Issuu on Google+

HUMANS / ANIMALS & CROSS - INFECTIONS from PLANTS, SOILS AND INSECTS MANY are the “ACTIVE INGREDIENT” in BIO-CONTROL PRODUCTS by S. Trend


2

Pa g e in te n tio na lly le ft b

la

nk


INTRODUCTION:

The reason for the following information is to bring attention to the very sobering fact that those who work (or have worked) in any area of the agricultural arena may have been exposed to microorganisms that cause diseases in humans. The majority of the general public has not been afforded the opportunity to know that numerous disease of plants (bacteria and fungi) are capable of cross-infecting humans. Additionally, many of these same microorganisms are the "active ingredient" in bio-control products on the market: which are being used on our crops, ornamentals, used for seed treatments and plant growth as well as used for insect control (to name just a few). The bacteria and fungi (active ingredient) in bio-control products are touted as being "natural" because they are said to be naturally found, however, when one looks at some of the patents, verbage can be found such as: "mutant' or "mutants thereof", &/or "this invention are compositions comprising any of the above strains (including mutants or variants thereof), supernatants, fractions and metabolites, alone or in combination with each other, and a carrier.” “These compositions may be further supplemented by the addition of at least one chemical or biological pesticide." Professor Anne K. Vidaver; co-authored (with Sue A. Tolin and Patricia Lambrecht) “Laboratory, Growth Chamber and Greenhouse Microbial Safety: Plant Pathogens and Plant-Associated Microorganisms of Significance to Human Health” (found in the 4th edition of Biological Safety, Principles and Practices). In 2006 Professor Vidaver gave a presentation titled, “Cross-infective microbes: from plants to humans” during a three day workshop held in Washington D.C. titled, "Microbial Biopesticides and Transgenic Insecticides - Enhancing Regulatory Communication". In attendance were numerous representatives from various divisions of the United States Department of Agriculture and the Environmental Protection Agency as well as representatives from the National Institute of Health and the Center for Disease Control. Professor Vidaver was adamant in attempting to educate everyone at the workshop as to the dangers of plant pathogens crossinfecting humans, the medical community not making the connections and the lack of regulatory agencies being responsible (my words). Professor Vidaver’s 2006 presentation seems to have fallen on deaf ears because Sue A. Tolin discussed many of the same issues during the 2013 USDA-ARS 2nd International Biosafety & Biocontainment Symposium [see reference number 17; page. 24 of this document] during her presentation titled, “Occupational Health: Lab Acquired Illness, Exposure, Releases, and Consequences; Risk Assessment and Biosafety of Plant Pathogens in the Laboratory”. The question is; How many people, who work/ed in the agricultural arenas and those employed in biotechnology research and development laboratories around the world have no idea what they have been exposed to that have made them ill and/or sustained terrible diseases because of occupational exposure/s to the bacteria and fungi found on the following pages? This does not take into account the question as well as to how many family members have medical problems or life threatening diseases because their loved ones carried home microscopic bacteria and fungi on their clothes, their shoes and anything else that was brought home from the workplace environment? I urge everyone to watch the video footage of Professor Vidaver's presentation. I have also been given permission by Professor Vidaver to transcribe this footage. You can find the links to Vidaver’s video presentation and transcription on page 24 of this document (Reference #9). On the following pages you will find a list of some of the disease producing bacteria and fungi which have been identified in plants, insects and/or soil that cross-infect humans - as well as were they are found (host). On the left-hand side of pages 1 through 15 are three (3) columns; indicating the microorganism as being a bacteria or fungi, as well as if there is a bio-control connection (table’s). The ‘table’s’ begin on page 26; and by clicking the icon ! you will be linked to the document/s as they are found on the internet. I have prepared this to the best of my ability and any errors are unintentional. If there are any errors, please contact me as soon as possible so I may make the necessary corrections. Sincerely, S. Trend biotechharm@gmail.com Affiliation: Injured Workers National Network (IWNN) https://www.facebook.com/pages/Injured-Workers-National-Network-IWNN/108362552680848 3


4

Pa g e in te n tio na lly le ft b

la

nk


TABLE OF CONTENTS Absidia sp / spp !-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 Acinetobacter sp / spp !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 Acremonium sp / spp !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 Agrobacterium sp / spp !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 Alternaria sp / spp !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 Aspergillus sp / spp.!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 Aureobasidium sp., spp.!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 Bacillus sp., spp !-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 Bipolaris sp., spp.!----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 Blastomyces sp., spp. !----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 Botryodiplodia sp., spp.!---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 Burkholderia sp., spp. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 Chaetomium sp., spp.!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 Cladophialophora sp., spp. !----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 Cladosporium sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 Clostridium sp., spp.!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 Cochilobolus sp., spp. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 Colletotrichum - fungi!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 Coniothyrium sp., spp.!----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 Corynespora sp., spp. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 Cryptococcus sp., spp. !----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 Curtobacterium sp., spp. !-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 Curvularia sp., spp. !-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 Cylindrocapron sp., spp. !--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 Dickeya sp., spp.!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 Diplodia sp., spp. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 Drechslera sp., spp. !-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 Enterobacter sp., spp. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 Enterococcus sp., spp. !----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 Erwinia sp., spp. !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 Escherichia Coli sp., spp. !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 Exophiala sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 Exserohilim sp., spp. !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 Filobasidiella sp., spp. !----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 Fusarium sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 Fusicoccum sp., spp.!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17

5


Gibberella sp., spp.!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17 Glomerella sp., spp. !-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17 Haematonectria sp., spp. !-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17 Hendersonula sp., spp.!---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17 Histoplasma sp., spp. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17 Hortaea sp., spp.!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 Hypocrea sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 Hyphomyces sp., spp.!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 Klebsiella sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 Lagenidium sp., spp. !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 Lasiodiplodia sp., spp. !----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 Lecythophora sp., spp. !----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 Legionella sp., spp.!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 Lewia sp., spp. !--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 Microbacterium sp., spp. !-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 Mucor sp., spp.!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 Muscodor sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 Mycobacterium sp., spp. !-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 Nattrassia sp., spp. !--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 Paecilomyces sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 Pantoea sp., spp. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 Pectobacterium sp., spp. !-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 Penicillium so., spp.!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 Phaeoacremonium sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 Phaeoannelloymces sp., spp.!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 Phialophora sp., spp.!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 Phoma sp., spp. !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 Pleurostomophora sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 Pseudocochliobolus sp., spp.!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 Pseudomomas sp., spp.!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21 Pythium sp., spp.!----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21 Rathayibacter sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21 Rhizobium sp., spp. !--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22 Rhizopus sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22 Schizophyllum sp., spp.!---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22 Scytalidium sp., spp.!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22 Serratia sp., spp. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22 Setosphaeria sp., spp.!----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23

6


Sporothichum sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 Sporothrix sp., spp.!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 Staphylococcus sp., spp.!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 Stenotrophomonas sp., spp.!---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 Streptomyces sp., spp.!----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 Togninia sp., spp. !-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 Trichoderma sp., spp.!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 Xanthomonas sp., spp. !---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 REFERENCES!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24 TABLE A- 1!----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26 TABLE A- 2!----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26 TABLE A- 3!----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27 TABLE A- 4!----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27 TABLE A- 5!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27 TABLE B-1!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------28 TABLE B-1, continued!---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------29 TABLE B--1, continued!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30 TABLE B--2!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30 TABLE B-2, continued!---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------31 TABLE C-1!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------31 TABLE C-2!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32 TABLE C-3!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32 TABLE C-4!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33 TABLE E-1!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33 TABLE E-2!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------34 TABLE L-1!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------34 TABLE L-1, continued!---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35 TABLE M-1!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35 TABLE P-1!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35 TABLE P-2!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------36 TABLE P-3!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------36

7


TABLE P-4!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37 TABLE P-5!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37 TABLE P-5, continued!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38 TABLE P-5, continued!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------39 TABLE P-5, continued!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------40 TABLE P-5, continued!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41 TABLE P-6!-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41 TABLE R-1!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41 TABLE S-1!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42 TABLE S-2!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42 TABLE S-3!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42 TABLE S-3, continued!---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43 TABLE T-1!------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43 TABLE T-1, continued!---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------44 TABLE T-1, continued!---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------45 TABLE X-1, continued!---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------46

8


Bio Control Product/s

ia er i ct ung a B F

Absidia sp / spp !

! !

! SEE Table A-1

• Absidia corymbifera aka Absidia ramosa Host: Stored plant products 7

!

Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection 7

• Absidia ramosa see Absidia corymbifera Acinetobacter sp / spp

• Acinetobacter

!

Host: Its natural habitats are water and soil, and it has been isolated from foods, arthropods, and the environment. 2 ; Mosquito Midgut: Members of the genera Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas have been reported in the mosquito midgut in previous studies and our results are consistent with those of these earlier reports. 3 "The highest density of Acinetobacter was found in the gut" Human Health Related: Colonize skin, Wounds, and the Respiratory and Gastrointestinal tracts. Some strains can survive environmental desiccation for weeks, a characteristic that promotes transmission through fomite contamination in hospital. 1 Acremonium sp / spp

!

• Acremonium potronii! !

SEE Table

A- 2

Host: Grapevine 7 Human Health Related: ocular, wound

7

Agrobacterium sp / spp

• Agrobacterium radiobacter aka Rhizobium radiobacter!

!

Host: Wide host range 7 Plant associated bacteria, rhizosphere; Registered biocontrol agent for crown gall. Strain K84 (Galltrol A; AgBioChem Inc., Orinda, Calif) in fruit, nut and ornamental nursery stock and strain K1026 (Norgall; Bio-Care Technology Pty Ltd., Somersby New South Wales Australia) for control of crown gall on fruit and nut trees, caneberries, roses and other ornamentals. 8 Plant associated bacteria, rhizosphere 8 Now, Agrobacterium radiobacter is one of inaudible reported inaudible of being a pathogen as far as I known, and that is problematic. Never-the-less, it is the poster child for bio-control in bacteriology and plant pathology. And the organism K84 has been around for years now, and is also a poster child for the transgenic part of biotech microbial release of a biocontrol agent. Again, for beneficial control of crown gall disease, principally on fruits of various crops. It's been extremely beneficial, and this has been the instances for many people to work in biocontrol. 9 Human Health Related: Opportunist pathogen; bacterial endophthalmitis; bacteremia; endocarditis; peritonitis; urinary tract infections 8 However, it apparently causes opportunist diseases in people, and a variety of diseases all the way from blood stream to heart problems and urinary tract infections and so on. Now, the majority of the diseases that I'm going to talk about in humans are rare; but, there will be a few that are not so rare; and I'll try to point those out when we come to those. And obviously, for anybody in the regulatory arena, this causes at least a plausible thought, but I'll indicate what some of the challenges are with this. 9

!

• Agrobacterium tumefaciens aka Rhizobium tumefaciens

Host: crown gall 17 In Agrobacterium tumefaciens; otherwise known as the agent of crown gall with a very wide post range, it can cause a variety of problems as well. On the other hand; Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is, as I think most people know, has been extremely critical to the biotech industry for getting inaudible plants. 9 Human Health Related: Peritonitis 8 , 17; Bacteremias 8; Urinary tract infection 8,

SEE Table

A- 3

17

Alternaria sp / spp !

• Alternaria alternata ; Alternaia spp *EFFECTORS THAT PLAY A ROLE IN PATHOGENICITY WITH CROSS-KINGDOM TARGETS: Pathogenicity factors: Secondary metabolites, conidial diffusible factors Characteristics: Toxins Mode of action: Disruption of membrane function, suppression of innate immune response, toxic activity against susceptible cell organelles, disruption of cell physiology, ceramide signaling and cell cycle 7 9


Biologic ria gi Control cte Fun a Product/s B

!

!

• Alternaria alternate!

Host: Wide host range. Causes leaf spots, damping off, and ear and root rot of maize, blight of foliage and pod of pea, - seedling foliage blight of sugarcane, black point on wheat, dark flecks on Dendrobium, fruit spot on papaya and leaf spot on garden bean; 8 leaf spot; blights; stem and fruit rots; black mold of tomato; 8, 17 very wide host range 9

Human Health Related: Phaeohyphomycosis; mycotic keratitis; cutaneous and visceral infections; osteomyelitis 8 ... it starts to give you these medical terms that I actually had to look up. 9 Phaeohyphomycosis, which essentially as far as I can tell, means that you can actually - see the hyphae and they may be septate and have color in tissue and may even have yeast like forms and they can get into various kinds of tissues as well as on the surface of the body. And when the fungus gets into the brain or bone tissue the prognosis is particularly poor, and it has been so reported. 9 • Alternaria infectoria aka Lewia infectoria! ! Host: Wide host range 7 Human Health Related: Wound and sinus colonization and opportunistic infection 7

!

• Alternaria tenuis / tenuissima see Alternaria alternata

SEE Table

A-4

Aspergillus sp / spp. !

• Aspergillus flavus - Aspergillus fumigatus - Aspergillus spp.

EFFECTORS THAT PLAY A ROLE IN PATHOGENICITY WITH CROSS-KINGDOM TARGETS: Pathogenicity factors: Proteases (subtilisin type); secondary metabolites Characteristics: Toxins Mode of action: Lysis and degradation of diverse tissues (depending on – kingdom affected); necrosis induction, suppression of immune system 7

!

