Old New – Design Manual for Revitalizing Existing Buildings

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OLD & NEW Design Manual for Revitalizing Existing Buildings

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range from careful revitalizations and progressive modifications to creative ideas for adaptive reuse. Old & New documents thirty-two inspiring examples that illustrate the entire range of dealing with existing buildings. With detailed project data that has been prepared for easy comparison, these case studies supply valuable information for designers and planners. Technical articles give added attention to essential topics concerning engineering and construction—from structural design to landmark restoration.

FRANK PETER JÄGER [ ED.]

An airport hangar is converted into a gymnasium and a department store facade is used to build an open-air reading room—in recent years, working with existing buildings has become an independent architectural discipline. The respect developed for our architectural heritage means that the old is no longer understood merely as architectural “material”, but rather as an equivalent counterpart to the new. Unusual concepts are now just as important as giving appropriate treatment to valuable elements of the built fabric. Today’s architectural interventions

Design Manual for Revitalizing Existing Buildings FRANK PETER JÄGER [ ED.]

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OLD & NEW DESIGN MANUAL FOR REVITALIZING EXISTING BUILDINGS

LOCATIONS × p. 132

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Texts and interview Frank Peter Jäger Coauthors Hubertus Adam, Anneke Bokern, Winfried Brenne, Rainer Hempel, Claudia Hildner, Franz Jaschke, Simone Jung, Julia Kirch, Uta Pottgiesser, Susanne Rexroth, Carsten Sauerbrei, Frank Vettel Project management and editing Berit Liedtke, Andrea Wiegelmann Translation from German into English David Koralek/ ArchiTrans, Hartwin Busch ( texts by S. Rexroth, U. Pottgiesser and J. Kirch, R. Hempel, W. Brenne and F. Jaschke ) Copy editing Richard Toovey Art Direction, design and layout onlab, Nicolas Bourquin, Thibaud Tissot, Eve Hübscher Project management onlab Niloufar Tajeri Cover design and concept onlab Cover image Michel Bonvin Plan graphics onlab Andrea Grippo Illustrations Sam Green Illustration Studio Fonts Korpus and Relevant Pro by Binnenland

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p. 58× × pp. 98, 112, 148, 152 p. 88× × p. 136 p. 28 p. 58 × × × p. 46 × p. 38 p. 164 × p. 62 × p. 178 × × p. 116 × × p. 18 p. 168 pp. 80,108 × × p. 76 p. 92 × × pp. 84, 95 × p. 50 × p. 62 p. 42 ×

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A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress, Washington D.C., USA.

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This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in other ways, and storage in databases. For any kind of use, permission of the copyright owner must be obtained.

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Bibliographic information published by the German National Library The German National Library lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie ; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at http : / / dnb.d-nb.de.

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This book is also available in a German language edition ( ISBN 978-3-0346-0523-6 ). © 2010 Birkhäuser GmbH, Basel P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland

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CATEGORIES Residential Industrial Museum Educational Restaurant / Bar Office Ruin Warehouse Empty lot Farm building Gallery Hotel

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Library Retail Bank Bunker Church Cultural facility Gymnasium Research Town hall Train station Urban square

TRANSFORMATION 42%

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7 In Dialogue Between Epochs—Introduction 11 “ A Gift from the Past ” —Interview 53 101 119 140

Three Examples from the Work of RKW Refurbishing School and University Buildings Renovating Modern Movement Facades Working on Existing Buildings —Experience Gained by a Structural Engineer 182 Three Refurbishment Stories from Baroque to Bauhaus

Frank Peter Jäger Conversation with Peter and Christian Brückner, Claudia Meixner and Florian Schlüter Carsten Sauerbrei Susanne Rexroth Uta Pottgiesser /Julia Kirch Rainer Hempel Winfried Brenne / Franz Jaschke

ADDITION 18 22 28 32 38 42 46 50 58 62

Würzburg Cogeneration Plant Pier Arts Centre Cafeteria in the Zeughaus Ruin Museum Kunst der Westküste Roof for the Kleiner Schlosshof Enschede Culture Cluster Neo Leo Vertical Living Rose am Lend Franz Mehring School Chesa Albertini Punta della Dogana Rossio Railway Station Sparkasse Berchtesgadener Land Weinstadt Town Hall Heuried Residential Complex Lesezeichen Salbke Bachmann Confiserie School in Dagmersellen Blumen Primary School & Bernhard Rose School University of Stuttgart’s K II Building Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Siesmayerstraße Office Building

Fahle Building Andel’s Hotel Lodz Gymnasium in a Hangar Wildau Laboratory Building Alvéole 14 Cultural Center Zehdenick Brickworks Museum Selexyz Dominicanen Bookstore St. Joseph’s House at Waldsassen Abbey Library in Ebracher Hof Terra Mineralia in Freudenstein Castle

EXISTENCE 1500

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EXISTENCE 1500

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EXISTENCE 1500

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Reiach and Hall Architects Kassel Building Dept. / Hans-Joachim Neukäter Sunder-Plassmann Architekten Peter Kulka Architektur SeARCH Lüderwaldt Verhoff Architekten Innocad Architekten RKW Architektur + Städtebau Hans-Jörg Ruch Architektur

Tadao Ando Architect & Associates Broadway Malyan Bolwin Wulf Architekten COAST office architecture Adrian Streich Architekten KARO* Architekten HHF Architects Peter Affentranger Architekt huber staudt architects bda Heinle, Wischer und Partner Numrich Albrecht Klumpp Architekten schneider+schumacher

CONVERSION 132 136 148 152 156 161 164 168 172 178

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Brückner & Brückner Architekten

TRANSFORMATION 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 95 98 108 112 116

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CONTENTS

KOKO Arhitektid OP Architekten Numrich Albrecht Klumpp Architekten Anderhalten Architekten LIN Finn Geipel + Giulia Andi Duncan McCauley Merkx + Girod Architecten Brückner & Brückner Architekten Bruno Fioretti Marquez Architekten AFF Architekten

