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Cross-infective microbes from plants to humans; by Professor Anne K. Vidaver Transcription [see page 3] Who is Anne K. Vidaver?

Anne K Vidaver TABLE OF CONTENTS [Chapter] 1. Hazard Identification Laboratory, Growth Chamber, and Greenhouse Microbial Safety ; Plant Pathogens and Plant - Associated Microorganisms of Significance to Human Health; by Anne K. Vidaver, Sue A. Tolin, Patricia Lambrecht

Anne K. Vidaver received her B.A. degree in biology at Russell Sage College, Troy, NY, and her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in bacteriology at Indiana University, Bloomington. She joined the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Nebraska in 1966 and progressed from a position as a research associate to that of professor and head of the department within 18 years, a position she has held for the past 14 years. Dr. Vidaver’s initial contributions to plant pathology came through the excellence of her research program. She is one of a small group of individuals who are responsible for developing the foundations of modern plant bacteriology. Any description of Dr. Vidaver’s research accomplishments must mention her fundamental studies of bacteriocins and the phi 6 bacteriophage. The phi 6 bacteriophage, which she discovered, formed the basis of a new family of viruses, and it was the first double-stranded RNA virus discovered in bacteria. This virus has since attracted much interest as a model dsRNA virus system. Her research with grampositive plant-pathogenic bacteria forms the foundation of much of

the current research with these important, but intransigent, plant pathogens. Her pioneering studies in many areas of plant bacteriology have led to extensive work of great importance and have promoted the development of plant bacteriology as a rich area for scientific study. Typical of many of our pioneering leaders in plant pathology, Dr. Vidaver has received awards not only for her contributions to fundamental research, but also for her applications of knowledge to the solution of immediate plant disease problems. Dr. Vidaver has been an instructor of graduate students, both through a formal course on plant-pathogenic bacteria and through advising graduate student research. Her impact on students and colleagues has been significant; she is recognized as one of the foremost mentors in plant pathology. Many former associates and friends continue to seek her advice and counsel as they progress through their careers in plant pathology. Dr. Vidaver, as department head, sets a high standard of research excellence in her department, and there is high morale among her faculty members. Her leadership as an administrator has recently led to an additional assignment, as the interim director of the University of Nebraska’s Center for Biotechnology. In this position, she is responsible for programs that occupy a considerable portion of a new George W. Beadle Center for Genetics and Biomaterials Research. Dr. Vidaver has served APS in various capacities including secretary and as the second woman in APS history to be elected its president. Dr. Vidaver had a significant impact on APS’s decision to turn its attention from centering on internal issues into developing a systematic program of informing the public about issues of interest to plant pathology. She was instrumental in the development of the APS Office of Public Affairs and Education and served as its first director. She has been actively involved with the APS Foundation, having served on its Board of Directors and as treasurer. Such intense involvement in the activities of APS would normally leave most individuals with little time for other activities, particularly if they are a department head who maintains an active research and teaching program. This level of activity apparently has not taxed Dr. Vidaver, since she has also been actively involved in the leadership of the American Society for Microbiology. She has served the H. A. Wallace Institute for Alternative Agriculture on its Board of Directors, as treasurer, and recently as president. She has clearly developed an outstanding legacy of leadership in science, both in its practice and in roles that influence the direction of science policy. As important as her impact in teaching, research, and administrative leadership are, Dr. Vidaver’s recent contributions to plant pathology as a spokesperson and policymaker are touching all members of APS. She has represented APS and the American Society for Microbiology before congressional committees; has been a member of important government policy boards including the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Committee and the National Academy of Sciences Board on Agriculture; and has been an important source of credible information for key government policymakers. Her position as chair of the APS National Plant Pathology Board, a post she has held from the time of this board’s organization, has allowed APS to benefit from the visibility that comes from her outstanding contributions to science and our citizens. In summary, Dr. Vidaver has made outstanding contributions in both research and teaching, has served as an effective administrator at her university, and has conducted her professional service activities with dedication and compassion. She more than meets the very high standards that have been set for recipients of the APS Award of Distinction. SOURCE: APSnet > Membership > Awards > Award of Distinction > Anne K. Vidaver http://www.apsnet.org/members/awards/AwardofDistinction/Pages/AnneKVidaver.aspx [‘Some’ of the publications by Anne K. Vidaver can be found; beginning page 20 of this document]

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INTRODUCTION written by Sandi Trend “Naturally found” microorganisms; which have emerged rapidly in the past few years and are listed as the “active ingredients” on bio-control products labels, are not as safe as most of the scientific community is leading us to believe. It is, and has been, a known fact, there are some plant diseases, fungus & bacteria pathogens] which in fact are and have been cross-infecting humans and animals; which in turn is and has been causing a significant number of health related diseases to humans, animals, insects, fowl and marine life to mention a few. Anyone working in the agricultural arena; farm workers, companies which crop dust farm fields, scientists who work with these microorganisms in biotech research and development companies and consumers; have and still are being subjected to disease producing microorganisms; They are shown as the “active ingredient the bio-control products labels. These are being used on animal and human food crops, used on ornamentals as well as being used for insect control; not to mention in recent years it has been revealed they are also in animal feed. I URGE you to watch the University of California - Riverside's November 2006 workshop titled, "Microbial Biopesticides and Transgenic Insecticides - Enhancing Regulatory Communication". This 3 day workshop was held in Washington DC, at the University of California Center on Regulatory Communication & was sponsored by the University of California-Riverside, the USDA & the EPA. There were numerous representatives from Governmental Agencies & representatives from various Universities. This information is in the list of the presentations at http://biopesticide.ucr.edu/video/video.html and can also be found below: Agricultural research programs, Purdue)

Duquesne University

IR-4 Project

University of Georgia

University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute

USDA-APHISPPQ

CDC

Johns Hopkins

University of Georgia

University of Nebraska

USDA-APHIS, BRS

College of Notre Dame

EPA-BPPD International Atomic Energy Agency EPA,

University of Illinois

University of Oxford

USDA-ARS

CSREES

EPA, BPPD

Marrone Organic Innovations NIH

EPA, OPPT

University OF West Virginia USDA-APHIS-BRS

USDA-CSREES

Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics

University of Kentucky University of Maryland

University of California Riverside

Yale University

USDA-CSREESCompetitive Programs

One of the members of the Steering Committee; Dr. Anne K. Vidaver http://biopesticide.ucr.edu/committee/committee.html gave an excellent presentation of “Cross-infective microbes: from plants to humans” http://biopesticide.ucr.edu/video/assets/MOV00F_Vidaver.wmv. Dr. Vidaver’s Abstract of her presentation can be found at http://biopesticide.ucr.edu/abstracts/assets/Vidaver_abstract.pdf For your convenience; a copy of it is as follows: Microorganisms that infect and cause disease in both plants and people are uncommon but increasing in frequency of isolation. These cross-infective microorganisms are more insidious than those simply transmitted to humans by contact or consumption of plants.Currently 22 bacterial taxa and 38 fungal taxa have been reported as causing ʻphytosesʼ. Several examples of bacterial and fungal diseases of plants and corresponding human disease will be presented. Questions that arise include accuracy of systematics analyses, role and similarity of virulence factors, genomic and pathogenicity islands and antimicrobial resistance. Newer biological techniques such as synthetic biology, illustrated by the construction of new viruses and DNA shuffling or intragenomic reconstruction, complicate oversight and regulatory action. Regulatory challenges among presumed equivalent taxa among plant and medical communities include definition and assessment of risk groups, permitting for interstate transport and differential perspective on the use and formulation of regulatory agency guidance documents. Assessment of alternatives for microbial pesticide niche markets will be presented. Potential interagency programs on cross-over pathogens will be discussed. The major challenge for agencies with regulatory responsibility for microbial biopesticides is the assessment and accuracy of taxa and scope of both natural and biological variation that may be used and their genomic stability. Management of cross-infective diseases of both plants and animals will require more interdisciplinary research and cooperative agency interactions. # References: • He, J., R. L. Baldini, E. Deziel, M. Saucier, Q. Zhang, N.T. Liberati, D. Lee, J. Urbach, h. M. Goodman and L. G. Rahme. 2004. The broad host range pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 carries two pathogenicity islands harboring plant and animal virulence genes. PNAS 101: 2530-2535. • Vidaver, A.K., S. Tolin and P. Lambrecht. 2006. Laboratory, growth chamber and greenhouse microbial safety: Plant pathogens and plant associated microorganisms of significance to human health. In: Biological Safety:Principles and Practices, 4th ed. (D. O. Fleming and D. L. Hunt, eds.) ASM Press,