• Aspergillus candidus! !

Host: Decay of apple fruits; root rots. 8 And you have here the disease on wheat kernels.

9

Corn and kernel rot 17

Human Health Related: Cerebral aspergillosis ; cutaneous aspergillosis, endophthalmitis, hepatosplenic aspergillosis, myocarditis, onychomycosis, osteomyelitis, 8 ; hepatosplenic; Cerebral; cutaneous; pulmonary aspergillosis; endocarditis; meningitis; otomycosis; sinusitis 8, 17 Decay, it can get into the brain and the heart and other organs, and bone. Very nasty. I started reading about what these substances will do; and here you have a pretty nasty infection here on a foot. 9 !

• Aspergillus flavus aka Aspergillus oryzae

Host: Cotton, peanut, maize - seed 7 Pathogen and saprophyte, has many hosts and causes such diseases as ear and kernel rot of maize; yellow mold of peanut; boll rot of cotton 8 A. flavus strain AF36 (Arizona Cotton Research and Protection Council, Phoenix, Ariz.) a non-toxin-producing strain registered (EPA) on cotton fields in Texas and aflatoxin-producing Arizona for control of strains of A. flavus which produce aflatoxin. A. flavus strain NRRL 21882, registered for use in peanut crops to control aflatoxin-producing strain of A. flavus (Circle One Global, Inc., Shellman, GA.) 8 This is one that is also not only a pathogen of corn, but moldy peanuts and boll rot on cotton and is very extensive. There is a strain for control of A. fluvus and cotton, and I believe it works essentially as a competitive exclusion 9 Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection 7 Systemic aspergillosis; endocarditis 8 … never-the-less it has been reported to have generalized infection in people and can be a problem in heart disease as well. 9

!

• Aspergillus glaucus !

Host: Corn ear and kernel rot 8 We can have rot in corn 9 Human Health Related: Cerebral, cutaneous, hepatosplenic and pulmonary aspergillosis; endocarditis; endophthalmitis; meningitis; myocarditis; onychomycosis; osteomyelitis; ostomycosis; sinusitis 8 Aspergillus glaucus; and again, nasty things in terms of brain, heart, skin and even in the lungs. . And then we have a real problem here with disease in the jaw, and then with the kidney infection; these are unpleasant things for anyone to experience. 9

!

• Aspergillus niger !

Host: Black mold of peanut and onion; maize ear rot 8 Human Health Related: Aspergilloma (fruiting body in tissue); otomycosis; pulmonary aspergillosis 8 10


Biologic Control Product/s

ria i c te u n g a B F

Aureobasidium sp., spp.

SEE Table A-5

!

• Aureobasidium pullulans!

Host: Russet of apple fruit; and d'Anjou pear; stem break and browning of flax 8 Aureobasidium pullulans can cause russeting and this is not particularly a serious economic disease; except those of you that don't know plant pathology know that even if you have a spot on anything, whether or not it's a vegetable or a fruit, it decreases the quality and even though it doesn't affect anything else, it will never-the-less decrease the economic value. 9 Human Health Related: Various opportunistic mycoses; pulmonary mycoses; scleritis; phaeohyphomycosis 8 It can cause various opportunistic diseases in the lungs and all over the body. 9

SEE Table B-1

Bacillus sp., spp

• Bacillus circulars!

!

!

Host: Date palm disease 8 Human Health Related: Peritonitis, serious non gastrointestinal infections in animals, diarrheal enterotoxin production in human cells 8

• Bacillus pumilus!

!

Host: Bacterial blotch of immature Balady peach; Registered biocontrol agent, strain GB34 YIELD SHIELD; Gustafson, Plano, Tex.) for control of soilborne fungal pathogens causing root disease in soybean 8 Human Health Related: Oral mucosal inflammation 8 , 17

• Bacillus megaterium!

!

Host: White blotch of wheat 8, 17 and bacterial wetwood of poplar and elm 8 a minor pathogen of a variety of plants, going from wheat to trees, but has a biocontrol agent to control a number of fungi. So while the biocontrol agent may itself be a single organism in general, the idea is to have a wide host range for a number of fungi. 9

!

Human Health Related: Oral mucosal inflammation 8, 17 And this has been linked with oral muscosal inflammation. 9

• Bacillus subtilis

!

Human Health Related: B subtilis-derived enzymes [subtilisins]; IgE-medicated sensitization to proteolytic enzymes, Allergic reaction of the lungs, reactivity to B-subtilis alcalase and maxatase and exhibited both immediate and lape phase asthmatic response following inhalation challenges, immediate onset upper respiratory tract, nasal and ocular symptoms, exposure to bacillus subtilis products and respiratory disease as well as rhino conjunctivitis 19 temporarily inhabit the skin and gastrointestinal tract , has the ability to express and secrete toxins or components of the toxins, theoretically possible that it may acquire such genes from other bacteria , associated with outbreaks of food poisoning, [subtilisin] capable of causing allergic reactions in individuals who are repeatedly exposed to it, number of reports where B. subtilis has been isolated from human infections, endocarditis, fatal pneumonia and bacteremia, septicemia, infection of a necrotic axillary tumor, Isolation of B. subtilis was also made from surgical wound-drainage sites, from a subphrenic abscess from a breast prosthesis, and from two ventriculo-atrial shunt infections, cases of allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, including dermatitis and respiratory distress, human exposure may occur via inhalation as the organisms are dispersed in the atmosphere attached to dust particles, or lofted through mechanical or air disturbance, does produce the extracellular enzyme subtilisin that has been reported to cause allergic or hypersensitivity reactions in individuals repeatedly exposed to it 20 Bipolaris sp., spp. !

• Bipolaris australiensis aka Drechslera australiensis; Cochliobolus australiensis!

Host: Rice, tomato, millet 7 Leaf spot and crown and root rot of turfgrass 8, 17 Bipolaris australiensis; problem in turf grass. 8 Again, a whole list of diseases that it has been found from the outside to the inside 9 Human Health Related: Wound and sinus colonization and opportunistic infection 7 Phaeohyphomycosis, keratitis, osteomyelitis, encephalitis, peritonitis, pulmonary infection 8 allergic and chronic sinusitis; endocarditis; meningitis; endophthalmitis 8, 17 Again, a whole list of diseases that it has been found from the outside to the inside 9

11


Biologic Control Product/s

ria i c te u n g a B F

!

• Bipolaris hawaiiensis aka Drechslera hawaiiensis Cochliobolus hawaiiensis! !

Host: Wide host range 7 Leaf and culm lesions on Callides Rhodesgrass; bermuda grass disease 8 Human Health Related: Wound and sinus colonization and Opportunistic infection 7 Endophthalmitis; phaeohyphomycotic orbitopathy; sinusitis; granulomatous encephalitis 8

!

• Bipolaris spicifera aka Drechslera spicifera, Cochliobolus specifier! !

Host: Wide host range 7 Leaf spot of cotton 8 Problem on cotton 9

Human Health Related: Wound and sinus colonization and opportunistic infection 7 Phaeohyphomycosis; fungal endarteritis; meningitis; peritonitis 8 problem actually in the arteries has been reported and generalized problem in diseases throughout the body. These are really nice diseases here. 9 Blastomyces sp., spp. !

• Blastomyces dermatitids ! !

Host: amoeba 7

Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection 7 Botryodiplodia sp., spp. ! !

• Botryodiplodia theobromae see Lasiodiplodia theobromae • Botryosphaeria rhodina see Lasiodiplodia theobromae

SEE Table

B-2

Burkholderia sp., spp. !

Burkholderia spp. & Burkholderia cepacia

*EFFECTORS THAT PLAY A ROLE IN PATHOGENICITY WITH CROSS-KINGDOM TARGETS: Pathogenicity factors: LPS AHL synthase, porin exopolysaccharides Characteristics: Endotoxin amino acid transport, secretion Mode of action: Induces necrosis via TNFR induction especially in lung tissue; amino acid metabolism during parasitic growth, evasion of immune system, tissue invasion and damage 7 !

• Burkholderia cepacia!

Host: Onion (B. cepacia) 7 Sour skin of onion 8, 17; cavity disease of Agaricus bitorgui mushroom 8, 17; phytoremediation; endophyte 8 It’s a minor pathogen on plants, but it can also cause disease in mushrooms and it has also been used in phytoremediation and has occasionally been found as an endophyte. 9 Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection; 7 Bacteremia; pulmonary complex; serious respiratory pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients 8, 17; bacteremia, cardiac cirrhosis 8 , 17; cellulitis 8, 17 ; endophthalmitis 8, 17 Now when we come to Burkholderia cepacia there’s going to be some more presentation about Burkholderia cepacia; probably more than I have here. 9 Well, this is a disease partially known for creating a problem in lung tissue and particularly in patients with Cystic Fibrosis; however, there’re other diseases that it can be involved with. 9 At one time there was a biocontrol agent, actually it was going to be applied for soil-borne fungi I believe, maybe we’ll hear more about that later. It had to be taken off the market because of objections through the American Medical Association. This is one of the two cases that I know of where you actually do have evidence, as apposed to conjecture, that genes for plants, that cause disease, and genes that can cause disease in humans are on the same strain. That is not true for all strains of Burkholderia cepacia, but it is true for at least a few that have been so characterized. Very unusual and very challenging, of course if you’re ready to talk about a biocontrol agent. 9 ....biocontrol 17

!

• Burkholderia gladioli

Host: Slippery skin of onion; decay of Gladiolus spp., Iris spp., and rice; leaf spot and blight of Asplenium nidus; bacterial disease of Dendrobium sp. orchid 8 This is sour skin of onion, you can - see here the rotting, it also smells terribly. Any of you who are not pathologists don’t know what you’re missing in terms of these odors that can sometimes be very characteristic as a diagnostic agent. 9 Then we have Burkholderia gladioli; Even a lessor problem in plant pathology, but it can cause a disease in onions and decay in bulbs of beneficial organisms and ornamentals ; and also can cause pneumonia and diseases, generalized disease 9 Human Health Related: Bacteremia; pneumonia; cervical adenitis 8 And then you have the organism in lung tissue here. Not a good thing. It’s very difficult to overcome. 9 12


Biologic Control Product/s SEE Table C-1

ria i c te u n g a B F

Chaetomium sp., spp. !

• Chaetomium globosum endophyte! !

Host: Barley endophyte 7 Disease in tomato; infection of barley roots 8 Human Health Related: Subcutaneous disease, opportunistic systemic infection 7 Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis; onychomycosis 8 Cladophialophora sp., spp.

!

• Cladophialophora carrion aka Cladosporium carrionii! !

Host: Cactus 7

Human Health Related: Subcutaneous disease, wound !

7

• Cladosporium carrionii see Cladophialophora carrion Cladosporium sp., spp.

!

• Cladosporium oxysporum! !

Host: Leaf spots and blights of many plants; leaf spot of pepper 8 Human Health Related: Phaeohyphomycosis, pneumonia 8

!

• Cladosporium werneckii see Hortaea werneckii Clostridium sp., spp.

• Clostridium butyric!

!

Host: Wetwood of poplar and disease of hornbeam 8 Another spore former is a gram positive bacteria involved that I’m talking about is Clostridium butyricum; causes disease of poplar and hornbeam 9 Human Health Related: Necrotizing enterocolitis in babies babies. 9

!

8

apparently has been reported to cause disease in

• Clostridium histolyticum! !

Host: Plant associated 8

Human Health Related: Gas gangrene (myonecrosis); necrotic lesions 8 Cochilobolus sp., spp. ! !

!

• Cochliobolus lunatus see Curvularia lunata • Cochliobolus geniculatus see Curvularia geniculata

!

• Cochliobolus specifier see Bipolaris spicifera !

!

SEE Table

C-2

• Cochliobolus australiensis see Bipolaris australiensis • Cochliobolus hawaiiensis see Bipolaris hawaiiensis

Colletotrichum - fungi !

• Colletotrichum coccodes!

Host: Black dot of tomato and potato 8 A black dot of tomato and potato. Again, not a serious disease as a pathogen, but essentially a serious disease economically, and because of appearance 9 Human Health Related: Phaeohyphomycosis 8 ... and this generalized disease of Phaeohyphomycosis in various organs. 9

!

• Colletotrichum gloeosporioides aka Glomerella cingulata

Host: Leaf and fruit 7 Anthracnose on many fruits and plantation crops, including anthrocnose of papaya leaves and avocado, poplar, aspen and cottonwood shoot blight; fruit rot on apple and berries of coffee; dieback of citrus 8 Anthracnose on many crops and many fruits and coffee? and citrus. 9 Human Health Related: Wound and opportunistic subcutaneous/eye infection 7 Keratitis; phaeohyphomycosis 8 It can get into the nails; and again, some of these pictures again are very unattractive. 9

13


Biologic Control Product/s

ria i c te u n g a B F

Coniothyrium sp., spp.

SEE Table

!

C-3

• Coniothyrium fuckelii! ! !

Host: Stem blight, dieback and canker of Rosa spp. and strawberry; black root rot and cane blight of Rubus spp. 8 Stem Blight, dieback and canker of Roses and strawberries, black root rot and cane blight of Rubus. 9 Human Health Related: Mycotic keratitis; liver infection 8 And again, it can cause problems in the nails and liver. 9 Corynespora sp., spp.

