Page 1

05 | 2013

ISSN 1862-5258


Cover Story



Vol. 8

ElevanceÂŽ makes ODDA a commercial reality | 08

Highlights Fibres/Textiles | 11 Design & Bioplastics | 50

1 countries

... is read in 9

ialist” c Spec ioplasti by p to s ”The B you to invites ll 6

a E 48 / H 3 01 at K 2 ative and


ov our inn ents. to see velopm ting de a in c s fa

Transportation solutions made from renewable resources Terralene® is our contribution to reduce CO2 emissions for global transportation. Reusable transportation systems made from plastics are designed to be durable, light and sturdy. In comparison to other packaging materials they also provide an exceptional lifespan of more than ten years. The recyclability contributes to a waste reduction and littering. Terralene® adds another advantage to this system: As it is made of the renewable resource sugar cane, it helps capturing CO2 emissions substantially.

For more information, please visit •

Beer crate made from Terralene®

Packaging Film provided by Oerlemans Plastics B.V.


dear readers Every once in a while I’m asked whether conventional polyolefins, when filled with a certain amount of starch, should be considered as bioplastics? Well, the amount of petroleum-based plastics replaced by starch represents significant oil savings… but similar approaches — with the aim of saving costs for the more expensive plastic - have been around in the automotive industry for decades, using wood flour as a cheap, after all, biobased filler. Having said this, how should natural fibre reinforced or filled conventional plastics (including WPC) be considered? I’d like to open up a discussion about this question and I’m looking forward to any kind of comments. For one of our future issues we are planning an article on the question how the term bioplastics has developed over time — what are the most widely agreed definitions…? On the other hand, as you can see from our cover story, bioplastics MAGAZINE is more and more trying to look out of the box or — put another way — to open our scope of topics from pure bioplastics more towards biobased building blocks for bioplastics and other applications, in the sense of green or biobased chemistry. One of the editorial focus topics in this issue is Designers and bioplastics. As this topic is so multifaceted we asked and listened to a number of quite different experts and designers and as a result we got a multifaceted array of statements. But read it yourself. The second highlight is fibre, textiles, nonwovens with interesting articles from PLA fibres, through PHB to fibres and textiles made from waste milk.

hall 7a — a joint booth with the industry association European Bioplastics. And we also would like to see you at the Bioplastics Business Breakfast. As a special service for all K-visitors, we offer a comprehensive preview in this issue, including a show-guide with floor plan in the centre of the magazine. On our website we offer more up to date information as well as planning tools for your visit. For a limited time during and after K’2013, we offer all issues of bioplastics MAGAZINE published in 2013 for reading online at For those of you who grabbed a copy of this magazine at K’2013 or another event this is a unique opportunity to have a look into other issues. Further events this coming autumn and winter are certainly the 8th European Bioplastics Conference on the 10th and 11th of December in Berlin where bioplastics MAGAZINE will again present the Global Bioplastics Award. The deadline for submitting proposals has been extended to October 31st, so there is still enough time send in suggestions for your own or other company’s bioplastics products or services. Please see page 7 for details. As usual this issue is once again rounded off by lots of industry and applications news… We hope you enjoy reading bioplastics MAGAZINE

Sincerely yours Michael Thielen

When you hold this copy in your hands K’2013, the world’s number one trade show, will be almost here. We are looking forward to welcoming you at our booth B10 in

Follow us on twitter!

Be our friend on Facebook!

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol.8


Follow us on twitter:

Cover-Ad Elevance Renewable Sciences®


A part of this print run is mailed to the readers wrapped in BoPLA envelopes sponsored by Taghleef Industries, S.p.A. Maropack GmbH & Co. KG, and SFV Verpackungen


Editorial contributions are always welcome. Please contact the editorial office via

bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British spelling. However, in articles based on information from the USA, American spelling may also be used.

The fact that product names may not be identified in our editorial as trade marks is not an indication that such names are not registered trade marks.

K’2013 Show Guide . . . . . 34-35

Not to be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher.

K’2013 Preview. . . . . . . . 28 - 41

bioplastics MAGAZINE is read in 91 countries.


bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on chlorine-free FSC certified paper.

ISSN 1862-5258 bM is published 6 times a year. This publication is sent to qualified subscribers (149 Euro for 6 issues).

bioplastics magazine

Tölkes Druck + Medien GmbH 47807 Krefeld, Germany Print run: 3,400 copies (Total print run 11,400)


Elke Hoffmann, Caroline Motyka phone: +49(0)2161-6884467 fax: +49(0)2161 6884468

Media Adviser

Polymedia Publisher GmbH Dammer Str. 112 41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany phone: +49 (0)2161 6884469 fax: +49 (0)2161 6884468

Head Office

Julia Hunold, Christos Stavrou Mark Speckenbach


Dr. Michael Thielen (MT) Samuel Brangenberg (SB) Contributing editor: Karen Laird (KL)

Publisher / Editorial

Imprint Content Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

News. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 6

Application News. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Event Calendar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Suppliers Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . 63 - 65

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 - 62

Companies in this issue . . . . . . . . 66


Cover Story 08 InherentTM C18 Diacid

Fibers & Textiles 12 The potential of PLA for the fiber market

16 New bioplastics fibres

18 PHB properties for fibre applications

20 Bioplastics in the Nonwoven Industry

24 Bioplastic fibres from milk


42 Interview with François de Bie


44 Films with excellent barrier properties

45 Films with excellent barrier against mineral oils


47 Barrier triplex laminate

48 PA 410 for VW

49 Flax fibre cycle helmet

Design & Bioplastics

50 What designers look for in bioplastics

54 Designers & bioplastics

Like us on Facebook:


Cereplast ready to serve Asian market Cereplast, Inc. (Seymour, Indiana, USA), recently announced it is strongly positioned to meet soaring demand for bioplastic resins in the Asia-Pacific market. The region is forecasted to gain the highest global growth rate of 25.7% during the period of 2011 through 2016, according to a 2013 report by Research and Markets. Cereplast provides the global market with its innovative range of bioplastic resin designed for multiple purposes. Cereplast recently generated $450,000 in India for its bioplastics resins and new contracts are expected going forward. These contracts are indicative of the expected surge in market growth. Key factors driving increased volume in the bioplastic market include escalating fossil fuel prices, the effort to decrease dependence on fossil fuels, wider consumer acceptance of plastic alternatives, rise in demand for ecofriendly packaging materials, and the need to better protect and preserve the environment from the perils of plastics. Each has resulted in regulations banning the use of plastic bags in various countries across the globe.

Given the surge and versatility of petroleum prices, Cereplast Sustainables® resins provide a competitive pricing structure for products traditionally made with fossil fuel-based plastics, given the surge in petroleum prices. Cereplast Sustainables can replace up to 95% or more of the petroleum content used in traditional plastics and provide a lower carbon footprint for durable applications such as automotive, consumer goods, fashion accessories, consumer electronics, medical packaging, cosmetics packaging, toys, furniture, office supplies, home accessories and construction. The Cereplast Sustainables resins include the Cereplast Bio-polyolefins® grades, as well as Ethylene Acrylate, Polylactic Acid and Polypropylene-filled biobased resins. MT

SPI Bioplastics Council released position paper The Bioplastics Council, a committee of SPI: The U.S. Plastics Industry Trade Association, announced in late August the release of “Development of Biobased Plastics Independent of the Future of Biofuels,” a new paper challenging the widely held perception that the biobased plastics industry is inextricably linked to and dependent on the emergence of a robust biorefining industry. In addition, the Council hosted a corresponding webinar September 10. “It is quite reasonable to assume that the bioplastics industry will follow the same pattern that the petrochemicals and traditional plastics industry followed a century ago in being dependent on the byproducts of fuel production,” said Dr. Carol Van Zoeren, Technology Manager – Packaging and Industrial Products at DuPont and Chair of the Council’s Beginning of Life Committee. “We have examined the fundamental differences – demand, technology, infrastructure – between then and now and our determination is that while bioplastics could certainly benefit from a robust biofuels industry, these differences suggest that other patterns may be possible.”

that a commercially viable scale for biobased plastics can be much smaller than a commercially viable scale for biofuels. The smaller scale opens up many opportunities for biobased plastics. The paper acknowledges economic, societal and environmental challenges as the biobased plastics industry develops and provides an overview of industry-driven efforts to navigate toward a future with a more sustainable biobased plastics industry.

Info: Read or download the position paper here:

The paper examines several angles and some implications which could enable biobased plastics to grow independently of biofuels. The paper also argues

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8



Bioresorbable PHA Researchers from Graz University of Technology (Graz, Austria), together with colleagues from the Medical University of Graz, Vienna University of Technology and the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria), have managed to develop absorbable implants to promote bone healing which are broken down by the body. In this way, painful multiple operations – especially in children – can be avoided in the future. The BRIC - BioResorbable Implants for Children project, funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), was successfully completed at the end of August. The goal was finally achieved after four years of research. Scientists from Graz University of Technology and their colleagues in Graz and Vienna finally concluded the development stage of the BRIC – Bio Resorbable Implants for Children project. Bioresorbable implants are implants that are resorbed by the body over time. In contrast to traditional implants, such as plates, screws or pins, which have to be surgically removed after a certain time, bioresorbable implants do not have to be surgically removed. The BRICs are to be used in children, who suffer particularly from each surgical intervention. The two Graz University of Technology teams led by Martin Koller, responsible for the biotechnology part, and Franz Stelzer, whose team processed the biopolymers into implants, managed to develop special polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA, microbial biopolyesters), which can be processed into implants. “The production is completely independent of fossil resources, so there are no negative effects on the body. The implant is produced by bacteria and can be absorbed by the human body after it has fulfilled its task,“ said Martin Koller. Alternative biopolymers, such as polylactic acid, in contrast to PHAs, lead to a hyperacidity of the organism and bring about chronic inflammation. PHAs, on the other hand, are highgrade materials whose biotechnological production is based on renewable raw materials. MT

Charge for carrier bags in the UK A five pence mandatory charge for single use carrier bags will be introduced in the UK from Autumn 2015, the Deputy Prime Minister, Nick Clegg, announced recently. Last year, over seven billion carrier bags were issued by supermarkets in England. Far too many ended up in landfill or scattered around the streets and rivers killing wildlife and costing tax-payers millions of pounds to clean-up. Similar charges in Ireland, Wales and Switzerland have led to an 80% reduction in the number of carrier bags issued. ”Plastic carrier bags blight our towns and countryside,” Nick Clegg said. “They take hundreds of years to degrade and can kill animals. This is not a new problem. We’ve waited too long for action. That’s why I am drawing a line under the issue now. The charge will be implemented sensibly - small businesses will be exempt. We will discuss with retailers how the money raised should be spent but I call on them to follow the lead of industry in Wales and donate the proceeds to charity.” Environment Minister Lord de Mauley said: “We have all seen the effects of discarded plastic bags caught in trees and hedges or ending up in rivers where they harm animals. Introducing a small charge for plastic bags will make people think twice before throwing them away. Year on year, the number of bags issued by retailers has been rising. Without a charge, the problem could escalate out of control and see our environment and animals suffer enormously.” There are also plans to incentivise businesses for bringing biodegradable plastic bags to market in England. A new high standard for these products will be developed with manufactures. Provided the bags meet the required criteria, these could be exempt from a charge.

Expansion of plant in Croatia EcoCortec® (Beli Manastir, Croatia), a European subsidiary of Cortec Corporation® (St. Paul, Missesota, USA) recently announced the phase three expansion of its Beli Manastir, plant. This expansion will double their manufacturing and warehousing capacities with this € 3 million investment. The new production hall will contain three new high-tech extrusion lines, confectioning line of VpCI® papers, and warehouse for various Cortec® products. EcoCortec specializes in manufacturing Cortec Corporation’s innovative Vapor phase Corrosion Inhibitor (VpCI) films and offers customers complete converting, extruding, and printing capabilities. They manufacture certified biodegradable films and bags according to customer


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

specifications in terms of product size and performance, and are very flexible when it comes to order sizes and meeting special customer requests. The plant is located on a 10,000 m² site which places this facility in an excellent geo-strategic location of Central Eastern Europe. This new expansion, with new state of the art equipment, is a confirmation of EcoCortec‘s leadership in the field of biodegradable films manufacturing in Europe; and proof that their innovative ideas, quality products, and professional team obtain excellent results and growth even in the times of economic crises.




Call for proposals

ine Deadld ed exten il unt 31 r Octobe

gust October 31st:

til Au Please let us know un

d does ce or development is an rvi se t, uc od pr e th at an award 1. Wh velopment should win de or ce rvi se t, uc od 2. Why you think this pr on does ) company or organisati ed os op pr e th (or ur yo 3. What ge) and may also 500 words (approx 1 pa ochures and/or ed ce ex t no ld ou sh Your entry keting br graphs, samples, mar be The 5 nominees must be supported with photo ). ck ba ot be sent nn (ca ion tat en m cu do technical 30 second videoclip prepared to provide a m

ded fro try form can be downloa More details and an en www.bioplasticsmagaz

The Bioplastics Award will be presented during the 8th European Bioplastics Conference 10-11 December 2013, Berlin, Germany

Sponsors welcome, please contact

Enter your own product, service or development, or nominate your favourite example from another organisation

supported by

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/13] Vol. 8



People Cover Story Consumer electronic applications made with different Polyamides and Polyesters (photo: Shutterstock) Note: all photographs show potential applications made with polyamides, polyesters or polyurethanes using Inherent C18 Diacid.

Inherent™ C18 Diacid Proprietary technology and novel specialty chemicals enable game-changing solutions for plastics industry

By Allyson Beuhler Senior Polymer Scientist Elevance Renewable Sciences® Woodridge, Illinois, USA


iacids are a commercially important class of chemicals with tens of thousands of tonnes of diacids produced annually and applications in a variety of end uses. Elevance Renewable Sciences®, Inc., a high-growth specialty chemicals company, has commercialized a bio-based diacid that will significantly broaden and revolutionize product portfolios across a variety of industries from automotive and electronics to medical and sporting goods. Elevance® is making Inherent™ C18 Diacid, also known as octadecanedioic diacid or ODDA, using a unique and efficient production process and materials produced from its world-scale biorefinery in Gresik, Indonesia — the first based on Elevance’s proprietary metathesis technology. The process allows for the purity required for demanding applications like polymers and is a solution that is cost competitive with other specialty diacids in the marketplace. A mid-chain diacid, Inherent C18 Diacid enables performance attributes not possible by more common, shorter chain diacids. “Inherent C18 Diacid is the most recent addition to our growing line of bio-based commercial products that can provide our customers with high-performance solutions for their markets,” said Elevance CEO K’Lynne Johnson. “We now are advancing innovation in the plastics industry by bringing to market new linear molecules that allow our customers to improve existing polymers and create completely new polymers.”

Uses for Diacids Polyamide applications under the hood of a modern car (photo: Shutterstock)

Diacids are particularly useful building blocks in condensation polymerization applications. The variable aliphatic chain length between the two carboxylic acid groups results in the ability to achieve an assortment of physical properties. As such, the properties of the products made can be tailored by choosing the appropriate chain length. Polyamide and polyurethane polymers from diacids are typically produced by condensation polymerization. Polyamides range from very high melting point materials, such as PA 6,6, to mid-chain length materials, such as PA 6,12, to the aliphatic long-chain diacid polyamides that make up high-performance, hot-melt adhesives. Figure 1 shows some important commercial polyamides and their range of melting temperatures.


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Cover Story Inherent C18 Diacid enables polyamides with improved moisture resistance, better optical transparency, and greater material toughness for new automotive and electronic applications. Using Inherent C18 Diacid with polyester polyols helps polyurethane manufacturers create polymers with exceptional solvent resistance, hydrolytic stability, optical clarity and toughness that will benefit a variety of markets.