190 Further Reading 191 Architects’ Websites & Photo Credits 192 Editor, Authors, Text Sources & Acknowledgments

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IN DIALOGUE BETWEEN EPOCHS Whereas, in the twentieth century, architects preferred the task of designing new buildings and only a handful of trailblazers had discovered the allure of interweaving historical and modern architecture, today the work of these pioneers has borne fruit ; working with existing buildings has long since developed into an independent architectural genre. FRANK PETER JÄGER

mentioned as a final, nearly forgotFor a long time, there were three baWhen buildings talk, sic reasons for working with existing it is never with a single voice. ten, reason for working with existing buildings : In 690 A.D., when the buildbuildings : The first of these is that a Buildings are choirs ing preceding today’s church of St. Manew building is not affordable, or not rather than soloists. Alain de Botton ria im Kapitol was erected in Cologne, seen as worth the investment, and so the site selected was that of the mathe old one is kept in use. The second sonry foundations of the Roman Capapplies when a building has landmark status and hence may not be demolished, but can instead itolium, a temple dedicated to the be incorporated into a new development. In the third divine trio Jupiter, Juno, and Mincase, an existing structure is altered in lieu of demolish- erva.II The site was, as we would say ing it, because the attractive land use ratio of the exist- today, “ newly occupied ” as monoing building would no longer be permitted for a new one. theism took the place of a polytheisWhereas the first reason is as old as the act of building tic world throughout Europe. itself, the other two are consequences of landmark pres- Viewed in a historical perspective, ervation regulations and of modern planning law. our relationship to the existing built fabric is extremely dynamic : WHY WORK WITH EXISTING BUILDINGS ? Whereas, for practical and econom— ic reasons, working with existing In addition to the above, two motives pertaining to the buildings has generally been the rule ideal value of buildings play a role. Well before the es- during the two millennia since Clastablishment of modern landmark preservation, there sical Antiquity, it became increaswere buildings considered to be sacrosanct—the birth- ingly seldom on the threshold of the Modern era in the places of famous personalities, sites associated with nineteenth century until finally, in the twentieth centhe acts of saints, and similar places with religious or tury, demolition followed by new construction became political symbolism. The politics of symbols should be almost universal. That has changed fundamentally in I

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1 Wall portal in Verona’s Castelvecchio, which was converted to a museum by Carlo Scarpa

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the meantime, above all in Central Europe, where approximately two-thirds of building activity now takes place in the existing fabric.III One reason for the pioneering role of the German-speaking countries—and some neighboring countries—in this field lies in the comparatively early establishment of governmental landmark preservation in the second half of the twentieth century. The monument culture of a local community cannot limit itself to restricting change and merely preserving a status quo if it seeks to maintain its influence amidst brisk construction activity. One of its most important tasks consists of providing architects and clients with reliable instruments for dealing with historically valuable buildings and ensembles: Should a converted industrial building be preserved in its entirety or just in certain parts ? Is it permissible to blur the boundary between the existing and the new when carrying out alterations? In other words, should it be clear for all to see that the enlarged windows of a former warehouse building result from subsequent work ? If yes, how can such points of intersection between old and new be formed ? Lastly, there is the question of the authenticity of a building’s various accretions: it is often decided to restore a building as a combination of several different historical states. SMOKESTACK IN FREE FALL — Without discussing such questions, it is not possible to intervene responsibly in landmark buildings. Wherever the dialogue is conducted constructively and openly, architects do not interpret the conditions set by the landmark preservation authorities as a restriction, but as guidance for their design and planning. That the position of the landmark authorities—even on the basis of generally applicable fundamental principles— is not always explicable and is at times strongly affected by the subjective positions of individual decision makers, is heard in discussion amongst architects [p. 11]. On the other hand, several cases in which the architects have acted as advocates of buildings that did not even have landmark status are also discussed here. Every architect today needs to decide, independently from the assessment of the landmark 2 The breach torn by a bomb in Munich’s Alte Pinakothek was repaired by Hans Döllgast in such a way that it remains legible.

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3 In order to convert warehouse 11 on Cologne’s waterfront into a residential and office building, JSWD Architects inserted additional windows next to the existing ones.

preservation authorities, what value to attach to an existing building for the purposes at hand—because the criteria of the landmark authorities considers the value of a building as historical evidence, but not all the possibilities it offers when considered from the perspective of an open-minded observer. Ambitious combinations of old and new were indeed created in the 1950s and 1960s, yet compared with the current examples presented in this publication, the view of the past back then was defined by skepticism : in the reconstruction of Frankfurt’s St. Paul’s church, which had been bombed out in the war, IV or the Reichstag building in Berlin,V a mere few leftover exterior walls were celebrated as major feats of historic preservation, although in the cases of these and numerous other buildings, much more of the built substance could have been saved. Moreover, such projects were almost exclusively limited to buildings of religious and symbolic significance. Disused industrial and transportation structures barely had a chance of being conserved until well into the 1980s. When I was a child, the newspapers frequently printed photo sequences of water towers being blown up, or factory smokestacks in free fall. Even then, I was not able to understand why there was supposedly no alternative to demolishing these fantastic industrial structures, as was always claimed.VI That such buildings, although originally constructed for thoroughly specific functions, such as water towers, silos, signal towers, and warehouses, could very well be converted for completely different uses is something that no one could—or wanted—to believe thirty years ago. The path to the preservation of these structures was blocked by a lack of architectural appreciation, not by their structural condition.

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DIALOGUE BETWEEN OLD AND NEW — In many projects, the decision to conserve an existing building seems like an act of mercy by the architect to the ravaged residual fabric : Egon Eiermann’s redesign of Berlin’s Breitscheidplatz drew attention to the burnt-out tower that remained of the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church, while all around, entire blocks of apartment buildings were being cleared away. Like the oversized spoils of war, buildings in Frankfurt, Cologne, and Munich were all torn from their contexts within an 4 Restored portal on the front side of the warehouse in Cologne’s Rheinauhafen harborside development

5 From water tower to residential tower : a project in Soest, the Netherlands, by Zecc Architects

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IN DIALOGUE BETWEEN EPOCHS

ensemble, even though the neighboring buildings could have been rebuilt. Like a mere curiosity, the old pieces were isolated and elevated, but they were not conceived as equitable parts of a new whole. Many European architects first surmised what a true dialogue between old and new could look like when they saw the projects built by Venetian architect Carlo Scarpa in northern Italy. Since the late 1940s, Scarpa had attracted attention with a number of museum buildings, such as the renovation and conversion of the Castelvecchio in Verona and other architectural work on landmark buildings.VII His meticulousness in dealing with architectural details, his natural and equally elegant combinations of exposed concrete or delicate copper strips with the bricks, marble, terrazzo, oak beams, and other materials traditionally used in North Italian palazzi—and not least his pioneering, subtle way of dealing with the extant location—influenced a whole generation of architects. In Germany, Hans Döllgast VIII who was involved in the reconstruction of Munich, and somewhat later, Karljosef Schattner IX advocated a similar, pronounced position—although with completely different results. The work of these pioneers has borne fruit and has meanwhile found broad dissemination as an architectural stance : When architects and clients resolve to integrate parts of old buildings into new buildings, irrespective of landmark preservation requirements, they are doing so because they presume that the new entity will profit from the functional strengths, the presence, and the historical traces of such a building. What matters is the spirit of place and the historical period that a building represents, even if it has not made history itself. The contemporary addition also enhances the existing substance. The act of inscribing another architectural epoch and the characteristic style of another architect in a building endows it with a new interpretation. 6