!

• Corynespora cassiicola! !

Host: Tropical hosts 7

Human Health Related: Wound and opportunistic infection 7 SEE Table

Cryptococcus sp., spp.

C-4

!

• Cryptococcus neoformans aka Filobasidiella neoformans! !

Host: amoeba, insects, Caenorhabditis elegans 7

Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection 7 Curtobacterium sp., spp.

• Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens

!

!

Host: Bean wilt and blight 17

Human Health Related: Septic arthritis 17 Curvularia sp., spp. !

• Curvularia brachyspora! !

!

Host: Leaf spot disease of Rosa spp 8 Problem on Roses. 9 Human Health Related: Necrotizing cutaneous infection, mycotic keratitis 8 Necrotizing cutaneous infection in the skin and your nails, and not very pleasant. 9

• Curvularia clavata! !

Host: Leaf spot of maize 8,

9

Human Health Related: Invasive sinusitis and cerebritis; human skin infection 8 It can get into the sinuses and the brain; also cause skin infections. 9 !

• Curvularia geniculata aka Cochliobolus geniculatus! !

Host: Wide host range 7 Banana leaf spot; melting out of turfgrasses 8 Human Health Related: Wound and sinus colonization and opportunistic infection 7 Mycotic keratitis; maduromycotic mycetomas in animals 8

!

• Curvularia lunata aka Cochliobolus lunatus!

Host: Grains, sugarcane, etc. 7 Leaf rot of rice; leaf spot of bentgrass; melting out of turfgrasses; leaf spot of maize; leaf spot of cotton 8 Leaf spot in rice and other plants; and melting out of turf grass. 9 Leaf spot rice, bentgrass 17 Human Health Related: Wound and sinus colonization and opportunistic infection 7 Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis; systemic cutaneous infection; allergic fungal rhinosinusitis 8 Can get into the brain, can be in skin and the problem in terms of allergies. There’s probably many more of these inaudible but can probably be an allergic problem; but I didn’t find those listed. 9

!

• Curvularia pullescens aka Pseudocochliobolus pallescens!

Host: Sugarcane, corn endophyte and pathogen 7 Leaf spot of sugar cane; leaf spot and ear rot of maize; brown spot of asparagus; leaf spot of rubber 8 Human Health Related: Wound and sinus colonization and opportunistic infection 7 Phaeohyphomycosis 8

14


Biologic Control Product/s

ria i c te u n g a B F

!

• Curvularia senegalensis! !

Host: - seedling foliage, blight on sugarcane, leaf spot of maize and other hosts 8 Human Health Related: Mycotic keratitis 8 Cylindrocapron sp., spp.

!

• Cylindrocarpon lichenicola! !

Host: Postharvest fruit invasion ; corn rot of Colocasia esculenta 8 Post-harvest fruit invasion, corn rot of taro. 9 Human Health Related: Disseminated infection; keratomycosis 8 Can be a disseminated infection, can cause diseases again in the nails. 9 Dickeya sp., spp.

• Dickeya spp. D

!

EFFECTORS THAT PLAY A ROLE IN PATHOGENICITY WITH CROSS-KINGDOM TARGETS: Pathogenicity factors PATE, PGs, PELs, phosphatidase intimin-like proteins Characteristics: Extracellular proteases Mode of action cell wall degrading enzymes 7 Diplodia sp., spp. !

• Diplodia gossypina see Lasiodiplodia theobromae Drechslera sp., spp.

!

• Drechslera biseptata !

Host: Grasses 7 Drechslera leaf spot of turfgrasses; black point in wheat grains; mycotoxin producer 8 A problem with turf-grasses and wheat. 9 Turfgrass leafspot 17 Human Health Related: Wound and sinus colonization 7 Brain abscess 8, reported; again, not likely to be treatable. 9

! ! !

SEE Table

17 ;

Brain Abscesses have been

• Drechslera hawaiiensis see Bipolaris hawaiiensis ! • Drechslera rostrata see Exserohilum rostratum • Drechslera spicifera see Bipolaris spicifera !

E-1

Enterobacter sp., spp. ! !

• Enterobacter agglomerans see Pantoea agglomerans • Enterobacter cloacae!

Host: Wetwood on elm, internal decay of onion and rhizome rot of edible ginger. 8 it can cause diseases on trees and in onions and in ginger; but can also, at least in the literature, be known as a biocontrol agent. I don’t believe that any have been turned over to the EPA, or anyone else yet, for actual potential commercialization. 9 Onion internal decay, Ginger rhizome rot 17 Human Health Related: Septicemia and respiratory tract infections 8, 17; gas gangrene 8 It caused generalized infections; respiratory tract infections and gas gangrene And for those of you not familiar with bacteria; this is in the same family as e-coli, some of the notorious e-coli. 9 Enterococcus sp., spp.

!

• Enterococcus faecalis

EFFECTORS THAT PLAY A ROLE IN PATHOGENICITY WITH CROSS-KINGDOM TARGETS: Pathogenicity factors: Hemolysin, gelatinase, AS, hemagglutinin, Lipase Characteristics: Extracellular proteases; aggregation, clumping, cytotoxin Mode of action: Adhesion, tissue degradation, toxin 7 ! Host: Arabidopsis, Caenorhabditis elegans 7 Human Health Related: Nosocomial infection 7

15


Biologic ia Control te r n g i c Product/s Ba Fu

Erwinia sp., spp.

• Erwinia spp. see Pectobacterium spp.

!

EFFECTORS THAT PLAY A ROLE IN PATHOGENICITY WITH CROSS-KINGDOM TARGETS: Pathogenicity factors: PATE, PGs, PELs, phosphatidase intimin-like proteins Characteristics: Extracellular proteases Mode of action; Cell wall degradation, cellular le- aka ge and death, hemorrhage 7

• Erwinia herbicola see Pantoea agglomerans • Erwinia nulandii see Erwinia persicina • Erwinia persicina aka Erwinia nulandii

! ! !

!

Host: Necrosis in fruits, vegetables 8, 17; necrosis of bean pods and - seeds 8 Human Health Related: Urinary tract infection 8 ,

SEE Table E-2

17

Escherichia Coli sp., spp.

• Escherichia Coli aka E. coli!

!

Human Health Related: Some E. coli are pathogenic, meaning they can cause illness, either diarrhea or illness outside of the intestinal tract. The types of E. coli that can cause diarrhea can be transmitted through contaminated water or food, or through contact with animals or persons. 15 Exophiala sp., spp. !

• Exophiala werneckii see Hortaea werneckii ! Exserohilim sp., spp.

!

• Exserohilum rostratum aka Drechslera rostrata, Setosphaeria rostrata! !

Host: Wide host range 7

Human Health Related: Wound and sinus colonization and opportunistic infection 7 Filobasidiella sp., spp. !

• Filobasidiella neoformans see Cryptococcus neoformans ! Fusarium sp., spp.

!

• Fusarium chlamydosporum ! !

Host: Root rot and wilt of Coleus forskohlii; blight of kangaroo paw (Anigozanthos spp.) 8 Human Health Related: Invasive infection 8

!

• Fusarium dimerum! !

Host: One of several agents of fig endosepsis 8 Human Health Related: Disseminated infection; endocarditis; eye infection 8

!

• Fusarium incarnatum! !

Host: Walnut canker; aster wilt, black gill disease of shrimp 8 Human Health Related: Mycotic keratitis 8

!

• Fusarium moniliforme!

Host: Ear, root, and stalk rot; - seedling blight of maize; sugarcane wilt complex; pseudostem heart rot of banana; wide host range 8 Fusarium moniliforme; Or otherwise verticillioides in current literature. This is a pretty serious disease in many years. It can cause ear, root and stalk rot and - seedling blight of corn, or maize. It can also be in sugar cane and in bananas. 9 Human Health Related: Human fusariosis, local and systemic 8 Well, this can get into the disseminated infection in humans, and give you pneumonia and get in to the eyes here. 9

16


Biologic Control Product/s

ria i c te u n g a B F

!

• Fusarium oxysporum ! ! !

!

Host: Wilts and blights on plantation crops, ornamentals, small grains and turfgrasses, including potato, sugarcane, bean, cowpea and Musa spp; corn and root rots 8 Wilts and blights on a wide range of vegetable 8, 17 Also blight pathogen; wilts and blights on vegetables and plantation crops and ornamentals; extremely wide host range. 9 Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection 7 onychomycosis 8 Disseminated fusariosis; skin and nail infection; pneumonia 8, 17 It can give you disseminated infection, pneumonia and eye infection as well. 9

!

• Fusarium proliferatum aka Gibberella sp.!

Host: Wide host range 7 stem spots, damping off; head blight in small-grain cereals; wilt 8 Leaf, sheath, flower spots on Dendrobium and Cattleya orchid 8 ; flower spots on orchid ; head blight of wheat date palm dieback; date palm dieback 8, 17 ear rot of maize 17 Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection 7 Disseminated infection in immunosuppressed individuals; suppurative thrombophlebitis 8, 17 Esophageal cancer 17

!

• Fusarium solani aka Haematonectria haematococca!

Host: Wide host range 7 - seedling rots, Root rots; Damping off on a wide range of hosts; Fungal root rot of banana 8 Yellows, fruit rots; stem canker of sweet potato, black walnut and poinsettia 8, 17 Yellows, fruit and - seedling rot on a wide range of hosts, from sweet potatoes to black walnuts, poinsettia. If you’re not a plant pathologist, I trust that you’re finding, or at least hearing that there are pathogens on almost anything you can think of and that is true. 9 root rots on many hosts; 17 Human Health Related: Wound and opportunistic infection 7 Invasive furiosis; onychomycosis 8, 17 You can get invasive systemic infection, and problems with the eyes 9

!

��� Fusarium verticillioides aka Gibberella moniliformis! !

Host: Corn 7 Ear rot of maize, sorghum, fruit

17

Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection 7 Superficial, invasive and disseminated diseases, Esophageal cancer 17 Fusicoccum sp., spp. !

• Fusicoccum dimidiatum aka Scytalidium dimidiatum; Hendersonula toruloidea; Nattrassia mangiferae! !

Host: Tropical trees 7

Human Health Related: Superficial skin disease in healthy individuals; human to human transfer 7 Gibberella sp., spp. ! !

• Gibberella sp. see Fusarium proliferatum ! • Gibberella moniliformis see Fusarium verticillioides ! Glomerella sp., spp.

!

• Glomerella cingulata see Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ! Haematonectria sp., spp.

!

• Haematonectria haematococca see Fusarium solani ! Hendersonula sp., spp.

!

• Hendersonula toruloidea see Fusicoccum dimidiatum Histoplasma sp., spp.

!

• Histoplasma capsulatum! ! Host: amoeba 7 Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection 7

17


Biologic Control Product/s

ria i c te u n g a B F

Hortaea sp., spp. !

• Hortaea werneckii aka Phaeoannellomyces werneckii, Cladosporium werneckii, Exophiala werneckii! !

Host: Salt stressed plants 7

Human Health Related: Superficial skin disease in healthy individuals 7 Hypocrea sp., spp. !

• Hypocrea sp see Trichoderma longibrachiatum Hyphomyces sp., spp.

!

• Hyphomyces destruens see Pythium insidiosum ! Klebsiella sp., spp.

• Klebsiella pneumoniae!

!

!

Host: Endophyte; many plant hosts, including maize 8 Human Health Related: pneumonia; bacteremia; meningitis 8

• Klebsiella variicola

!

!

Host: Plant-associated on banana, rice, sugarcane, and maize 8 Human Health Related: Bacteremia; urinary tract infection 8

SEE Table L-1

Lagenidium sp., spp. !

• Lagenidium giganteum! !

Host: Facultative Parasite of Mosquito Larvae 16 Human Health Related: New Human Oomycosis

5

Lasiodiplodia sp., spp. !

• Lasiodiplodia theobramae!

Host: Fruit and stem rot of papaya; kumquat dieback; crown, finger, stock; peduncle rot of banana; 8 canker of dogwood; black kernel rot of maize; collar rot of peanut 8, 17 Human Health Related: Subcutaneous abscess; ophthalmic mycosis; onychomycosis; phaeohyphomycosis 8, Lecythophora sp., spp.

!

• Lecythophora hoffmannii!

Host: Soft rots and decay of the surface layers of natural and preservative-treated timber 8 , 9, 17 Soft rots and decay of the surface layers of natural and preservative-treated timber. And, I put the whole idea of preservative-treated timber, but you had inaudible happen to it apparently. 9 Human Health Related: Chronic sinusitis 8, 17 Chronic sinusitis can occur.9 Legionella sp., spp.

• Legionella pneumophila!

!

!

Host: amoeba 7

Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection 7 Lewia sp., spp. !

• Lewia infectoria see Alternaria infectoria !

18


Biologic Control Product/s

c Ba

ia te r n g i Fu

Microbacterium sp., spp.

• Microbacterium!

!

Host: Identified and inadequately identified have been associated with plants 8

!

Human Health Related: Have been unidentified or inadequately identified have been reported for clinical infections Clinical infections 8 Mucor sp., spp. !

• Mucor circinelloides!