Properties of Materials from C18 Diacid Noteworthy products that can be made using Inherent C18 Diacid include polyesterification products and polyamides. Aliphatic polyamides based on the diacid (from PA 2,18 to PA12,18) have been synthesized via melt condensation [3]. Note the trend (Figure 4) in the polyamide series as the spacing between amide groups increases with the longer diacids. The resulting polyamides are still highly crystalline, however the melting point decreases as the length of the amide repeat unit increases. With higher aliphatic content, the polyamides become more resistant to moisture and organic solvents. Interestingly, even the long-chain and highly aliphatic PA 4,18 and PA 6,18 polyamides exhibit very high melting points, greater than both PA10 and PA11, enabling a very high-use temperature for these C18-based polyamides. Copolyamides of 6,18 with other monomers have been reported in the literature. PA 6,18 was co-polymerized with PA 6 for use in molded and extruded thermoplastics. The resulting polyamide was reported to be more resistant to salt stress corrosion cracking and to have a lower melting point than PA 6,6 and PA 6,10 [4]. Hot-melt adhesives containing PA 6,18 have been reported in the manufacture of filters. Incorporation of the long-chain diacid is reported to decrease water absorption (the Achilles’ heel of polyamides) and to provide significant increases in chemical and solvent resistance of the polyamide, including resistance to gasohol [5, 6]. The cycloaliphatic polyamide of bis(2-methyl-4aminocyclohexyl)methane and C18 diacid was synthesized and shown to be a moldable amorphous polymer with lower density, increased flexibility, better chemical resistance and reduced clouding as compared to the corresponding polymer derived from dodecanedioic (C12) acid. In addition, the optical transparency

290 Melting Point (deg. C)

With the use of Inherent C18 Diacid in hot-melt adhesives, this performance gap would be overcome. Specifically, using a C18 mid-range diacid to make the hot-melt polyamide should impart a combination of both higher polarity and higher adhesion due to increased amide linkages and lower moisture uptake.

Different protective applications made from different polymers made with carboxylic acids (photo: Shutterstock)



6,6 4,10




6,12 10,12

210 190 170

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 # Carbons in repeat unit

Fig. 1: Commercial Polyamides from diacids

C4-12 Diacid

C18 Diacid







C36 Dimer Acid OH O




Flexibility Increasing Molecular Weight Increasing Hydrophobicity Shorter Chain Length

Longer Chain Length

Polarity Increasing Adhesion improved Crystallinity Increasing

Fig. 2: Structure-Property Relationships of Polyamide Adhesives

Melting Point of Polyamides from C18 Diacids

Melting Point (deg. C)

Polyamide hot-melt adhesives made from shorter chain lengths exhibit the best adhesion to surfaces due to the higher polarity of the molecule but, for the same reason, these adhesives are more susceptible to moisture pickup and can delaminate in high humidity environments. The less polar, longer chain lengths (C36) have lower moisture uptake, but also can have fewer amide linkages in the chain, and therefore lower overall adhesion. This is depicted as the performance range in Figure 2.

240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150

2,18 4,18



8,18 9,18


19 21 23 25 27 29 31 # of Carbons in repeat unit

Fig. 4: Melting points of x,18 polyamides from C18 diacid [4]

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Cover Story Info:

Polyurethane and Polyetheramid applications used in sports (photo: Shutterstock)

Aliphatic diacids comprise two carboxylic acid functional groups linked by an aliphatic hydrocarbon spacer. The general formula for this class of compound is HO2C(CH2)nCO2H. Typically, n is between 0 and 22. O


... HO

was improved over dodecanedioic acid — equivalent to PMMA and superior to polycarbonate and polystyrene [7]. Block copolymers of polyamides and polyethers, also known as polyetheresteramides, have been formed into shaped articles such as fibers, fabrics, films, sheets, rods, pipes, injection molded components or shoe soles. The polyetheresteramides that utilized C18 diacid afford a product with improved optical properties as compared to its shorter chain homologues [8]. Polyurethanes are typically synthesized via condensation polymerization of a di-isocyanate (typically MDI), a chain extender (typically butane diol) and a longer chain polyol (typically polyester or polyether). Long-chain diacids (such as C18) can also be used to make polyester polyols that make up the soft segment in polyurethanes. The use of the longer hydrophobic chain in the polyols is expected to result in a new class of polyurethanes with a very flexible, less polar soft segment with better elasticity at low temperatures, better hydrolytic stability (due to the lower ester content) and lower moisture pick-up in high-humidity environments such as automotive. Condensation polymers based on C18 diacid are also expected to have much lower moisture pickup than shorter chain diacids. When C18 diacid is incorporated into polar polymers — such as polyamides, polyesters and polyurethanes — the resulting polymers are expected to have hightemperature performance in high-humidity environments and exhibit better hydrolytic stability. This set of features is critical in under-the-hood automotive applications such as air intake manifolds, tanks for power steering fluids, coolant pumps, electronic housings, connectors and fuel lines. Other applications requiring high-humidity performance include sporting goods (e.g., roller wheels, ski boots, bicycle tires, horseshoes and athletic shoes), power tool housings, mobile phone housings, gears, sprockets, automotive panels, bumpers and airbags.

Inherent C18 Diacid Sustainability Elevance’s products combine high performance with renewable content. The Elevance technology can use a diversity of renewable feedstocks, including palm, mustard, soybean and, when they become commercially available, jatropha or algal oils. Each of these feedstocks can be sourced locally, enabling Elevance and its customers to reduce the carbon footprint across the entire supply chain.


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


High-performance polymers, used in durable goods, have had limited options for using renewable feedstocks, with castor oil being the most significant. With Inherent C18 Diacid and other products now possible using the Elevance technology, alternate renewable feedstock possibilities creating new material sourcing options and innovative performancebased solutions are available for high-performance polymer and durable goods manufacturers to expand their portfolios, supply chains and achieve sustainability goals.

Summary The advantages of long-chain diacids, such as Inherent C18 Diacid, are numerous and varied. Incorporation of this monomer into polymers, pre-polymers and low molecular compounds is expected to impart low surface tension, better dispersion and miscibility, high crystallinity, low moisture pick-up, high optical transparency, low dielectric constant, and increased hydrolytic stability over shorter chain, more common diacids.

Also contributing to this article: Brian Albert, Paul Bertin, Steve Cohen and Jordan Quinn

This article is based on a more comprehensive white paper. That is why the numbering of figures and references is not continuous. A full version of the white paper can be found at

References 1. Data obtained from the Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Dicarboxylic Acids, DOI: 10.1002/0471238961.040903 0110150814.a01.pub2. 2. Abraham, T.; Kaido, H.; Lee, C. W.; Pederson, R. L.; Schrodi, Y.; Tupy, J. U.S. Patent Application 2009/0264672. 3. Allen, Dave R., Patent Application WO2012/061094 4. Bennett, C.; Matthias, L. J. Journal of Polymer Science: Part A 2005, 43, 936−945. 5. Gavenois, J.; Mathew, A. K. U.S. Patent Application 2013/0052384. 6. Nataniel, T.; Heinrich, D. Eur. Patent Application 1,533,330. 7. Nataniel, T.; Heinrich, D. D. U.S. Patent 8,119,251. 8. Bühler, F. S.; Hala, R. U.S. Patent Application 2010/0144963.

Fibers & Textiles

New high performance PLA grades for fibers


atureWorks announced the commercial availability of two new Ingeo™ high performance PLA grades designed for fibers and nonwovens applications. The two grades deliver lower shrinkage, faster crystallization, and higher melting points across the broad range of manufacturing processes used to produce fibers and nonwoven fabrics. The new grades broaden the application window for PLA use in the production of personal care and hygiene products, filtration media, medical fabrics, civil engineering fabrics (erosion control, reservoir lining protection, etc.), and geotextile and agricultural fabrics.

Key features and benefits of Ingeo 6100D and 6260D The reduced shrinkage of Ingeo fibers made from 6100D and 6260D leads to improved fabric dimensional stability. These grades deliver increased hydrolysis resistance, and offer ~30 % higher stiffness (modulus) at temperatures above their glass transition temperature. Both are capable of higher heat set temperatures, leading to higher melting/ sticking points during processing and use. Higher melting point creates advantages in bi-component systems in which the new grades are combined with existing Ingeo low melting point resins. All of these attributes contribute to a larger overall Ingeo processing window and greater ease of processing.

Spunbond & Fibers Performance: When new Ingeo 6100D is compared to the existing Ingeo grade 6202D, one of the most often applied grades for fibers and spunbond nonwovens, NatureWorks scientists found: ƒƒ Peak melting point increased by 8°C from 164 to 172°C ƒƒ Melting shoulder increased by 15°C ƒƒ Fiber crystallinity increased by ~20% ƒƒ Quiescent crystallization rate increased three to four times ƒƒ Lower stress required for stress induced crystallization The new Ingeo grades will extend the scope of applications, including velvet

Ingeo 6100D is a mid viscosity grade designed for spunbond nonwoven and conventional staple fiber/filament melt spinning applications, while Ingeo 6260D is a low viscosity grade designed primarily for melt blown nonwoven applications. Both grades offer the highest melting points and fastest crystallization rates in the Ingeo fiber grade resins portfolio. “These new Ingeo grades provide benefits across all processing technologies and in a more extensive range of applications,” said Robert Green, fibers and nonwovens industry global segment manager, NatureWorks. “These grades are the result of intensive research and development and significant long-term investments in state-of-the-art production processes. These new grades are the first of a number of next generation solutions.”

In spunbond applications the fibers made from new Ingeo grade 6100D show a high strength to weight ratio with fibers in the 15-35 µm diameter range. These spunbond attributes make the new grades ideal for fabrics in geotextile, medical, automotive, and hygiene applications.

Meltblown Performance: New 6260D grade for melt blown applications can generally produce fibers in the 2-7 µm diameter range with desirable attributes for a broad range of applications and products. Resultant fiber characteristics can be translated into attributes such as low pressure drop for filtration media, or softness for hygiene applications. Nonwovens shrinkage in melt blown fabric applications will be ~ 80% less than what was previously achievable. MT

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Fibers & Textiles

The potential of PLA for the fiber market

Fig. 1: Global Warming Potential (from literature review) Source: nova-Institute, Germany, 2013

3 2 1 0

Range of results

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

g in nz



M g Le





sc os


ce l Te n Le





re PL

fib PP





fib re



> 31



Differences in crop yields!

0,9 0,7

0,42 0,25

0,2 ?

0,17 0,16

fib re fib He re m p fib re W Vi o sc ol os Ly e fi br co e ce PP ll fi br / e PL PE T PL A fib fibr A fib e re r PL e (s (co rn ug A ) fib ar re be (s et u ) PL ga A r fib can re e) (w he at )



Fig. 2: Land use of fibres (from literature review) Source: nova-Institute, Germany, 2013


(in kg CO2-eq / kg fibre)

Global warming potential

Its advantages of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases are shown in Fig. 1. Its performance is superior to petrochemical or even natural fibers like cotton. Only cellulose based fibers show lower greenhouse gas emission figures.

2 1,8 1,6 1,4 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0



There are convincing environmental arguments in favor of PLA:


PLA resembles PET (polyethylene terephthalate) in many properties. Similar to PET, PLA can readily be melt-spun into filaments, staple fibers, spunbond nonwovens. As a textile, PLA has many attractive properties, which are similar or sometimes even superior to PET. Such properties include a higher tenacity than natural fibers, excellent moisture transport away from the skin (wicking), natural UV resistance, low flammability and low smoke formation [1].

The annual PET consumption for textile applications amounts to 41 million tonnes (Mt) (2012), which is more than twice the demand for packaging applications (18 Mt). In 2011 the world cotton consumption was 24 Mt, in strong competition to PET. Substitution of only 1% of the world production of PET and cotton would generate a huge growth potential for textile PLA. Given these facts why does textile PLA still only play a limited role in the market – apparently for no obvious reasons?



njection molders know polylactic acid (PLA) as a stiff, brittle, splintering material with an elongation at break of 3 to 4%. Spun into fibers, a completely different picture presents itself: the fibers obtained are silk-like and the fabrics produced are smooth, skin flattering and with a pleasing drape. Elongation at break can be adjusted between 20% and 200% depending on the degree of stretching.

Fibers & Textiles

By Rainer Hagen Product Manager PLA Uhde Inventa-Fischer Berlin, Germany

Advantages in land use are commonly not attributed to PLA. It is well known that PLA is made from starch or sugar containing crops which need land for growing. Agricultural land is a limited resource and PLA has to compete with food crops (until non-food raw materials will be available). Fig. 2 represents the findings of a literature review conducted to compare land requirements per ton of fiber, including various natural fibers, cellulose based fibers and PLA fibers. Of course, petrochemical fibers do not require land apart from the industrial site plot where the production plants for the polymer and its precursors are located. PLA and Lyocell (cellulose based) fibers show the lowest land use, less than half of all natural fibers and viscose. Wool has the highest requirement (pastures) because of its specific production conditions.

1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

fib re fib He re m p fib re W Vi o sc ol os e fib Ly r oc el e l fi br M e od al PP fib /P r ET e fib N r e ylo n Ac fibr e ry lic fib re PL A fib re ax

n tto Co



(in l / kg fibre)

Water consumption

Fig. 3: Water use of fibres (from literature review) Source: nova-Institute, Germany, 2013

As some scientists consider, fresh water will be mankind‘s most limited resource in future, various fiber materials are compared in Fig. 3 as to their water consumption per kilogram. Apart from wool (almost no water consumption), PLA fibers show advantages over petrochemical (especially PET) and cellulose based fibers. Cotton requires the highest amount of water. This is explained by the need for irrigation of the crop which is done excessively in some parts of the world. The crops for PLA production usually do not need any irrigation. Environmental aspects should, at least in part, drive substitution of PET and cotton by PLA. Other nonenvironmental growth driving factors for textile PLA will be discussed below.

Info: Dr. Rainer Hagen is Product Manager of Uhde InventaFischer’s proprietary polylactic acid technology, PLAneo®. The engineering company is part of ThyssenKrupp Uhde’s Polymer Division and offers together with ThyssenKrupp Uhde Biotechnology cost-efficient processes for the production of non-petroleum-based chemicals as well as plastics, such as lactic acid, lactide and polylactic acid together with succinic acid and polybutylene succinate to fulfill the vision of sustainably replacing a considerable amount of conventionally produced materials in the near future.

Range of results Single score

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Fibers & Textiles

has to be taken into account as well as a loss of molecular mass which entails a loss of tenacity and elongation. Also problems such as low dye saturation and exhaustion need to be solved.

International engineering companies, such as Uhde Inventa-Fischer, offer PLA polymerization technologies, which are independent from LA (lactic acid) and PLA producers. Integrated LA-PLA production plants with capacities up to 100,000 tonnes per year (see Fig. 4) can be constructed within a few years after contract award. This is definitely no growth limiting factor.

If the PLA fiber market is to grow, it is worthwhile to look for other dyeing methods which involve a milder treatment of PLA fibers. Spin dyeing (addition of pigment dyes in the melt spinning process) can be used for large volume PLA applications, such as carpet yarn. Yet, for small lots this method does not offer the required flexibility.

However, the price of textile grade PLA is still higher compared to PET and cotton. Nevertheless, it is to be expected that the price will come down to a similar level as a result of upcoming world-scale production plants and increasing competition between producers. PLA can be processed on existing spinning equipment for PET staple fibers, filaments and spunbond nonwovens, therefore no new developments or technologies are required. Melt spinning technology of PET has achieved a high standard with respect to product quality, process efficiency, operability and automation. Modifications related to the lower PLA operating temperature are almost negligible.

A very recent method is dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide. This process operates at moderate temperatures and – even more importantly – without consuming water and generating waste water. Pressurized carbon dioxide promotes dyestuff migration into the fiber. A broad range of dispersion dyes available on the market have been tested successfully with PET (Fig. 5 [2]). Tests conducted with PLA have only covered a limited number of dyestuffs [3] so far, but showed the method‘s potential and the need for optimization.

Dyeing of fibers and textiles made from PLA presents a major challenge. The PET dispersion dyeing process can also be used for PLA. However, because of the limited hydrolysis resistance in aqueous dispersions, dyeing temperatures must not exceed 100°C. Still a certain amount of shrinkage

Polymer production, spinning and dyeing are just a few processing steps on the long way to PLA textiles. Many more steps are required to obtain a finished textile product, such as mixing with fibers of other origin, texturizing, weaving, knitting and sewing.