ARCHAEOLOGY ABOVE THE EARTH — The method of the Brückner brothers, which is first to have a look at a building at leisure and then conceptually consider whether a new building could replace its virtues [ p. 12 ] speaks of respect for heritage and for their trained powers of observation. These stem from a sense for the barely perceptible qualities of a run-down, structurally reshaped building—in other words, from the ability to recognize and analyze concealed potential. In this situation, the work of architects resembles archaeology conducted above the earth’s surface. 6 Historical traces in David Chipperfield’s New Museum : a stair made of matte white exposed aggregate concrete between rough brickwork and pillars blackened with soot

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7 Contemporary addition on top : a slender residential bar set on a house from the 1970s—a project by Wandel Höfer Lorch Architekten

Nowhere do the social and sociopolitical aspects of working with existing buildings appear so explicitly as in residential buildings. Buildings from the boom years between 1960 and the mid-1970s especially —family homes as well as multi-story apartment buildings—with their clearly defined functional zones and the spartan dimensioning of service areas such as kitchens and bathrooms, are not reconcilable with the concept of living in openplan layouts and with today’s needs for space. By modifying the floor plan, adding stories, or through extension, buildings from this period can be upgraded in such a way that they receive a new, long-term perspective. Every instance of the integration of existing structures in a new building, and every qualifying extension or renovation of an existing building equals practiced sustainability. The ecological significance lies first and foremost in the fact that an existent property that still easily fulfills its purpose continues to be used for as long as possible. Thus it is essentially a simple matter of thrifty and prudent economic management. In addition to the ecological benefit that is achieved by retrofitting a building for greater energy efficiency, the savings in raw materials and energy that are attained by renovating existing buildings, as opposed to constructing new ones, should not be forgotten. The successful combinations of old and new that are portrayed on the following pages should not obscure the fact that, internationally, the responsible treatment of building stock is far from being a well-established shared concept. In China, for example, which was economically opened up at the beginning of the 1990s, historical buildings have since been razed to the ground to an extent that takes away the breath of Western observers. In the Arab world, an awareness of the value of local building traditions has only recently begun to take root, as is the case in Central and South America. Even in North America, interesting examples of working with existing buildings are still rare.X Nevertheless, these are no grounds for Europeans to be complacent, because in Stuttgart or Vienna, for example, landmark status does not help a building much when its preservation is opposed by tangible economic interests. Old & New is conceived in this context as an encouragement and an inspiration—for architects on both sides of the Atlantic—to gauge, on site, the opportunities for cleverly incorporating existing built structures, even if doing so may require them to be very persuasive. Proof that the results are worth the effort is provided by this

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Haus+ in Hameln : architect Anne Menke has reconstructed her parents’ house in a contemporary manner.

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OLD & NEW

selection of projects, which is heterogeneous in every behemoth and in so doing, triggered the enhancement respect ; the majority is the work of small offices ; many of the surrounding harbor district [p. 156]. The reanimated of them with very limited budgets. torso of the Kassel Zeughaus is a good example of the fact that sometimes even belated restoration projects, which THE PROJECTS have only been realized after several failed attempts, — eventually achieve a particularly convincing result [p. 28]. The chief criterion for selecting the projects in this book The library in Schweinfurt [p. 172] is not the only design was their architectural quality, and thus also their origi- to convey the pleasure of gaining aesthetic capital from nality. In this respect, a successful and multifaceted con- the well calculated confrontation between old and new. nection to “place” was one consideration, the conceptual The affinity of such projects to modern art is obvious : maturity of the treatment of the existing fabric anoth- Historical relics are inserted in new buildings like aser. In light of these rather abstract criteria, it is surpris- semblages and there is a tangible enthusiasm for collage, ing that in the end, a common theme can be discerned in deconstruction, and spatial layering. the final project selection, without it having played a role On the other hand, the result need not always be a work in reaching a decision : A striking number of the build- of art. Those projects governed first and foremost by moings have a sociopolitical background ; the new building tives of practical use and endowed with limited funds is, in this case, an expression of the I de Botton, Alain : The Architecture of admittedly appear less often in archiactive re-cultivation of places that Happiness, New York 2006, p. 208. tectural magazines, but they make II The Romanesque building visible today have in the meantime depreciated was up the bulk of construction activity : completed in 1065. or become fallow. It is an expres- III In the last two decades, the percentages extensions to industrial buildings, continuously shifted toward working with sion of reurbanization. In the Dutch have exhibition halls, schools and, not to existing buildings—for instance in Germany, town of Enschede, the adaptive re- new-built construction still dominated in 1997 be forgotten, the broad field of housa share of 53.7% as compared to 46.3% for use of a factory site destroyed by an with ing in existing buildings. The examconstruction work in existing buildings, and explosion a few years earlier has giv- the ratio has continually shifted since then : in ples of Heuried residential complex in residential construction, for instance, en the entire district a new identity 2007 in Zurich [p. 84] and Blumen Primary the measures taken in existing buildings already comprised 74% of all construction work. Source : School in Berlin [ p. 98 ] show that of[ p. 42 ]. In Łódź, Tallinn, and Wildau in DIW ( ed. ) : Strukturdaten zur Produktion und ten a technically simple, but carefulBrandenburg, the immense shells of Beschäftigung im Baugewerbe. Berlin 2007. and : buildings whose industrial use had Nachhaltiges Bauen im Bestand, workshop doc- ly implemented modification of the of the Federal Ministry of Education building envelope can give the whole become obsolete have once again, umentation and Research, Berlin 2002. in a new guise, become part of dai- IV St. Paul’s church was one of the first build- a completely different character. ings in Frankfurt to be rebuilt after the Second With two modern classics, the Stutly life. They now serve educational, World War, under the direction of the architect tgart K II building [p. 108] and the forresidential, or tourism purposes and Rudolf Schwarz. The architect of the reconstruction was likewise symbolize the newly found VPaul Baumgarten, mer US consulate in Frankfurt [p. 116], born in Tilsit in 1900. self-confidence of post-communist VI Bernd and Hilla Becher, founders of the the architects have consciously forBecher school, ” drove with their VW van societies at the end of a transforma- “through gone setting their own accents and Europe in those days and took photos, tion process lasting two decades. An from Wales to northern France, of water towers, have concentrated entirely on refurblast furnaces, and mining pitheads, the majority outstanding example in every rebishing the technical equipment. of which have since disappeared. spect is Lesezeichen Salbke, because VII References incl. Los, Sergio: Scarpa, Cologne In the Franconian city of Würzburg, it demonstrates how the maximum 2009. several hundred prefinished alumiVIII Döllgast, who had mainly built for the effect can be achieved with mininum sheets, supported by a simple church authorities since the 1920s, planned the reconstruction of numerous landmarks that mum effort [p. 88]. steel substructure, achieve a strikhad been damaged in the war, most notably in ing effect from a distance as the The U-boat bunker constructed by Munich. The “ creative conservation ” of the Alte Pinakothek, which had been damaged by a the occupying German navy in Saint- bomb hit, is amongst his best-known works. Cf. shiny envelope of a power plant [p. 18]. Nazaire stood empty and useless at TU München ( ed. ) : Hans Döllgast 1891–1974, Working with existing buildings is 1987. the harbor for decades: nothing other Munich not a discipline for those lacking in IX References incl. Zahner, Walter : Bauherr than a huge barrier that blocked the Kirche—Der Architekt Karljosef Schattner, self-confidence. Those who believe Munich 2009 ; Pehnt, Wolfgang : Karljosef view toward the sea and constant- Schattner—ein that treating the original with reArchitekt aus Eichstätt, ly reminded people of the destruc- Ostfildern 1988/1999. spect prevents architects from creatmuch publicized project is, for example, the tion of the town in the Second World XHighALine ing designs with an urban presence in Park in New York, an old elevated railWar. This only changed when a Ber- road track in Chelsea that has been converted by the existing fabric might well change architects Diller Scofidio + Renfro and landlin architectural firm introduced cul- the their minds after seeing Würzburg scape architects Field Operations into a city park. tural uses into part of the concrete Further information under: www.thehighline.org cogeneration plant.