NOTE: Professor Vidaver seemed to have been sabotaged prior to the workshop as many of her references that were sent in with the above abstract before the workshop ended up up “missing” . [see 00:01:38.0 “I should also say that a couple of the references that I’ve provided with my abstract are missing.“] As you will see/hear in Dr. Anne K Vidaver's Abstract & Video presentation of “Cross-infective microbes: from plants to humans” she exposed the dangers of some of the “naturally found” bacteria & fungi being used for bio-control products because of the hazards to human health. I HAVE TRANSCRIBED THIS FOOTAGE; WHICH BEGINS ON THE FOLLOWING PAGE. I hope you will see the necessity as to why I point out the dangers of SOME of the "naturally found" microorganisms being used in biocontrol products with respect to health. Sincerely, Sandi Trend @ biotechharm@gmail.com 2


COMMENT: * Points throughout Professor Vidaver’s November 7, 2006 Presentation; “Cross-infective microbes from plants to humans” during the three (3) day “Enhancing Regulatory Communication” Workshop;

PROFESSOR ANNE K. VIDAVER: 00:00:57.6

So, you might want to know ... why do we have this topic for this workshop?

*MARKER 1:

00:01:05.9

Bacterial & Fungal Plant Diseases & Human/Mammal Health Related

Well, because there are some organisms that are used as microbial pesticides; or prospective microbial pesticides, and in my experience, plant pathologist don’t know about some of these microbe and the medical community conversely does not.

*MARKER 2: Related to Bio-Control Products

_______________

00:01:23.0

~Written Transcription of: “Cross-infective microbes from plants to humans” by Professor Anne K. Vidaver ~

And it’s unfortunate that with all the controlled regulatory agencies; we’re missing a few, that could actually, hopefully learn from what I plan to say; namely the Food and Drug Administration and the National Institute of Health.

http://biopesticide.ucr.edu/video/assets/MOV00F_Vidaver.wmv

00:01:38.0

I should also say that a couple of the references that I’ve provided with my abstract are missing. So, if you would like to know something more about what I am saying, contact me and I’ll give you those.

*Introduction of Professor Anne Vidaver MODERATOR: ROBERT NOWIERSKI, USDA-CSREES: 00:00:10.2

She earned her Ph.D. in bacteriology at Indiana University of Bloomington. Her medical bacteriology was emphasized, but she was interested in plants and became a plant pathologist; specializing in bacteriology.

00:01:50.7

I’m going to talk about some illustrations of plants; of plant/ human cross-infections and use those as example’s.

00:00:24.4

Now, she currently is Professor and the head of the department of plant pathology at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln; and she’s been interested in and involved in science policy issues for decades; both through the American Society of Microbiology and the American Phytopathological Society.

00:02:00.0

And then I’ll talk about what this actually could mean; both to the scientific community and to the regulated community; and challenges for regulators as well. So... MODERATOR; ROBERT NOWIERSKI, USDA-CSREES)

00:00:39.9

Anne was also Science Advisor to the National Research Initiative Program at CSREES.

00:02:16.9

Let's see if we can find a mouse Anne. OK, here we go. [Inaudible] Professor Vidaver and Robert Nowierski are speaking with each other as Professor Vidaver is setting up]

00:00:47.3

And Anne's’ presentation is ... today is titled, ‘Cross Infective microbes from plants to humans’. 3


microbiota or commensals, and generally these are considered asymptomatic. 00:04:02.2

PROFESSOR ANNE K. VIDAVER:

In plants you can have organisms that live as a endophytes in plants; and generally they can be long term, or short term as well, and generally asymptomatic.

00:02:40.7

OK.. Yes, every one of these ... ok, so what... First of all, what am I talking about?

00:04:13.1

However, you can have pathogens that can behave as endophytes before becoming symptomatic.

00:02:47.6

The terms are not yet agreed upon. What this means; you can

00:04:22.2

And then we know about symbiotic organisms that are mutually beneficial and then we have vectors; usually insects that transmit microorganisms. 00:04:31.4

And then we have the microbes that are transferred from animals to people; in terms that they’re both pathogenic to plan ... animals and people. 00:04:44.7

So, I will start with bacteria, then I’ll transfer to fungi.

talk about organisms that are cross-infected; mainly go from plants to humans; you can call them cross-over pathogens, and you can also call them cross, (or inter)-kingdom pathogens.

00:04:48.0

There are fewer bacteria that are cross-infective than fungi and I’ll talk about those.

00:03:04.0

And Doctor Tauxe from the CDC invented the term; as far as I know, Phytoses, to of course on with zoonosis. That is organisms that go from animals to people. 00:03:17.5

What they are not ... is they’re not overlapping pathogens in the select agents list; the USDA and the NIH.

00:04:57.5

Now, AGROBACTERIUM RADIOBACTER is one publicly reported of it being a pathogen as far as I know; and that is problematic. 00:05:05.8

00:03:26.6

Nevertheless, it is the poster child for bacteriology and plant pathology.

There’re other terms that are not applicable, but there are various associations of microbes and plants and humans and it’s probably good to at least review those for a moment.

bio-control in

00:05:13.9

00:03:38.2

And the organism K84 has been around for years now, and is also a poster child for the transgenic part of biotech;

Obviously, all kinds of microbes can be contaminates, and these are usually considered transient. However, you have a normal microflora on all living things and if they’re in the soil they’re 4


microbial release of a

agent listed to control a number of fungi.

biocontrol agent.

00:07:04.1

00:05:27.8

So while the biocontrol agent may itself be a single organism; in general, the idea is to have a wide host range, for a very important target.

Again, for beneficial control of crown gall disease; principally on fruits of various crops. It’s been extremely beneficial; and this has been the instances for many people who work in

00:07:17.5

biocontrol.

And this has been linked with oral muscosal inflammation.

00:05:44.6

However, it apparently causes opportunist diseases in people; and a variety of diseases, all the way from the blood stream to heart problems and urinary tract infections and so on.

00:07:24.2

Another spore former; is a gram positive bacteria, and you know what I’m talking about; is CLOSTRIDIUM BUTYRICUM; causes disease of poplar and hornbeam, which I’m not sure what that is.

00:05:59.5

Now, the majority of the diseases that I’m going to talk about in humans are rare; but there will be a few that are not so rare, and I’ll try to point those out when we come to those.

00:07:38.8

And apparently has been reported to cause disease in babies.

00:06:12.6

And obviously, for anybody in the regulatory arena; this causes at least a plausible thought, but I’ll indicate what some of the challenges are with this.

00:07:44.2

Now, RATHAYIBACTER TOXICUS is not known in the United States, but because it is so dramatic I’m including it here.

00:06:25.5

In

AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS; otherwise known as

the agent of crown gall with a very wide host range, can cause a variety of problems as well.