Host: Vegetables, fruits 7 Fruit rot of Luffa acutangula; mucor rot of mango which of I think you get sponges from if you wash them. 9

! !

8

Mucor rot and mango and loofa,

Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection 7 Zygomycosis, gangrenous ! mucormycosis 8 ; And then you can have a problem in generalized infection and gangrene. 9 SEE Table M-1

Muscodor sp., spp. !

• Muscodor albus ! !

Host: Cinnamomum zeylanicum 11 Human Health Related: Significant Human Health Hazard; However, in the process of pursuing EPA registration, Agraquest discovered that volatiles produced by the fungus pose a significant human health hazard. Agraquest is no longer making or handling Muscodor formulations, is no longer pursuing EPA registration, and is discouraging the scientific community from working with this organism because of the toxicity of the active ingredient. A manuscript describing the active ingredient and its toxicology is being prepared for publication.” 10 Mycobacterium sp., spp.

• Mycobacterium avium!

!

!

Host: amoeba 7

Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection 7 Nattrassia sp., spp. ! SEE Table P-1

• Nattrassia mangiferae see Fusicoccum dimidiatum ! Paecilomyces sp., spp.

!

• Paecilomyces varotii! !

Host: Dieback and canker of pistachio 8, 9 Human Health Related: Pneumonia; central nervous system infection; peritonitis 8 You can get pneumonia, problem with the central nervous system, and generalized peritonitis. 9

SEE Table P-2

Pantoea sp., spp. !

• Pantoea agglomerans aka Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola!

Host: Pathogen of Wisteria and onion; wetwood of elm; black flesh of pineapple and grapefruit; spot disease and frost damage on corn, soy and clover; disease of millet; Saprophyte 8 Pantoea agglomerans; is known by a number of different names, and in the literature; the plant pathology literature, there are a number of strains that have been proposed for biological control, usually by competitive exclusion and they work very well under some conditions, but have not yet been commercialized and may not for a number of reasons. But, it is also a pathogen of Wisteria and onions and some trees and a wide variety of plants; not the same strains of course. 9 Human Health Related: Nosocomial/opportunistic infections; septic arthritis 8 You’ve already heard about the possibility of acquired infections; this is one of the organisms that has been reported of possible acquired infections and can also be reported in arthritis. More and more bacteria by the way are being reported to cause of some chronic diseases 9

19


Biologic Control Product/s

c Ba

ia te r n g i Fu

Pectobacterium sp., spp.

• Pectobacterium spp. aka Erwinia spp.

!

EFFECTORS THAT PLAY A ROLE IN PATHOGENICITY WITH CROSS-KINGDOM TARGETS: Pathogenicity factors: PATE, PGs, PELs, phosphatidase intimin-like proteins Characteristics: Extracellular proteases Mode of action; cell wall degrading enzymes 7 Cell wall degradation, cellular le- aka ge and death, hemorrhage 7 ! Host: Wide host range & Host: Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, pea aphid 7 Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection

SEE Table P-3

7

Penicillium so., spp. !

• Penicillium oxalicum! !

Host: Found chiefly on moist nonliving organic matter (as decaying fruit) 14 Human Health Related: Can cause systemic opportunistic infection 7 Phaeoacremonium sp., spp.

!

• Phaeoacremonium alvesii! !

Host: Dodonaea viscosa 7

Human Health Related: Wound and subcutaneous and joint infection 7 !

• Phaeoacremonium krajdenii! !

Host: Grapevine, woody plants endophyte and weak pathogen 7 Human Health Related: Subcutaneous disease, wound

!

7

• Phaeoacremonium parasiticum aka Phialophora parasitica; Togninia parasitica! !

Host: Grapevine, endophyte and weak pathogen 7 woody plants 7, 17 Wilt and decline 17

Human Health Related: Subcutaneous disease, wound and opportunistic systemic infection Phaeohyphomycosis (subcutaneous infections to disseminated disease) 17 !

7

• Phaeoacremonium venezuelense! !

Host: Grapevine, woody plants endophyte and weak pathogen 7 Human Health Related: Subcutaneous disease, wound 7 Phaeoannelloymces sp., spp.

!

• Phaeoannellomyces werneckii see Hortaea werneckii ! Phialophora sp., spp.

! ! SEE Table P-4

• Phialophora parasitica see Phaeoacremonium parasiticum • Phialophora richardsiae see Pleurostomophora richardsiae ! Phoma sp., spp.

!

• Phoma! !

Host: Blight of fir and pine species 8, 9 Human Health Related: Cutaneous lesions 8 Lesions of the skin. 9 Pleurostomophora sp., spp.

!

• Pleurostomophora richardsiae aka Phialophora richardsiae! !

Host: Woody plants 7

Human Health Related: Subcutaneous disease, wound 7 Pseudocochliobolus sp., spp. !

• Pseudocochliobolus pallescens see Curvularia pullescens ! 20


Biologic Control Product/s SEE Table P-5

ia te r n g i c Ba Fu

Pseudomomas sp., spp.

• Pseudomonas aeruginosa

!

EFFECTORS THAT PLAY A ROLE IN PATHOGENICITY WITH CROSS-KINGDOM TARGETS: Pathogenicity factors: Exotoxin A, Characteristics: proteases, phospholipase C, alginate, quorum-sensing, LPS, type III secretion Protease; chaperone; Mode of action: Cytotoxin; inhibition of protein synthesis; cytolytic activity; stimulation of extracellular toxin production and heat stress protection during in vivo growth 7 Host: Wide host range, soft rot & Host: Insects, Caenorhabditis elegans 7 Onion rot 8, 17, Arabidopsis rot 8 a very minor pathogen in plant pathology; but can cause onion rot and has been used experimentally in that model plant Arabidopsis. 9 Vector Host: - Mosquito Midgut: Members of the genera Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas have been reported in the mosquito midgut in previous studies and our results are consistent with those of these earlier reports. 3 "The highest density of Acinetobacter was found in the gut" 4 Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection, cystic fibrosis patients; burns; 7 Burn wound infections and pneumonia 8; bacteremia; sepsis; meningitis 8, 17 It is a very nasty organism if it get’s into a burn ward because it is extremely difficult to control. It usually has intrinsic antibiotic resistance to a number of antibiotics; and can cause generalized bacteremia as well. This is also one of the few cases in which a single strain has been found that does have genes that can cause a disease in plants and in humans; and so there have been a few cases where strains have been isolated from humans and then tested in plants and they have been found to be pathogenic. The reverse? of course can not been done directly but can be done through human surrogates such as mice; we believe? that would be appropriate and in many cases then a plant can kill mice, so hat is a concern. 9 .. infection in a burn patient here; this is all infected and this gets particularly gruesome if you actually turn on a UV light in a burn ward you can - see these people glow. Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a flouresent pigment and it’s also characteristic in that regard even on a petri dish. In test tubes; you can have a healthy aribidoxis and dying aribidoxus with this particular strain 9

• Pseudomonas fluorescens!

!

Host: Registered biocontrol for Erwinia amylovora on apple, cherry, almond and pear (Blight Ban A506; Frost Technology Corporation, Burr Ridge Ill; frost protection on fruit crops, almond, tomato, and potato to reduce frost-forming bacteria on leaves and blossoms (Frostban: Frost Technology Corporation) 8 Human Health Related: Bacteremia 8

• Pseudomonas putida!

!

Host: Plant saprophyte with potential for application in biological control of plant pathogens, bioremediation and production of bioplastics 8 Human Health Related: Nosocomial infections; meningitis, bacteremia; pneumonia; sepsis 8

SEE Table P-6

Pythium sp., spp. !

!

• Pythium insidiosum aka Hyphomyces destruens kingdom Chromista! Host: Water lilies, grasses 7 ; Host: Insects 7 Human Health Related: Wound 7 Rathayibacter sp., spp.

!

• Rathayibacter toxicus aka Clavibacter toxicus!

! Host: Gummosis of cereals 8 It causes disease in cereals, which I’ll show you in a moment. It’s been a particular problem in Australia because of the death of livestock associated with consumption of the Rathayibacter annual infected ryegrass. 9 Human Health Related: Death of livestock associated with consumption of Rathayibacter-infected annual ryegrass; human disease speculative 8 Now, Rathayibacter toxicus is not known in the United States, but because it is so dramatic I’m including it here. It causes disease in cereals, which I’ll show you in a moment. It’s been a particular problem in Australia because of the death of livestock associated with consumption of the Rathayibacter annual infected ryegrass. And the relationship to problems in people is still debated in terms of unexplained poisonings. 9 And this is what it does in cattle who consume grass that many have this yummy disease. The toxins are extremely potent and inaudible death and characterized. Again, not in this country. 9

21


Biologic Control Product/s

c Ba

ia te r n g i Fu

Rhizobium sp., spp. SEE Table R-1

• Rhizobium radiobacter see Agrobacterium radiobacter • Rhizobium tumefaciens see Agrobacterium tumefaciens !

! !

Rhizopus sp., spp. !

• Rhizopus

! !

• Rhizopus arrhizus see Rhizopus oryzae • Rhizopus oryzae aka Rhizopus arrhizus

EFFECTORS THAT PLAY A ROLE IN PATHOGENICITY WITH CROSS-KINGDOM TARGETS: Pathogenicity factors: Fumaric acid 7

!

Host: Vegetables, fruits 7 Fruit rots of pineapple, mango and carrot 8, 17 Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection, Requires high blood iron levels not found in healthy host 7 Pulmonary zygomycosis 8, 17

!

• Rhizopus stolonifer ! !

Host: Pre-and-post harvest soft rots of many fruits, vegetables and crops 8, 9 ! sunflower head rot; - seedling blight on lupine 8 Human Health Related: Zygomycosis 8 And you get generalized infections. 9 Schizophyllum sp., spp.

!

• Schizophyllum commune endophyte! !

Host: Tree pruning wounds 7

Human Health Related: Nasal sinus infections 7 SEE Table S-1

Scytalidium sp., spp. !

SEE Table S-2

• Scytalidium dimidiatum see Fusicoccum dimidiatum ! Serratia sp., spp.

!

• Serratia spp.

EFFECTORS THAT PLAY A ROLE IN PATHOGENICITY WITH CROSS-KINGDOM TARGETS; Pathogenicity factors: Proteases, hemolysin (ShlA) Characteristics: Chitinase; lipase cytotoxin Mode of action: Cell wall and membrane degradation, pore-forming toxin; Opportunistic (hospital- acquired) infection, keratitis; Chitinase; lipase cytotoxin 7 ! ! Host: Cucurbitae, Insects, Caenorhabditis elegans 7 !

!

!

Human Health Related: Opportunistic (hospital- acquired) infection, keratitis 7 !

• Serratia ficaria! !

Host: Plant associated (biological cycle) 8 Human Health Related: Organ infections, endophthalmitis, gall bladder, emphysema, septicemia 8

!

• Serratia marcescens! ! ! !

Host: Alfalfa crown and root rot; cucurbit; endophytic colonization of rice 8 ; yellow vine disease; 8, 17 ; a lovely organism to look at on a petri dish usually in terms of the red-purple color. It can cause disease in alfalfa and cucurbit and I’ll show you this in a moment, and also a inaudible bio? synthetic. 9 Human Health Related: Bacteremia; endocarditis; 8 Respiratory tract infections; urinary tract infections; conjunctivitis; meningitis; wound infections 8, 17 ; and also a inaudible bio? synthetic. It can be a nasty organism in a number of infections in the respiratory tract, urinary tract, in the eyes, in the heart and so on.; The Serratia marcescens here; a nasty infection in the eyes and can kill cucurbits here, I think it’s squash, but also pumpkins and plum. It has become much more prevalent in recent years for reasons unknown. 9 22


Biologic Control Product/s

c Ba

ia te r n g i Fu

!

Setosphaeria sp., spp.

• Setosphaeria rostrata see Exserohilum rostratum ! Sporothichum sp., spp.

!

• Sporotrichum schenckii see Sporothrix schenckii ! Sporothrix sp., spp.

!

• Sporothrix schenckii aka Sporotrichum schenckii! !

Host: Moss, tropical grasses, Eucalyptus 7

Human Health Related: Subcutaneous mycosis, wound

7

Staphylococcus sp., spp.

• Staphylococcus aureus - endophyte

!

!

Host: Arabidopsis 7 ; Caenorhabditis elegans 7 ; German cockroaches

18

Human Health Related: Superficial to systemic infections 7 Stenotrophomonas sp., spp.

• Stenotrophomonas maltophilia!

!

! !

Host: Plant-associated and plant pathogen 8 And then we have Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. It is the least plant associated [inaudible] report is a plant pathogen. This is contested taxonomically and it’s still not decided 9 Human Health Related: Bacteremia and respiratory tract infections 8 …in any case it can have Bacteremia, generalized infection and respiratory tract infections. 9

SEE Table S-3

Streptomyces sp., spp.

• Streptomyces sp!

!

!

Host: Identified and inadequately identified have been associated with plants 8 Human Health Related: Have been unidentified or inadequately identified have been reported for clinical infections 9 Clinical infections 8 Togninia sp., spp.

! SEE Table T-1

• Togninia parasitica see Phaeoacremonium parasiticum ! Trichoderma sp., spp.

!

• Trichoderma longibrachiatum aka Hypocrea sp. !