Fig. 4 Uhde Inventa-Fischer’s Integrated LA-PLA-Process Source: Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH, Germany, 2013


Biomass for composting or biogas

(NH4)2SO4 for fertiliser production


Glucose/ sucrose



complex N source





Thermophilic bacteria PLA waste

Demonomerisation/ stabilisation

PLA pellets



bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Ring opening polymerisation

Lactide purification


Lactide formation

Lactic Acid


Fibers & Textiles

The textile industry is extremely segmented. Almost every processing step is performed by a different company. Therefore, very few textile producers have established test production of a finished textile article made from PLA. The entire production chain will have to be optimized, if weaknesses of PLA textiles are detected. They have to be improved by cooperation of all stakeholders involved up to the polymer producer.

Fig. 5 Dyed Polyester Fabrics Source: Uhde High Pressure Technologies GmbH, Germany, 2013

For example, insufficient durability of a textile article might be caused by partial polymer degradation during the dyeing process. Therefore, improvements have to be made either by optimizing the dyeing process or by changing the polymer recipe. Up to now, PLA has played a limited role in the textile market, because of relatively high prices and some processing sensitivity of PLA in the textile production chain. However, solutions already exist to overcome these deficiencies and various efforts are ongoing to meet these challenges. Given the attractive properties of PLA and its huge growth potential, the combined know-how of technology companies, producers, processing equipment manufacturers as well as downstream converters will make PLA a very attractive polymer for the textile market. [1] Viju, S.; Thilagavathi, G; Chem. Fibers Int. 2/2009 [2] Courtesy of Uhde High Pressure Technology 2013 [3] Bach, E.; Knittel, D.; Schollmeyer, E; Color. Technol. 122, 252-258 2006


K 2013 / 16-23 October 2013 DĂźsseldorf / Germany / Hall 09, Booth C05 CHOOSE THE NUMBER ONE.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Fibers & Textiles


he Austrian Company NaKu aus Natürlichem Kunststoff® (means “made from Natural Polymers”) offers raw materials as well as fully developed products made from bioplastics.

NaKu PLA nonwoven, 25 g/m , 200 x magification 2

New bioplastics fibres

In the fibre industry the utilisation of renewable crude materials to replace common chemical products is also an issue. Until a few years ago, when choosing a type of fibre, one had to decide between petrochemical fibres and natural ones such as cotton. In addition natural fibres have to travel long distances and can sometimes carry a serious pesticide load. With fibres from biobased plastics the advantages of the stable, high quality of synthetic fibres can be combined with natural and renewable raw materials. “We optimised a PLA-based NaKu compound for temperature and hydrolysis stability, because our kitchenware products have to withstand up to 120°C in the microwave. To transfer this specification to the fibre technology was our motivation for starting in this sector two years ago”, says Johann Zimmermann, owner of the NaKu company. Currently the following finished products can be purchased from NaKu: ƒƒ filaments and fibres down to a fineness of 2.4 dtex ƒƒ nonwovens from 20 g/m2 up to 60 g/m2 and up to a width of 3 m ƒƒ yarn

Biodegradable meat pad

ƒƒ fabric ƒƒ and other products, such as biodegradable fluid absorbent pads for meat packaging.

NaKu standard fibre

Typical applications for the NaKu fibre are, for example, in the agriculture and gardening business using fabric and strings that should eventually rot away after some time. In the hygiene business, the NaKu-Fibre can be used, for example, for diapers. Also, the paper and filter industry require this new fibre. At the moment, NaKu is developing the NaKu-HT Fibre. This fibre can already stand 100°C boiling water. In this area NaKu works partially exclusively with certain partners. The company is still looking for additional application partners who see the advantages of the NaKu-HT Fibre and are interested to use this fibre for their strategic edge in a sustainability-conscious market. MT


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Polylactic Acid Uhde Inventa-Fischer has expanded its product portfolio to include the innovative stateof-the-art PLAneo ® process. The feedstock for our PLA process is lactic acid, which can be produced from local agricultural products containing starch or sugar. The application range of PLA is similar to that of polymers based on fossil resources as its physical properties can be tailored to meet packaging, textile and other requirements. Think. Invest. Earn.

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH Holzhauser Strasse 157–159 13509 Berlin Germany Tel. +49 30 43 567 5 Fax +49 30 43 567 699 Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG Via Innovativa 31 7013 Domat/Ems Switzerland Tel. +41 81 632 63 11 Fax +41 81 632 74 03

Uhde Inventa-Fischer

Fibers & Textiles

PHB properties for By: Pavan Kumar Manvi, Mustafa Salih Korkmaz Gunnar Seide, Thomas Gries Institut fĂźr Textiltechnik, RWTH Aachen Aachen, Germany


HAs are polyesters produced by the bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids. PHB is one of the well-known members of the PHA family with the largest volume in the market compared to other PHAs. However, the market demand for biopolymers like PHB is strongly influenced by factors such as a limitation of processing possibilities and the possibility to adopt the PHB for textile-based applications. There is, therefore, a definite need for further research to improve the processing technologies. One significant aspect is the thermal instability of PHB, which has a negative impact on melt processing as well as on the end product properties. PHB is characterized by a very large spherulite size, which is generally the result of a high level of purity and presence of very low number of nuclei. The low glass transition temperature of PHB results in post crystallization of PHB and large spherulites are formed. [1] The biggest problem in the processing of PHB is the low degradation temperature with regards to its melting temperature.

Thermal degradation of PHB The thermal degradation of PHB is characterized by nonradical random chain scission reactions in a six member ring ester decomposition process. The mechanism of degradation is explained in the Fig 1. The PHB molecule consists of a ring structure with three resonance positions, as shown in the figure. At elevated temperatures this resonance becomes stronger and results in the breakage of a chemical bond. This in turn results in the gradual decrease in the molecular weight. The thermal degradation of the PHB takes place above 200 °C, which is not far from melting temperature (178°C). [2]












One way of improving the melt processability of PHB is to add a thermal stabilizer to enhance its thermal properties. In this study various concentrations of thermal stabilizer are added to analyze the thermal stability through melting and crystallization behaviour of the polymer.











Fig. 1: Mechanism of thermal degradation of PHB


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8



Experimental PHBs (Biomer P209) from the company BIOMER GmbH (Krailing) were mixed with a thermal stabilizer mechanically, in various fractions from 0.1 % to 2.0 % These samples were tested for their thermal properties with the help of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). For heating/ cooling cycle measurements, the following thermal procedure

Fibers & Textiles

Results and discussion The results of thermal analysis have been shown in figures 2 and 3. In the first heating cycle endotherm the melting temperature of all samples is similar but the melting enthalpy increases with increase content of stabilizer. In the cooling cycle different behaviour was seen. The temperature of crystallization increases along with the increase in stabilizer content. The same phenomenon is also seen with crystallization enthalpy. An increase in the crystallization temperature and enthalpy of crystallization indicates that a stabilization effect is being approached. This shows that molecular chain scission is decreased and average molecular weight is higher with an increase in the stabilizer content. The higher average molecular weight, the free movement of polymer chain molecules, and crystallization take place at a higher temperature.

wt% stabilizer 0 0,1 0,2 0,5 1,0 2,0 ΔHm ΔHc

78,04 76,94

78,36 79,46

80,7 83,55

83,22 86,78

83,94 88,53

82,31 89,72

Fig.2 Melting and crystallization enthalpy of PHB with and without stabilizer

Temperature (°C)

was used: Starting temperature 25°C, ramp 10°C/min from 0 to 200°C and ramp 10°C/min from 200 to 0°C. During the heating cycle a melting endotherm of the PHB with and without stabilizer is obtained. During the cooling cycle a crystallization exotherm of the PHB with and without stabilizer is obtained. In the melting endotherm, melting temperature and melting enthalpy are of interest. In the cooling endotherm, crystallization temperature and crystallization enthalpy are observed. Melting and crystallization enthalpy represent the enthalpy needed to melt the crystals and for crystallization respectively.

Enthalpy (J/g)

fibre applications

0 0,1 0,2 0,5 1,0 2,0 wt% stabilizer ΔTc ΔTm

80,36 87,83 94,69 103,78 110,34 114,32 177,52 178,29 177,32 177,3 177,8 176,83

Fig.3 Melting and crystallization temperature of PHB with and without stabilizer

Conclusion Thermal analysis of PHB in the presence of a stabilizer was carried out. The stabilizer improves the thermal stability of the polymer, which can be proved by an increase in crystallization temperature and enhancement in the enthalpy for crystallization. The results of this study indicate that thermal stabilizers are efficient additives to enable the melt processing of PHB and to decrease the thermal degradation. Melt processing technologies, such as melt spinning and injection moulding will benefit, and the end product qualities will also be improved. This will also open up new fields of application such as hygiene textiles, geotextiles and medical textile industries. Moulded products from PHB can also be adapted for use and dispose products, where biodegradability is an important issue.

References: [1] Barham, P.J.; Keller, A.; Otun, E.L.; Holmes, P.A. Crystallization and morphology of a bacterial thermoplastic: Poly-3hydroxybutyrate Journal of material science, 1984, 19, 2781 – 2794 [2] Chen, C.; Fei, B.; Peng, S.; Zhuang, Y.; Dong, L.; Feng, Z.; The kinetics of thermal decomposition of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) and maleated poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) Journal of applied polymer science, 84 (2002), S. 1789-1796.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Fibers & Textiles

Bioplastics in the Nonwoven Industry Possibility or pipe dream By Dave Rousse President INDA Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry

shutterstock / Steve Heap

Cary, North Carolina, USA


he Nonwovens industry is a large and growing user of oil-based polymers. So it is a natural place to examine if bioplastics could replace these oil-based resins. Is it a possibility or is it a pipe dream? Before this first question will be addressed, this article tries to help to have a better understanding of what nonwovens are. Nonwovens are engineered fabrics that are used in numerous end products we interact with every day. A Nonwoven Fabric is defined as a sheet of fibers or continuous filament bonded together chemically, mechanically or thermally. Nonwovens are not paper, woven fabrics or knitted fabrics. They are largely made from the oil based plastics polypropylene, polyester (PET) and to a lesser extent polyethylene. Almost all of the parts of a baby diaper are made from nonwoven fabrics. Nonwovens are used in wipe products such as moist toilet wipes, baby wipes and other personal care wipes. In addition to personal care, the ever expanding category of wipes also includes household wipes and industrial/institutional application wipers. All feminine care products and incontinence products contain nonwoven fabrics as well. The media in air and liquid filter products from tea bags to industrial dust collection systems are usually nonwoven fabrics, not to mention in the 25 or so filter types in an automobile. Many of the items in doctor or hospital visits are made of nonwovens fabrics, such as surgical gowns, operating room drapes, sterilization wraps and wound care products, in addition to other disposable protective apparel for emergency response, chemical handling, hazardous waste protection and agriculture. Though nonwovens are prevalent in disposable products like those mentioned here, nonwovens can also be found in more durable or long life products. Examples of such products are geotextiles, upholstered furnishings, roofing reinforcements, house wrap, carpet components/backing, and automotive upholstery, liners and insulation. In short, nonwovens have thousands of uses and are growing every day with entirely new uses being developed. The Nonwoven industry is a global, growing industry. In 2012, global nonwoven fabric sales reached $28.2 billion and grew at a 6% annual rate from 2007-2012. Global sales are estimated to reach $39.2 billion by 2017; an annual growth rate of 6.8%. So what is the opportunity to replace commonly used oil-based resins in nonwovens with biobased polymers? The table shows that the potential for bioplastics is promising for different areas, ranked on a five star basis, with five being the highest. These are: Absorbent Hygiene Product Components; Consumer Wipes; Medical/Surgical Products; Reusable Shopping Bags; Automotive Components/Engineered Structures and Agricultural/ Landscaping Fabrics.


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Fibers & Textiles Potential for bioplastics in different application areas (Source INDA)

Absorbent Hygiene Consumer Wipes Medical/ Surgery Reusable Shopping bags Automotive $ 291 million 4% N. Am. Market Agriculturel/ $ 90 million Landscape 1% N. Am. Market

Tonnes 2012 404,000 21% N. Am. Market 328,000 16% N. Am. Market 166,000 9% N. Am. Market n.a. 57,000 3% N. Am. Market 31,000 2% N. Am. Market

Growth Rating 2012-2017 3.6% p.a. *** 6.0 % p.a.


3.2 % p.a.




7.3 % p.a.


4.3 % p.a.


Absorbent Hygiene The Absorbent Hygiene category includes baby diapers, feminine care and incontinence products. It is the largest user of nonwoven fabrics accounting for approximately $1 billion in sales, and 404,000 tonnes in North America 2012. Producers in this segment are large in size but few in number. Drivers in this segment come from consumers and the large multi-nationals such as Proctor & Gamble and Kimberly-Clark. It is a high volume/low margin business, with little room to absorb higher costs or risks. One may encounter some technical concerns with biobased resins in these product applications, so be prepared to work these out. Lastly, because these are hygiene products, there is a lengthy and rigorous product qualification process that must be met. For example, there are 32 components in a diaper; with about 30 being oil-based and each individual component must pass qualification. Because this segment is so large, there is opportunity for biobased polymers. But adoption will be slowed by cost pressure, performance and qualification issues. Private label manufacturers are more likely to embrace bioresins and carve out a niche where higher costs can be recaptured through pricing. A good example will be diapers with PLA (Polylactic Acid) inner and outer layers. For these reasons, Absorbent Hygiene is getting three out of five stars.

shutterstock / milias1987

Sales 2012 $ 999 million 14% N. Am. Market $ 846 million 12% N. Am. Market $ 783 million 11% N. Am. Market n.a.

Sales of nonwoven fabrics to the Consumer Wipes segment reached an estimated $846 million in North America in 2012 and consumed over 328,000 tonnes. The North American wipes segment is estimated to grow at a 6% annual rate through 2017. Within the consumer wipes segment, there exists a diverse array of products, demographics and price points. This along with the desires of the convenience and environmentally aware consumer makes wipes an attractive opportunity for bioplastics. Compared to a diaper, wipes are much simpler in construction. But here also, there are challenges to meet which are critical to success. First, the bio-resin will need to be spun into filaments, and then the filaments chopped into staple fiber. Then there is the interaction with the lotions and other additives found in wet wipes. But, even with these challenges, consumer wipes, particularly personal care wipes, are seen as the largest and most promising opportunity for bio-resins in nonwovens: four out of five stars.

istockphoto / RCgrafix

Consumer Wipes

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Fibers & Textiles


shutterstock / wavebreakmedia

The Medical/Surgical segment is another opportunity for bio-resins in nonwovens. Sales of nonwoven fabrics to this segment in North America reached an estimated $783 million in 2012 and consumed 166,000 tonnes. Unlike the other segments, where bioplastics replace oil-based plastics; there is opportunity to use bioplastics in an entirely new product category. Biopolymer based nonwovens can be made into tissue scaffolds that dissolve in the body. Other types of bandages that dissolve in the body also represent opportunity. This area has a great deal of interest and offers an attractive high value, low volume possibility as these tissue scaffolds and bandages cannot be made using oilbased products. The largest use of nonwovens in medical today is for surgical drapes and gowns. There seems no great opportunity for bio-resins here due primarily to the requirements for FDA approval and purchasing group’s reluctance to accept higher costs. However, hospitals are being pushed to go green where possible so the Medical/ Surgical segment gets two out of five stars.

Reusable Shopping Bags One only has to shop at their local grocery store to see that the popularity of reusable shopping bags has grown in the last few years in a lot of countries including North America. Some countries, states and cities are working on legislation to tax or ban the use of plastic shopping bags, with Los Angeles becoming the largest U.S. city to ban them. Some stores have voluntarily discontinued the use of them as part of their brand mission. Billions of plastic bags are used annually with only about 0.06% being recycled in the USA. The only real challenge to adoption of bioplastic based nonwovens for reusable shopping bags is cost. But there is a strong ecological drive behind the wider use of reusable bags. These bags’ unitary construction makes them easier to manufacture. There is also opportunity to produce value tiers with entry and step- up style bags to accommodate different cost points and branding objectives. For these reasons the segment gets two out of five stars.