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PIER ARTS CENTRE OLD

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ORKNEY (UK) Warehouse — pp. 68, 178 Residential — pp. 32, 42, 46, 50, 62, 84, 132 Gallery — p. 62

Reiach and Hall Architects

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1 Gable, sheet metal cladding, glass and fieldstone—the architectural elements of the extended Pier Arts Centre are shown here in an architect’s sketch. 2 The appearance of the existing buildings is characterized by the traditional fieldstone of the Orkney Islands. 3 The entrance to the Arts Centre is located in a white building on Victoria Street, away from the harbor. 4 The harbor side of the gallery 3

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5–7 The new exhibition building illuminates its surroundings at night like a lantern. The ribbed structure of the roof emphasizes the transparent lightness of the building envelope. 8 Architect’s concept sketch 9 Zinc siding at twilight: facade detail facing the harbor

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THREE BUILDINGS FOR ART

the same basic form as the oldTo someone from the south of er building alongside it, and the Scotland, Stromness is locatspacing of the ribs in its glass faed far to the north—in a place cade echo the original gallery’s that seems more Scandinarafters. When viewing its gable vian than Scottish. The archiwall head-on, the building aptects Reiach and Hall view their RENOVATION AND EXTENSION OF pears solid, yet with each step work in the context of a northern THE PIER ARTS CENTRE, ORKNEY ISLANDS, SCOTLAND the viewer takes to the left or modernism. They aim to create REIACH AND HALL ARCHITECTS, EDINBURGH right, this solidity dissolves. Seen architecture characterized by from the side, the new buildstillness, lightness, and clarity. ing merges somewhat into the Stromness, the second largest background, allowing the more city on the Orkney Islands and massive, original, pier building their main port, is distinguished to regain prominence. The new by a unique seaside urban debuilding signifies stability and velopment—with stone piers, old warehouses, and mercantile buildings, all of which give the strength, but in its lightness and transparency, it contrasts refreshrugged, windswept seafront of the town its character. The Pier Arts ingly with the hard stone walls of the neighboring buildings. Centre ( PAC ) occupies a strategic position in this stone frontage, directly adjacent to LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH THE ENSEMBLE PROJECT DATA Client Pier Arts Centre, Stromness the ferry terminal. The Centre houses one Construction costs GBP 2.8 M of the most significant collections of BritUsable floor area 658 m2 ish art from the twentieth century, and the GFA 1,023 m2 permanent collection is regularly suppleCompletion 2007 Architecture / management Neil mented by temporary exhibitions. Gillespie, David Anderson Established in 1979 in two landmarked hisLocation Victoria Street, Stromness, torical buildings directly on the stone pier, KW16 3AA Orkney, UK the Pier Art Centre was refurbished and Year of construction 1820 expanded by Reiach and Hall Architects 10 m 1000 2010 from 2005 to 2007. The ensemble consists of three distinct elements : a building Conversion 2007 along Victoria Street on the landward side 2000 2010 and two buildings that extend perpendicu- GROUND FLOOR PLAN Construction costs Price per m2 larly from the street towards the sea. The approx. 3.4 M € 5,167 € whitewashed streetside building contains 15,000 the entrance, offices, and library, along 10,000 with an artist’s studio. The latter two are a renovated waterfront warehouse and a 5,000 new building in black with a simple pitched 0 roof in a modern form that recalls traditional warehouses. The original pier buildF D A E ing contains the permanent collection, whereas the temporary C G exhibitions are held in its newer counterpart. Like the renovated existing buildings, the new building designed by H H H Reiach and Hall has become part of the urban topography—and yet its black exterior defamiliarises the seemingly conventional form and elevates it subtly from its historical surroundings. Unlike the I B waterfront warehouses of stone, this building has an exterior that oscillates between solid and void : black zinc ribs alternate with translucent glass infill. At night, the illuminated interior radiates 10 m like a lantern from between the ribs of the outer skin. Ragna Róbertsdóttir, an Icelandic artist who works with volcanic material, inspired the architects to create a facade toward the sea that appears to shift as the viewer moves. The annex takes A Entry / meeting / shop E Gallery-double height I Hepworth curved Administration Long gallery D Workshop

The situation on the pier before the new building was erected

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Gallery Pend link H Collection

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form Trevaligon

The Victoria Street building can be seen as the antithesis of the black house : here everything is white. The inviting, friendly impression of its white walls makes it seem familiar, yet upon closer inspection, this building also has an uncanny air about it. Gray and brown tones dominate the town of Stromness, and in front of this backdrop, the Pier Arts Centre’s vibrant white main building seems no less strange than its black counterpart. The interior spaces of the gallery are plastered white and punctuated by glazed openings in the gable wall and along the side facing the sea. Spacious, tranquil exhibition spaces enable the works of art to come across at their best ; soft northern light filters into the spaces and establishes a connection between the visitor and the surrounding landscape. FPJ

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10 The gallery offers a view directly onto the harbor and the fishing boats of Stromness. 11, 12 Inside the gallery

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CAFETERIA IN THE ZEUGHAUS RUIN OLD

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KASSEL ( DE ) Ruin — pp. 38, 42 Restaurant/Bar — pp. 92, 136, 156, 168

Kassel Building Department Hans-Joachim Neukäter

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1, 4 The architects have inserted the cafeteria between the 500-year-old walls as a dematerialized glazed volume, whose real walls are those of the former armory. 2 The ruin as it stood in the 1960s 3 In 1972, two-thirds of the Renaissance building were demolished to make way for a new school. 5 All that remains of the Zeughaus ruin is the southwestern corner—seen here in its entirety from ArtilleriestraĂ&#x;e.