Host: Fungi 7

Human Health Related: Opportunistic infection 7 SEE Table X-1

Xanthomonas sp., spp. !

• Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ! ! !

Host: Black rot of crucifers and wilt and blight stump rot of broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, kale, mustard, radish, rutabaga, sunflower, stock and turnip 8 Human Health Related: Bacteremia 8

23


REFERENCES 1. Acinetobacter Infection by L. Silvia Munoz-Price, M.D., and Robert A. Weinstein, M.D.; New England Journal of Medicine http://web.archive.org/liveweb/https://www.pdhealth.mil/nlAttachments/DHCC-Uploads/Acinetobacter_Infection.pdf 2. Isolation of Acinetobacter from Soil and Water; Paul Baumann1 Department of Bacteriology and Immunology,University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 http://web.archive.org/liveweb/http://www.nugi-zentrum.de/fileadmin/website_uni_ulm/nugi/Experimente/Allgemeines/ Acinetobacter_Isolierg.pdf 3. page 601: STUDIES ON CULTURED AND UNCULTURED MICROBIOTA OF WILD CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS MOSQUITO MIDGUT BASED ON 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE ANALYSIS; Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 70(6), 2004, pp. 597–603 http://web.archive.org/liveweb/http://www.ajtmh.org/content/70/6/597.full.pdf 4. Research Article; Persistent Wolbachia and Cultivable Bacteria Infection in the Reproductive and Somatic Tissues of the Mosquito Vector Aedes albopictus http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006388 5. MARCH 24-26, 2004; Focus on Fungal Infections 14,New Orleans, Louisiana; Characterization of a Previously Undercribed Lagenidium Pathogen Associated With Soft Tissue Infection: Initial Description Of a New Human Oomycosis http://biotechnology.kaiserpapers.info/pdfs/humandogstudy.pdf 6. AgraQuest - seeks $5 million infusion; Sacramento Business Journal - December 5, 1997 by Lynn Graebner Staff Writer http://www.bizjournals.com/sacramento/stories/1997/12/08/story4.html?page=all 7. FEMS Microbiol Rev, Apr;31(3):239-277; Molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity: how do pathogenic microorganisms develop cross-kingdom host jumps? http://web.archive.org/web/20130727122531/http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2007.00065.x/full 8.  BIOLOGICAL SAFETY - Principles and Practices; Laboratory, Growth Chamber and Greenhouse Microbial Safety; Plant Pathogens and PlantAssociated Microorganisms of Significance to Human Health by ANNE K VIDAVER, SUE A. TOLIN, AND PATRICIA LAMBRECHT - 4th edition http://issuu.com/biotechharm/docs/vidaver.biosafety 9. “Cross-infective microbes: from plants to humans” by Anne Vidaver; Enhancing Regulatory Communication Workshop November 2006 VIDEO: http://biopesticide.ucr.edu/video/assets/MOV00F_Vidaver.wmv TRANSCRIPTION: http://issuu.com/biotechharm/docs/vidaver.cross.infective 10. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service Source Oregon State Submission: USDA Contract; Accession No 0413096; Project No. 5358-22000-034-08G; Project End Date: Sep 30, 2010 - BIOFUMIGATION OF BARK-BASED MEDIA WITH MUSCODOR ALBUS http://www.reeis.usda.gov/web/crisprojectpages/0413096-biofumigation-of-bark-based-media-with-muscodor-albus.html 11. Muscodor albus, a potential biocontrol agent against plant-parasitic nematodes of economically important vegetable crops in Washington State, USA http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/17098/PDF 12. CNetNews;  Killing Bugs with Nature http://web.archive.org/web/20121226105235/http://news.cnet.com/Killing-bugs-with-nature/2009-11395_3-6058326.html 13.  Nematology, 2000, Vol. 2(8), 871-879; Evaluation of Trichoderma virens and Burkholderia cepacia for antagonistic activity agains root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita http://web.archive.org/web/20130521140157/http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/ person/990/Meyeretal2000BurkholderiaTrichodermavsroot-knotnematode.pdf 14. Webster Medical On-Line Dictionary; Penicillium! ! ! ! www.merriam-webster.com/medical/penicillium?show=0&t=1342849415 15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; General information E. coli (Escherichia coli)!

!

http://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/general/index.html

16. US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health; J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2007;23(2 Suppl):50-7. Oomycetes: Lagenidium giganteum.; Kerwin JL.; Source Department of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. http://web.archive.org/liveweb/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17853597 17. 2013 USDA-ARS 2nd International Biosafety & Biocontainment Symposium Alexandria, VA: Occupational Health: Lab Acquired Illness, Exposure, Releases, and Consequences;Risk Assessment and Biosafety of Plant Pathogens in the Laboratory by Sue A. Tolin Professor Emerita, Plant Pathology, Virginia Tech http://arssymposium.absa.org/pdf/IV-Tolin.pdf 18. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data ; Understanding and controlling the German cockroach ; edited by Michael K Rust, John M. Owens, Donald A Reierson. ; p. cm. Includes bibliographical references; ISBN 0- 19- 506-493-X http://books.google.com/books?id=4j8n8hIBEa0C&lpg=PA85&ots=TDgRlJp00a&dq= aureus%20california%20%22german%20cockroach%22&pg=PP1#v=twopage&q&f=false

24


19. Papers that have changed the practice of occupational medicine; D. J. Hendrick; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Rd, Newcastle upon Tyne NEI; UK; Flindt MLH. Pulmonary diseases do to inhalation of derivatives of Bacillus subtilis containing proteolytic enzyme (Lancet 1969; 1: 1177-1181) ; Pepys J. Longbottom JL, Hargreave FE, Faux J. Allergic reactions of the lungs to enzymes of Bacillus Subtilis (Lancet 1969; 1: 1181-1184) http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/content/52/1/56.full.pdf 20. EPA; Bacillus subtilis Final Risk Assessment; ATTACHMENT I--FINAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS SUBTILIS (February 1997)! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! http://epa.gov/biotech_rule/pubs/fra/fra009.html

25


TABLE A- 1

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Acinetobacter AGENCY: PUB MED ! TITLE: Study on a bacterial strain Bt8 for biocontrol against citrus bacterial canker "The results showed that Acinetobacter baumannii has potential as biocontrol agent against bacterial canker disease."

TABLE A- 2

Agrobacterium

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

! Agency: :  EPA TITLE:  COMPLIANCE REVIEW OF BIOTECHNOLOGY FACILITIE ; March 1994 Comment:  [page 42, 43]

Agrobacterium Products

Strains ! Agrobacterium radiobacter Other Names for this Chemical: 01984 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 01984 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 1984 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 1984 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Agrobacterium radiobacter , Agrobacteriumradiobacter

! Galltrol - a ! Norbac 84-c

! Agrobacterium radiobacter (strain K84) Other Names for this Chemical: 114201 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 114201 (US EPA PC Code) , 208900 (Old US EPA PC Code) , 208900 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 208900 (US EPA PC Code) , Agrobacterium radiobacter (strain K84) , AgrobacteriumradiobacterstrainK84 , Galltrol-A , Norbac 84-C , Use code no. 114201

! Nogall

! Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K1026 Other Names for this Chemical: 006474 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05477 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05477 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5477 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5477 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6474 (US EPA PC Code) , Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K1026 , AGROBACTERIUM RADIOBACTER VAR RADIOBACTER STRAIN K1026 , AgrobacteriumradiobacterstrainK1026

! Agrobacterium radiobacter var radiobacter. Other Names for this Chemical: Agrobacterium radiobacter var radiobacter , Agrobacteriumradiobactervarradiobacter

! Agrobacterium vitis. Other Names for this Chemical: Agrobacterium vitis , Agrobacteriumvitis

! Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5. Other Names for this Chemical: 100874 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 100874 (US EPA PC Code) , Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5 , AgrobacteriumvitisstrainF2/5

26


TABLE A- 3

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Alternaria

Products

Strains

! Alternaria cassiae. Other Names for this Chemical: 128866 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 128866 (US EPA PC Code) , Alternaria cassiae , Alternaria cassiae , Alternariacassiae , LX 136-01 , Mycogen LX-136-01

! Smolder g ! Smolder wp

! Alternaria destruens. Other Names for this Chemical: 028301 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 28301 (US EPA PC Code) , Alternaria destruens , Alternaria destruens , Alternariadestruens , Smolder G , Smolder WP

TABLE A- 4

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Aspergillus

Products

! Aspergillus flavus

Strains

! Aspergillus flavus 36 colonized wheat seed.

af36

Other Names for this Chemical: 006456 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05887 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05887 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5887 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5887 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6456 (US EPA PC Code) , Aspergillus flavus 36 colonized wheat seed , Aspergillus flavus 36 colonized wheat seed , Aspergillus flavus AF36 , Aspergillus flavus isolate AF36 colonized wheat seed , Aspergillus flavus Strain AF36 , Aspergillusflavus36colonizedwheatseed

! Afla-guard

! Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882. Other Names for this Chemical: 006500 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6500 (US EPA PC Code) , Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 , Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 , AspergillusflavusNRRL21882

! Afla-guard gr ! Aspergillus flavus nrrl 21882 TABLE A- 5

Aurebosasidium

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Agency: :  EPA ! TITLE: Exemptions from Requirement of a Tolerance: Aureobasidium pullulans strains DSM 14940 and DSM 14941 Topics: Administrative Practices and Procedures, Agricultural Commodities, Environmental Protection, Pesticides and Pests, Reporting and Recordkeeping

Aureobasidium Products

! DSM 14940 Technical ! DSM 14941 Technical ! Blossom Protect

Strains

!

Aureobasidium pullulans Other Names for this Chemical: (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 036010 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 36010 (US EPA PC Code) , 6026 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6027 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 67891-88-7 (CAS number) , 67891887 (CAS number without hyphens) , AUREOBASIDIUM PULLALANS STRAIN DSM 14941 , Aureobasidium pullulans , Aureobasidium pullulans , Aureobasidium pullulans strain DSM 14940 , Aureobasidiumpullulans

27


TABLE B-1 Bacillus

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Agency:" EPA ! TITLE:! Eden BioScience Corp; Application to register a Pesticide Product GG-1000 Formulations Use; Biological Fungicide ACTION: Notice, SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of an application to register the pesticide product gg-1000, containing technical grade active ingredients not included in any previously registered product...... [[Page 15180]] "…. a biological fungicide (EPA" File Symbol 69834-R) for formulation use only, containing the technical grade active ingredients Trichoderma hamatum, Bacillus megaterium," Rhodotorula glutinis, and Penicillium oxalic active ingredients not included in any previously registered product pursuant to the provisions of section 3 c (4) of" FIFRA."

!

Agency: : EPA TITLE: COMPLIANCE REVIEW OF BIOTECHNOLOGY FACILITIE ; March 1994 Comment: [page 42, 43] ***PLEASE NOTE: "This genus includes organisms of similar morphology that cause tumor like growths of plant ... "

Characteristics of Some Commonly Used Microorganisms Three microorganisms that are frequently used in the preparation of bioengineered microorganism or transgenic plants are Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Escherichia coli. Bacillus In addition, many Bacilli produce antibiotics....., MIRRORED FROM EPA’s COMPLIANCE REVIEW OF BIOTECHNOLOGY FACILITIE; 1994

Bacillus (related to page 3 only) Products

! Qrd 145 Bayer advanced natria disease control ready-

Strains

! QST 713 strain of dried Bacillus subtilis

to-spray ! Qrd 145 ! Qrd 146 ! Qst 713 technical ! Rhapsody as ! Cease ! Rhapsody as0 ! Serenade ! Serenade solutions ! Serenade as ! Serenade aso ! Serenade solutions biofungicide liquid concentrate ! Garden solutions bifofungicidal liquid concentrate ! Plant guardian biofungicide liquid concentrate ! Serenade biofungicide wettable powder ! Serenade garden disease control ready to use ! Bayer advanced natria disease control ready-to-use ! Serenade solutions biofungicide for home and garden ! Garden solutions biofungicide wettable ! Serenade max ! Armor tech sonnet

Other Names for this Chemical 006479 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05447 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05447 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5447 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5447 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6479 (US EPA PC Code) , BACILLUS SUBTILIS (STRAIN QST 713) , Bacillus subtilis QST 713 , Bacillus subtilis QST713 , Bacillus subtilis Stamm QST 713 , Bacillus subtilis str. QST 713 , Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 , QST 713 strain of bacillus subtilis , QST 713 STRAIN OF DRIED BACILLUS , QST 713 strain of dried Bacillus subtilis , QST713strainofdriedBacillussubtilis

! Bacillus subtilis DB 101 Other Names for this Chemical: Bacillus subtilis DB 101 , Bacillus subtilis DB 101 , BacillussubtilisDB101 !

Bacillus subtilis DB 102 Other Names for this Chemical: Bacillus subtilis DB 102 , Bacillus subtilis DB 102 , BacillussubtilisDB102

28


TABLE B-1, continued

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Bacillus, continued Products

!