00:07:53.9

it

It causes disease in cereals, which I’ll show you in a moment. 00:07:56.9

00:06:36.3

It’s been a particular problem in Australia because of the death of livestock associated with the consumption of the RATHAYIBACTER infected in the ryegrass.

On the other hand; AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS is, and I think most people know, has been extremely critical to the biotech industry for getting trangenic plants.

00:08:08.2

00:06:50.3

And the relationship to problems in people is still debated in terms of unexplained poisonings.

BACILLUS MEGATERIUM; a minor pathogen of a variety

00:08:19.3

And this is what it does in cattle who consume grass that many have this yummy disease. The toxins are extremely potent and they have been characterized. Again, not in this country.

of plants, going from wheat to trees; but has a

biocontrol

5


00:08:38.5

00:10:07.4

Very unusual and very challenging, of course if you’re ready to

Now when we come to BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA; there’s going to be some more presentation about BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA, probably more than I certainly have here.

talk about a

biocontrol agent..

00:10:14.7

Then we have BURKHOLDERIA GLADIOLI; Even a lessor problem in plant pathology, but it can cause a disease in onions and decay in bulbs of beneficial organisms and ornamentals. 00:10:31.1

And also can cause pneumonia and diseases, generalized disease. 00:10:37.9 00:08:48.2

And recognizing ... some of my slides might be an appetite depressant for you just before lunch.

It’s a minor pathogen on plants; but it can also cause disease in mushrooms...

00:10:46.9

[Laughter in room]

00:08:54.3

This is sour skin of onion; you see here the rotting. It also smells terribly.

...and it has also been used in phyto-remediation. and has occasionally been found as an endophyte.

00:10:53.5

Any of you who are not pathologists don’t know what you’re missing;

00:09:02.9

[Laughter in room]

Well, this is a disease partially known for being a problem in lung tissue and particularly in patients with Cystic Fibrosis. However, there’re other diseases that it can be involved with.

...in terms of these odors, that can sometimes be very characteristic as a diagnostic agent. 00:11:07.2

00:09:17.4

And then you have the organism in lung tissue here. Not a good thing. It’s very difficult to overcome.

At one time there was a biocontrol agent; actually it was going to be applied for soil-borne fungi I believe, maybe we’ll hear more about that later. 00:09:30.3 It had to be taken off the market because of objections through the American Medical Association. 00:09:38.7

This is one of the two cases I know of where you actually do have evidence; as apposed to conjecture, that the genes for plants that cause disease, and genes that can cause disease in humans, are on the same strain.

00:11:18.6

The ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE; can cause diseases on trees and in onions and in ginger; but can also; at least in the

00:09:58.1

literature, be known as a

That is not true for all strains of BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA, but it is true for at least a few that have been so characterized. 6

biocontrol agent. I don’t believe


00:13:12.9

that any have been turned over to the EPA, or anyone else yet, for actual potential commercialization.

It is a very nasty organism if it get’s into a burn ward; because it is extremely difficult to control, usually has intrinsic antibiotic resistance to a number of antibiotics. And can cause generalized bacteremia as well.

00:11:48.9

And for those of you not familiar with bacteria; this is in the same family as COLI.

E-COLI,

some of the

notorious E-

00:13:33.9

This is also one of the few cases in which a single strain has been found that does have genes that can cause a disease in

00:11:58.8

plants and in humans. And so there have been a few cases where strains have been isolated from humans and then tested in plants and they have been found to be pathogenic.

Can cause generalized infections; respiratory tract infections and gas gangrene. 00:12:06.2

00:13:52.8

PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS; is known by a number of different names, and in the literature, the plant pathology literature, there are a number of strains that have been proposed for

The reverse of course can not been done directly, but can be done through human surrogates, such as mice; [we believe?] and that would be appropriate; and in many cases then a plant can kill mice, so that is a concern.

biological control, usually by competitive exclusion.

00:14:11.2

00:12:20.0

And they work very well under some conditions, but have not yet been commercialized and may not for a number of reasons. But, it is also a pathogen of Wisteria, onions and some trees and a wide variety of plants. Not the same strains of course.

SERRATIA MARCESCENS; a lovely organism to look at on a petri dish usually; in terms of the red-purple color. 00:14:20.1

It can cause disease in alfalfa and cucurbits; I’ll show you this

00:12:40.3

in a moment, and also a

You’ve already heard about the possibility of acquired infections; this is one of the organisms that has been reported of possible acquired infections and can also be reported in arthritis.

[bio?] synthetic.

00:14:27.9

It can be a nasty organism; in terms of a number of infections in the respiratory tract, urinary tract, in the eyes, in the heart and so on.

00:12:53.6

00:14:38.4

More and more bacteria by the way are being reported to cause some chronic diseases.

And then we have STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA. It is the least plant associated; has been reported as a plant pathogen. This is contested taxonomically and it’s still not decided.

00:13:00.8

PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA; a very minor pathogen in plant pathology, but can cause onion rot and has been used experimentally in that model plant Arabidopsis. 7


00:14:51.3

00:15:56.2

It has become much more prevalent in recent years for reasons unknown.

In any case it can have bacterimia, generalized infection and respiratory tract infections.

00:16:02.1

00:14:59.8

Now, switch to fungi; and there are more of them, but even though it may sound like I’m going to talk about a lot of them, I’m not going to talk about all of them that are in the paper that I had that I was going to use as references.

And I’ll show you a couple of nasty things here. 00:15:04.9

PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA infection in a burn patient here. This all gets infected and this gets particularly gruesome if you actually turn on a UV light in a burn ward you can see these people glow.

[see 00:01:38.0] “I should also say that a couple of the references that I’ve provided with my abstract are missing.“ 00:16:19.8

The prospective virtue of fungi; which I’ll talk more about later, is that in some ways they are more desirable as microbial control agents; but I’ll say more about why that is. 00:16:35.4

ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA; very wide host range and it starts to give you these medical terms which I actually had to look up.

00:15:20.8

PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA produces a flouresent pigment and is also characteristic in that regard on ... even on a petri dish. 00:15:31.8

In test tubes; you can have a healthy aribidoxis and dying aribidoxus with this particular strain 00:15:42.2

The SERRATIA MARCESCENS here; a in the eyes.

nasty infection 00:16:47.0

Phaeohyphomycosis, which essentially as far as I can tell, means that you can actually see the hyphae and they may be ... they me be septate and have color in tissue... 00:17:00.1

...and may even have yeast like forms and they can get into various kinds of tissues as well as on the surface of the body. 00:17:11.6

And when the fungus gets into the brain or bone tissue; the prognosis is particularly poor, and it has been so reported.

00:15:47.8

And can kill cucurbits here, I think it’s squash, but also pumpkins and plum. 8


00:17:22.4

00:18:44.7

ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA; number of diseases on fruits and beans and blueberries.

And; nevertheless, it has been reported to have generalized infection in people, and can be a problem in heart disease as well.

00:17:30.3

00:18:57.3

Again, the state of health; Phaeohyphomycosis; very nasty infections and can get into the sinus cavities as well.

ASPERGILLUS GLAUCUS; Corn ear and kernel rot...

00:17:40.2

00:19:01.5

ASPERGILLUS CANDIDUS; a decay.

... And again, nasty things in terms of brain, heart, skin and even in the lungs.

00:17:43.3

00:19:10.9

It can get into the brain and the heart and other organs, and bone. Very, very, very nasty.

So, This is you know; another one of those appealing pictures. We can have rot in corn...

00:17:51.1

00:19:17.7

I started reading about what these substances will do...

... And then we a have a real problem here with disease in the jaw; and then with the kidney infection. These are unpleasant things for anyone to experience.

00:17:56.7

And here you have a

very nasty infection here on a foot.