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8 6–9 The cafeteria has been inserted as a free-standing structure within the old armory walls, yet it is closely interlinked with the existing substance. The area inside the ruin is reached across a small terrace.

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FROM OBSTACLE TO CONNECTING LINK

At the beginning of the 1970s, the The matter-of-fact manner in city planned to construct two vowhich the city of Kassel went cational schools on the Zeughaus about demolishing the extersite. For one of them, the Max nal walls of its war-damaged, Eyth School, two-thirds of the historical armory—known as the long, rectangular building was Zeughaus—is appalling from todemolished. After the compleday’s perspective : Photos from tion of both schools, four-story 1972 show an excavator ripping A NEW CAFETERIA IN KASSEL’S ZEUGHAUS RUIN classroom blocks were attached into the meter-thick walls—it KASSEL BUILDING DEPARTMENT, to the corner section of the ruis hard to believe that, not all PROF. HANS-JOACHIM NEUKÄTER in on two sides. “ They probably that long ago, the demolition of would have liked to tear down the a Renaissance building was still entire ruin,” comments architect the order of the day. Hans-Joachim Neukäter, in retOn March 1, 1582, Landgrave rospect, about the decision to Wilhelm IV laid the four cornerstones of the Zeughaus, in which the city’s arsenal of weapons retain a portion. “Actually, the ruin was even more disruptive at that was housed. “ The building, whose considerable dimensions are point. It blocked the connection between the two wings!” highlighted in older descriptions, shall be on plan a rectangle of However, awareness of the city’s architectural heritage had grown. 96.80 meters long and 21.80 meters wide, ” according to a his- In 1991, Kassel citizens founded an association with the goal of preserving the ruin and giving it a new use. Association members torical source. freed the overgrown inner area of debris and financed the refurbishment of the external PROJECT DATA LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH THE OLD ARMORY AND THE CAFETERIA with the floors of the vocational school on the right walls with donations. In order to achieve per- Client Kassel municipal administration costs EUR 1.14 M manent use of the building, Hans-Joachim Construction Usable floor area 257 m2 Neukäter, director of the municipal build- GFA 305 m2 ing department, presented a design that Feature The new building is glazed received unanimous consent and was ulti- all around ; the shell construction to 80% of the total built mately realized : A cafeteria, missing from corresponds volume. the school until now, was to be integrated Completion 12 / 2008 into the ruin. The newly created space is at Project management / team Claus the disposal of the vocational students and Wienecke, Margitta Heidenreich Location Artilleriestraße / corner of is also available for public events. Zeughausstraße, D–34125 Kassel The architect describes his concept as folYear of construction 1582 lows : “ Inside and outside correspond to old and new. The outside is sturdy, the inside 1000 2010 10 m is fragile. This gave birth to the idea of in- Conversion 2008 tegrating a glass object into the ruin, one 2010 that does not restrict the space or make it 2000 2 Construction costs Price per m smaller, and does not compete with the imFLOOR PLAN AND FUNCTIONAL ZONES OF THE CAFETERIA 4,436 € posing appearance of the remaining outer 1.14 M € 15,000 walls. Three horizontal layers characterize 10,000 the design concept : Level 1 of the cafeteria ( ground floor ), which lies half a meter 5,000 I above the former floor, the set-back mezG 0 zanine level above, and the roof slab. Level 1 and the mezzanine level connect the two H classroom wings, accommodate their differences in height, and are G enveloped solely by a transparent glass and steel construction. ” Neukäter consciously chose a mezzanine instead of a second full E F story so the inserted new building remains as light as possible and permits, from nearly every point, a view of the fieldstone masonry B C D of the external walls—which he perceives as the real shell of the building. The architect folded the thermal envelope at the top of the building to the inside, again with the goal of interrupting the view of the external walls as little as possible. The few direct points of contact between the masonry ruins and the new building have been A detailed meticulously. The unbuilt-upon part of the ruin above the 10 m cafeteria terrace is now once again accessible. Structurally, the building’s foundation slab rests on grillage supported by bored piles. The historical floor, made of large format, 15 cm A West building D Terrace G Equipment room B Storage E Kitchen H Electric room thick sandstone slabs, lies 60 cm below the terrazzo floor of the C Cafeteria F Zeughaus ruin I South building new building—the present ground floor—and remains untouched. Integrated underfloor heating makes additional heating elements In the Second World War, Kassel was the target of aerial attacks superfluous. The number of columns carrying the reinforced conby the Allies ; following bombing in 1943, the Zeughaus was gutted crete slabs for the mezzanine and the roof has been reduced to a by fire—only its external walls remained. In the following decades, minimum. The exterior enclosure is formed by triple glazing supthe shell deteriorated and became overgrown. Alongside plans to ported by a delicately profiled post-and-rail construction. reconstruct the building as Kassel’s museum of local history, for The cafeteria and the ruin complement each other while maintainsome time consideration was given to using it as a parking garage. ing their own identities. That’s the way the landmark preservation office also saw it, giving the design concept its full support. FPJ Ultimately, though, none of the plans were pursued further.

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VENICE ( IT ) Warehouse — pp. 22, 178 Museum — pp. 32, 38, 42, 161, 178