Companion

! Companion dry concentrate biological fungicide ! Companion liquid biological fungicide ! System 3 seed treatment ! Kodiak a-t fungicide ! Kodiak concentrate biological fungicide ! Kodiak flowable biological fungicide ! Kodiak hb biological fungicide ! Kodiak t fungicide

Strains ! Bacillus subtilis GBO3 Other Names for this Chemical: 03945 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 03945 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 129068 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 129068 (US EPA PC Code) , 3945 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3945 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Bacillus subtilis , BACILLUS SUBTILIS GB03 , Bacillus subtilis GBO3 , Bacillus subtilis GBO3 , Bacillus subtilus , BacillussubtilisGBO3 , Gus 2000 concentrate , Supresses root diseases

! Bacillus subtilis isolate B246 Other Names for this Chemical: Bacillus subtilis isolate B246 , BacillussubtilisisolateB246

! Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 Other Names for this Chemical: 05120 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05120 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 129082 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 129082 (US EPA PC Code) , 5120 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5120 (CA DPR Chem Code) , BACILLUS SUBTILIS (STRAIN MBI600) , BACILLUS SUBTILIS MB1600 , Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 , Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 , Bacillus subtilis MBI-600 , Bacillus subtilis MBI600 , BacillussubtilisMBI600 , Gus 376 concentrate , Supresses root diseases

! Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060 Other Names for this Chemical 016480 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 16480 (US EPA PC Code) , 68038-70-0 (CAS number) , 68038700 (CAS number without hyphens) , Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060 , Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060 , BacillussubtilisstrainCX9060

! Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain D747 Other Names for this Chemical 016482 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 16482 (US EPA PC Code) , Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain D747 , Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain D747 , Bacillussubtilisvar.amyloliquefaciensstrainD747

! Bacillus subtilis var. Amyloliquefaciens Strain FZB24 Other Names for this Chemical 006480 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05934 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 5934 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6480 (US EPA PC Code) , Bacillus subtilis var. Amyloliquefaciens Strain FZB24 , Bacillus subtilis var. Amyloliquefaciens Strain FZB24 , Bacillussubtilisvar.AmyloliquefaciensStrainFZB24 ! Bacillus megaterium Other Names for this Chemical 054503 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 54503 (US EPA PC Code) , Bacillus megaterium , Bacillus megaterium , Bacillus megaterium de Bary strain # 92352 , Bacillusmegaterium

29


TABLE B--1, continued

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Bacillus, continued Products

Strains

! Gb34 concentrate biological fungicide ! Gb34 technical biological fungicide ! Yield shield fs 200

!

! Qst 2808 mup ! Sonata aso ! BalladPlus

! Bacillus pumilus QST 2808 ! Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 “the strain was originally isolated from a soil sample collected from Micronesia, 1998”

Bacillus pumilus GB34 Other Names for this Chemical 006493 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6493 (US EPA PC Code) , Bacillus pumilus GB34 , Bacillus pumilus GB34 , Bacillus pumilus, strain #GB34 , BacilluspumilusGB34

Other Names for this Chemical 006485 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05770 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05770 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5770 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5770 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6485 (US EPA PC Code) , Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 , Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 , BacilluspumilusstrainQST2808

TABLE B--2

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links Burkholderia cepacia Agency: California Department of Pesticide Regulations

Publication: Nematology, 2000, Vol. 2(8), 871-879

! TITLE: PEST MANAGEMENT GRANTS FINAL " REPORT - CONTRACT NO. 99.0220

! "

! TITLE: Evaluation of Trichoderma virens and Burkholderia cepacia for antagonistic activity against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

FIELD TRIALS FOR THE COMBINED USE OF OZONE GAS AND BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS AS A PREPLANT SOIL TREATMENT FOR TOMATOES AND STRAWBERRIES; ALAN PRYOR SOILZONE, INC.; AUGUST 31, 2001 Comments: The Burkholderia cepacia culture was provided by Stine Microbial Products of Adel, IA., Discussion and Conclusions: "Only the B. cepacia treatments on a standalone basis produced a significantly higher yield than untreated and all chemically treated controls

Discussion: B. cepacia strain Bc-2 and T. virens strain Gl-3 can produce substances in culture filtrates that significantly inhibit egg hatch and J2 mobility of M. incognita in in vitro assays. [Vol. 2(8), 2000 877]

30


TABLE B-2, continued

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Burkholderia cepacia, continued Products

Strains

! Blue circle (tm) liquid  ! Deny liquid biological fungicide ! Blue circle liquid biological fungicide ! Blue circle seed treatment biological fungicide 

! Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia type Wisconsin isolate/strain J82

! Blue circle liquid biological

! Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia type Wisconsin isolate/strain

nematicide ! Deny liquid biological nematicide ! Blue circle seed treatment biological nematicide ! Deny seed treatment biological nematicide

M54

Other Names for this Chemical: 006464 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6464 (US EPA PC Code) , Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia type Wisconsin isolate/strain J82 , BurkholderiaPseudomonascepaciatypeWisconsinisolate/strainJ82 , Burkkholderia cepaciatype WisconsinIsolate J82

Other Names for this Chemical: 006465 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6465 (US EPA PC Code) , Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia type Wisconsin isolate/strain M54 , BurkholderiaPseudomonascepaciatypeWisconsinisolate/strainM54 , Burkkholderia cepaciatype WisconsinIsolate M54

! Burkholderia Cepacia AMMD Other Names for this Chemical: 006468 (new EPA PC Code) , 054601 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 54601 (US EPA PC Code) , Burkholderia Cepacia AMMD , Burkholderia Cepacia AMMD (Use pc code 006468) , BurkholderiaCepaciaAMMD

! Burkholderia cepacia strain Ral-3 Other Names for this Chemical: 006472 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6472 (US EPA PC Code) , Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia strain Ral-3 , Burkholderia cepacia strain Ral-3 , BurkholderiacepaciastrainRal3

! Burkholderia sp strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media Other Names for this Chemical: 006534 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6534 (US EPA PC Code) , Burkholderia sp strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media , Burkholderia sp strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media , BurkholderiaspstrainA396cellsandspentfermentationmedia

! Burkholderia(Pseudomonas)cepacia strain AMMD. Other Names for this Chemical: 006468 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6468 (US EPA PC Code) , Burkholderia(Pseudomonas)cepacia strain AMMD , BurkholderiaPseudomonascepaciastrainAMMD

TABLE C-1

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links Chaetomium Products

Strains

! Chaetomium cupreum Other Names for this Chemical: Chaetomium cupreum , Chaetomium cupreum , Chaetomiumcupreum

31


TABLE C-2

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links Colletotrichum Products

Strains

! Colletotrichum gloeosporiodies Other Names for this Chemical: 122817 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 122817 (US EPA PC Code) , Colletotrichum gloeosporiodies , Colletotrichumgloeosporiodies

! Colletotrichum gloeosporioides aeschynomene Other Names for this Chemical: 122807 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 122807 (US EPA PC Code) , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides aeschynomene , Colletotrichumgloeosporioidesaeschynomene

! Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. Malvae Other Names for this Chemical: 122818 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 122818 (US EPA PC Code) , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. Malvae , Colletotrichumgloeosporioidesf.sp.Malvae

! ! ! !

Collego selective postemergent herbicide Lockdown liquid Lockdown retro Lockdown xl

! Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp.aeschynomene atcc20358 Other Names for this Chemical: 05128 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05128 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 226300 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 226300 (US EPA PC Code) , 5128 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5128 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene ATCC 20358 , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp.aeschynomene ATCC 20358 RED , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp.aeschynomene ATCC 20358 RED Fact Sheet , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp.aeschynomene atcc20358, Colletotrichumgloeosporioidesf.sp.aeschynomeneatcc203 58 , COLLETROTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES F.SP. AESCHYNOMENE ATCC20358

! Colletotrichum gloeosporioides jussiaecae Other Names for this Chemical: 122808 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 122808 (US EPA PC Code) , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides jussiaecae , Colletotrichumgloeosporioidesjussiaecae

TABLE C-3

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Coniothyrium Products

! Contans wg

Strains

! Coniothyrium minitans Other Names for this Chemical: 028836 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05753 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05753 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 28836 (US EPA PC Code) , 5753 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5753 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Coniothyrium minitan , Coniothyrium minitans , Coniothyrium minitans CON/M/91-08 , Coniothyrium minitans Stamm CON/M/91-08 , CONIOTHYRIUM MINITANS STRAIN , Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/ M/91-08 , Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08 (A filamentous fungus) , Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/ M/91-8 , Coniothyriumminitans

32


TABLE C-4

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Cryptococcus Products

Strains

! Cryptococcus albidus Other Names for this Chemical: Cryptococcus albidus , Cryptococcusalbidus

! Cryptococcus infirmo-miniatus strain YY6 Other Names for this Chemical: 081306 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 81306 (US EPA PC Code) , Cryptococcus infirmo-miniatus (Okunuki) Phaff & Fell strain YY-6 , Cryptococcus infirmo-miniatus strain YY6 , CryptococcusinfirmominiatusstrainYY6 TABLE E-1

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links Enterbacter

! TITLE: Biological Control of Plant Pathogens Kamal Krishna Pal*, Visiting Scholar, Department of Plant Pathology, Ohio State University, OARDC, Wooster, OH Brian McSpadden Gardener, Department of Plant Pathology, Ohio State University, OARDC, Wooster, OH *Permanent address: National Research Centre for Groundnut, Ivnagar Road, PB No. 5, Juangadh-362 001, Gujarat, India pg 8 Howell et al. (1988) reported that volatile compounds such as ammonia produced by Enterobacter cloacae were involved in the suppression of Pythium ultimum-induced damping-off of cotton. While it is clear that biocontrol microbes can release many different compounds into their surrounding environment, the types and amounts produced in natural systems in the presence and absence of plant disease have not been well documented and this remains a frontier for discovery. pg 8-9 For example, effective catabolism of nutrients in the spermosphere has been identified as a mechanism contributing to the suppression of Pythium ultimum by Enterobacter cloacae (van Dijk and Nelson 2000, Kageyama and Nelson 2003). References • Howell, C. R., Beier, R. C., and Stipanovic, R. D. 1988. Production of ammonia by Enterobacter cloacae and its possible role in the biological control of Pythium pre- emergence damping-off by the bacterium. Phytopathology 78:1075-1078. • Kageyama, K., and Nelson, E.B. 2003. Differential inactiviation of seed exudates stimulation of Pythium ultimum sporangium germination by Enterobacter cloacae influences biological control efficacy on different plant species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:1114-1120. • van Dijk, K., and Nelson, E. B. 2000. Fatty acid competition as a mechanism by which Enterobacter cloacae suppresses Pythium ultimum sporangium germination and damping- off. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:5340-5347

Enterbacter Products

Strains

! Enterobactor aerogenes Other Names for this Chemical: Enterobactor aerogenes , Enterobactor aerogenes , Enterobactoraerogenes

! Enterobactor agglomerans Other Names for this Chemical: Enterobactor agglomerans , Enterobactor agglomerans , Enterobactoragglomerans

33


Escherichia coli (E-coli) TABLE E-2

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

! Agency: :  EPA TITLE:  COMPLIANCE REVIEW OF BIOTECHNOLOGY FACILITIE ; March 1994 Comment:  [page 42, 43] ***PLEASE NOTE: "This genus includes organisms of similar morphology that cause tumor like growths of plant ... " Characteristics of Some Commonly Used Microorganisms Three microorganisms that are frequently used in the preparation of bioengineered microorganism or transgenic plants are Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Escherichia coli. Escherichia coli (E-coli) ! Harpin alpha beta protein

[Produced by modified strain of Escherichia coli (K-12)] Products

! Product Name: Ebc-281 ! Product Name: Ebc-282 ! Product Name: Ebc-353 seed treatment ! Product Name: Ebc-354 seed treatment ! Product Name: Ebc-354 seed treatment ! Product Name: Harp-n-tek ! Product Name on Label: Acceleron hx-209 seed treatment ! EPA Registered Name: Proact ! Messenger Green guard growth stimulator ! Messenger Green guard growth enhancer ! Messenger (not duplicated) ! Messenger (not duplicated) ! Messenger seed treatment (not duplicated) ! Messenger seed treatment (not duplicated) ! Green Guard seed treatment ! Messenger t&o ! Mighty plant with messenger gold

TABLE L-1

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Strains

! Harpin alpha beta protein Other Names for this Chemical: 006506 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05761 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05761 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5761 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5761 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6506 (US EPA PC Code) , Harpin ab protein , Harpin alpha beta protein , Harpin alpha beta protein , Harpinalphabetaprotein , Produced by modified strain of Escherichia coli (K-12),engineered to produce a protein naturally produced by Erwinia amylovora,

! Harpin proteins Other Names for this Chemical: 006477 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6477 (US EPA PC Code) , Harpin proteins , Harpinproteins , Mixture of harpin proteins

Lagenidium giganteum (California strain) co-registrants: California Department of Health Services & Agraquest, Inc.) Agency: :  EPA ! TITLE: Lagenidium giganteum (129084) Fact Sheet V.! Regulatory Information Lagenidium giganteum was registered (approved for sale) as a pesticide active ingredient in 1991. As of November 2000, there were three registered pesticide end products containing this fungus as the active ingredient. VII.! Registrant Information California Department of Health Services Agraquest, Inc. DCDC/Vector-borne Disease Section c/o Technology Sciences Group, Inc. P.O. 942732 1101 17th Street, NW, Suite 500 Sacramento, CA 94234 Washington, DC 20036 VIII. ! Additional Contact Information; Ombudsman, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P); Office of Pesticide Programs; Environmental Protection Agency; 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW;

34


TABLE L-1, continued

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Lagenidium giganteum (California strain - co-registrants: California Department of Health Services & Agraquest, Inc.) Products

Strains

! Lagenidium giganteum mycelium & oospores ! Laginex as ! Laginex Technical

! Lagenidium giganteum (california strain) Other Names for this Chemical: 03001 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 03001 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3001 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3001 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Lagenidium giganteum (california strain) , Lagenidiumgiganteumcaliforniastrain

! Lagenidium giganteum mycelium & oospores ! Lagenidium giganteum mycellium ! Lagenidium giganteum oospores ! Laginex as ! Technical laginex

TABLE M-1

! Lagenidium giganteum, mycelium or oospores Other Names for this Chemical: 129084 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 129084 (US EPA PC Code) , Kills mosquito larvae , Lagenidium giganteum , Lagenidium giganteum, mycelium or oospores , Lagenidiumgiganteummyceliumoroospores

Muscodor albus

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

! “Isolated from a cinnamon tree in Honduras” Products

! ! ! !