00:19:34.4

AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS can cause russeting. And this is not particularly a serious economic disease; except that those of you that don’t know plant pathology, know that even if you have a spot on anything; whether or not it’s a vegetable or a fruit, it decreases the quality and even though it doesn’t affect anything else, it will nevertheless decrease the economic value.

00:18:02.3

And you have here; the disease on wheat kernels. 00:18:09.4

This is why I think even if people are interested in disease; we’d would rather work with plants, rather than some of the other stuff. [Laughter in room] 00:18:18.8

ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS; This is one that is also not only a pathogen of corn, but moldy peanuts and boll rot on cotton and is very extensive. 00:18:34.1

There is a strain for control of A. fluvus on cotton, and I believe it works essentially on the principle of competitive exclusion. 9


00:20:02.7

It can cause various and all over the body.

It can get into the nails. And some of these pictures again are very unattractive.

opportunistic diseases in the lungs

00:21:25.6

00:20:11.5

CONIOTHYRUM FUCKELII; Stem Blight, dieback and canker of roses and strawberries, black root rot and cane blight of Rubus.

BIPOLARIS AUSTRALIENSIS; problem in turf grass. 00:20:16.1

00:21:36.1

Again, a whole list of diseases that it has been found in; from the outside to the inside, from the

And again, it can cause

brain to the feet.

problems in the nails and liver.

00:21:41.3

00:20:26.5

BIPOLARIS SPICIFERA; Problem on cotton.

CURVULARIA BRACHYSPORA; Problem on roses.

00:20:31.6

00:21:45.4

Problem actually in the arteries and has been reported and generalized problem in diseases throughout the body.

Necrotizing cutaneous infection in the skin and your nails, and not very pleasant.

00:20:46.3

00:21:54.8

CURVULARIA CLAVATA; Leaf spot of maize.

These are really nice diseases here. 00:21:02.6

00:21:59.0

COLLETOTRICHUM COCCODES: A black dot of tomato and potato. Again, not a serious disease as a pathogen, but essentially a serious disease economically, and because of appearance.

It can get into the skin infections.

sinuses and the brain. It can also cause

00:22:04.9

CURVULARIA LUNATA; Leaf spot in rice and other plants; and melting out of turf grass.

00:20:49.0

00:22:13.5

And this generalized disease of Phaeohyphomycosis in various organs.

Can get into the terms of allergies.

00:21:09.4

brain, can be in skin and be a problem in

00:22:22.9

COLLETOTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES; Anthracnose on many crops and many fruits and coffee and citrus.

There’s probably many more of these that can also be an allergic problem, but I didn’t find those listed.

00:21:19.1

10


00:22:30.5

00:23:58.4

CYLINDROCARPON invasion, corn rot of taro.

LICHENICOLA:

Post-harvest

FUSARIUM SOLANI...

fruit

00:23:59.9

There will be a point for many of you, I hope.

0:22:38.4

00:24:02.6

Can be a disseminated infection, can cause diseases again in the nails.

[FUSARIUM SOLANI, continued]; Yellows, fruit and seedling rot on a wide range of hosts; from sweet potatoes to black walnuts, poinsettia.

0 0:22:42.8

DRECHSLERA wheat.

BISEPTATA;

A problem with turf-grasses and

00:24:10.7

For those of you who are not a plant pathologist, I trust that you’re finding, or at least hearing that there are pathogens on almost anything you can think of, and that is true.

00:22:48.2

Brain Abscess has been reported; again, not likely to be treatable.

00:24:20.6

00:22:55.3

You can get with the eyes.

invasive systemic infection, and problems

FUSARIUM MONILIFORME; Or otherwise VERTICILLIOIDES in current literature. This is a pretty serious disease in many years. It can cause ear, root and stalk rot and seedling blight of corn, or maize. It can also be in sugar cane and in bananas.

00:24:26.7

LASIODIPLODIA fruits and also trees...

00:23:15.9

Well, this can get into the disseminated infection in humans, and give you pneumonia and get in to the eyes here.

THEOBROMAE;

Problems on a lot of

00:24:35.2

... and you can get subcutaneous abscess around the eyes and generalized infection.

00:23:28.4

FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM; Also blight pathogen; wilts and blights on vegetables and plantation crops and ornamentals; extremely wide host range.

00:24:45.0

LECYTHOPHORA HOFFMANNII; Soft rots and decay of surface layers of natural and preservative-treated timber. And I thought the whole idea of preservative-treated timber was that you had nothing happen to it; but apparently you do get [inaudible] eventually.

00:23:43.5

It can give you disseminated infection, pneumonia and eye infection as well.

00:25:01.1

00:23:49.6

So, this does not go on forever, but we’re getting here, and I’m not giving you all of them.

Chronic sinusitis can occur.

11


00:25:09.0

00:26:03.1

I believe this is the last one.

So, what does all this have to do ... what does this mean in terms of recent regulatory challenges?

00:25:11.1

PAECILOMYCES VARIOTII; Dieback and canker of pistachio.

00:26:11.7

Well, not the least of these challenges; it just doesn’t matter, you know. 00:25:17.9

00:26:17.3

I’ll explain more; that is to refresh everybody’s mind about the whole purpose is of systematics.

You can get pneumonia, problems with the central nervous system, and generalized peritonitis.

00:26:25.7

00:25:24.6

When we’re talking about getting a potential organism , we can’t generalize about the whole main effects on ... but, we have to look at strain variation and the stability of the organism.

PHOMA EUPYRENA; Blight of fir and pine species. 00:25:29.1

00:26:39.7

Lesions on the skin.

MUCOR CIRCINELLOIDES; Mucor rot of mango and loofa; which of I think you get sponges from, if you wash them.

And, for any agent; we have to look at what are the virulence factors and how might they be transmittable; transmitted to other organisms or not; particularly for bacteria, but not necessarily exclusively.

00:25:42.8

00:26:59.5

00:25:31.1

And then you can have a problem in infection and gangrene.

People are asking questions about; “well, what do genomic islands actually mean in terms of the basic organisms since these can be differentiated genomically from the rest of the organism?”

generalized

00:25:49.0

00:27:12.5

And I think this is,,, it might be the last one, 00:25:52.2

In many cases they carry antibiotic resistance genes or other genes not otherwise seen in that taxon.

RHIZOPUS STOLONIFER; A pre and post-harvest soft rot in many fruits, vegetables and crops.

00:27:19.9

In bacteria particularly; pathogenicity islands have been known to have for a number of years; and these carry a number of

00:26:00.1

And you get a

generalized infection.

virulence factors and may include antimicrobial resistance factors as well.

12


00:27:37.7

00:29:11.5

And then; notorious for bacteria is antibiotic resistance; it may be intrinsic, that is strains that are already known to carry antibiotic resistance without any exposure to antibiotics.

This is also then true in terms of 00:29:14.3

What are you going to name an organism? How are you going to identify it? And then, how are you going to characterize any group of individuals then by rank?

00:27:52.4

This is particularly true of those from systems, but antibiotics as well.

Nomenclature.

natural 00:29:24.0

certainly from artificially produced

00:28:02.1

And then for species; at least for the present time for bacteria, you have a species being defined with at least 70% relatedness by the DNA homology.

And then there’s the question of ... for fungi, we have the

00:29:35.8

emergence of, or concern about, mycocide or fungicide resistance.

Well, some microbial geneticists believe that this is; then again, inappropriate given what we know; but no one has yet come up with something that is actually being received ... received well as an alternative. So, this is still a challenge.

00:28:15.7

There’s no shortage of challenges. But, let’s talk, refresh just a moment in terms of definitions, of what ... at least what I’m talking about.

