 postburger 1 egg sandwich bun, split 1 t a b l e s p o o n b u t t e r, m e l t e d Veget a ble oil Salt and pepper 1

Preheat the oven to 200° C. Wrap

t h e b e e t i n t i n f o i l . R o a s t f o r o n e h o u r, until a knife meets no resistance when i n s e r t e d i n t h e c e n t e r. L e t t h e b e e t cool, then peel and slice. 2

Change the oven to the broiler

setting. Melt the butter in a small saucepan. Brush both sides of the bun w i t h t h e b u t t e r, t h e n t o a s t i n t h e o v e n

For nostalgic carnivores, the vibrant red juice of this ‘bleeding’ burger recalls the blood from a fresh kill. Between the cheese, the egg and the crunchy buttered bun, there are more than enough animal products in this rendition of the Postburger to win over even the most stubborn traditionalist.

for one minute. Remove to a plate. 3

Heat vegetable oil in a skillet over

medium-high heat until just beginning to smoke. Season the post burger with salt and pepper and cook for two minutes. Flip the burger and top with the cheese slice. Cook for another m i n u t e .Tr a n s f e r t h e b u r g e r t o t h e b u n . 4

Heat additional vegetable oil in the

skillet . Crack the egg into the pan. Cover with a lid and cook until the egg w h i t e h a s j u s t s e t . To p t h e b u r g e r w i t h a slice of beet and the fried egg.

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22


K ni t t e d Me at

The length of a muscle fiber was once limited by the size of the animal it was growing in. Now, freed from the constraints of the body, it’s possible to culture ‘thread’ made from continuing strands of muscle tissue. Colorful spools of meat yarn, from the light pink of chicken to the vibrant red of beef, can be woven into eyecatching patterns. Supermarkets could install knitting machines with pre-set patterns, making it easy to knit a package of burgers or a meaty scarf. A portable model could come with easy-to-use design software for home knitters. Knitting enthusiasts could enjoy gathering in walk-in refrigerators to swap techniques. Over the holidays, many families could replaced the traditional turkey or ham with a festive centerpiece of Knitted Meat.

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Shepherd’s Knit ted Pie 1 kilo knitted meat 1 kilo potatoes 10 0 milliliter s milk 60 grams butter 1 large onion, diced 2 car rot s, peeled and diced 2 celer y stalks, diced 2 garlic cloves, minced 1 can of diced tomatoes 250 milliliters stock 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce 1

P reheat t he oven to 16 0 ° C . Boil t he

potatoes until cooked through. Drain and mash the potatoes with the butter and milk. Season to taste. 2

While the potatoes are boiling,

heat oil in a skillet and sauté the onion, garlic, celer y and car rot s until sof tened. Add the tomatoes, stock and Worchestershire sauce and simmer for 10 minutes. 3

Spread the potato mixture in a baking

d i s h . To p w i t h t h e v e g e t a b l e m i x t u r e , f o l l o w e d b y t h e m e a t . Tr i m t h e m e a t t o f it , and season to taste. Cover the dish with tinfoil and bake for 25 minutes. Remove the tinfoil and bake another 10 minutes or until the meat is browned.


P IG IN T HE B A C K YA R D Since animals need not be slaughtered in the production of in vitro meat, the technology may give rise to new human-animal relations. Pigs in urban backyards could serve as the living donors for muscle stem cells through biopsies every now and then. While the pigs live happy lives as companion animals, feeding on our waste food, their cells are cultured in local meat factories.



94


Me dic in a l Me at Be a n s a nd R ic e

Familiar to billions of people around the world, ‘rice and beans’ has become a staple dish essentially anywhere where rice and legumes can be grown. Meat Beans And Rice improves on this age-old pairing by adding an animal protein to the mix. The beans are actually small pellets of dried lab-grown meat, which can be supplemented with certain vitamins or medicines that are able to withstand the high heat of cooking. The shape of the beans varies by region and local food traditions. In Central America, for instance, the pellets could be approximate the size of black or pinto beans, while in India, they could be shaped like lentils.