Andante  Arabesque  Glissade Qst 20799 technical

Strains

! Muscodor albus strain QST 20799 Other Names for this Chemical: 006503 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05871 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05871 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5871 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5871 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6503 (US EPA PC Code) , Antifungal activity was associated with the production of 2-methyl-1butanol, ethyl butyrate and isobutyric acid, ethyl propion , Endophytic fungus that was originally isolated from the bark of a cinnamon tree , Muscodor albus strain QST 20799 , Muscodor albus strain QST 20799 , MuscodoralbusstrainQST20799

TABLE P-1

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Paecilomyces Products

35

Strains

! Pfr-97 20% wdg ! Pine-o-kleen ! Pfr-97 mup

! Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Apopka strain 97

! Melocon wg ! Melocon wp

! Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 (A filamentous fungus)

Other Names for this Chemical: 03964 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 03964 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 115002 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 115002 (US EPA PC Code) , 3964 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3964 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Paecilomyces fumosoroseus , Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Apopka strain 97 , Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Apopka-strain 97 , PaecilomycesfumosoroseusApopkastrain97 , PFR-97 WDG , PFR-MUP

Other Names for this Chemical: 028826 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05861 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 28826 (US EPA PC Code) , 5861 (CA DPR Chem Code) , paecilomyces lilacinus , PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS STRAIN 251 , Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 (A filamentous fungus) , Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 (A filamentous fungus) , Paecilomyceslilacinusstrain251Afilamentousfungus


Pantoea

TABLE P-2

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Agency: Bio Med Central ! RESEARCH ARTICLE: Genotypic comparison of Pantoea agglomerans

Pantoea Products ! Blightban c9-1

Strains

! Pantoea agglomerans strain C9-1 Other Names for this Chemical: 006470 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6470 (US EPA PC Code) , PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS C9-1 , Pantoea agglomerans strain C9-1 , PantoeaagglomeransstrainC91

! Bloomtime biological fd biopesticide

! Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 NRRL B-21856 E325; NRRL B-21856 Other Names for this Chemical: 006511 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05945 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05945 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5945 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5945 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6511 (US EPA PC Code) , PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS STRAIN E325 (NRRL B-21856) , Pantoea agglomerans strain E325; NRRL B-21856 , Pantoea agglomerans strain E325; NRRL B-21856 , PantoeaagglomeransstrainE325;NRRLB21856

! Pantoea agglomerans strain P10c Other Names for this Chemical: Pantoea agglomerans, strain P10c , Pantoea agglomerans, strain P10c , PantoeaagglomeransstrainP10c TABLE P-3

Penicillium

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links !

!!

Agency:  EPA TITLE:  Eden BioScience Corp; Application to register a Pesticide Product GG-1000 Formulations Use; Biological Fungicide

[[Page 15180]] "…. a biological fungicide (EPA  File Symbol 69834-R) for formulation use only, containing the technical grade active ingredients Trichoderma hamatum, Bacillus megaterium,  Rhodotorula glutinis, and Penicillium oxalic active ingredients not included in any previously registered product ...”

Penicillium Products

Strains

! Penicillium oxalicum Other Names for this Chemical: 081303 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 81303 (US EPA PC Code) , Penicillium oxalicum , Penicilliumoxalicum

36


TABLE P-4

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Phoma Products

Strains

! Phoma macrostoma Other Names for this Chemical: (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 080303 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6017 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 80303 (US EPA PC Code) , Phoma macrostoma , Phoma macrostoma , Phoma macrostoma strain 94-44B , Phomamacrostoma TABLE P-5

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Pseudomonas Products

! Spot-less biofungicide

Strains

! Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain Tx-1 Other Names for this Chemical: 006473 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05956 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 5956 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6473 (US EPA PC Code) , Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain Tx-1 , PseudomonasaureofaciensstrainTx1

! Blue circle ! Deny ! Smp pcpwi

! Pseudomonas cepacia type Wisconsin Other Names for this Chemical: 006419 , 006419 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 03926 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 03926 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3926 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3926 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6419 (US EPA PC Code) , Blue Circle Innoculant SMP-1 , Pseudomonas cepacia SMP-1 , Pseudomonas cepacia type Wisconsin , PseudomonascepaciatypeWisconsin , SMP-1

! Pseudomonas chlororaphis Other Names for this Chemical: 05182 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05182 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5182 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5182 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Pseudomonas chlororaphis , Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA 342 , Pseudomonas chlororaphis Stamm MA 342 , Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain MA342 , Pseudomonas chlororapsis MA 342 , Pseudomonaschlororaphis

! Ateze

! Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 63-28 Other Names for this Chemical: 006478 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6478 (US EPA PC Code) , Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 63-28 , Pseudomonaschlororaphisstrain6328

! Pseudomonas fluorescens Other Names for this Chemical: 006486 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6486 (US EPA PC Code) , Pseudomonas fluores. , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Pseudomonasfluorescens

! Pseudomonas fluorescens (natural occurring strain) Other Names for this Chemical: 006418 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6418 (US EPA PC Code) , Pseudomonas fluorescens (natural occurring strain) , Pseudomonasfluorescensnaturaloccurringstrain

37


TABLE P-5, continued

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Pseudomonas, continued Products

Strains

! Frostban a ! Frostban d

! Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS

! Frostban a ! Frostban b

! Pseudomonas fluorescens A506

Other Names for this Chemical: 006439 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 03949 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 03949 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3949 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3949 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6439 (US EPA PC Code) , Prevents frost damage , Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS , PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS STRAIN 1629 RS , Pseudomonasfluorescens1629RS

Other Names for this Chemical: 006438 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 02842 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 02842 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 2842 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 2842 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6438 (US EPA PC Code) , Frostban B , Prevents frost damage , previously coded 006418 , Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 , Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 (previously coded 006418) , PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS STRAIN A506 , PseudomonasfluorescensA506

! Pseudomonas fluorescens CL 145 A Other Names for this Chemical: 006533 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 06013 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 6013 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6533 (US EPA PC Code) , Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype A isolate CL 145 A (KILLED); ATCC #55799 , Pseudomonas fluorescens CL 145 A , Pseudomonas fluorescens CL 145 A , PseudomonasfluorescensCL145A

! Dagger g biofungicide ! Dagger manufacturing concentrate

! Pseudomonas fluorescens EG-1053 Other Names for this Chemical: 006440 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05045 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05045 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5045 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5045 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6440 (US EPA PC Code) , Dagger , previously coded 006418 , Pseudomonas fluorescens EG-1053 , Pseudomonas fluorescens EG-1053 (previously coded 006418) , PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS, STRAIN EG-1053 , PseudomonasfluorescensEG1053

! Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate 112-12. Contains delta endotoxin gene from BTK. Resistant to kanamycin. DIRECT TRANSPOSITION TEC. Other Names for this Chemical: 006417 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6417 (US EPA PC Code) , MON 11760 , Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate 112-12. Contains delta endotoxin gene from BTK. Resistant to kanamycin. DIRECT TRANSPOSITION TEC , Pseudomonasfluorescensisolate11212.Containsdeltaendotoxin genefromBTK.Resistanttokanamycin.DIRECTTRANSPOSITIO NTECHNOLOGY.

! Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate 112-12. Contains delta endotoxin gene from BTK. Resistant to kanamycin. HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION Other Names for this Chemical: 006415 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6415 (US EPA PC Code) , MON 11740 , Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate 112-12. Contains delta endotoxin gene from BTK. Resistant to kanamycin. HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION , Pseudomonasfluorescensisolate11212.Containsdeltaendotoxin genefromBTK.Resistanttokanamycin.HOMOLOGOUSRECOMB INATIONTECHNOLOGY.

38


TABLE P-5, continued

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Pseudomonas, continued Products

Strains

! Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate 112-2. Contains delta endotoxin gene from BTK. Sensitive to kanamycin. HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION Other Names for this Chemical: 006416 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6416 (US EPA PC Code) , MON 11750 , Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate 112-2. Contains delta endotoxin gene from BTK. Sensitive to kanamycin. HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION , Pseudomonasfluorescensisolate1122.Containsdeltaendotoxing enefromBTK.Sensitivetokanamycin.HOMOLOGOUSRECOMBI NATIONTECHNOLOGY.

! Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate Ps 3732-3-7. Contains delta endotoxin gene BTK. Resistant to kanamycin. DIRECT TRANSPORTATION TE Other Names for this Chemical: 006414 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6414 (US EPA PC Code) , MON 11730 , Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate Ps 3732-3-7. Contains delta endotoxin gene BTK. Resistant to kanamycin. DIRECT TRANSPORTATION TE , PseudomonasfluorescensisolatePs373237.Containsdeltaendot oxingeneBTK.Resistanttokanamycin.DIRECTTRANSPORTATI ONTECHNOLOGY.

! Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate Ps 3732-3-7. Contains delta endotoxin gene BTK. Sensitive to kanamycin. HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION Other Names for this Chemical: 006413 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6413 (US EPA PC Code) , MON 11720 , Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate Ps 3732-3-7. Contains delta endotoxin gene BTK. Sensitive to kanamycin. HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION , PseudomonasfluorescensisolatePs373237.Containsdeltaendot oxingeneBTK.Sensitivetokanamycin.HOMOLOGOUSRECOMB INATIONTECHNOLOGY.

! Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate Ps 3732-3-7. Contains delta endotoxin gene from BTK(Bacillus thuringiensis, subsp. kurstaki). Re. Other Names for this Chemical: 006412 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6412 (US EPA PC Code) , MON 11710 , Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate Ps 3732-3-7. Contains delta endotoxin gene from BTK(Bacillus thuringiensis, subsp. kurstaki). Re , PseudomonasfluorescensisolatePs373237.Containsdeltaendot oxingenefromBTKBacillusthuringiensissubsp.kurstaki.Resistant tokanamycin.

! Victus

! Pseudomonas fluorescens strain NCIB 12089 Other Names for this Chemical: 006420 , 006420 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 03968 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 03968 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3968 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3968 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6420 (US EPA PC Code) , Pseudomonas fluorescens strain NCIB 12089 , PseudomonasfluorescensstrainNCIB12089

39


TABLE P-5, continued

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Pseudomonas, continued Products

Strains

! Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25 Other Names for this Chemical: 006467 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6467 (US EPA PC Code) , Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25 , PseudomonasfluorescensstrainPRA25

! Pseudomonas fluorescens Z34-9 Other Names for this Chemical: 006475 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6475 (US EPA PC Code) , p. fluorescens Z34-97 , Pseudomonas fluorescens Z34-97 , PseudomonasfluorescensZ3497

! Pseudomonas putida Other Names for this Chemical: Pseudomonas putida , Pseudomonas putida , Pseudomonasputida

! Pseudomonas sp. Strain DSMZ 13134 Other Names for this Chemical: Pseudomonas sp. Strain DSMZ 13134 , Pseudomonas sp. Strain DSMZ 13134 , Pseudomonassp.StrainDSMZ13134

! Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Other Names for this Chemical: 006521 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6521 (US EPA PC Code) , Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato , Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato , Pseudomonassyringaepv.tomato

! Pseudomonas syringae strain AGS31 Psedomonas syringae strain PS31 Other Names for this Chemical: 03950 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 03950 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3950 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3950 (CA DPR Chem Code) , PSEDOMONAS SYRINGAE STRAIN AGS31PSEDOMONAS SYRINGAE STRAIN PS31 , Pseudomonas syringae strain AGS31 Psedomonas syringae strain PS31 , PseudomonassyringaestrainAGS31Psedomonassyringaestrain PS31

! Bio-save 11 biological fungicide ! Bio-save 11 lp biological fungicide ! Bio-save 11 nt biological fungicide ! Esc-11 biofungicide technical

! Frostban a ! Frostban c

! Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC-11 Other Names for this Chemical: 006451 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 03967 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 03967 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3967 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3967 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6451 (US EPA PC Code) , Bio-Save 11 , ESC-11M2F2/ ESC-11 Biofungicide , Pseudomonas syringae ESC 11 , Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC-11 , PseudomonassyringaestrainESC11