Tadao Ando Architect & Associates

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the porcelain-like, polished, exThe old customs office, Punta posed concrete that has bedella Dogana, occupies a promcome his trademark, as well inent site in the lagoon city : it as elements of steel and glass. stands at the tip of an island The floors are—depending on in the Dorsoduro district, borthe floor level and the part of dered by the Canal Grande and CONVERSION OF A VENETIAN the building—either exposed the Canale della Giudecca, diCUSTOMS HALL INTO A MUSEUM concrete or covered with liagonally opposite from Piazza TADAO ANDO ARCHITECT & ASSOCIATES noleum. The smooth surfaces San Marco. In the past, investors CLAUDIA HILDNER contrast with the irregular brick have repeatedly shown interwalls and rough wooden beams est in the seventeenth-century of the historical building. Since building, which has been empthe new and old elements mainty for decades ; the changes tain a balance, the existing fabthat would have been necessary ric and the new construction do for converting it into a hotel or apartment building were, however, not acceptable to the city and not compete with one another. Instead, they form a new entity— its residents. François Pinault, a French billionaire and art collec- the art museum. For Ando, this alliance also symbolizes the union tor, was ultimately able to win the Venetians over to his concept for of past, present, and future : the shell stands for the past, his architecture represents the present, and the art is that which tranconverting the building into a museum of contemporary art. The architecture of the new “temple of art” is the brainchild of Tadao scends the present. Ando Architect & Associates. It takes some courage to commission a Japanese archi- SITE PLAN AND LAYOUT OF PUNTA DELLA DOGANA PROJECT DATA Client Palazzo Grassi S.p.A. tect for converting a European building that Construction costs EUR 20 M is more than three hundred years old: RenUsable floor area approx. 3,500 m2 ovations are not particularly everyday busi( net ) ness in Japan, much less the conversion of GFA 4,331 m2 Completion 5 / 2009 an existing building that is as old as this. B B Project management / team Tadao AnB C Yet Ando has succeeded in revitalizing the do, Kazuya Okano, Yoshinori Hayashi, F former customs building in a surprisingly E Seiichiro Takeuchi B D Partner Equilibri srl, Eugenio Tranquilli sensitive way. It was soon decided to leave ( project manager ) the external appearance of the building unB Location Dorsoduro, Campo della SaB touched—not only because of the city auB B lute, 2, I–30123 Venice thority’s strict requirements. The stuccoed Year of construction 1500 brick masonry of the outer walls was carefully restored and, where needed, secured A Entrance 1000 2010 A with stainless steel anchors. Slight imper- B Exhibition spaces Conversion 2007–2009 plant room fections in the stucco were repaired, where- CD Technical Central courtyard 2000 2010 as the brick was left visible in larger areas E Café and bookstore Construction costs Price per m2 affected by spalling. F Tower 20 M € 5,714 € The building is covered by a wave-like se15,000 ries of gabled roofs that cover the parallel, In the center of Punta della Dogana, the architect has placed a long rectangular halls comprising the tri- concrete cube that opens upwards. It marks the place where a di10,000 angular plan. Atop the restored timber roof viding wall was removed as part of a previous renovation. In this 5,000 structure, the architects have set a new case, rather than reinstating the original structure, Ando has be0 roof that is reminiscent of the original, but stowed a new heart upon the building, in the form of this cube. For which integrates additional skylights. the flooring of this central exhibition space, the Japanese archiInside, to start with, all the partition walls, stairs, and other addi- tect has selected masegni, a large-format sandstone slab that is tions from the last two centuries were removed—only the original traditionally used in Venice as paving. structure remains. Walls were left unsurfaced to a great extent. In the end, incidentally, Ando had to dispense with one element Missing bricks were replaced by the architects only where it was of his design : In front of the entrance that faces the Campo della absolutely necessary, using bricks with characteristics2 coming as4 Salute, Ando wanted to position two concrete stelae, so as to call 2 close as possible to the existing ones. attention to the transformation of the site and its new content. The The newly inserted structural elements, however, establish a Venetians opposed it, however, and thus the external sign of the clear contrast to the existing fabric : here Ando has worked with new use remained unrealized.

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[ p. 68 ] The halls in the former Venetian customs house converted by Tadao Ando for François Pinault’s art collection are long and high. 2, 4 Square of smooth exposed concrete—sensitively inserted by Ando 3 Condition before renovation 1

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5 View from the upper level toward Il Redentore 6 The Canale Grande flows past the customs house ( Dogana da Mar ), which was erected 1678–1682, and into the open lagoon. The globe carried by Atlas figures once emphasized the claim to supremacy made by the Republic of Venice. 6

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LISBON (PT) Train station Train station Office — pp. 76, 116, 132

Broadway Malyan

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1 Modernism from 1887 : delicate steel trusswork carries the roof of the main hall. 2 View from the entrance hall toward the tracks 3, 5 Escalators connect the raised station concourse with the ground level forecourt. 4 In the course of renovation, 3,000 m2 of office space was created. Galleries optimize the use of space.

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car-free urban square. The levFrom Lisbon’s Rossio station, el of comfort was improved and the trains leave for Sintra, a a welcoming atmosphere was small town not far from the created for travelers, not least capital, where the magnificent by inserting a direct connection summer residence of the kings between the train platforms and of Portugal is found. REFURBISHMENT AND RENOVATION the neighboring Restauradores The terminal, just a few steps OF ROSSIO STATION, LISBON metro station. from the lively commercial disBROADWAY MALYAN , LONDON A total of 3,000 sq m of office trict of Baixa, is Lisbon’s most space and 1,000 sq m of retail central train station and also and food services have been one of the most beautiful in Eucreated inside the railway starope ! In 1887, the architect Jotion, all integrated coherently sé Luís Monteiro constructed it within the historical context. In in Neo-Manueline style for the the vicinity of the waiting area Portuguese Royal Railway Company. The eye-catchers of the natural stone facade, with its deli- at platform level ( 2nd above-ground level ), a 1,000 sq m exhibition cate ornamentation, are the two striking, horseshoe-shaped main space has been integrated. The elaborate ornamentation of the portals that dominate the plinth facing the light-colored limestone facade has also been meticulously refursquare known as the Rossio. The train plat- bished, as have the surviving cast-iron window frames in the hall. PROJECT DATA Client Invesfer Refer form level is almost 30 m above the exits Construction costs EUR 40 M to the street. Escalators and a system of Usable floor area approx. 7,600 m2 ramps overcome the height difference. GFA 8,400 m2 An almost endless row of iron columns carFeature Winner in the “ Best Refurbishment ” category of the competition ries the station concourse, which is 130 m held by Portuguese magazine wide. The elegant supporting structure has Construir, 2008 been preserved in its original form ; at the Completion 2 / 2008 end of the hall, the train vanishes into a Project management Broadway Malyan, Lisbon office ; Sofia Carrelhas long tunnel. Location Praça de Dom Pedro IV, In 2004, the architectural firm BroadP–1100 Lisbon way Malyan, based in London, received Dismal and cluttered : Rossio before renovation Year of construction 1887 the commission to refurbish the land- The challenge for the architects was to construct an attractive marked railway station building, after vertical connection, as direct as possible, between the entrances 1000 2010 grave damage to the building and in the on the Rossio and Praça dos Restauradores on one hand, and the Conversion 2006–2008 adjacent railway tunnel had been found. train platforms two levels above, on the other. A wall to the side 2000 2010 The railway station had last been renovat- of the refurbished escalators has been designed with a field of Construction costs Price per m2 ed in 1976. In order to integrate retail shops vertical, staggered metal splines. Their wave rhythm enlivens the 40 M € 5,000 € and movie theaters into the building, sev- otherwise sober stairway. In addition to the escalators, a series of 15,000 eral intermediate stories had been inserted stairs and terraced levels connects the concourse with its imme10,000 without connection to the existing struc- diate surroundings. Both elements generate a suitable visual and tures or their materiality. Inside, the rail- spatial connection between the city and the railway station prop5,000 way station had mutated into a featureless, er. The restoration and restructuring of Rossio railway station by 0 labyrinthine building. The goal of the refur- Broadway Malyan is convincing in its clarity and in its concentrabishment, begun in 2004, was to recap- tion on a limited spectrum of necessary and effective interventions. ture the grandeur of the historical railway station and to restore After darkness falls, when the newly installed exterior lighting efits once clean and spacious structures. Moreover, the handsome, fectively illuminates the Manueline pomp, you realize that the staneighboring Largo do Duque de Cadaval, which until then had tion was built for a king. The excursion to the palaces of Sintra has been used as an unmanaged parking lot, was redesigned as a a worthy beginning. FPJ CROSS SECTION THROUGH THE CONCOURSE AND THE SIDE ENTRANCE