00:29:57.7

What is the species? And I’m not sure even for the fungi that there is agreement amongst the species, and I don’t know about some of the other organisms as well. 00:30:09.5

And then for defining a

strain that you would actually

use; and that you would worry about stability, we’re talking about the decedents of a single isolation in your culture.

00:28:27.3

The systematic question is to really look at the diversity and the relationships among organisms. Now, I think that’s really what we’ve been talking about a lot already and we’ll be doing it more throughout this workshop, 00:28:41.6

One of the important questions for people in ... the more we know in the way - the less we know, is actually how do we

00:30:23.9

classify organisms? I mean this is a human endeavor, but we have to do this in order to communicate.

Well, if you actually don’t use the microorganism ... microorganism itself, but the attribute of it that would be used in a plant; that a vulutarious organism, then you could have

00:28:57.1

what the EPA has; namely plant incorporated protectants. And some ways this would be highly beneficial.

And so, then how we do this is still a very fluid field, and this is good; but it’s a very challenging area then for anyone who is in the regulatory arena. 13


00:30:49.8

00:33:18.9

And this is the case for example in the papaya; where you have a gene from a virus that is protecting a papaya from the virus attack. And this is; in my view, highly desirable in many ways, that this is ... at a cost of, not just with money but other costs as well, in terms of being able to bring something like that to market.

And then for everyone; all of this affects, what we do in terms of facilities design. And in terms of cost; in maintenance which are not trivial. 00:33:33.3

One place I think that there is something missing; and it is not perhaps premature to talk about, is that we could have interdisciplinary programs across agencies.

00:31:18.8

Then there’s the question of what do you do about the host responses? How do you measure the population; even of plants or of people, or animals as the case may be, because we are not in a static population in any of those categories? 00:31:36.2

We need ... need to know a lot more about inducing the innate immunity; simply to be able to combat all these challenging organisms that are multiplying and changing at a faster rate than we are. 00:33:44.9 00:31:50.9

There’s certainly interagency programs already in many areas; but we do not have any, as far as I know, that incorporate

OK. Area that is of particular concern to many people; and I think is a real challenge in the regulatory agency, is the emerging area of synthetic biology.

USDA and NIH especially; certainly in this area of cross-infective microorganisms.

00:32:02.8

00:34:02.1

We’ve already seen the emergence of ... of store boughten goods being able to produce a virus that has really upset many, many people. Well, this is probably just the beginning of synthetic biology and certain people couldn’t believe that it will not be very long before we can actually produce in vitro

I dare say the medical community has no idea that some of these are problems in plants and the plant community has no idea that these are problems in medicine. 00:34:13.6

Actually there ... the question really for the medical community; and even for the plant community is, Are we

the first synthetic, small scale microorganism. 00:32:32.6

Mycoplasmas for example, I think set an example, in about less than 600 genes that are necessary for life, and this may be down the road. Again a challenge for regulators.

talking about the same organism? In many cases that’s still very much the question.

00:32:48.9

In terms of looking at this issue; it could explain, perhaps in

DNA shuffling is going on; that is the rearrangement of the genome. And how does the ... actually seem like regulatory agency is not clear, at least it may ... that may come out in this workshop.

some cases, the origin of human diseases as being from sick or even asymptomatic plants.

00:34:29.4

00:34:46.0

A colleague that [Europe?] has involved has coined the term; Virulome, to talk about just a set of traits that would allow an

00:33:02.6

Are Model system analyses appropriate? In all the complexity that we are looking at in many people; that are on both sides of the fence, but in any case this is a challenge; both for the regulated community and for the regulators.

organism to be pathogenic in particular circumstances. Whether or not it’s inside a plant or human, and simply that it acquires this information and carries it around, and may be dispersed throughout the genome but, it’s useful on

14


occasions. And that may be something that will explain some things and makes things readily understood, I mean connect.

understand are not. But, in the FDA, there is more emphasis given on the guidance documents, which are easily ... then modified as opposed to regulations in agriculture.

00:35:31.9

00:36:56.9

OK. We’re also been talking about ... if we’re talking about

So these are various ... it would be... more toward examination.

agents for production; production, delivery and

00:37:06.3

packaging.

There are niche markets perhaps that can be looked at.

00:35:40.9

And we’re concerned about microbial survival, spread and gene transfer, and you already heard some of that as well. 00:35:52.7

And ... We have contrast here in terms of limitation and how we even look at community.

organisms in the medical

00:36:00.6

We talk about risk groups in agriculture as far as the community is concerned and the outside world. There are no risk groups, they’re all people in a vat. This is just not good in science and I think that this is something that we can all work on.

00:37:09.1

USDA has IR-4; which almost nobody outside of the USDA has any idea what that means, and I suggested that be reexamine, if nothing else rename, so other people can understand it. And perhaps have the EPA follow with that as well. 00:37:23.9

And to take a look at other agencies efforts to have an examination account; small markets can be helped along... 00:37:36.5

... and the FDA does have an Orphan Drug Act that could act as a model. 00:37:42.3 00:36:14.2

And the take home message are several ... here.

Permits for the medical community is selective; not everything requires a permit.

00:37:46.4

First, that we actually recognize we have these cross-infective agents. And a big, BIG question mark; Is what is the accuracy of the medical diagnosis?

00:36:19.2

In agriculture; it is essentially a pathogen, everything does in one form or another, although it could be ... that is improving in terms of how it is being dealt with. 00:36:31.6

Facilities are different, we have the medical community and agriculture and we won’t go into that. 00:36:37.4

For antimicrobials: we have differences among agencies, some of which are required and some of which I 15


00:37:56.6

00:39:21.8

This is where we need systematics. And we need research in the regulatory agencies to promptly research 'agencies' to work in this area because a lot hinges on whether or not; in fact in some

... And then you look at the regulatory process; where you’re really focussing on [inaudible] strain ,

cases that I’ve illustrated, whether we can actually have

00:39:28.8

It’s kind of interesting; that there's sorta the history of these

microbial pesticides. 00:38:14.5

species as it exists in the literature, whether that’s accurate or not, and that it is suspect of that strain that’s going through probable registration or whatever.

We’re not going to have them, if in fact any of those agents really are a problem, a real problem in the medical arena.

00:39:42.6

00:38:22.1

I guess I’m kinda wondering is; with the varieties that you've showed, if we're getting to this point where any report of some

So, we need risk assessment comparability between medical and agricultural fields.

organism, and some instance which is considered a pathogen of livestock or on humans, is gonna basically negate

00:38:26.8

And we’ve already heard we need to have vigilant monitoring and surveillance with all these cross-infective.

strains and the genotype of the

this potential use of that [inaudible] probable disease it posed.

organisms that are

organism and that it

PROFESSOR ANNE K VIDAVER:

00:38:35.3

And then we need to look at interagency research opportunities and regulatory challenges.

00:40:05.8

00:38:42.4

00:40:08.9

I ... I don’t think so.

I think I’m going to be on time, so good.

As I think I indicated; the majority of these in human literature are still extremely rare. So I think basically you have one or two reports in a population of a billion or so. I don’t think that’s likely.

00:38:48.1

So, I would be happy to talk with you more about this and I hope this will raise a lot of questions. [Clapping in room as Moderator Robert Nowierski approaches Professor Vidaver] MODERATOR; Robert Nowierski, USDA-CSREES): 00:39:00.4

OK, I think we have time for a couple of quick questions for Anne. Chris Wozniak, CSREES: 00:39:09.7

00:40:27.0

Yes, Chris Wozniak, CSREES. The question I have is basically; when you look at these various species that are

But it does still require that we need to do a better job on systematics I think.

implicated in the literature as infective agents, whether transfer or otherwise plant pathogens ...