! Pseudomonas syringae, strain 742 RS Other Names for this Chemical: 006411 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 02824 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 02824 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 2824 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 2824 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6411 (US EPA PC Code) , 68602-93-7 (CAS number) , 68602937 , 68602937 (CAS number without hyphens) , Frostban A, component of , Frostban C , Prevents frost damage , Pseudomonas Syringae 742RS , Pseudomonas syringae, strain 742 RS , Pseudomonassyringaestrain742RS

40


TABLE P-5, continued

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Pseudomonas, continued Products

! Bio-save 10 biological

Strains

! Pseudomonas syringae, strain ESC-10

fungicide ! Bio-save 10 lp ! Bio-save 10 nt biological fungicide ! Bio-save 100 biological fungicide ! Bio-save 1000 biological fungicide ! Esc-10 biofungicide technical (not duplicate) ! Esc-10 biofungicide technical (not duplicate) ! Esc-11 biofungicide technical (not duplicate)

Other Names for this Chemical: 006441 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 03960 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 03960 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3960 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3960 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6441 (US EPA PC Code) , 68583-32-4 (CAS number) , 68583324 , 68583324 (CAS number without hyphens) , Pseudomonas syringae , Pseudomonas syringae (CA INDEX NAME) (CAS Reg. No. 68583-32-4) , PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE - STRAIN ESC-10 , Pseudomonas syringae ESC 10 , Pseudomonas syringae, strain ESC 10 , Pseudomonas syringae, strain ESC-10 , PseudomonassyringaestrainESC10

TABLE P-6

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Pythium Products

! Polyversum ! Technical dv 74

Strains

! Pythium oligandrum DV 74 (ATCC 38472) (A Filamentous Fungus) Other Names for this Chemical: 028816 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05924 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05924 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 28816 (US EPA PC Code) , 5924 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5924 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Pythium oligandrum DV 74 (ATCC 38472) (A Filamentous Fungus) , Pythium oligandrum DV 74 (ATCC 38472) (A Filamentous Fungus) , PythiumoligandrumDV74ATCC38472AFilamentousFungu

! Pythium oligandrum (M1) Other Names for this Chemical: Pythium oligandrum , Pythium oligandrum (M1) , Pythium oligandrum (M1) , PythiumoligandrumM1 TABLE R-1

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Rhizobium Products

Strains

! Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli Other Names for this Chemical: Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli , Rhizobiumleguminosarumbiovarphaseoli

! Rhizobium leguminosarum viciaeTJ 9 Other Names for this Chemical: Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli , Rhizobiumleguminosarumbiovarphaseoli

! Rhizobium meliloti Other Names for this Chemical: Rhizobium meliloti , Rhizobiummeliloti

41


TABLE S-1

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links Scytalidium/ trichoderma Products

Strains

! Scytalidium/ trichoderma mixture Other Names for this Chemical: 120802 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 120802 (US EPA PC Code) , Scytalidium/ trichoderma mixture , Scytalidium/trichoderma mixture , Scytalidium/ trichodermamixture TABLE S-2

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links Serratia Products

Strains

! Serratia entomophila (154) Other Names for this Chemical: Serratia entomophila (154) , Serratiaentomophila154

! Serratia Entomophila (strain 626) Other Names for this Chemical: Serratia Entomophila (strain 626) , Serratia Entomophila (strain 626) , SerratiaEntomophilastrain626 TABLE S-3

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links Streptomyces Products

Strains

! Streptomyces acidiscabies strain RL-100T cells and fermentation solids Other Names for this Chemical: (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 6036 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Streptomyces acidiscabies strain RL-100T cells and fermentation solids , Streptomyces acidiscabies strain RL-100T cells and fermentation solids , StreptomycesacidiscabiesstrainRL100Tcellsandfermentationsoli ds ! Streptomyces galbus strain QST 6047 Other Names for this Chemical: 006328 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 6328 (US EPA PC Code) , QST 6047 strain of Streptomyces galbus , Streptomyces galbus strain QST 6047 , StreptomycesgalbusstrainQST6047

! Mycostop biofungicide for agronomic crops ! Mycostop biofungicide for agronomic, vegetable and ornamental crop ! Mycostop biofungicide for ornamental crops ! Mycostop biofungicide for repackaging only ! Mycostop biofungicide for vegetable crops ! Mycostop g biofungicide

! Streptomyces griseoviridis strain K61 Other Names for this Chemical: 03937 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 03937 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 129069 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 129069 (US EPA PC Code) , 3937 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3937 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Mycelium and spores of Streptomyces griseoviridis , Mycostop , Streptomyces griseoviridis , streptomyces griseoviridis (k61) , Streptomyces griseoviridis bakt?rium , Streptomyces griseoviridis K61 , Streptomyces griseoviridis strain K61 , Streptomyces K61 , StreptomycesgriseoviridisstrainK61 , Streptomycis Griseoviridis , Streptomycis griseoviridis K61 isolate

42


TABLE S-3, continued

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Streptomyces, continued Products

! Actino-iron biological fungicide ! Actinovate soluble ! Actinovate stp fungicide

Strains

! Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108 Other Names for this Chemical: 006327 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05891 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05891 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5891 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5891 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6327 (US EPA PC Code) , Streptomyces lydicus , STREPTOMYCES LYDICUS STRAIN WYEC108 , Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108 , StreptomyceslydicusWYEC108

TABLE T-1

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Trichoderma Products

! Bioten wp ! Trichoderma asperellum icc 012 technical

Strains

! Trichoderma asperellum Strain ICC 012 Other Names for this Chemical: 119208 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 119208 (US EPA PC Code) , Trichoderma asperellum Strain ICC 012 , Trichoderma asperellum Strain ICC 012 , TrichodermaasperellumStrainICC012

! Trichoderma asperellum, strain T34 Other Names for this Chemical: 119209 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 119209 (US EPA PC Code) , Trichoderma asperellum, strain T34 , Trichoderma asperellum, strain T34 , TrichodermaasperellumstrainT34

! Trichoderma atroviride (IMI 206040) (T 11) (former Trichoderma harzianum). Other Names for this Chemical: Trichoderma atroviride , Trichoderma atroviride (IMI 206040) (T 11) (former Trichoderma harzianum) , Trichoderma atroviride (IMI 206040) (T 11) (former Trichoderma harzianum) , TrichodermaatrovirideIMI206040T11formerTrichodermaharzian um

! Trichoderma atroviride (LC52) Other Names for this Chemical: Trichoderma atroviride (LC52) , Trichoderma atroviride (LC52) , TrichodermaatrovirideLC52

! Trichoderma atroviride starin I-1237 Other Names for this Chemical: Trichoderma atroviride starin I-1237 , Trichoderma atroviride starin I-1237 , TrichodermaatroviridestarinI1237

! Bioten wp ! Trichoderma gamsii icc 080 technical

43

! Trichoderma gamsii (formerly T. viride) (ICC080) Other Names for this Chemical: 05982 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 119207 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 119207 (US EPA PC Code) , 5982 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Trichoderma gamsii , Trichoderma gamsii (formerly T. viride) (ICC080) , Trichoderma gamsii (formerly T. viride) (ICC080) , Trichoderma gamsii Strain ICC 080 , TrichodermagamsiiformerlyT.virideICC080


TABLE T-1, continued

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links Trichoderma, continued Products

Strains

! Trichoderma hamatum Other Names for this Chemical: 081302 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 81302 (US EPA PC Code) , Trichoderma hamatum , Trichoderma harmatum , Trichodermahamatum

! Trichoderma hamatum isolate 382

! Binab t pellets biorational fungicide ! Binab t wettable powder biorational fungicide

! Trichoderma hamatum TH382 Other Names for this Chemical: 119205 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 119205 (US EPA PC Code) , Trichoderma hamatum isolate 382 , Trichoderma hamatum TH382 , TrichodermahamatumTH382

! Trichoderma harzianum (ATCC 20476 Other Names for this Chemical: 128903 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 128903 (US EPA PC Code) , 67892-34-6 (CAS number) , 67892313 , 67892346 (CAS number without hyphens) , American Type Culture Collection no. 20476 , Binab T , Trichoderma ATCC 20476 , Trichoderma harzianum (ATCC 20476) , Trichoderma harzianumATCC 20476 , Trichoderma viride (ATCC 20476) , Trichoderma viride ATCC 20476 , TrichodermaharzianumATCC20476

! Trichoderma harzianum DB 103 Other Names for this Chemical: Trichoderma harzianum DB 103 , Trichoderma harzianum DB 103 , TrichodermaharzianumDB103 , Tricoderma harzianum DB 103

! F-stop biological fungicide concentrate ! F-stop biological fungicide seed protection ! Fafard growing mix with rootshield granules ! Rootshield wp biological fungicide ! T-22 technical ! T-22 wp biological fungicide ! Bio-trek nursery drench ! Garden solutions biofungicide for soilborne diseases ! Root guardian biofungicide for soilboring diseases ! Bi0-trek hb ! T-22g biological plant protectant granules

! Trichoderma harzianum rifai strain KRL-AG2 Other Names for this Chemical: 03977 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 03977 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 119202 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 119202 (US EPA PC Code) , 3977 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 3977 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 67892-31-3 (CAS number) , 67892313 (CAS number without hyphens) , Trichoderma harzianum , Trichoderma harzianum Rifai , Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (variety); KRL-AG2 (strain) , Trichoderma harzianum rifai strain KRL-AG2 , Trichoderma harzianum Rifai Strain T-22 (ATCC # 20847) , Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T-22 , TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM STRAIN KRL-AG2 , TrichodermaharzianumrifaistrainKRLAG2

! Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T-22 Other Names for this Chemical: Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T-22 , Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T-22 , TrichodermaharzianumRifaistrainT22

44


TABLE T-1, continued

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links

Trichoderma, continued Products

! Trichodex

Strains

! Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T-39 Other Names for this Chemical: 04016 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 04016 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 119200 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 119200 (US EPA PC Code) , 4016 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 4016 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 67892-31-3 (CAS number) , 67892313 , 67892313 (CAS number without hyphens) , Dried fermentation solids and solubles resulting from fermentation of Trichoderma harzianum isolate T-39, containing T-39 fungus , F-Stop Biological Fungicide , Trichoderma Harzianum Rifai Isolate T-39 , Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T-39 , Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39 , Trichoderma harzianum strain T39 , TrichodermaharzianumRifaistrainT39 , Trichodex ( = ABG-8007)

! Trichoderma ICC 012 asperellum Other Names for this Chemical: 05981 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 5981 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Trichoderma asperellum , Trichoderma ICC 012 Asperellum , Trichoderma ICC 012 asperellum , TrichodermaICC012asperellum

! Trichoderma polysporum (IMI 206039) Other Names for this Chemical: Trichoderma polysporum (IMI 206039) , Trichoderma polysporum (IMI 206039) , TrichodermapolysporumIMI206039

! Binab t pellets biorational fungicide ! Binab t wettable powder biorational fungicide

! Trichoderma polysporum rifai Other Names for this Chemical: 05101 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05101 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 128902 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 128902 (US EPA PC Code) , 5101 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5101 (CA DPR Chem Code) , American Type Culture Collection no. 20475 , Trichoderma polysporum , Trichoderma polysporum , Trichoderma polysporum rifai , Trichodermapolysporumrifai

! Trichoderma virens strain G-41 Other Names for this Chemical: 176604 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 176604 (US EPA PC Code) , TRICHODERMA VIRENS STRAIN G-41 , Trichoderma virens strain G-41 , Trichoderma virens strain G-41 (12.1%) (ATCC 20906) , TrichodermavirensstrainG41

! Trichoderma viride sensu bisby Other Names for this Chemical: 119201 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 119201 (US EPA PC Code) , 67892-34-6 (CAS number) , 67892346 , 67892346 (CAS number without hyphens) , Trichoderma viridae , Trichoderma viride , Trichoderma viride (collective name for Trichoderma polysporum and Trichoderma harzianum) See 128902 and 128903 , Trichoderma viride sensu bisby , Trichodermaviridesensubisby

! Trichoderma viride sensu Bisby with polysporum Rifai

45

Other Names for this Chemical: 119203 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 119203 (US EPA PC Code) , Trichoderma viride , Trichoderma viride sensu Bisby with polysporum Rifai , TrichodermaviridesensuBisbywithpolysporumRifai


TABLE X-1, continued

‘ ! ‘ Opens Links Xanthomonas Products

Strains

! Xanthomonas campestris pv. Poannua Other Names for this Chemical: 05317 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05317 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5317 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5317 (CA DPR Chem Code) , Xanthomonas campestris pv. Poannua , Xanthomonascampestrispv.Poannua

! Agriphage

! Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria bacteriophage Other Names for this Chemical: 006449 (US EPA PC Code Text) , 05940 (CA DPR Chem Code Text) , 05940 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5940 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 5940 (CA DPR Chem Code) , 6449 (US EPA PC Code) , BACTERIOPHAGE ACTIVE AGAINST XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. VESICATORIA AND PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. TOMATO , Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria bacteriophage , Xanthomonascampestrispv.vesicatoriabacteriophage

46


HUMANS / ANIMALS & CROSS - INFECTIONS from PLANTS, SOILS AND INSECTS