Automotive Nonwovens are used on over 40 parts of an average car today. Nonwoven fabric sales to the North American automotive market reached an estimated $291 million in 2012 and consumed approximately 57,000 tonnes. The auto industry is healthy and growing again and it is a global industry. Nonwoven fabrics’ ability to be engineered to meet a specific application in the car, such as extreme light

istockphoto / CaroleGomez


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


weight but highly durable, is driving higher usage by auto designers and planners. There is evidence that a growing segment of auto buyers are willing to pay more for a greener car. The challenge will be bioplastics cost vs. performance plus bioplastic capacity. If bio-resins take off and are adopted by more car companies can the supply chain meet the demand? In the Auto segment, there seems to be potential for bio-resins in acoustic insulation, carpets and headliners. Rating: two out of five stars.

Agricultural/Landscaping The final area of potential to be looked at is the Agricultural/Landscaping segment. In 2012, nonwoven fabric sales into this segment in North America reached an estimated $90 million, consuming approximately 31,000 tonnes. Landscape/ Agricultural fabrics are used to shade young plantings, stop erosion, and prevent weed growth. Ideally, farmers would like to simply till these into the soil when the growing season is over. So here it is not the biobased source of a material that is of interest, but the biodegradability, ideally in combination with a renewable source. With the growing interest in organic and sustainable agriculture, this trend is increasing. But cost is an over-riding driver in this segment and for this reason the opportunity for biobased AND biodegradable nonwovens will be very limited. Thus this segment gets only one out of five stars. So will bio-resin use in the production of nonwoven fabrics grow and prosper? Yes, it will. It is not a pipe dream but a market opportunity. The possibilities are good and some application of biopolymers is already occurring. Because many segments are cost sensitive, bio-resin pricing will remain an issue; particularly when replacing an oil-based material. So, keep in mind the concept of biopolymer use in totally new product areas, such as in medical tissue scaffolding. And lastly, be careful what you wish for. There are only 2.5 million tonnes of bio-resin capacity today but about 230 million tonnes of petroleum polymer consumption with about 10 million flowing into nonwovens. So the science may be there to replace a substantial percentage of petroleum based polymers, but the capacity is not (yet).


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Fibers & Textiles

Bioplastic fibres from milk By Michael Thielen


ature produces a versatile resource, namely milk. Incredible amounts of milk have to be disposed of every day because it is longer marketable and legislation says that it should not be used as food. Qmilch Deutschland GmbH (Hanover, Germany) have developed an innovative and unique technology for the production of textile fibres made from the milk protein, casein. Qmilk® produces textile fibres for various applications including clothing, home textiles, industrial applications, medical equipment and automotive equipment. And the company is working continuously to advance the unique biopolymer with an excellent product quality and an outstanding performance in the field of man-made fibres.

other people who were suffering from allergies, for example. Then she had the idea of creating a product that can not only help people, but is also good for the environment itself. Eventually milk proteins came to her notice. Such proteins had already been processed into textiles in the 1930s, but the fibres were treated with various chemicals and produced in a complex process.

The company

In April 2011 the Qmilch GmbH was founded. There is now a group of companies – Qmilch IP GmbH, Qmilch Holding GmbH and Qmilch Deutschland GmbH – engaged in the production and development of biopolymers, based on milk proteins and other natural and renewable raw materials.

Founder of the company is Dipl.-Biologist Anke Domaske who originally was searching for chemically untreated clothing for her stepfather who had cancer, and eventually for


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Qmilk began as a classic start-up – however, not in a garage, but in a kitchen. Since the company and its development is not a university spin-off, there was initially no laboratory to work in, just the idea of developing a fibre that is chemically untreated. The necessary equipment was bought in a grocery store and built into a laboratory for about € 200.

Fibers & Textiles

What is casein? Casein is a protein that makes up to 80% of milk protein and is thus one of the major proteins in milk. Casein is employed as a binder and excipient. In milk the casein consists of 18 out of the known 22 amino acids. Casein has an extremely high content of glutamine and calcium. With approximately 20% of glutamine no other protein contains as much glutamine as casein.

“Sustainability is an integral part of our corporate culture and we are committed to our corporate values i.e. to work sustainably and in a socially responsible manner”, says Anastasia Bresler, PR Manager of Qmilk.”In the focus of our sustainable policy are our products, innovations and technologies. We set new standards in the field of man-made fibre.”

The raw material: No food To develop sustainable innovations and processes and to take advantage of natural materials, are the cornerstones of the Qmilk company‘s philosophy. The casein, which is the main resource of Qmilk’s products, is made from raw milk that is no Ionger suitable for sale and, under the current legislation cannot be used as food. ln Germany alone every year 1.9 million tonnes of milk must be disposed of. Globally more than 100 million tonnes of milk are wasted every year [4]. Reasons for this are, for example, heat, cellular problems, or germs. This kind of milk must be be disposed of at the expense of the farmer. In many cases this milk ends up – albeit prohibited – in the sewerage. But not only milk that does not fulfill the hygiene requirements of the dairy industry is abuntantly available. There are also waste products e.g. from cheese making etc. that need to be disposed. However, this milk still contains valuable ingredients and offers great potential for technical purposes. “We use a raw

material which inevitably becomes available and thus we only extend its product life cycle”, says Anastasia. “Additionally, we pay attention to sustainable animal husbandry by our suppliers.”

The bioplastic The principle of converting milk into a biopolymer and eventually into fibre products is based on the concept of white biotechnology, one of today’s key technologies. The biotechnological advances allow many new industrial processes which are cheaper and more ecological. In addition, the use of renewable resources was brought to the fore, and we all strive to reduce the use of raw material and energy. The advantage of the new manufacturing process is the ability to produce a biopolymer comprised of 100% natural and renewable raw materials - milk. “The production of 1kg of the biopolymer needs only 5 minutes and a maximum of 2 liters of water”, explains Ines Klinger, head of technical development at Qmilch. “This implies a particular level of cost efficiency and ensures a minimum of CO2 emissions.” There are lots of options for modification of the polymer which offers the potential for numerous applications. However, one has to keep in mind the fact that Qmilk is a cross-linked, thermoset material. The cross-linking of the molecules makes the material (including the fibres) water resistant, as opposed to approaches in the past when chemicals had to be added to achieve water resistant caseinbased fibres. The material can be made flexible or rigid. It absorbs colour very easily and has good colour brilliance. It is antibacterial and therefore complements a wide range of applications even outside the fibre and textile industry. Qmilk is resistant to water, ethanol, acetone, methanol, fuels, and oils, weak acids, alkalis and minerals. Its temperature stability is above 200°C and the density is at 1.17 g/cm³. The Qmilk biopolymer is compostable in a few weeks.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Fibers & Textiles

Special Features of the fibres are: ƒƒ antibacterial ƒƒ pleasant to touch ƒƒ temperature regulating ƒƒ controlled shrinkage ƒƒ natural UV filter ƒƒ B2 flammability in accordance with DIN 41021 and DIN 75200 ƒƒ heat resistant up to 200°C ƒƒ washable up to 60°C ƒƒ lower density than cotton and silk ƒƒ non allergic ƒƒ good moisture absorbance ƒƒ good colouring performance

Antibacterial Activity Qmilk is naturally antibacterial. There is no need to use anti-bacterial treatment. It is another advantage of crosslinked polymers (see above) that textiles made with such fibres cannot mildew and will behave absolutely neutral in terms of their odour. Qmilk also has an antibacterial action against E. coli and even Staphyllococcus aureus. The bacteria cannot multiply in the Qmilk fibre and thus it gives a smoothing freshness throughout the day. Moisture absorption The Qmilk fibre easily absorbs moisture and is therefore particularly suitable for applications in underwear, functional sports clothing, and the home textiles sector, but also for technical textiles.

The fibres In a first step the casein powder is mixed with water and melted in an extruder to become a biopolymer-precursor. Already now the material can be dyed. This avoids the additional need for water in a later dyeing step, as is required for example with cotton fibres. Now the biopolymer mass is pressed into a specially shaped spinneret in a continuous process to form the fibres. Since the process temperature is below 100°C the special properties of the milk-casein can be maintained. Water is used as a plasticizer. Qmilk offers a wide range of cross-sections and versatilities in clothing, home textiles and technical textiles. The Qmilk fibre can be obtained as a staple fibre and filament. Because of its smooth surface it is ideal for sensitive skin and gives the feeling of wearing something rather silky.


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Fire protection class The Qmilk fibre reaches fire protection class B2 according to DIN 4102-1 and DIN 75200 and can therefore be used in home decoration, but also in the automotive industry.

The textiles The smooth surface of the Qmilk fibre avoids skin irritation and promotes an optimum skin feeling. Qmilk fibre can be modified in its visual aspects and properties for textile surfaces. “The fibres are very smooth and on my skin it feels like silk,” says Tanja Berthold, fashion tailoress at Qmilk. “I love it for my pyjamas”, she adds. “I don’t want to sleep in anything else – ever!” At night she never feels cold, or sweats, thanks to the excellent moisture properties of Qmilk.

Fibers & Textiles

Qmilk is particularly suitable for underwear, as this kind of apparel is worn directly in contact with the skin. Thus skin kindness and hygiene are of utmost importance. In addition to the antibacterial and moisture regulating properties the Qmilk fibres feel very smooth and, thanks to their smooth surface, skin irritations and itching are effectively avoided Asked whether she feels she has been dressed in a Treehugger-Shop when wearing apparel from Qmilk, Tanja says: “Absolutely not. That kind of fashion in the 70s and 80s wanted to differentiate itself from the conventional fashion of those days. Fashion from Qmilk is not only sustainable, but also beautiful, fashionable and sexy.” Other typical fibre applications are pillow cases, bed sheets and mattress covers. Niten Trasy, purchasing manager of Sunham Home Fashion in New York, is convinced that sleeping in a Qmilk-bed is healthier than in any other textile [2]. Potential applications apart from fibres and textiles can be found for example in toys or in dashboard components for automobiles. Since Qmilk features a natural resistance to diesel, ethanol, E10, polyethylene glycol, acetic acid, sodium hydroxide, and oleic acid, it fulfils many requirements that could be applied in the automotive industry.

Qmilk collect Qmilk are working to build the first logistics system for the collection of unused, and so far technically, unmarketable milk. References [1] (Website of Qmilch Deutschland GmbH, last accessed Sep. 18, 2013 [2] Qmilk, natural fibre, Brochure of Qmilch Deutschland GmbH [3] Polymerization: From Milk to Plastic - University of Manitoba, [4] Food wastage footprint: Impacts on natural ressources, FAOreport, Sept. 2013

Technical Specifications: Fineness

1.6 dtex

fibre cross section*



milky white

specific weight

1.17 g/cm3

cutting length

30-60 mm

number of filaments


thermal shrinkage (150°C}

0.4 (ow Fest)

decomposition temperature

200 °C

loop strength


moisture absorption

13.6- 16.3 %

*Special cross-sections and titers upon request

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


K‘2013 Preview

Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology

Show Preview K’2013 - Oct. 16 - 23, 2013


ld’s he International K Show, the wor and tics signature event for the plas e rubber industry held once every thre the nineyears will take place this year for Düsselin ber teenth time from 16 to 23 Octo 3000 than dorf, Germany. At K’2013, more st devecompanies will showcase their late , inclulopments for all industry segments and ucts prod with ding over 140 companies cs. lasti services focused specifically on biop enpres A selection of what is on display is r trade thei plan can ors ted in the below. Visit floor the of help show experience with the plan on pages 34-35. KL

The Fraunhofer ICT conducts research into innovative developments in the field of bioplastics. Hence, developments are displayed in various different domains, one of which will be examples of materials with magnetic or electrically conductive properties, which are an outcome of the successfully completed BioStruct project. Also on show will be examples of bioplastic materials with doubled HDT values, achieved with the help of optimized crystallization, a frisbee disc demonstrating the possibilities of different material combinations, including lightweight design solutions and biocomposite materials, and a transparent, biobased substitute for PVC in window profiles. In addition, several partners in the InnoREX project, an EU project aimed at developing a new metal-free production route for PLA, will be present at this year’s K fair. The project’s coordinator will be available at the Fraunhofer ICT booth to provide firsthand information about the project’s preliminary results. 7B05

Ecoplast Technologies Inc Ecoplast Technologies Inc, Wuhan, China, is presenting its range of ECO-KEEP products at K’2013. Eco Keep is the Ecoplast brand of green houseware items made from PSM® bioplastics, which use plant starch and other renewable sources as their main components, and are manufactured by polymer modification and plasticization. By the end of 2012, Eco-Keep could be found in over 3600 supermarkets in China, including Wal-mart and Carrefour. Following its market success as the first green home appliance brand in China, the company is introducing EcoKeep to the world at large at K’2013, where a broad international audience, including potential customers, can witness the game-changing effect of PSM bioplastics on daily life. 7.1E03-19


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

K‘2013 Preview

Natureplast Natureplast group specializes in providing support to plastic converters or outsourcers who want to incorporate bioplastics into existing, or develop new products or packaging made from bioplastics. Since its founding in 2006, Natureplast continues to be the sole company in Europe dedicated to supplying the full range of bioplastics produced across the world. Biopolynov, a daughter company of Natureplast created in 2010, is the first R&D laboratory in Europe dedicated to the field of bioplastics. The focus is on modifying and improving the properties of the various types of bioplastics currently available, including PLA, PHA, PBS, BioElastomers, BioPET, etc. The company also develops specific compound mixes with natural fibers, such as wood, miscanthus, bamboo and hemp, to name but a few. For the past two years, efforts have mainly been directed at optimizing agricultural and industrial waste for feedstock use, which has resulted in the development of new specific bioplastic materials based on, for example, olive seed powder, algae, or leather. 5D04-6

European Bioplastics The industry association European Bioplastics will represent the bioplastics industry at K’2013. European Bioplastics will provide up-to-date information on market development and new products. Furthermore, the joint stand with bioplastics MAGAZINE aims to be a contact platform for all K-visitors interested in seminal plastic solutions, i.e. bioplastics. The association will also inform about the 8th European Bioplastics Conference, which is the pre-eminent international industry event in Europe offering a unique information platform for industry trends, as well as innovations in material and application development. The event takes place on 10/11 December 2013 at InterContinental Hotel Berlin. 7aB10


Meet bioplastics MAGAZINE at this joint booth!