Medicinal Congee 250 gram mix of rice and meat beans 1.5 liters vegetable stock 1 s m a l l k n o b o f g i n g e r, s l i c e d 1 teaspoon salt 4 shallot s, sliced into thin rings 6 tablespoons vegetable oil 1 bunch of scallions, sliced 1

Add the rice, broth, ginger and salt

t o a p o t a n d b r i n g t o a s i m m e r. R e d u c e the heat to a bare simmer and stir o c c a s i o n a l l y, u n t i l t h e r i c e h a s n e a r l y d i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o c r e a m y c o n s i s t e n c y, a b o u t o n e h o u r. A d d w a t e r a s n e e d e d to adjust the thickness. 2

While the rice is cooking, heat the

oil in a skillet until shimmering. Fr y the shallot s until they are golden and c r i s p y, s t i r r i n g f r e q u e n t l y. R e m o v e t h e shallot s to a plate and reser ve the oil. 3

W h e n t h e c o n g e e h a s c o o k e d f u l l y,

season to taste with white pepper and additional salt. Ser ve topped with the crispy shallot s, sliced scallions, and a driz zle of shallot oil.

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THE CARNERY Although in vitro meat technology is typically perceived as a high-tech and futuristic product, the cultivation of cell cultures stands in a long tradition of beer brewing and cheese making. Such existing practices could be of inspiration for the future of in vitro meat. One day, growing meat may be as natural as making cheese or beer. Like todays brewpubs, the carnery could become an artesian way of growing meat in cities, or even in restaurants.



131

ME AT F RUI T



127

ME AT F LOW ER S


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

C reati v e T eam

Cr eat i ve Dir e c t ion  —  K oer t v an Mens voor t

A r t D i r e c t i o n   —  H e n d r i k -J a n G r i e v i n k

K n i t t e d M e a t   —  A l b e r t o G r u a r i n ( N N L a b ) L a b c h o p s   —  N N s t u d i o

I l l u s t r a t i o n s — S i l v i a C e l i b e r t i

L a b P e a r l s   —  N N s t u d i o

R e c i p e W r i t i n g  —  A l l i s o n G u y

L a b S w e e t b r e a d   —  N N s t u d i o

P h o t o g r a p h y  — N i c h o n G l e r u m

M a g i c M e a t b a l l s   —  M a r k K a n t e r s ( N N L a b )

S t y l i n g —  F r a n c e s c a B a r c h i e s i

M a r r o w B o n e  —  N N s t u d i o

G r a p h i c D e s i g n   —  H e n d r i k -J a n G r i e v i n k

M e a t C a c t u s   —  N N S t u d i o

L a y o u t   —   L o t t e B i e s h e u v e l

M e a t C o c k t a i l  —  N N s t u d i o M e a t F e t i s h i s m  —  N N s t u d i o

M o d e l M a k i n g  —  J o n a t h o n M a r k o w s k i

P r o o f r e a d i n g  — A l e s s i a A n d r e o t t i

M e a t F l o w e r s   —  N N s t u d i o

C r o w d f u n d i n g V i d e o  —  A r n o u d v a n d e n H e u v e l

M e a t F r u i t   —  A y l i n G r o e n e w o u d ( N N L a b )

P r o d u c t i o n   —  T i m H o o g e s t e g e r

M e a t M o s s   —  B r u n a G o v e i a d a R o c h a ( N N L a b )

P r o j e c t M a n a g e m e n t   —  M i r W e r m u t h

M e a t P a i n t   —  I l s e M a e s s e n ( N N L a b )

Tr a n s l a t i o n — L o e s D e u t e k o m

M e a t P o w d e r   —  C o s t a n z a G i u f f r i d a ( N N L a b ) M e d i c i n a l M e a t B e a n s A n d R i c e  —  N N s t u d i o M i c r o b i a l C o o k i n g  —  M a x A e r t s , T h i l l y C o p p e l m a n s ,

food v isions

Feli x v an de Donk , Pepijn S c hni t zeler (NN L a b) M u s c l e M a s s R o a s t   —  B a r t d e K l e i n ( N N L a b )