MODERATOR; ROBERT NOWIERSKI, USDA-CSREES): 00:40:33.7

Any other questions?

16


00:40:35.0

00:41:09.2

It ... it is not a large problem, but it’s not a problem that we can ignore.

DANIEL JONES, USDA, CSREES: 00:40:35.2

00:41:14.9

Daniel Jones, USDA - CSREES. Anne, do you have a rough estimate of the proportion of the kind of pathogens that are

And I should indicate to you one more thing. 00:41:18.2

cross-over pathogens? The fungi seem to be increasing in terms of most severity and incidence; and I have seen where the medical community is puzzled by this because it is not only in terms of immunocompromised patients; maybe those with transplants and those with AIDS, but also with even otherwise healthy people. And so, the incidence is going up.

PROFESSOR ANNE K VIDAVER: 00:40:45.8

Very small ... very small. 00:40:48.9

Let me see.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: 00:41:46.7

My question is very touchy on this. 00:41:49.7

What is the significance of the fact that bacteria may ... the soil is an environment, and us, and bugs is [an] extension of this environment? 00:42:07.5

The ... at least one of the underlying things is; in opportunistic infections, without an immune system shock of the Embryobiota appear .... appearances; almost anything I gave a disease ... in some, can infect humans.

Professor Vidaver turned to direct her continued answer to the attendees of the conference

00:42:29.3

00:40:50.0

And what regulatory conclusion can be drawn from that; in the

If I remember; we have perhaps anywhere from six ... six hundred (600) to several thousand pathogens that have been described as plant pathogens and here we’re talking about less than a hundred, selectively of

use of

bio regulatory agents?

00:42:40.2

bacteria and fungi.

As you’ve pointed out; it’s rather rare and under certain circumstances we’re just culture idiots. And yes; that occurs, occurs very rarely. 00:42:54.1

I think the significance is; in each incidence has to be evaluated. And not just say; well it’s occurred in the literature. But, I think it’s these six cases I remember. 00:43:08.3

You know; if you go far enough into the realm of realization of a normal human being; and look at all your organisms and see, you’re going to find a large number, especially among Professor Vidaver then turned to DANIEL JONES, USDA, CSRES

farm

mycologists. [Laughter in room]

17


UNIDENTIFIED MALE:

00:43:23.9 00:45:12.4

Now, it’s ah ... If you’re going to ... we all carry these things; and I think we need to think very carefully about what that means [inaudible], I would think ... seeing the situation that I

[Inaudible] ,,, And uh... I think your points are well taken, but you know, I saw these

saw in CEPACIA, where the representatives; very rightly in a way, of the CYSTIC FIBROSIS SOCIETY objected to the use of CEPACIA

as an

plant pathogens; some of them

aren’t too ... probably in the same category of the [inaudible] or very little...

insecticide.

human

PROFESSOR ANNE K. VIDAVER:

00:43:57.7

00:45:22.1

Of a ... the reason was that they had shown that there were

Right

occasional cases of CYSTIC FIBROSIS that hadn’t carried this organism. But here’s the important thing, not as the major

UNIDENTIFIED MALE continuing: 00:45:22.4

organisms. All CYSTIC FIBROSIS tends to be infected with PSEUDOMANAS AERONOSA and carry a secondary infection as well.

... and; OK, do you know any kind of strategy to avoid [inaudible]? PROFESSOR ANNE K. VIDAVER:

00:44:29.6

So, the objection that it was found; was taken as a means for not using one of these [inaudible]

00:45:33.9

Well, that’s ... that’s where risk assessment comes in.

00:44:40.6

I think one out to look very carefully at theses microorganisms, that for one reason only, that one overlooks therapeutic possibilities that occur in secondary infections. MODERATOR; Robert Nowierski, USDA-CSREES): 00:44:55.4

OK, we’ll take one more quick one and that’s it; unless you want to delay lunch. 00:45:36.7

UNIDENTIFIED MALE:

And I would argue that while those of us that work with plant pathogens know that we have some so-called minor pathogens; when it comes time to explain this however to the public, you’re talking about, in my view, permits for risk assessment groups; we don’t have it, and I think that’s long overdue.

00:44:59.7

Well, that depends on how hungry you are. [Laughter in room] PROFESSOR ANNE K. VIDAVER: 00:45:03.4

00:45:57.0

Well, I just had this ... an appetite depressing [inaudible]

So that we could actually say that we have; and it’s clear that we have, minor pathogens, just equivalent to.. and put that back in [inaudible]

UNIDENTIFIED MALE:

For a weekend...

MODERATOR; Robert Nowierski, USDA-CSREES):

[Unidentified & inaudible speaking in room]

00:46:09.5

The very back there.

18


UNIDENTIFIED MALE:

MODERATOR; Robert Nowierski, USDA-CSREES):

00:46:10.7

00:47:23.1

Yeah, I think this about ... is kinda along the same lines on Michael [Braveman?]; [inaudible[ on the four or five organizations that nobody’s ever heard of.

OK, one more last question for...

00:46:18.3

GREG SIMMONS, APHIS:

[Laughter in room]

00:47:24.9

Yes, Greg Simmons with APHIS.

I think there... I think what has been missing in some of this discussion is really; is the exists.

00:47:28.1

exposure that already

You mentioned that there are a few cases of

00:46:18.5

think, that are humans.

I think that the history of exposure to these organisms is really what ... what's telling you that the relative importance; not the fact that a report exists on the presence of an

Rick?

fungi; I

increasing in some prevalence in

infection in human, it is the fact that there are

so few reports in light of the fact that these organisms are so prevalent and that man is so being exposed to them. PROFESSOR ANNE K. VIDAVER: 00:46:52.8

I don’t disagree with that at all, but having known about; for

00:47:35.1

example the

And so just a kind of follow-up question is; Have any of the cases where information is known; is there any information

BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA situation...

about occupational risks and people that are associated with more with these sorts of organisms where you have some relationship there? PROFESSOR ANNE K. VIDAVER: 00:47:54.0

There probably is, but right now I couldn’t give you ... I ... Right now I couldn’t give you a [inaudible], 00:48:00.9

00:47:03.7

... Part of my presentation is to try to minimize having that occur again; and that means that I think people know that there

But, i have come across a few.

are these kinds of situations and to put them in the appropriate content.

MODERATOR; Robert Nowierski, USDA-CSREES): 00:48:04.5

00:47:16.0

OK. Would you all join me in....

If you don’t even know; then you can be blind sighted and that’s what I think no body wants.

[CREDITS ROLL] ~ END ~ 19


Employment History 1 Plant Pathologist University of Nebraska 2

3

Chief Scientist U.S. Department of Agriculture Council Member The Environmental Literacy Council

4

Head and Professor of Plant Pathology and Director Center for Biotechnology

5

Professor and Head of the Department of Plant Pathology University of Nebraska , Lincoln

6

Chief Scientist University of Nebraska , Lincoln

7

Head and Professor of Plant Pathology and Director University of Nebraska , Lincoln