At K’2013, BASF will be presenting a wide range of products, including the company’s bio-based Ecoflex and Ecovio materials. One of the highlights on display will be the first application for the new injection-molding grade Ecovio IS1335 (see bM 04/2013): fully compostable coffee capsules for Swiss Coffee Company (Widnau, Switzerland). The material is used in combination with an Ecovio-based multi-layer system with specific barrier properties. Also on show are the Ecovio biodegradable/ compostable bio-waste bags, which have been approved for use in organic waste bins by numerous municipalities, further underscoring the company’s commitment to composting as a feasible and effective waste management option for organic waste. BASF is also presenting a designer lamp made from partly biobased polyamides (Ultramid Balance), and two new grades for extrusion, called Ultramid S4Z5 Balance and Ultramid S4Z4 XS Balance. The two long-chain polyamide compounds are characterized by especially low moisture uptake, good resistance to chemicals and stress cracking as well as low-temperature impact strength. They will be available in sample quantities as of November 2013. 5C21/D21

Please visit for updated information about K‘2013. bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


K‘2013 Preview Invista Invista continues to innovate across the entire polyamide value chain. In addition to the company’s Engineering Polymers business, INVISTA has established its own internal biotechnology capability and is looking at a number of opportunities to develop biological routes to its products and feedstocks. Since August 2012, INVISTA has announced three biotechnology-related collaborations. One of the initial focuses of the collaborations will be the production of bio-derived butadiene. These collaborations—with LanzaTech, Arzeda and SilicoLife—should allow INVISTA to accelerate the development of bio-derived butadiene and other innovations in the broader bio-derived industrial chemical product space. Through biotechnology innovations and its Engineering Polymers product design capabilities, INVISTA continues to demonstrate its global commitment to delivering long-term value to customers. 8bF47

ROQUETTE As one of the 5 global leaders in the starch manufacturing industry, Roquette offers a full range of innovative and sustainable plant-based solutions for the plastic industry. GAÏALENE is an industrial range of plant-based plastics eco-designed by Roquette, and comprising filmable, injectable or foamable grades that are able to be processed on conventional equipment. With their warm, silky feel, natural anti-static properties and low density, these fully- recyclable materials are suitable for a wide range of application areas. POLYSORB is a range of highly pure isosorbide grades to replace fossil-based diols in polymers synthesis. Safe and 100 % biobased, its unique chemical structure yields improved optical and thermal properties for polycarbonate. Also, unlike PET, PEIT - polyethylene terephthalate containing Isosorbide polymers are suitable for hot-fill applications. POLYSORB ID is a new range of 100% plant-based and phthalate free plasticizers for PVC and other polymers with a favorable toxicological profile and technical performance equal to that of DINP or DINCH. POLYSORB ID can be used without any reformulation work or need for process parameters adaptation. 8BA 78


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Lubrizol Corporation At K’2013, in addition to its wide-range of Estane Engineered Polymers, Lubrizol will be highlighting its highperformance specialty TPU (thermoplastic polyurethane) resins, which are marketed under the global commercial brand names Pearlthane, Pearlthane ECO, Pearlbond, Pearlbond ECO, Pearlstick and Pearlcoat. This broad portfolio of products - aliphatic and aromatic, bio-based, polycaprolactone (PCL) copolyester elastomeric, polyether and copolymer-based – provides a single, convenient and reliable source for various materials needed to solve some of today’s toughest application challenges. Among the applications on show are the newly developed timing belts from BRECO Antriebstechnik Beheer GmbH & Co. KG. made from a TPU (thermoplastic polyurethane) from the Bio TPU by Merquinsa® product line. This line demonstrates the same thermal, chemical and hydrolysis resistance as standard polyester TPU grades. The new BRECOgreen and BRECOFLEXgreen timing belts are made from Pearlthane ECO D12T90 (38% biobased content according to ASTM-D6866), which offers excellent processability, very good hydrolysis and abrasion resistance, and has lower density and an improved value of low temperature flexibility in comparison to other polymer options for the same end-use applications. 06C10

K‘2013 Preview

Vertellus Specialties, Inc. At K’2013, Vertellus is showing a range of Vertellus products for the plastics industry. This includes its Citroflex plasticizers, used in medical and food grade PVC applications and in biopolymers like PLA and PHA, as well as other bio-based plasticizers such as Morflex sebacates, trimellitates, adipates & benzoates and Flexorcin castor oil derivatives. Topanol CA-SF is a unique hindered phenol antioxidant used in high temperature PVC automotive wire applications and styrenic and other polymer compounds. ZeMac Copolymers is an additive used in plastics compounding to enhance performance of both recycled and prime engineering plastics such as polyamides, PBT, PC, PC/ABS, and PET as well as an additive in the sizing emulsion to enhance the performance of glass fiber in polyamide, polyesters and epoxies. Vertellus is a specialty chemicals company and the world’s largest producer of pyridine and picolines, specialty pyridine derivatives, DEET, castor oil derivatives and systems, and citrate polymer additives and systems, and the world’s second largest producer of Vitamin B3. 5C07-8

FKuR Kunstoff GmbH Bioplastics specialist FKuR Kunststoff GmbH is presenting its tailor-made compounds for food packaging, marketed under the brand name Terralene. Terralene offers excellent barrier properties, enabling products sensitive to moisture and oxygen to be packaged in bioplastics while considerably extending their shelf life. It is based on Green Polyethylene (Green PE), derived from sugarcane, produced by Braskem S.A. Packaging made from Terralene and Green PE can be manufactured on existing production equipment and is fully recyclable in existing polyethylene recycling streams. The company is also showing its new Bio-Flex F 1137 and Bio-Flex F 1138 compostable (according to EN 13432) film grades, for biowaste and carrier bag applications. Excellent moisture resistance and increased tear resistance ensure a hygienic collection of organic waste. Carrier bags made from Bio-Flex F 1138 can be reused multiple times, after which they can serve as waste bags for the collection of organic waste. Other innovations include new formulations for injection moldable compounds. Application specific properties enable the realization of applications in consumer, electronic, and household appliances, as well as renewable transportation solutions made from bioplastics. 6E48

Perstorp Sweden-based Perstorp, a leading manufacturer of specialty chemicals, will be launching its proven technology Capa Thermoplastic products for bioplastics at K’2013. Capa is the perfect polyester for bioplastics blends, acting as a processing aid, improving mechanical properties and accelerating biodegradation. Capa offers excellent tear properties, enhances flexibility, while its excellent low temperature performance allows bioplastic products to be used in cold environments. Using Capa yields a more durable product for a longer life, with better compostability at end of life. The low melting point reduces energy consumption during processing to a minimum. Capa is ideal for renewable polyester applications such as cutlery, trays and items that need to last a year or two, as well as for disposables: plastic bags, compost bags, coated paper and single-use plastic cutlery. 07.2B15

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


K‘2013 Preview Kaneka Kaneka Biopolymer AONILEX (PHB) is biodegradable, yet strongly resistant to heat and hydrolysis and can act as a barrier to water vapor. It is the world’s first 100% plant-based biopolymer to offer both flexibility and heat resistance. It exhibits a range of properties from hardness through to softness as well as a number of key characteristics of polyethylene and polypropylene materials. This biodegradable polymer, which uses vegetable fats and oils and other biomass as its primary raw materials, eventually degrades into carbon dioxide and water. With excellent biodegradability and heat resistance characteristics, it is suitable for a host of applications, including for materials used in agriculture, civil engineering, packaging and automobile interiors. It has a smaller carbon footprint than comparable petroleum-based polymers, thus contributing to the preservation of the environment. 6A 40


DSM With the launch of EcoPaXX in 2009, its castor oil-derived PA410 product range, DSM convincingly demonstrated its ongoing commitment to sustainability. With a biobased content of 70%, EcoPaXX is 100% certified carbon neutral from cradle to gate, exhibits an excellent set of properties, and is currently found in a wide array of applications. At Daimler, EcoPaXX was selected for use in engine covers for turbo engines, mainly because of its unique combination of high temperature resistance, dimensional stability and high quality surface. Another automotive application where dimensional stability, heat- and chemical resistance were key requirements regards the latest generation of diesel engines developed by the Volkswagen Group, which feature a lightweight multi-functional crankshaft cover in EcoPaXX. In building and construction, EcoPaXX is being used in insulating profiles for aluminum window profiles. And MF Folien GmbH became the first company to produce film based on the polyamide 410 for applications like flexible food packaging. 6.1N-04


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

The Grafe Group is presenting its new product series Biocolen, a masterbatch that is not only suitable for coloring bioplastics (PLA), but also enhances performance for packaging manufacturers. The masterbatch improves the durability, achieving a higher flexibility and reducing the brittleness in the end product without impairing transparency. Due to the material composition, the packaging product is very easy to process and cut. The company is also introducing its innovative Bio-Compalen-Paperlike, which makes it possible for the first time to produce foils that can be torn in any direction. This offers an enormous advantage, particularly in the area of security labels. Up until now, security labels could only be torn in the direction of extrusion. With its new compound, the Grafe Group has made it possible to produce foils with the same tearing properties lengthwise and crosswise. In addition, the foil displays paperlike haptics and very good writability. It comes in white, like paper, but is available in other colors as well. The bio-plastics compound can be made into flat or bubble wrap and requires a relatively low processing temperature, which improves the overall ecological balance. 6E75

K‘2013 Preview

Sukano At K’2013, Sukano is presenting its proven portfolio of ready-to-use compounds and customized bioplastics masterbatches. Its bio-loy compounds are ready-touse biopolymers that can be processed just like standard plastics in many applications.

Metabolix Metabolix I6003rp is an effective biobased polymeric additive for increasing the recycle rate and value of PVC. The excellent inherent miscibility in PVC of Metabolix I6003rp additives enables improved mixing of recycle PVC and brings secondary plasticization with low migration and aging effects. PVC recycle usage rates are often limited due to deterioration in physical property performance. Incorporating Metabolix polymeric additives with reuse of recycle scrap PVC helps maintain toughness and tear properties at higher recycle usage rates. The company is also presenting Mvera B5010 for compostable films, which is suitable for use in coextruded films and blends. The material shows good compatibility with other biopolymers such as PHA, PBAT, PLA or PBS. Mvera B5010 processes easily on conventional blown film extrusion equipment and is a durable and versatile material with excellent melt strength. Potential uses include blown and cast film applications such as industrial can liners, retail bags, organics and yard waste collection bags. 8bD38

Sukano uses proprietary technology to modify PLA polymer with specific additives. Classical PLA weaknesses are eliminated; instead PLA is endowed with impact strength, durability, and easy processability for semi durable applications. Only low amounts of the highly concentrated masterbatches are added to PLA in the extrusion process to achieve the desired properties. Sukano’s biobased slip/antiblock masterbatches reduce COF while optimizing processability and denesting behavior. Sukano’s biobased UV masterbatches protect the contents of bioplastics films. The company’s transparent impact modifier brings toughness and resistance into the application. Sukano also offers a range of biobased optical products for customized visual appearance. These easyto-process masterbatches incorporate white, black and colorants into transparent or opaque PLA applications. All Sukano bioconcentrates feature information on compostability compliance and biobased carbon content. 08a/H28

geba Kunststoffcompounds This year at K, geba Kunststoffcompounds GmbH is presenting its Desmovit DP R Eco NF product line, a range of TPU compounds reinforced with natural fibers. Developed in collaboration with geba’s long-term strategic partner, Bayer MaterialScience, Desmovit DP R Eco NF is currently available with 10% and 20% natural-fiber reinforcement. The companies’ goal was to develop a material with good mechanical properties and weight advantages compared to glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane. The new material offers a weight optimization of 8%, and, due to its firmness, is perfectly suited for components and assemblies with low wall thicknesses. Its fracture behavior makes it suitable for use in applications such as sporting goods: it forms no sharp edges on breaking, reducing the risk of injury to a minimum. In the future, the Desmovit DP R Eco series could include a grade consisting of a biobased TPU reinforced with natural fibers, a development which would bring the total percentage of biobased content to over 50%. 547A

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Hall 2


Polymer Science (Shenzhen) New Materials

Hall 5


Actiplast BASF 05/B18 Biesterfeld Plastic 05/D04-15 BIOTEC Biologische Naturverpackungen & Co. 05/C07-1 Cast Nylons Limited 05/B22 Corbion Purac 05/B10 Dyneon 3M Advanced Materials Division 05/D05 Ensinger 05/D04-4 F2DP Industries 05/A47 GEBA Kunstoffcompounds 05/B34 Hubron 05/E20 LUCOBIT 05/A45 Luxus 05/D04-6 Natureplast 05/B05-9 Next Polymers 05/A29 Perrite 05/D04-11 Treffert 05/C07-8 Vertellus Specialties 05/B05-10 Zylog Plastalloys 05/D21

Meet the Bioplastic Specialist and explore „Plastics - made by nature!“ Ask for our highlights:

• Bio-Flex ® ̶

biodegradable resins for flexibles

• Biograde ® ̶

biodegradable resins for rigids

• Terralenee ® ̶

biobased compounds based on Green PE

• Green PE E ̶

polyethylene made from renewable resources

Hall 6


A.P.I. AKRO-PLASTIC ARKEMA BEGRA Granulate & Co. Borealis Borouge Pte. Braskem ClickPlastics DK Kunststoff-Service DSM DuPont EMS-Chemie FKuR Kunststoff Fraunhofer UMSICHT GRAFE Advanced Polymers Grässlin KBS Kunststofftechnologie Hoffmann + Voss K.D. Feddersen & Co. Kaneka LANXESS Lubrizol Advanced Materials Europe Nordmann, Rassmann Polyblend Ticona UBE Engineering Plastics VELOX Wacker Chemie

06/B42 06/C57 06/D07 06/A43 06/A43

ialist” c Spec ioplasti top by s ”The B to u yo invites all 6

06/D27, 06/E80 06/D76

E 48 / H booth 2013 nd at K ative a

06/B11, 06/C43

ov . our inn ments to see evelop d g n ti fascina

06/E61 06/E48 06/E48 06/E75 06/A15 06/D76 06/B42 06/A40 06/C76 06/C10 06/B25 06/C50 06/A07 06/E08 06/A23 06/A10

Hall 7



Croda Coatings & Polymers Fraunhofer ICT Fraunhofer IFAM Fraunhofer IGB

Hall 7.1

07/B05 07/B05

Show Guide bioplastics MAGAZINE, Polymedia Publisher GmbH Hall 07a, B10



_bioplastics_95x49,5.indd 1

Biobased lactides for high performance PLA bioplastics

Visit us: B22, Hall 5 Learn more about PLA in: „ Automotive „ Consumer electronics „ Sporting goods „ Packaging & disposables

04.06.2013 10:31:18

Ascend Performance Materials CONSTAB Polyolefin Additives 07.1/E03-19 Ecoplast Technologies (PSM) 07.1/A40 GEMA Polimer Plastik Ürünleri 07.1/C51-4 Getac Technology Corporation 07.1/C20 Kafrit Industries 07.1/B19 Kaustik Europe 07.1/C27 Plastika Kritis Global Colors Group 07.1/C51-1 Polyalloy 07.1/A05 Polyram Ram On Industries 07.1/C12 Ravago Distribution Center 07.1/E44 Shandong Dawn Polymer Co. 07.1/E03-25 Shanghai Disoxidation Macromolecule Materials Co. 07.1/B25 Silon 07.1/C20

Hall 7.2


Hall 7a



bioplastics MAGAZINE Custom Polymers European Bioplastics Grupa Azoty Kuraray Europe Marubeni Europe Nippon Gohsei Europe SOJITZ Europe

Bihani Group Blend Colours 07.2/B25 Forplas Plastik 07.2/F24 J. K. P. Master Batch 07.2/A04 Maskom Plastik 07.2/E15+16 Perstorp Group 07.2/C02 Rudong Jinkangtai Chemical Co. 07.2/C22 Shenzhen ESUN Industrial Co. 07.2/A34 Texchem Polymers 07.2/G16 Tisan Engineering Plastics Co.