10 m

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Light and airy passage : the entrance hall 7–9 The adjacent public square was refurbished together with the railway station—and is now car-free. 10 The Neo-Manueline street facade with clock tower 6

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SELEXYZ DOMINICANEN BOOKSTORE OLD

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MAASTRICHT ( NL ) Church Retail — p. 50

Merkx + Girod Architecten

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LITERATURE INSTEAD OF LITURGY

When Merkx + Girod received The Gothic Dominican church the commission for the renovastands on a small, secluded tion, they had already furnished square in the historical district one store in Almere and another of Maastricht. Finished in 1294, in The Hague, both for the same the building originally served as client—the bookstore chain BGN. a monastery church for the DoThe point of departure for the minican Order until the Napoledesign of the Dominican church onic troops descended in 1796 BOOKSTORE IN A GOTHIC CHURCH was the architects’ desire not to and the monastery was disIN MAASTRICHT obstruct or disguise the church banded in the course of secMERKX + GIROD ARCHITECTEN, AMSTERDAM space, and to retain its sacral ularization. In the following ANNEKE BOKERN atmosphere. The only question centuries, the church—with neiwas : How do you install a bookther tower nor transept—served store with a selection of 30,000 a multitude of different functitles without impairing the extions, none of which were very dignified. To begin with, it was used as a stable for the cavalry, isting spatial quality ? Only 550 sq m of floor area were availthen as a warehouse for the municipal fire department ; later it be- able in the church overall, but nearly 1,000 sq m were needed. came an event hall for boxing matches, cactus shows, and carni- The client initially suggested the insertion of additional levels into val parties and most recently, it even had to serve as a garage for the church, in the form of bridges. But the landmarks preservabicycles. The many tourists who visited Maastricht ignored it in any tion council had prohibited any measures that might damage the case, because there are many better-preserved churches to see at church walls. All built-in fixtures had to be removable in such a way as to permit the building to be returned to its previous state. more prominent locations in the city. A solution was then found, in the form of an oversized, walk-in bookcase. Merkx + PROJECT DATA PLAN OF THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE DOMINICAN CHURCH Girod have positioned it in a decentralized Client BGN Boekhandelsgroep Houten position in the right half of the church, so Nederland, Construction costs EUR 1.6 M that a mural from the year 1337 on the left Usable floor area 1,200 m2 wall of the church remains visible. Over- Feature Revitalization and urban all, the steel structure is 30 m long by 18 m reappropriation of a previously ecclesiastical building high and has three levels, each with three abandoned through dignified commercial reuse rows of shelves in varying formats. It stands Completion 1 / 2007 freely in order to separate the piers, central Project management / team Evelyne nave and the side aisle from one another, Merkx, Patrice Girod, Bert de Munnik, Steinhauser, Pim Houben, and accommodates two workplaces in ad- Abbie Josje Kuiper, Ramon Wijsman, dition to the bookshelves. Customers use a Ruben Bus stair that leads alternately between color- Location Dominikanerkerkstraat 1, ful book spines or the white trimmed edges NL–6211 CZ Maastricht of the books’ pages. Once at the top, visi- Year of construction 1294 tors get a view of the church that makes its 1000 2010 magnitude clear for the first time, and find Conversion 2008 themselves closer to the column capitals and painted vaults than ever before. 2000 2010 The remaining interventions in the church Construction costs Price per m2 are modest in comparison to the stunning 1.6 M € 1,333 € bookcase. For displaying bestsellers and 15,000 special offers, Merkx + Girod have furnished 10,000 the church with the same system used in 5,000 their stores in The Hague and Almere. Here in Maastricht, though, they have conscious0 ly kept the wall-mounted shelving and the display tables low, so that they barely infringe on the impact of the space. With its half-round form and more comfortable dimensions, the chancel presented the best location for the café. Its focus is a cruciform reading table. The toilets and equipment are located in the basement underneath the chancel. All the remaining technical fixtures, the underfloor heating, and the few gravestones that have survived the centuries have been integrated into the new concrete floor. It replaces an unattractive surface of paving stones, which dates from the days when the church was used as a bicycle garage. 10 m Since the full height of the space and the view from the entrance toward the chancel have both been retained, the Dominican church has forfeited little of its spatial effect, despite the Ever since the Amsterdam office of Merkx + Girod converted the installation. At the same time, the giant bookcase provides new church into a bookstore, however, the hidden location has proven to perspectives and establishes an effective contrast within the be advantageous : when you step through the portal from the small church—between industrial and handcrafted elements, new and square, you find yourself in an unexpectedly large church. No less old, smooth and rough, heavy and fine. Moreover, owing to the astonishing than the jump in scale between the surrounding city- spectacular installation, not only customers of the bookstore, but scape and the church’s interior is the gigantic, multi-level steel also tourists are suddenly attracted to this once-forgotten Dominican church. bookcase that presides against the church’s right wall.