B a c o n O n A R o l l  —  N N s t u d i o

O r i g a m i M e a t   —  F r a n k V a l k e n h o e f ( N N L a b )

B o n e P i c k e r s  —  N N s t u d i o

P a i n l e s s F o i e G r a s   —  N N s t u d i o

C a r n e r y B r e w p u b – I s h a D a t a r

P e e l a b l e S a u s a g e  —  N N s t u d i o

C e l e b r i t y C u b e s  —  N N S t u d i o

P i g I n T h e G a r d e n  —  C o r v a n d e r W e e l e

C r u e l t y - f r e e P e t F o o d  —  N N s t u d i o

P o s t b u r g e r   —  M a r k P o s t

C u p I t  —   M a t h L u c a s s e n , W i l l e m v a n d e n O o r d ,

R e d M e a t R e p l a c e r   —  N N s t u d i o

Ly nn Pot ter s and Joc hem T immer s (NN L a b)

R u s t i c I n V i t r o   —  M a r j o l e i n K o r s ( N N L a b )

D i s a s t e r B a r s  —  N N s t u d i o

S c r a p J e r k y  —  N N s t u d i o

D o d o N u g g e t s  —  N N S t u d i o

S e e -T h r o u g h S a s h i m i   —  N N s t u d i o

G i a n t S t e a k   —  N N s t u d i o

T h e T h r o a t T i c k l e r   —  N N s t u d i o

H o m e I n c u b a t o r  —  D a n i e l O n g ( N N L a b )

V e g a n G e l a t i n  —  N N s t u d i o

I n V i t r o A q u a r i u m   —  N N s t u d i o I n V i t r o I c e C r e a m   —  N N s t u d i o I n V i t r o K e b a b  —  D a v i d B e n q u e I n V i t r o M e   —   C h l o é R u t z e r v e l d ( N N L a b ) I n V i t r o O y s t e r s  —  N N s t u d i o K id ’s C ook ing K i t — Ni t a V ir t al a (NN L a b)

19 0


D esign C oaches

S P O N S O R S A N D P artners

The following persons coached the development of

Creative Industries Fund NL , Prins Ber nhard

food visions by student s par ticipating in the Next

Cultuur fonds, Stichting Doen, Submarine,

N a t u r e L a b a t E i n d h o v e n U n i v e r s i t y o f Te c h n o l o g y,

N e w H a r v e s t , M o n d r i a a n F o u n d a t i o n ,

i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n d e p a r t m e n t   —  M e n n o

E i n d h o v e n U n i v e r s i t y o f Te c h n o l o g y

S t o f f e l s e n , R o n a l d v a n T i e n h o v e n , A r n e H e n d r i k s , J a n i n e H u i z i n g a , F l i p Z i e d s e s d e s P l a n t e s , J o r i s v a n G e l d e r, K o e r t v a n M e n s v o o r t

INI T I ATOR S This book is an initiative of Next Nature Network, a non-prof it organization that explores how our technological environment becomes so omnipresent and autonomous, that we star t to perceive it as a n a t u r e o f i t s o w n . F o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d backgrounds about this and other projec t s, please visit: w w w.ne x t natur e.net

THANK YOU Cor van der Weele, Daisy van der Schaf t and Mark Post for your exper t knowledge and feedback. Insoo Hwang, Jiwon Kim, Steven Per r y and Robin Bergman for providing creative input. Mieke Ger r it zen and Cor alie Vogelaar for your c reat ive feedback troughout the whole projec t . Esther K r o p f r o m m o n s t e r k a m e r. n l f o r m a t e r i a l a n d p r i n t advice. Rudolf van Wezel f rom BIS publisher for c ritical remark s and advice. T his projec t wouldn’t have been what it is without your valuable input.

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