07a/D01 07a/B10 07a/D02, 07a/D06 07a/D25 07a/C30 07a/C30

Hall 8a

Hall 8b

08a/C32-3 AIMPLAS




Agricola Imballaggi ALBIS PLASTIC 08b/D57 almaak international 08b/E49 APK Aluminium und Kunststoffe 08b/E65 BIEGLO 08b/E25 Bioplast Srl 08b/E79 Bright Colors 08b/D25 Cereplast 08/bC30 Forever Plast 08b/H24-6 Hebei Jingxin Chemical Group 08b/F79 Huntsman 08b/F47 INVISTA 08b/E25 ITALCOM 08b/D38 Metabolix 08b/D46 mtm plastics 08b/G24-27 Ningxia Green Biodegradable Products Development 08b/A86 OMEGA PLASTO COMPOUNDS 08b/D56 PEBO 08b/D27 Polymer Technology & Services, 08b/A78 Roquette 08b/C69 SK Chemicals Co. 08b/H59-9 Suzhou Ebang Engineering Plastics Co. 08b/E61-11 Technamation Technical Europe 08b/F61 Toray Industries 08b/H75 TPV Compound

Alok Masterbatches 08a/H20 BARNET EUROPE W. Barnet & Co. 08a/J11 Clariant International 08a/E32 Cossa Polimeri 08a/F49 CTS - Compound Technology Services 08a/K48, Dow Europe 08a/H10 DuFor Resins 08a/C14 Ensinger 08a/E32 Fi-Plast 08a/H29 Gustav Grolman & Co. 08a/B09 INNO-COMP 08a/K49 Lehmann & Voss & Co. 08a/H31 Lifocolor Farben & Co. 08a/F49 Mitsubishi Chemical Europe 08a/J13 PolyOne Corporation 08a/H10 Polyvel 08a/E12-4 Repol 08a/H28 Sukano 08a/G32 ThyssenKrupp Uhde Polymer Division

Hall 9

09/C24 09/E24

LIST Dry ProcessingIntelligent Processing Sulzer Chemtech

Hall 10


Bühler Thermal Processes Ferrarini & Benelli



@ B10 HALL 7A/ h t o o b r u it us at o Come & vis w.european-bioplas ww More info:

Sustainable Solutions for Plastics, Elastomers & Foams Bioplastics Business Breakfast



Visit us at K2013 in Hall 7, stand C10

17. - 19.10.2013

Croda Coatings & Polymers – your natural choice

Hall 12

Hall EN


Aurora Kunststoffe Lurgi (Air Liquide Global E&C Solutions) Minger Kunstofftechnik PTS Plastic-Technologie Schaetti Tecnaro


“Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kreislaufwirtschaft und Rohstoffe mbH (DKR)” Systec Plastics Eisfeld


12/A51-3 12/B49 12/A51 12/E19


Note: All these companies are listed in the official K’2013 catalogue under bioplastics

17. - 19.10.2013 (8-12:30)


Messe Düsseldorf, Germany

Bioplastics Business Breakfast


Last minute registration is possible, CCD Ost, Just come and benefit... Info:

K‘2013 Preview Corbion Purac Corbion Purac, the global market leader in lactic acid, lactic acid derivatives and lactides, is showcasing a range of biobased applications, resulting from numerous strategic partnerships under the theme partnering for bioplastics growth. The company is also creating a distributor’s corner, intended to provide a platform for interested parties to come into direct contact with their local PLA resin partner. The breakthrough in high performance, biobased lactide monomers for PLA is opening up a wealth of possibilities for bioplastic applications which have – until now – been limited to oil-based plastics. Combining high biocontent with a low carbon footprint, PLA is a great replacement for PS, PP and ABS. As demonstrated by the range of applications on show, PLA is an extremely adaptable material that can often be processed on existing equipment, with commercially acceptable cycle times. Corbion Purac welcomes converters and compounders who are interested in learning more about PLA processing. The technical team will be on hand at the fair to answer questions and provide more information. 5B22

Plastika Kritis SA Global Colors Group The KRITILEN masterbatches for PLA, designed and produced by Plastika Kritis SA / Global Colors Group are concentrates of carefully selected raw materials in a PLA carrier, aimed at assorted end applications. The range includes the following masterbatch product groups: ƒƒ Black & White : based on P type carbon black & prime rutile coated titanium dioxide respectively. Excellent dispersion, ideal for film applications, injection and blow molding. ƒƒ Colors: PLA based range including the main color shades (yellow, orange, red, blue, green, brown) for the coloration of compostable films. Suitable for food contact applications as per BfR IX Recommendations and meeting the purity criteria of Resolution AP (89). ƒƒ Fillers: based on either calcium carbonate, barium sulphate or combinations of mineral fillers ƒƒ Additives : a range including Optical brightener, Slip/ antiblock, Antistatic, Melt strength enhancer, Impact modifier, and Nucleating masterbatches 7C 27

Shenzhen Esun Industrial Co., Ltd Established in 2002 and located in Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, Shenzhen Esun Industrial Co., Ltd. is a high-tech enterprise specializing in researching, developing, producing and marketing degradable polymer materials. A main product is PLA, a material compatible with conventional processing technologies and offering good mechanical processing abilities. PLA is a degradable, environmentally friendly material with a low carbon footprint. ESUN own three different R&D centers, specializing in material syntheses, modification and application. Esun PLA is available in injection grades, sheet grades and film grades, and is widely used in cards, packaging, cutlery and electronics. 7.2C22


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

K‘2013 Preview

Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation Durabio is an Isosorbide-chemistry based engineering plastic resin that was developed by Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation. Inherently plant-based, this material shows an outstanding balance of optical and mechanical properties.

Toray At K’2013, Toray is presenting its environmentally friendly solutions, targeted at the automotive industry, E&E and life science field, in which advanced material technologies play a key role. The company is showcasing its TEEWAVE concept vehicle, which incorporates a range of eco solutions driven by Toray’s advanced materials and process technologies, such as the use of carbon fiber to create a lightweight body with high stiffness and superior crash safety and PLA floor mats.

Durabio has been designed to performance such as visible light transmission levels matching that of PMMA, high UVresistance and low birefringence combined with excellent ductility typical for Polycarbonate. Mitsubishi Chemical launched Durabio successfully from pilot scale only a few years ago. The company soon decided to quickly upscale the production capacity to 5000 tonnes at its Kurosaki production plant, Kyushu, Japan. Typical high performance applications – on view at K’2013 – are high gloss automotive trim, interior design applications like TV-sets, mobile phone handsets, exterior design films or sound-barrier panels, sports glass and sun glass lenses, optical devices, sheet and foams. 8A F49

Toray will display a variety of biopolymer solutions, including its bio PBT, produced using Bio-BDO, foam material on the basis of Bio-PE, PLA applications, biorenewable solutions and many more. 8BF61

Wacker The Munich-based chemicals group Wacker is launching an improved version of its Vinnex binder system for biopolymers. Vinnex is a vinyl-acetate-based polymer binder system that enhances the physical properties of and promotes the compatibility between different bioplastics. Different Vinnex grades can be combined with one or more biopolyesters and fillers in a modular system, making it possible for manufacturers to develop high-performance bioplastic blends that can be processed with conventional equipment. Depending on composition and Vinnex content, these polymer blends have higher impact strengths, are more flexible or have a higher melting strength than conventional biopolymers. Selected Vinnex grades are food certified, opening up a host of new bioplastics applications, including thermoformed coffee cups and soup containers, as well as food packaging materials, brochures, parts for electronic appliances or selfdegradable gardening and agricultural containers. Tested Vinnex polymer blends – typically with a binder content of 10 to 30 % – biodegrade in less than 180 days in industrial composting conditions. 6A10.

API In line with its strategy of growth in advanced polymers with a low environmental impact, API SpA will be exhibiting at K 2013 under the theme BIO & BEYOND. API Spa remains committed to developing and offering products that assist in the reduction of harmful CO2 emissions. As a supplier of highperformance, easy-to-use materials that allow the creation of highly innovative products, the company is presenting a range of applications from three different business units (Footwear & Sporting Goods, Automotive & Technical Products, Packaging & Medical). API launched its first line of biodegradable thermoplastic elastomers in the mid-2000s, under the name of Apinat. Recently, PUMA selected APINAT, the first biodegradable, soft biopolymer for the sole of the first, fully biodegradable shoe to be presented by this sports brand. Next to its Apinat family of products, API will also be showcasing the evolution of its range of TPE and TPU compounds, now, too, from renewable resources. 6A42

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


K‘2013 Preview



Braskem, the leading thermoplastic resin producer in the Americas and the world’s largest biopolymer producer, announces the expansion of its portfolio of renewable products with the launch of its new line of green low-density polyethylene (LDPE), with this new product family complementing its already well known Green Plastics. Annual production of the new resin will amount to approximately 30,000 tonnes and the product will be made available in the market starting in January 2014.

The Technological Institute of Plastics (AIMPLAS) will present biodegradable packaging for cosmetics, drugstore and healthcare. The new products have good mechanical and chemical properties and also the environmental benefits of biodegradable materials.

To ensure the production feasibility of the new line, investments were made in interconnecting plants and certain pieces of equipment in order to make possible the production of green LDPE from renewable raw materials. Two technology options can be used to ensure the production of a portfolio of resins with varying characteristics that allows for meeting a wider range of applications. LDPE is used mainly in plastic packaging and films. The expansion of the line of green products reinforces the company’s commitment to creating value through the sustainable development of the industry’s production chain, its clients and society, which are increasingly seeking to adopt practices that help reduce the effects of greenhouse gases.

For food industry AIMPLAS will present a new successful product: a biodegradable packaging for fruit and vegetables that is also active, increasing over 15% the food lifespan. AIMPLAS is also developing a new packaging for semipreserved fish (anchovies) with a sandwich structure, using the co-injection technology. The outer layers are made from polypropylene, which has good mechanical properties and water barrier, while inside layers are made from wheat starch (renewable, low cost and excellent oxygen barrier). The packaging is recyclable because the separation of polypropylene and starch is simple, the starch is fully dissolved in water. But certainly one of the main trends that AIMPLAS will present in the K is packaging obtained from agri-food industry. In this area, the Technological Institute of Plastics is working to develop a new biodegradable packaging for the bakery industry made from bread wastes and a biodegradable juice bottle made from wastewater beverage industry. 08aC32-3 06D27, 06.1W-01

Tecnaro Tecnaro is presenting its bioplastic compounds Arboform, Arboblend and Arbofill and various applications for stationary and household goods, gardening, fashion, packaging, logistics, electronics, toys, civil construction and many more. New grades include bio-based thermoplastic elastomers Bio-TPE/TPV, as well as compounds made from Green PE, Bio-PET and Bio-PA. These are characterized by properties such as a high heat deflection temperature, good impact strength, flame resistance and UV stability. An innovative application for Arboblend will be highlighted: green roofing specialist ZinCo has selected Tecnaro’s Arboblend for the drainage element in its new “Natureline” green roof system. This improves the CO2 balance in two ways: first, by reducing the use of fossil resources in the materials and second, through the CO2 absorbing plants on the roof. 12E19


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

K‘2013 Preview

Ferrarini & Benelli

EMS Chemie

At K’2013 Ferrarini & Benelli, leader in manufacturing and engineering of corona treatment equipments will present an important innovation: the Plasma treatment, which is applicable in many industries such as PEX pipes production, automotive, medical, cosmetics and injection moulding of plastic parts.

EMS GRIVORY resent two new biobased Polyamides. PA1010 Grilamid 1S is based to nearly 100%, PA610 Grilamid 2S to 62% on renewable resources. Both of them belong to the bio-based polymers of the EMSGRIVORY GreenLine family. The properties of Grilamid 1S are very close to those of Polyamide 12 (PA12), the properties of Grilamid 2S are positioned between those of PA12 and PA66 or PA6.

Especially their corona treatment systems are used to enhance surface properties of plastic films including bioplastics. Surface treatment enhancement is necessary to improve inks or adhesive adhesion on bioplastics. As an example corona treatment is used on Mater-Bi films on extrusion lines as well as PLA films for a better printing. The innovations presented include a new Corona Control Software, for production monitoring and certification. The Software will allow customers to import Corona Treatment data into PC, memorize and visualize them as well as editing graphics and quality certification of the Corona Process. This Software will be very useful for those that need to give Quality certificate to their customers or for those that want to reach high quality standard for their products. 10G29

DuPont At K’2013, among other innovations, DuPont will showcase DuPont™ Zytel® RS LC4000 for Specialty Hose & Tubing which provide a wider range of flexibility and outstanding chemical resistance. The products offer better chemical resistance (to salt, hydrocarbons, and hydrolysis) and impact resistance at low temperatures compared to standard PA610 and PA612. Zytel RS LC4000 series products are based on a modified polymer backbone, and contain between 20% and 60%, by weight, renewable content that comes from sebacic acid which is derived from castor oil. Zytel RS LC4000 is chemically modified to enhance salt resistance and flexibility, it offers a good balance of high temperature performances, fuel and hydrocarbon resistance, hydrolytic stability. This new grade perform extremely favorably as proven in automotive applications on the road today.

PA1010 and PA610 are inherently too rigid and too brittle for tubes used in the pneumatic industry and have to be improved with plasticizer and impact modifier to achieve the right level of flexibility and impact resistance. However, such a modification dramatically reduces the translucency of the product, makes it largely opaque and prevents the use in pneumatic applications requiring a good transparency or see-through clarity. EMS-GRIVORY has been able to overcome this problem and introduces its new high viscosity bio-based extrusion grades Grilamid 1S XE 4281 and Grilamid 2S XE 4282 for flexible, transparent and impact resistant pneumatic tubes. Thanks to a proprietary technology the new products show an unrivaled balance of properties including flexibility, impact strength as well as transparency. In addition to extruding transparent tubes the products can be used for colored tubes too, where the transparency of the base polymer enables intense colors and good gloss finish frequently sought in the pneumatic tube sector. 06/E61

DuPont Zytel Renewably Sourced portfolio includes Zytel RS LC1000 series, based on PA1010 polymer (20 to 100% by wt renewable content), Zytel RS LC2000 series (20 to 100% renewable content) and Zytel RS LC3000 based on PA610 polymer (20 to 63% by wt renewable content). 6C43

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


K‘2013 Preview Treffert Over the years, many coloring agents, pigments and dyes have been developed for standard and engineering plastics. Whether these are suitable for coloring bioplastics, however, must be separately researched for each polymer type and application. Also, almost all plastics have their own color, which is why Treffert S.A.S. not only develops its own formulae for all colors but also adapts the coloring agent to each specific bioplastic. Joining and laser marking of engineering bioplastics are also possible with the color and function formulae used by Treffert polymer technology.

High color quality depends on good dispersion; hence the way the dye is delivered to the processor is hugely important. Whether in masterbatches or concentrates, the pigments, dyes and/or special additives are optimally distributed in a carrier in high concentrations. Masterbatches for color and function are always tailormade to customer specifications. 5D04-11

Croda Coatings & Polymers Croda Coatings & Polymers will present an extensive selection of sustainable monomers (building blocks), polyols and additives for use in high-end applications. These products offer a wide range of different functionalities alongside high performance properties. PriamineTM 1075 is a truly innovative flexible dimer diamine bio-based monomer for high-end polyimide plastics offering excellent moisture protection, enhanced solubility and affinity for a wide range of substrates. This dimer diamine truly stretches the boundaries in polyimides as it offers the formulator a new window of application opportunities. Croda Coatings & Polymers has extended its range of 100% bio-based PriplastTM polyester polyol building blocks for polyurethane applications with the introduction of Priplast 3293. Priplast 3293 is semi-crystalline and its availability broadens the amorphous Priplast range to meet the requirements for high demanding polyurethane applications by offering performance characteristics such as hydrolytic and thermo-oxidative stability combined with an improved environmental profile. 7C10

Show Review See the K’2013 Review in our next Issue! 40

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Sulzer Chemtech Sulzer’s development of a new high performance PLA technology produced from lactide was awarded with the Frost and Sullivan Innovation award in 2010. Their PLA technology gives access to a wide range of PLA grades, covering a broad span of molecular weights with extremely low residual monomers. This also includes pure PDLA, PLLA and stereocomplex materials, allowing to achieve a temperature stability up to 180 °C. The polymerization process is continuous, avoids the application of solvents and is based on Sulzer’s proprietary static mixing solutions. The absence of heavy rotating parts results in reduced OPEX and maintenance costs. In parallel to delivering new PLA capacities to its customers, for example, in Europe and Asia, since 2012 Sulzer operates its own 1,000 tonnes/year PLA demonstration plant in Switzerland. Companies intending to invest in new PLA production capacities, or to develop specific applications based on PLA, can rely on Sulzer’s Polymer Technology team to support them with fully developed process technology solutions and commercial quantities of PLA material. To organize a visit to Sulzer’s PLA demonstration plant or to order PLA sample material, contact Sulzer (e.g.) at their booth. 09/E24


Oil based plastics will end up in the museum Interview with François de Bie after 100 days as chairman of European Bioplastics

Question: As the newly-elected Chairman of European Bioplastics — after your first 100 days — what do you think will be the biggest challenges that you will encounter during your tenure? FdB: One of the biggest challenges will be to further inform the general public, brand owners, NGO’s and government organisations about the benefits of bioplastics. Many misconceptions are still present in the market. During the first 100 day’s a lot of effort has gone into enabling the EuBP organisation to become more active, more visible and more influential at the EU level in Brussels. We have just recently put the right Brussels framework in place. Brussels and all the bioplastics relevant regulations will remain a key focus for 2014 and beyond. Question: What are you planning to do that is different from your chairman predecessors, and what will you continue to pursue? FdB: Andy Sweetman and the previous board have done a great job transforming EuBP into a more professionally organised structure, which serves the needs for biobased and biodegradable bioplastics. The strategic direction of EuBP will remain unchanged, but with the new board we will challenge more than before the EuBP organisation and our members to actively participate internally and externally on the different key questions that surround bioplastics. We will define very clear and visible EuBP positions with respect to topics such as land use for bioplastics, the plastic bag ban and how to assess the sustainability of bioplastics. Question: You mentioned the General Public… Are you planning campaigns to inform the end-consumers? This seems necessary as many consumers don’t know anything about bioplastics, and proper information could initiate or support a demand driven market. FdB: We can only reach the general public by addressing and informing the politicians, the brand owners and the daily media. This is where we will get much better coverage than we have had until now, because we will start making more clear and bold statements that will be more easily understood and picked up by the media. Just as an example: the land used for bioplastics compared with land used for agricultural practices is like comparing the size of a cherry tomato to the Eiffel tower. Question: How do you see the development of the membership of European Bioplastics? FdB: Over the last 10 years the number of members has steadily grown. With our ambition to be leading the bioplastics discussions on an EU level and combined with the fact that bioplastics will become more mainstream, we foresee a rapid growth in the number of member companies. We will also be organising more round tables and workshops


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


that will make it more valuable than before for companies to become members and actively participate in these events. Question: Is it possible that all of our plastics will be biobased in the near future? FdB: In less than 100 years from now oil-based plastics will be only found in the museum of pollution, next to the steam train, the CKF cooled refrigerator and my grandmothers coal powered cooking stove. Question: This autumn and winter you’re speaking at different conferences on the significance of bio-based building blocks as part of global sustainability. How significant will bioplastics be to Europe’s drive for sustainability? FdB: Bioplastics will help reduce our carbon footprint and hence will help minimise the global warming issue. With the multiple end-of-life options that bioplastics offer, it will also be possible to significantly reduce landfill. Question: What kinds of legislation do you think are needed from leaders in Europe to open up a larger share of the market to bioplastics? Would it not benefit them to do so in terms of meeting their own targets on sustainability?