8

Chief Scientist USDA

9

Editor American Society for Microbiology

Board Memberships and Affiliations 1

2

Board Member USDA

3

Member USDA

4

Fellow American Society for Microbiology

Education 1 Ph.D. 2

B.A. , Biology Russell Sage College

http://www.zoominfo.com/p/AnneVidaver/9993415

Board Member Center for Biotechnology

Anne K Vidaver publications: Rathayibacter iranicus isolated from symptomless wheat seeds in Turkey E. Postnikova, I. Agarkova, S. Altundag, F. Eskandari, A. Sechler, A. Karahan, A. K. Vidaver, W. Schneider, M. Ozakman, N. W. Schaad Journal: Plant Pathology - PLANT PATHOL , vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 796-796, 2009 Registration of Common Bacterial Blight, Rust and Bean Common Mosaic Resistant Great Northern Common Bean Germplasm Line ABC-Weihing (Citations: 2) N. Mutlu, C. A. Urrea, P. N. Miklas, M. A. Pastor-Corrales, J. R. Steadman, D. T. Lindgren, J. Reiser, A. K. Vidaver, D. P. Coyne Journal: Journal of Plant Registrations - J PLANT REGIST , vol. 2, no. 1, 2008 Differential Pathogenicity of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans Strains on Bean Genotypes with Common Blight Resistance N. Mutlu, A. K. Vidaver, D. P. Coyne, J. R. Steadman, P. A. Lambrecht, J. Reiser Journal: Plant Disease - PLANT DIS , vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 546-554, 2008 Reclassification of subspecies of Acidovorax avenae as A. Avenae (Manns 1905) emend., A. cattleyae (Pavarino, 1911) comb. nov., A. citrulli Schaad et al., 1978) comb. nov., and proposal of A. oryzae sp. nov (Citations: 1) Norman W. Schaad, Elena Postnikova, Aaron Sechler, Larry E. Claflin, Anne K. Vidaver, Jeffrey B. Jones, Irina Agarkova, Alexander Ignatov, Ellen Dickstein, Bruce A. Ramundo Journal: Systematic and Applied Microbiology - SYST APPL MICROBIOL , vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 434-446, 2008 Plasmid transformation and expression of the firefly luciferase in Microbacterium testaceum type and endophytic colonizing field strains Denise K. Zinniel, Zhengyu Feng, Paul H. Blum, Raúl G. Barletta, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - CAN J MICROBIOL , vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 964-970, 2008 Emended classification of xanthomonad pathogens on citrus (Citations: 25) Norman W. Schaad, Elena Postnikova, George Lacy, Aaron Sechler, Irina V. Agarkova, Paul E. Stromberg, Verlyn K. Stromberg, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Systematic and Applied Microbiology - SYST APPL MICROBIOL , vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 690-695, 2006 Divergence and Mosaicism among Virulent Soil Phages of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex (Citations: 17) Elizabeth J. Summer, Carlos F. Gonzalez, Morgan Bomer, Thomas Carlile, Addie Embry, Amalie M. Kucherka, Jonte Lee, Leslie Mebane, William C. Morrison, Louise Mark, Maria D. King, John J. LiPumaAnne K. Vidaver Journal: Journal of Bacteriology - J BACTERIOL , vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 255-268, 2006 An Assessment Model for Rating High-Threat Crop Pathogens (Citations: 5) N. W. Schaad, J. Abrams, L. V. Madden, R. D. Frederick, D. G. Luster, V. D. Damsteegt, A. K. Vidaver Journal: Phytopathology , vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 616-621, 2006 Genetic Characterization and Diversity of Rathayibacter toxicus (Citations: 1) I. V. Agarkova, A. K. Vidaver, E. N. Postnikova, I. T. Riley, N. W. Schaad Journal: Phytopathology , vol. 96, no. 11, pp. 1270-1277, 2006 Reclassification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri (ex Hasse 1915) Dye 1978 forms A, B/C/D, and E as X. smithii subsp. citri (ex Hasse) sp. nov. nom. rev. comb. nov., X. fuscans subsp . aurantifolii (ex Gabriel 1989) sp. nov. nom. rev. comb. nov., and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelo (ex Riker and Jones) Gabriel et al., 1989 sp. nov. nom. rev. comb. nov.; X. campestris pv malvacearum (ex Smith 1901) Dye 1978 as X. smithii subsp. smithii nov. comb. nov. nom. nov.; X. campestris pv. alfalfae (ex Riker and Jones, 1935) Dye 1978 as X. alfalfae subsp. alfalfae (ex Riker et al., 1935) sp. nov. nom. rev.; and “var. fuscans” of X. campestris pv. phaseoli (ex Smith, 1987) Dye 1978 as X. fuscans subsp. fuscans sp. nov

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Norman W. Schaad, Elena Postnikova, George H. Lacy, Aaron Sechler, Irina Agarkova, Paul E. Stromberg, Verlyn K. Stromberg, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - INT J BIOL MACROMOL , vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 494-518, 2005 No political interference in US agricultural grants Anne Vidaver Journal: Nature , vol. 433, no. 7022, pp. 105-105, 2005 The Accidental Plant Pathologist Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Annual Review of Phytopathology - ANNU REV PHYTOPATHOL , vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1-12, 2004 Prefatory A. Vidaver Journal: Annual Review of Phytopathology - ANNU REV PHYTOPATHOL , vol. 41, no. 1, 2003 An Evolutionary Perspective of Pierce's Disease of Grapevine, Citrus Variegated Chlorosis, and Mulberry Leaf Scorch Diseases (Citations: 9) Jianchi Chen, John S. Hartung, Chung-Jan Chang, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Current Microbiology - CURR MICROBIOL , vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 0423-0428, 2002 Use of flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and PCR-based techniques to assess intraspecific and interspecific matings of Armillaria species (Citations: 9) Mee-Sook Kim, Ned B. Klopfenstein, Geral I. McDonald, Kathiravetpillai Arumuganathan, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Mycological Research , vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 153-163, 2001 Evaluation of Proposed Amended Names of Several Pseudomonads and Xanthomonads and Recommendations (Citations: 26) N. W. Schaad, A. K. Vidaver, G. H. Lacy, K. Rudolph, J. B. Jones Journal: Phytopathology , vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 208-213, 2000 Expression of Human Lactoferrin cDNA Confers Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Transgenic Tobacco Plants (Citations: 19) Zhanyuan Zhang, Dermot P. Coyne, Anne K. Vidaver, Amitava Mitra Journal: Phytopathology , vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 730-734, 1998 Certification and the American Phytopathological Society (Citations: 1) L. J. Stowell, J. Amador, O. W. Barnett, R. J. Cook, D. E. Mathre, A. K. Vidaver, S. A. Tolin Journal: Plant Disease - PLANT DIS , vol. 82, no. 8, pp. 836-837, 1998 Some issues for the biosafety protocol Henry I. Miller, Charles J. Arntzen, Roger N. Beachy, R. James Cook, Susanne L. Huttner, Donald Kennedy, Calvin O. Qualset, Peter H. Raven, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Nature , vol. 392, no. 6673, pp. 221-221, 1998 Some issues for the biosafety protocol Henry I. Miller, Charles J. Arntzen, Roger N. Beachy, R. James Cook, Susanne L. Huttner, Donald Kennedy, Calvin O. Qualset, Peter H. Raven, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Nature , vol. 392, 1998 Identification of Non-Pathogenic Xanthomonas Strains Associated with Plants (Citations: 3) Luc Vauterin, Ping Yang, Anne Alvarez, Yuichi Takikawa, Don A. Roth, Anne K. Vidaver, Robert E. Stall, Karel Kersters, Jean Swings Published in 1996. The Future of Agricultural Research Roger Beachy, Susanne L. Huttner, Anne K. Vidaver, Paul Lyrene, Kenneth A. Dahlberg Journal: Science , vol. 259, pp. 162-163, 1993 The Future of Agricultural Research R. Beachy, S. L. Huttner, A. K. Vidaver Journal: Science , vol. 259, no. 5092, pp. 162-162, 1993 Revising Oversight of Genetically Modified Plants (Citations: 5) Susanne L. Huttner, Charles Arntzen, Roger Beachy, George Breuning, Eugene Nester, Calvin Qualset, Anne Vidaver Journal: Bio/technology , vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 967-971, 1992 Book Review:Genetically Engineered Organisms: Benefits and Risks. J. R. S. Fincham, J. R. Ravetz Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Quarterly Review of Biology - QUART REV BIOL , vol. 67, no. 2, 1992 Regulation of Biotechnology H. I. MILLER, R. H. BURRIS, A. K. VIDAVER Journal: Science , vol. 252, no. 5013, pp. 1599-1600, 1991 Regulation of Biotechnology Henry I. Miller, Robert H. Burris, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Science , vol. 252, pp. 1599-1600, 1991