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[ p.164 ] Church as bookstore : view toward the apse 2 In the apse of the former house of worship, there is now space for a coffee break. 3 Whereas only low display tables have been placed in the northern half of the nave, the large, walk-through steel bookcase fills its southern side. 4 Who can concentrate on books with a view like this ? Perspective from the 2nd level of the bookcase 5 From outside, no one would guess the church building’s new function. 1

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LIBRARY IN EBRACHER HOF OLD

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SCHWEINFURT ( DE ) Farm building — p. 168 Library — p. 178

Bruno Fioretti Marquez Architekten

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GAME OF REFLECTIONS

hall. Bruno Fioretti Marquez The Zehntscheune in Schweinhave recognized that the aesfurt was built in 1431 to serve thetic potential of such a conthe nearby Cistercian monastrast of old and new, smooth tery at Ebrach. Since then it and rough, only comes into its has experienced some turbuown when the new elements relent times. As a center for the CONVERSION OF A TITHE BARN spond to the characteristics of production of ball bearings, the INTO A PUBLIC LIBRARY the existing fabric. small city in northern FrancoBRUNO FIORETTI MARQUEZ To begin with, the bend in the nia became the target of AlARCHITEKTEN, BERLIN long bookcase wall attracts atlied bomber squadrons in the SIMONE JUNG tention : In its last third, the conSecond World War. The Zehntcrete frame—and with it the scheune, a medieval tithe barn wood shelving—slopes gently with a stepped gable, was one downward. Although the solof only a few buildings from the id oak columns extend perpenMiddle Ages to survive the raids. A little later, in the early 1960s, the adjacent monastery garden and dicularly to the ceiling, this does not run horizontally and so they, a large portion of the historical city fortifications along the River too, are inclined. Here, the concept incorporates imperfection: the Main were lost to a new riverside road. The tithe barn, once closely architects did not want to brusquely contrast the deformations of surrounded by buildings, was suddenly exposed on two sides, leav- the existing building—which have appeared over the course of cening it somewhat lost next to the bridge over the Main that carries turies—with the millimeter-precise perfection of modern building techniques. In what they have added, they respond to the irregularithe southern access road to the city. When the city of Schweinfurt held a competition for the conversion ties of the existing building “ with gentle breaks in the strict orthogoof the vacant building into a municipal li- nal regularity, ” as architecture critic Falk Jaeger expresses it. brary, the winning entry was the only one to It was a stroke of luck that the architects also received the comPROJECT DATA Client City of Schweinfurt, representpropose that the additional spaces required mission to build the new customs office nearby. They have not ed by the building department should be put underground, so as to leave wasted the chance to allow both buildings to enter a dialogue. The Construction costs EUR 6.6 M the forecourt free and preserve the external official building, constructed at a right angle to the facade of the Usable floor area 1,281 m2 Zehntscheune, has large-format, protruding windows. As with a appearance of the ensemble. GFA 2,498 m2 Gross volume 11,282 m3 In this design, by Bruno Fioretti Marquez puzzle, each one of the sixteen windows reflects a different part of Completion 4 / 2007 Architekten of Berlin, a spacious, subter- the Zehntscheune—these fragmentary images overlap and repeat Project management / team Wieland ranean level surrounding the six-hundred- themselves, because some of the windows placed asymmetrically Vajen, Simone Skiba year-old remnants accommodates most of in the concrete facade are tilted out from the front toward the liLocation Brückenstraße 29, D–97421 Schweinfurt the library. The involuntary and arbitrary brary by a few degrees. This game of reflection in the openings is clearance of the 1960s is thus succeded by like interpreting the past—from every perspective it looks someYear of construction 1431 a well calculated one. Freeing old building what different. 1000 2010 parts and singling them out admittedly has a Conversion 2007 tradition as an aesthetic option when build- LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH THE CONVERTED TITHE BARN ing within the existing fabric : Carlo Scarpa 2000 2010 left his mark on this strategy and many apConstruction costs Price per m2 plied it subsequently, for instance Egon Eier6.6 M € 5,152 € mann, with his conversion of Berlin’s Kaiser 15,000 Wilhelm Memorial Church into an aestheti10,000 cized ruin. By burrowing underground, Bru5,000 no Fioretti Marquez explore the potential of this approach afresh : The Zehntscheune is 0 not only freed at parts that were visible thus far, but also beneath the earth, to its foundations. Bruno Fioretti Marquez were particularly interested in giving the 10 m building’s historical substance a new appeal : Thus, the massive timber joists within the building have been refurbished and painted white ; the base of the building, with its carefully repaired PLAN OF LOWER LEVEL fieldstone masonry, has been highlighted within a bright and expansive hall. On the square, only a glass enclosure provides evidence of the enlargement below. A rigorous, 33 meter-long glass prism illuminates the lower level during the day and allows the library to shine out toward the city at night. As a glass front, it shields the forecourt from the heavy traffic on the riverside road. A new main entrance in one of the gable walls provides access to the public library from the forecourt. From the entrance, a stair first leads down to the lower level. From a slightly raised position, you can let your gaze wander over the high, long space and the seemingly endless wall of books on the left, before you explore it along a gently sloping ramp that runs beside the masonry foundations. Aestheticization, combined with the greatest possible degree of refinement, account for the idiosyncratic fascination of the subterranean space. Nothing except the books distracts from the triad of quarried stone, exposed concrete, and oak wood. Ventilation ducts and other technical equipment have been concealed behind 10 m shelves and within inconspicuous shadow joints, just as the lighting has been—not a single light fixture is to be seen in the entire

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1 [ p. 172 ] Disjointed views of the old stepped gable are reflected in the large format windows of the neighboring main customs office. 2 Overall view : The converted tithe barn and the new main customs office ( left ) seen from the bank of the River Main 3 The long glass form of the lantern shields the forecourt from the adjacent street and illuminates the subterranean spaces of the library. 4 Discreet : the added egress stair tower extends the profile of the adjoining gable, abstracted in exposed concrete. 5 Side view of the refurbished barn ; in the background is the Georg Sch채fer Museum by Volker Staab.

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6 The reading room on the lower level 7 The main space of the library on the lower level, with the exposed cellar wall of the tithe barn at the left 8 Sectional sketch of the subterranean room, showing concealed technical services 9 View of the lower level 10 On the upper level, light-painted oak columns contrast with dark furnishings.

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OLD & NEW Design Manual for Revitalizing Existing Buildings

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range from careful revitalizations and progressive modifications to creative ideas for adaptive reuse. Old & New documents thirty-two inspiring examples that illustrate the entire range of dealing with existing buildings. With detailed project data that has been prepared for easy comparison, these case studies supply valuable information for designers and planners. Technical articles give added attention to essential topics concerning engineering and construction—from structural design to landmark restoration.

FRANK PETER JÄGER [ ED.]

An airport hangar is converted into a gymnasium and a department store facade is used to build an open-air reading room—in recent years, working with existing buildings has become an independent architectural discipline. The respect developed for our architectural heritage means that the old is no longer understood merely as architectural “material”, but rather as an equivalent counterpart to the new. Unusual concepts are now just as important as giving appropriate treatment to valuable elements of the built fabric. Today’s architectural interventions

Design Manual for Revitalizing Existing Buildings FRANK PETER JÄGER [ ED.]

23.8.2010 11:06:37