FdB: In order for bioplastics production in Europe to grow significantly the European leaders need to clearly recognise and support the full potential of bioplastics. This will help drive consumer acceptance and market demand. First generation biomass, locally grown in Europe, needs to be available at prices that are at least as good as those offered in, for example, South East Asia. Europe has a very long agricultural history and the crop yield per hectare is amongst the highest in the world. Europe needs to capitalise on that asset as it will help to generate jobs in rural areas and in the high added-value plastics industry. Question: What other activities do you have on your agenda? FdB: I work for Corbion Purac as a marketing director for PLA, which is already more than a full-time job. Besides spending time with my wife and 2 sons, I also like to stay active, so I do a lot of running and cycling. Perhaps next year I will participate in the Berlin marathon. The interview was conducted by Nick Hawker, Founder at EcoChem, within the framework of the EcoChem Conference, to be held 19-21 November in Basel, Switzerland.

12976 Ecochem A5 Ad_Layout 1 20/08/2013 10:01 Page 1

The chemicals market is changing. Fast. New technologies, new ideas and new knowledge

The Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering Event Congress Center Basel, Switzerland, 19-21 November 2013

3 200 8 160

days + interactive presentations streams speakers

50 2,000 FREE

technology providers + visitors conference & exhibition

Be part of the new green future. Let’s build a shared vision.

Supported by:

Reserve your FREE place today: Download the full programme: bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8



Films with excellent barrier properties by: Elodie Bugnicourt Innovació i Recerca Industrial i Sostenible (IRIS) Castelldefels, Spain Markus Schmid Fraunhofer-Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV Freising, Germany

Oxygen transmission rate °C/50% RH Q100 (cm3 (STP) m-2d-1bar-1)

Permeability values of typical plastics, bioplastics and wheylayer




1000 100

PE-HD PP (oriented) PA 12

PC PUR-elastomer

PA 11


0,01 0,01

PS (oriented)


1 0,1


PVC-U PA 12 PA 66 PET (oriented) PA 6 PVC-U (oriented)

EVA-copolymer, VAC 20% Celluloseacetate


EVOH 44%

EVOH 32%

EVOH 38%


EVOH 27%





Water vapour transmission rate 23°C/85 0% RH Q100 (gm-2d-1)

Fig 1: Barrier properties of whey-based layer vs. other plastics commonly used in the packaging industry normalised to 100 µm thickness [2] The authors wish to acknowledge the funding from the European Community‘s Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] for the research leading to these results under grant agreements n°218340-2 and 315743 through the WHEYLAYER and WHEYLAYER2 projects respectively.

Fig. 2: Examples of applications for the Wheyalyer coated laminates: blisters and tubes (the packaging being currently tested)


s published in issue 04/2011 of bioplastics MAGAZINE [1], more and more waste from food production plants is used as feedstocks for bioplastics, following a Maxi-use© strategy. Research is ongoing to improve the performance of such bio-sourced polymers, making them competitive with their synthetic counterparts and extending the range of applications that they can fulfill. In such a context the development of a biopolymer coating for multilayer plastic films, based on whey protein (which is able to replace current synthetic oxygen barrier layers used in food packaging such as ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers or - EVOH) is expected to be far reaching in the market. Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing, therefore it does not enter into direct competition with other foods. Indeed, it is estimated that converting only 40% of the currently wasted excess (of 20 million tonnes annually in Europe) would cater for the global need to replace EVOH currently used in food packaging. The whey protein-based coatings developed in the Wheylayer project exhibited excellent barrier properties, outperforming most existing biopolymers (fig. 1). Since the publication of the aforementioned article, the study has continued with subsequent steps, including presenting the project’s findings to the industry and demonstrating the scale-up ability of the production as a preliminary requirement for its commercialization. Coated films were validated for storing various food products and the shelf life of the foods packaged with conventional films was compared with the whey protein film. In addition, the coated films and derived laminates have recently been converted in different formats of final packaging, either laminated tubes or thermoformed blisters (fig. 2). The developed wheycoating, which can be removed via enzymatic cleaning, allows multilayer films to become recyclable, and so represents a significant step in terms of cascade use before a final incineration or disposal. This, along with saving in emissions and energy, leads to a significant reduction in the environmental impact of packaging as shown by the life cycle assessment that was carried out. All in all, this new economical use of a bio-sourced by-product from the industry safeguards the performance of packaging and improves the use of resources throughout its life cycle, leading to tremendous advantages for this type of packaging compared with traditional plastics.

References: [1] E. Bugnicourt, O. Mc Nerney, A. Lazzeri, “Maxi-use of wastes from agro-food processing to obtain truly sustainable bioplastics”, Bioplastics magazine, 04/11, Vol 6, p 32-34. [2] E. Bugnicourt, M. Schmid, O. Mc. Nerney, J. Wildner, L. Smykala, A. Lazzeri, P. Cinelli, “Processing and Validation of Whey-Protein-Coated Films and Laminates at Semi-Industrial Scale as Novel Recyclable Food Packaging Materials with Excellent Barrier Properties”, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2013, Article ID 496207, 10 pages, 2013


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Films with excellent barrier against mineral oils


atureFlex™ films, manufactured by Innovia Films (Wigton, Vumbria, UK), have been scientifically tested and proven to provide an effective barrier against mineral oil residues. This has been confirmed by a scientific study at the official Food Safety Authority of the Canton of Zürich in Switzerland.

Why do we need protection from certain mineral oils? Potentially dangerous substances known as mineral oils have been found in packaging made from recycled paper fibres. Cardboard is produced using recycled paper including printed newspaper. Most commonly used newspaper inks contain mineral oils. These cannot be removed sufficiently during the recycling process and are thus able to enter cardboard food packaging, and can migrate into food. Mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) are suspected of being carcinogens, according to the World Health Organization’s Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), and the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Germany is well on the way to preparing a mineral oil law, which will quote a zero tolerance for MOAH in foodstuffs. In recent years much research has been carried out to understand how mineral oils are distributed in the environment and assess the risks they pose to human health. This has been a complicated area of study.

Why are these films such good barriers? NatureFlex films are based on cellulose (a complex carbohydrate), with a high molecular-weight polar structure and small spaces containing water and softener. For these reasons, the solubility and diffusivity of nonpolar molecules such as mineral oils is low.

Its mineral oil barrier protects food Mineral oil residues can migrate from the inner side of a contaminated primary pack such as a recycled cartonboard cereal box or a contaminated outer pack used to hold products during transportation. Contamination can even occur when packs are stacked closely together - on the supermarket shelf or in transit. As the world takes steps towards greater sustainability, protection of our wrapped products is the most vital aspect of this sustainability journey. “The tests conducted on our NatureFlex films showed that when used as the inner bag, flow-wrap or as a pouch they provide an excellent barrier against mineral oil residues. This is in addition to the standard oxygen and moisture barrier properties required by dried foods to ensure optimum product quality and maximise shelf-life” said Clare McKeown, Market Manager NatureFlex Films. MT

Which film types provide a barrier to mineral oil? As leading market experts, Innovia Films can tailor its technology for specific needs and we are able to provide a barrier to mineral oils.

It was concluded that the NatureFlex films evaluated in the study gave an excellent barrier to mineral oils with a breakthrough time of greater than five years at room temperature.

NatureFlex 72 60 48 Months

The results of external laboratory testing have shown that there was no mineral oil breakthrough in any of the NatureFlex films range. Mineral oil breakthrough was observed for polyolefin films tested under the same conditions (OPP & PE), with breakthrough times of less than two months for uncoated OPP and less than one month for PE. PET and NatureFlex films were both found to be very good barriers to mineral oils.

Mineral Oil Barriers of Various Film Types at 25°C

36 24 12 0






MOAH barrier testing of selected film types by Innovia Films and Kantonales Labor Zürich

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Application News

Fair trade tea French company, Les Jardins de Gaïa recently decided to pack its range of organic teas in individual sachets made fom Innovia Films’ compostable cellulose-based material, NatureFlex™ NVR. Founded in 1994, Les Jardins de Gaïa is a Fair Trade, organic tea company based in Wittisheim near Strasbourg. As part of their philosophy of selling natural organic products, they wanted to wrap their tea in natural packaging.

API and SACMI, together to develop a biodegradable cap

The converter in this application is leading Germanbased tea packer TPS from Soltau. Colourful designs distinguish Les Jardins de Gaïa teas from other tea packaging designs on the market. According to Jean Baptiste Dubois, Marketing of Les Jardins de Gaïa, “We wanted to keep our product safe and in premium condition and do something that would stand out from the crowd. NatureFlex films ensure we are proud of our packaging!” “We were delighted to assist Les Jardins de Gaïa via TPS from Soltau, Germany in realising their sustainability goals. Alongside the environmental benefits, NatureFlex films also offer a host of advantages for packing and converting such as inherent dead fold and anti-static properties, high gloss and resistance to grease and oil, good barrier to gases, aromas and mineral oils, a wide heat-seal range and easy opening,” stated Neil Banerjee, Market Developer, Innovia Films. NatureFlex was an obvious choice in this application as the film begins life as a natural product – wood - and breaks down at the end of its lifecycle in a home compost bin (or industrial compost environment) within a matter of weeks. It is also confirmed as suitable for emerging waste to energy techniques such as anaerobic digestion. MT

When it comes to innovation and sustainability, the development of new materials and the optimisation of processing technologies are equally important goals. API Spa is a long-standing company with a wealth of experience in the soft thermoplastic compounds field and is also a leader in the biopolymer industry. Now, together with SACMI – an international group leading in the world of machines for Packaging (a sector that includes Beverage and Closures&Containers) – API has produced a 100% biodegradable mineral water bottle cap. Presented at PACKOLOGY 2013, and Drinktec 2013 in the SACMI for the Environment area - a green tour that will also be set up on the SACMI stand for K’2013 - the biodegradable, compostable cap proved to be a big hit, arousing considerable levels of interest and curiosity. The cap was obtained starting from a compound belonging to the APINAT BIO range; thanks to their chemical structure and versatility, these compounds can easily be processed using widely available technology and have an extensive application range, being used in industries as varied as footwear, agriculture and, of course, packaging. Thanks to the unique rheology and behaviour of the molten material, Apinat Bio has been able to take full advantage of the cap-making compression technology for which SACMI is so renowned; the flexibility of this technology has, in fact, resulted in optimisation of the Apinat compound and attainment of outstanding production, functional, biodegradability and compostability performance of the cap. Stemming from a joint project by API Spa and SACMI, this latest development confirms and reinforces both firms’ mutual commitment to the high-innovation development needed to resolve the planet’s burgeoning environmental issues.

Individual tea sachets from Les Jardins de Gaïa wrapped in compostable NatureFlex NVR from Innovia Films


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Barrier triplex laminate After years of research, development and live trials Parkside (Normanton, UK) are pleased to announce that they are the first, and currently the only, manufacturer of printed flexible packaging to be able to offer the environmentally conscious brand owner and packer a barrier triplex laminate accredited under EN13432 industrial compostability standard which requires at least 90% of the packaging to disintegrate within 12 weeks. The pack accredited under Vincotte has seen Parkside work closely with specialist base material manufacturer Innovia Films to develop this unique product, which fills a vital gap in the market. The Flexographically printed metalized laminate can be used in a variety of applications where an oxygen and moisture barrier are required to give prolonged shelf life for the contents. This innovative new material is the first of a whole range of Compostable laminate products that Parkside are developing which will be specifically tailored to meet the environmental demands of packer, retailer and consumer. With manufacturing facilities in Europe and Asia, Parkside are able to offer this finished product on a global basis. This development means that Parkside customers have the option to move away from conventional laminate structures that can only be disposed of through either landfill or incineration, the pioneering structure will be printed with the Vincotte OK Compost logo which means it can enter the waste stream through Bio-waste collection (where permitted e.g. in Germany it is only permitted for biowaste collection bags – nothing else!), which is becoming more widely prevalent with local authorities; for final disposal through industrial composting sites or anaerobic digestion. Steve McCormick, Managing Director of Parkside Speciality Division “This achievement is a huge step forward in barrier laminate technology and is the first of a string of environmentally aware products we plan to launch. As a company Parkside understand that the demand for compostable packaging will continue to grow across the globe and we see ourselves in a very strong position to advise on and service demands in this area”. “This now offers a real alternative to the environmentally conscious manufacturer who wants great product quality with a bio friendly compostable pack” said Lawrence Dall, Parkside’s Chairman. This latest development continues to build on Parkside’s commitment to environmentally sound practices such as their recent investment in a 100% Secure Waste Management system. Parkside are the first packaging manufacturer in Europe to offer a totally secure waste disposal solution ensuring any sensitive waste generated is destroyed on site. The system ensures that 100% of waste is destroyed with the residual products being either recycled or burnt for energy, providing a totally secure Zero to Landfill system.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8



PA 410 for VW


oyal DSM, headquartered in Heerlen, The Netherlands, together with its automotive component specialist partner KACO, has taken an important step in improving fuel efficiency in cars. The two companies have developed a lightweight multi-functional crankshaft cover in EcoPaXX®, DSM’s bio-based polyamide 410, for the latest generation of diesel engines developed by the Volkswagen Group. This glass fibre reinforced EcoPaXX cover incorporates integral seals in PTFE and liquid silicone rubber (LSR), as well as various metal inserts. It will be used on Volkswagen’s new MDB modular diesel engine platform, implemented across its Audi, Seat, Škoda and VW brands. Volkswagen, along with all major automobile producers, is in a constant search for new ways to increase the sustainability of its products, and the new bio-based crankshaft cover is an excellent example of solutions that it is implementing. Compared with covers made in aluminum, system costs for the EcoPaXX cover are considerably lower, thanks in part to the use of an integrated, fully automated production cell for the component at KACO. Weight has been reduced considerably too, since the EcoPaXX grade is 45% less dense than aluminum. The development represents a significant step forward in terms of sustainability, from material production to the vehicle on the road. DSM’s EcoPaXX polyamide 410 is 70% derived from renewable resources, and the polymer is certified 100% carbon neutral from cradle to gate. In component production, KACO uses the highly energy-efficient production cell to not only mold the crankshaft cover, but also integrate two separate seals: the first, in PTFE, is placed into the mold by a robot, and EcoPaXX is over-molded onto it; the second, in LSR, is then molded directly into the part using a 2K process. This results in reduced energy consumption during production, as well as zero material waste. Finally, because the finished cover weighs so much less than an aluminium version, it makes the vehicle run more efficiently, saving fuel and reducing carbon dioxide emissions throughout its lifetime. Thermoplastic crankshaft covers are still uncommon, with polyamide 6 or 66 being the favoured material. The very tight dimensional specification of the VW version, as well as the high loads it has to withstand, made the challenge of producing it in thermoplastic particularly severe. DSM and KACO met the challenge, thanks to the overall exceptional performance of EcoPaXX—its very good mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, in combination with excellent toughness,