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Risk-based oversight of experiments in the environment (Citations: 5) H. Miller, R. Burris, A. Vidaver, N. Wivel Journal: Science , vol. 250, no. 4980, pp. 490-491, 1990 Risk-Based Oversight of Experiments in the Environment Henry I. Miller, Robert H. Burris, Anne K. Vidaver, Nelson A. Wivel Journal: Science , vol. 250, pp. 490-491, 1990 Comparison of leaf and pod disease reactions of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) inoculated by different methods with strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. Phaseoli (Smith) dye (Citations: 9) Ahmed R. Aggour, Dermot P. Coyne, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Euphytica , vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 143-152, 1989 Guidelines and Regulations for Research with Genetically Modified Organisms: A View from Academe (Citations: 1) S A Tolin, A K Vidaver Journal: Annual Review of Phytopathology - ANNU REV PHYTOPATHOL , vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 551-581, 1989 Transfer and maintenance of IncP and IncW group plasmids into and between extra-slow-growing Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains A. ArunaKumari, A. K. Vidaver Journal: Fems Microbiology Letters - FEMS MICROBIOL LETT , vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 423-427, 1988 Isolation and characterization of syringacin W-1, a bacteriocin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Citations: 6) Mary L. Smidt, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - CAN J MICROBIOL , vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 231-236, 1986 The Annual Meeting Program: Organization, Planning, and Performance Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Plant Disease - PLANT DIS , vol. 70, no. 12, 1986 Bacteriocins: The Lure and the Reality (Citations: 11) Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Plant Disease - PLANT DIS , vol. 67, no. 5, 1983 The Plant Pathogenic Corynebacteria (Citations: 22) A K Vidaver Journal: Annual Review of Microbiology - ANNU REV MICROBIOL , vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 495-517, 1982 Bacteriocin production by Pseudomonas syringae PsW1 in plant tissue (Citations: 6) Mary L. Smidt, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - CAN J MICROBIOL , vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 600-604, 1982 Transformation of Pseudomonas syringae with nonconjugative R plasmids (Citations: 1) Dennis C. Gross, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - CAN J MICROBIOL , vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 759-765, 1981 Survey of phytopathogenic pseudomonads for a restriction and modification system active on the double-stranded ribonucleic acid phage !6 (Citations: 2) Diane A. Cuppels, James L. Van Etten, Pat Lambrecht, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Current Microbiology - CURR MICROBIOL , vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 247-249, 1981 Bacteriocin, Plasmid and Pectolytic Diversity in Pseudomonas cepacia of Clinical and Plant Origin (Citations: 21) CARLOS F. GONZALEZ, ANNE K. VIDAVER Journal: Microbiology-sgm , vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 161-170, 1979 Plasmids, Biological Properties and Efficacy of Nitrogen Fixation in Rhizobium japonicum Strains Indigenous to Alkaline Soils (Citations: 16) DENNIS C. GROSS, A. K. VIDAVER, ROBERT V. KLUCAS Journal: Microbiology-sgm , vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 257-266, 1979 Bacteriocins of phytopathogenic Corynebacterium species (Citations: 10) D. C. Gross, A. K. Vidaver Journal: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - CAN J MICROBIOL , vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 367-374, 1979 Resistance to Bacteriophage 6 by Pseudomonas phaseolicola (Citations: 8) D. A. Cuppels, A. K. Vidaver, J. L. Van Etten Journal: Journal of General Virology - J GEN VIROL , vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 493-504, 1979 RNA Polymerase Activity Associated with Bacteriophage 6 Nucleocapsid (Citations: 7) JAMES E. PARTRIDGE, JAMES L. VAN ETTEN, DWIGHT E. BURBANK, ANNE K. VIDAVER Journal: Journal of General Virology - J GEN VIROL , vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 299-307, 1979 Indigenous Plasmids from Phytopathogenic Corynebacterium Species (Citations: 7) D. C. GROSS, A. K. VIDAVER, M. B. KERALIS Journal: Microbiology-sgm , vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 479-489, 1979

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Syringomycin production and holcus spot disease of maize: Plasmid-associated properties in Pseudomonas syringae (Citations: 2) Carlos F. Gonzalez, Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Current Microbiology - CURR MICROBIOL , vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 75-80, 1979 Typing of fluorescent phytopathogenic pseudomonads by bacteriocin production (Citations: 5) Anne K. Vidaver, Shareen Buckner Journal: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - CAN J MICROBIOL , vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 14-18, 1978 Maintenance of Viability and Virulence of Corynebacterium nebraskense (Citations: 2) Anne K. Vidaver Journal: Phytopathology , vol. 77, no. 7, 1977 Ultrastructure of Bacteriophage 6: Arrangement of the Double-stranded RNA and Envelope (Citations: 3) C. F. Gonzalez, W. G. Langenberg, J. L. Van Etten, A. K. Vidaver Journal: Journal of General Virology - J GEN VIROL , vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 353-359, 1977 Prospects for Control of Phytopathogenic Bacteria by Bacteriophages and Bacteriocins (Citations: 20) A K Vidaver Journal: Annual Review of Phytopathology - ANNU REV PHYTOPATHOL , vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 451-465, 1976 Synthesis of Bacteriophage 6 Double-stranded Ribonucleic Acid (Citations: 3) D. L. Coplin, J. L. Van Etten, A. K. Vidaver Journal: Journal of General Virology - J GEN VIROL , vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 509-512, 1976 Bacteriocins of the phytopathogens Pseudomonas syringae , P . glycinea , and P . phaseolicola (Citations: 20) Anne K. Vidaver, Mary L. Mathys, Mary E. Thomas, Max L. Schuster Journal: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - CAN J MICROBIOL , vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 705-713, 1972 A purple-pigment-producing bean wilt bacterium, Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens var. violaceum , n. var (Citations: 5) M. L. Schuster, Anne K. Vidaver, M. Mandel Journal: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - CAN J MICROBIOL , vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 423-427, 1968 Purification and properties of a bacteriophage receptor material from Streptococcus faecium (Citations: 5) A VIDAVER, T BROCK Journal: Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-general Subjects - BBA-GEN SUBJECTS , vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 298-314, 1966 Clavibacter: a New Genus Containing Some Phytopathogenic Coryneform Bacteria, Including Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis subsp. nov. Pathogens That Cause Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane and Bermudagrass Stunting Disease? (Citations: 41) MICHAEL J. DAVIS, A. GRAVES GILLASPIE, ANNE K. VIDAVER, RUSSELL W. HARRIS Corynebacterium nebraskense, a New, Orange-Pigmented Phytopathogenic Species (Citations: 4) ANNE K. VIDAVER, MANLEY MANDEL Comment on the Reinstatement of Xanthomonas citri (ex Hasse 1915) Gabriel et al. 1989 and X. phaseoli (ex Smith 1897) Gabriel et al. 1989: Indication of the Need for Minimal Standards for the Genus XanthomonasT (Citations: 5) J. M. YOUNG, J. F. BRADBURY, L. GARDAN, R. I. GVOZDYAK, D. E. STEAD, Y. TAKIKAWA, A. K. VIDAVER New Genus, Coprococcus, Twelve New Species, and Emended Descriptions of Four Previously Described Species of Bacteria from Human Feces

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Vidaver: Cross-Infective Microbes from Plants to Humans