DSM and KACO save weight and costs with crankshaft cover made in EcoPaXX polyamide 410 for next-generation Volkswagen engines. (Photo: DSM Engineering Plastics)

make it an ideal material for the required high performance under extreme use—and KACO’s skills in integrating static and dynamic seals into the part in a highly intelligent way. Andreas Genesius, head of project management at KACO, emphasizes the importance of the waste-free production process. “The part comes out of the injection molding cell ready to be assembled onto the engine block,” he says. “No trimming is necessary at all. By taking a holistic approach to automotive part design and production, we are contributing to sustainable technological progress without any compromise on part performance or competitiveness.” Genesius adds that a key to the successful launch of the crankshaft cover after an extremely short development period was the strategic joint development with key partners, including DSM, in the areas of part design, material development, process design and bonding of the different materials. The crankshaft cover is a masterpiece of engineering design. Fiber orientation, the number and position of gating points, and the design and integration of the various inserts have all been optimized to minimize warpage and ensure tight seals between the cover and the engine block and oil sump. The cover also has to resist tightening of bolts fixing it to the engine block and the sump (each of which is built to different tolerances), as well as from tools used to fix the position of the FEAD (Front End Accessory Drive) belt. With its excellent mechanical properties, DSM’s EcoPaXX provided the answer to these requirements. MT


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Flax fibre cycle helmet


ew developments by Dragonkraft (Eccles, Manchester, UK) in the bio-resin arena and flax by products have enabled designer James Dart to develop a functional Duo Lin cycle helmet incorporating a dense bio-resin foam core interior and tough knitted flax woven outer resin shell. Flax fibres are amongst the oldest fibre crops in the world dating back as far as Egyptian times. James, a recent 3D Design BA (Hons) graduate has been exploring new biopolymers and flax as part of his studies at Brighton University (UK)as part of the BRIDGE* research project. As a keen cyclist, James sought a sustainable approach to the manufacture of cycle helmets which are typically made from petrochemical plastics often with a finite lifespan. Through thoughtful consideration of resources and the environment the Duo Lin project came to life with the aim of conceiving a product with the use of one renewable resource - flax - for virtually all of its parts. James comments “I had a desire to create a practical product that could demonstrate the incredibly versatile nature of flax and its inherent high strength properties. I needed a bonding resin to help me construct the helmet and came across the Dragonkraft bio-resin system; an ecofriendly two part system consisting of a liquid resin and a hardener. Unlike epoxy resins, the Dragonkraft resin didn’t carry the strong hazardous odours often associated with traditional resins. It is derived from natural flaxseed oils and is safer to handle”.

lightweight, sustainable bio-composite outer shell”. Although a very durable shell, the outer structure would not be fit for purpose as a cycle helmet without a cushioning interior foam core. James quickly realised through experimentation that the bio-resin would foam and expand when heat and water were added. When it was left to set in a mould under UV, it gave surprisingly good results as a composite interior. A further mould has now been created so the interior foam and exterior shell can be formed together in a single step. James adds “The finished concept is manufactured using 98% carbon renewable content. Even the helmet straps are made from needle punched flax. The helmet is comfortable but work still needs to be undertaken on the overall mass of the helmet. I now have an early design concept that could now be subjected to tests. I intend on developing my work in this area through further research and am looking forward to taking my concept to the next level”.

* The Building Research and Innovation Deals for the Green Economy (BRIDGE) is a new European Union INTERREG IV funded research project led by principal investigator, Dr Joan Farrer whose expertise is in Design and Materials.

James continues “The bio-resin is extremely flexible and water resistant; by moulding it with woven flax reinforcement and setting it under UV light, the final product is a rugged,

From left to right: 1. New developments in bio-resins inspire ‘Duo Lin’ flax fibre cycle helmet; 2. Duo Lin cycle helmet incorporating a tough knitted flax woven outer resin shell (left) and dense bio-resin foam core interior (right); 3. James Dart testing his concept to the max

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Design & Bioplastics

What designers Fig 1: Bioplastics were the very beginning. In the 19th century, more and more people were able to afford decorative products that were not fundamentally necessary for every day´s life. Today we would call them designed consumer products.The photo shows decorative personal care items in ivory style, but made from cellulosenitrate (CelluloidŽ), a bioplastic from the very beginning. (Photo: Deutsches Kunststoffmuseum)


ood design gives a product identity, and more and more companies have recognised for some time that good design is a key element in the commercial success of their products. Design has now become a hard factor and is a firm part the product development process. There is almost no product sector or successful company that is able to ignore design. Even in the field of investment goods design is no longer just an option, but is seen much more as a way of differentiating product offerings and as a marketing tool - and is used as such. The highest success levels have been achieved by those companies which integrate design right from the beginning of their development process, apply the concept in a strategic way, and see design as a holistic function. A well-designed product has a number of roles to fill, with its function being number 1. Even the most beautifully designed products lose their value if they do not work! It is the task of the designer to make clear the way the product works, make it accessible to the user, and possibly explain how it is easier to operate. The product should be self-explanatory, inhibitions can thus be overcome and a relationship with the product can be created and built upon. And design is a lot more than the shape, surface finish, colour, and aesthetics of a product. It carries a message. Design also gives a product identity. Design makes a product unmistakeable, makes it recognisable, and so gives the brand its own character. A well designed product will not be anonymous, but will let the user know where it comes from. Well designed products will express the promises of their supplier: they radiate reliability, show their quality, and are innovative. Such products can stand out from the competition and have a status on the international market.

by: Christian Bonten University of Stuttgart, Germany Susanne Lengyel Hamm-Lippstadt University of Applied Sciences, Germany


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

There are also many plastic products that use design as a unique and specific feature. In many cases it is not possible to identify clear differences from the competition based on technical and quality features. However the wide range of plastics and the processes used in manufacture allow some very different visual and tactile impressions to be set before the user of the product. An aesthetic combination of different materials and colours, as can be achieved thanks to the many alternative and cost-effective production methods for a major product run, is therefore able to be used to meet the demands of design in an economical way.

Design & Bioplastics

look for in bioplastics Actually a designer is certainly not limited to a specific material or a specific raw material. A designer will seek out a material that suits the overall product concept and aim. The anticipated life of the product, and thus the service life of the material used, also has to be added to the equation. If leather or wood is used partly to support the product image, then the product itself should be made from leather or wood.

Fig. 2: Biodegradable beach toys (Photo: Metabolix / Zoe b)

Where mass production is the aim (and industrial designers do hardly work on one-off products) then technical and economical factors will play a role. Plastics are not chosen because they are cheaper than other materials. This is a mistaken idea. Plastics are being much more frequently chosen by designers and engineers for the wide range of shapes that are possible, and thus the design freedom, even for mass produced products. Plastic is a chameleon of materials and so is very popular with designers. Using plastic it is possible to imitate other materials, both visually and even at times in a tactile way and – thanks to the energy saving processing of plastic – to create products that are cost effective and that minimise the use of limited natural resources. The cost-saving manufacturing processes have certainly led to the fact that plastics have for a long time been regarded as cheap materials. Today, however, plastics are used to produce high calibre, well-designed products without needing to disguise the fact that they are in fact plastics. If we sit in a current model car, for example one made in Germany, we immediately get a coherent, harmonious sense of its shape, surface finish, sound, colour and feel, without thinking about what materials it is made from. In most cases it will in fact be plastic. Verner Panton, the designer of that most recognisable plastic chair, said, as early as 1969, that “Strangely enough, plastics are still considered as a substitution for natural materials ... . This is nonsense! Plastics is a useful, independent material with endless aesthetic opportunities.” In the 1950s in his book entitled “Die Gute Form” (Good Shape), the Swiss designer Max Bill defined good design as design with a high level of user benefit, a long life, safety, ergonomics, economy, relevance and rationality. Had he been familiar with term he would also have included sustainability in this list.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Designers have always been seduced by new technical possibilities. The free-swinging chair by Marcel Breuer would not have been possible without the discovery of the fact that tubes could be bent without causing them to kink! Charles and Ray Eames were most impressed by the polyester resin that was used by the US military during World War 2. And without the nanoparticle-modified PBT there would today be no such thing as the MYTO cantilever chair from Konstantin Grcic, which was first shown to the world at the 2007 plastics exhibition.

Fig. 5: Bowls and hollow-ware made from ARBOFORM® (Photo: Koser/Tecnaro)

Many everyday plastic products now include a purely design element. The consumer is ready to pay one Euro more for a toothbrush with a soft touch feel. He is also ready to pay more for a TV with a high gloss flat screen. The short term decisionmaking process when buying a car is mainly focused on the external appearance. But the interior – the car’s living room – which is mainly equipped with plastic components, is what builds long-term client satisfaction and customer loyalty. The increasing demands from designers for green materials makes it clear what the message is that the designer wants to convey through his product, i.e. sustainability in a consumer world. It is also pleasing that plastic items made from renewable resources do not necessarily have to look like straw and wood fibres, and so the Birkenstock Image can be forgotten. Bioplastics can be colourful and can look just like conventional plastics. Often one is obliged to clarify with the designer what the message in the product should be, and what benefits he wants to create for society. Finally, the benefits of biodegradability are quite different from using renewable resources. Here it is getting clear that the expression “organic”, so often used in the USA, is not helpful. There is work to do here! It is remarkable that designers, once they have bioplastics in their focus, are not interested in listening that even conventional plastics carry a huge potential for resource efficiency. For them plastics are not per sé green. There is also work to do here!

head of the Institut für Prof. Dr.-Ing. Christian Bonten, ersity of Stuttgart, author of the Kunststofftechnik (IKT) at the Univ gners”(Kunststofftechnik für books “Plastic technology for desi ment” (Produktentwicklung”, Designer”) and “Product Develop plastics museum (Deutsches vice president of the German me a professor he worked Kunststoffmuseum). Before he beca le of years. in the bioplastics industry for a coup of Studies Computational Prof. Susanne Lengyel, head ber of the engineering design Visualistics and Design and mem m-Lippstadt University of and prototyping team at the Ham r of the German designer Applied Sciences, speaker and chai one of the speakers for the association initiative (iDD), and er Kulturrat e.V). German Cultural Council (Deutsch


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Fig. 4: Cellulose based sunglasses (Photo: Philipp Thielen)

Market study on Bio-based Polymers in the World

Capacities, Production and Applications: Status Quo and Trends towards 2020 Bio-based polymers – Production capacity will triple from 3.5 million tonnes in 2011 to nearly 12 million tonnes in 2020 Germany’s nova-Institute is publishing the most comprehensive market study of bio-based polymers ever made. The nova-Institute carried out this study in collaboration with renowned international experts from the field of bio-based polymers. It is the first time that a study has looked at every kind of biobased polymer produced by 247 companies at 363 locations around the world and it examines in detail 114 companies in 135 locations (see table). Considerably higher production capacity was found than in previous studies. The 3.5 million tonnes represent a share of 1.5 % of an overall construction polymer production of 235 million tonnes in 2011. Current producers of bio-based polymers estimate that production capacity will reach nearly 12 million tonnes by 2020.

million t/a

Bio-based polymers: Evolution of production capacities from 2011 to 2020













Starch Blends Polyolefins













Content of the full report This over 360-page report presents the findings of nova-Institute’s year-long market study, which is made up of three parts: “market data”, “trend reports” and “company profiles”. The “market data” section presents market data about total production and capacities and the main application fields for selected bio-based polymers worldwide (status quo in 2011, trends and investments towards 2020). The “trend reports” section contains a total of six independent articles by leading experts in the field of bio-based polymers and plastics. Dirk Carrez (Clever Consult) and Michael Carus (nova-Institute) focus on policies that impact on the bio-based economy. Jan Ravenstijn analyses the main market, technology and environmental trends for bio-based polymers and their precursors worldwide. Wolfgang Baltus (NIA) reviews Asian markets for bio-based resins. Roland Essel (nova-Institute) provides an environmental evaluation of bio-based polymers, and Janpeter Beckmann (novaInstitute) presents the findings of a survey concerning Green Premium within the value chain leading from chemicals to bio-based plastics. Finally, Harald Kaeb (narocon) reports detailed information about brand strategies and customer views within the bio-based polymers and plastics industry. These trend reports cover in detail every recent issue in the worldwide bio-based polymer market. The final “company profiles” section includes 114 company profiles with specific data including locations, bio-based polymers, feedstocks, production capacities and applications. A company index by polymers, and list of acronyms follow.

PBS | 2013

Evolution of the shares of bio-based production capacities in different regions 2011




14% 13%

North America

© | 2013

13% 18%



South America

To conduct this study nova-Institute developed the “Bio-based Polymers Producer Database”, which includes a company profile of every company involved in the production of bio-based polymers and their precursors. This encompasses (state of affairs in 2011 and forecasts for 2020) basic information on the company (joint ventures, partnerships, technology and bio-based products) and its various manufacturing facilities. For each bio-based product, the database provides information about production and capacities, feedstocks, main application fields, market prices and biobased share. Access to the database is already available. The database will be constantly updated by the experts who have contributed to this report. Buyers of the report will have free access to the database for one year. Everyone who has access to the database can automatically generate graphics and tables concerning production capacity, production and application sectors for all bio-based polymers based on the latest data collection.

Order the full report The full 360-page report contains three main parts – “market data”, six “trend reports” and 114 “company profiles” – and can be ordered for 6,500 € plus VAT at: This also includes oneyear access to the “Biobased Polymers Producer Database”, which will be continuously updated.



“Bio-based Polymers Producer Database” and updates to the report



Quellen: FEDIOL 2010


Cellulose Acetate CA 50% Polyamide PA rising to 60%* Polybutylene Adipate PBAT rising to 50%* Terephthalat Polybutylene Succinate PBS rising to 80%* Polyethylene PE 100% Polyethylene Terephthalat PET 30% to 35%*** Polyhydroxy Alkanoates PHAs 100% Polylactic Acid PLA 100% Polypropylene PP 100% Polyvinyl Chloride PVC 43% Polyurethane PUR 30% Starch Blends **** 40% Total companies covered with detailed information in this report Additional companies included in the “Bio-based Polymer Producer Database” Total companies and locations recorded in the market study * ** *** ****



15 17 3

11 3** 4 14 27 1 2 10 19 114 133 247

12 2 4 16 32 1 2 10 21 135 228 363

Currently still mostly fossil-based with existing drop-in solutions and a steady upward trend of the average bio-based share up to given percentage in 2020 Including Joint Venture of two companies sharing one location, counting as two Upcoming capacities of bio-pTA (purified Terephthalic Acid) are calculated to increase the average bio-based share, not the total bio-PET capacity Starch in plastic compound

Design & Bioplastics

Designers & bioplastics


esigners and bioplastics — what an exciting combination… In so many cases designers are the ones to make a decision for a certain material, be it for consumer goods, architectural applications or art. bioplastics MAGAZINE spoke to a number of designers to collect impressions, opinions and thoughts in order to gather more insight into how designers deal with materials in general and bioplastics in particular.

by Michael Thielen

InteriorPark, an agency for architecture, communications and design, from Stuttgart, Germany, has been contracted by the BIOPRO society in the German state of Baden-Württemberg to help with the market acceptance of bioplastics through designs that will appeal to consumers and manufacturers. They offer workshops that are intended to raise the users‘ awareness of biobased plastics. InteriorPark puts designers, material developers and architects into contact with each other as innovative materials set the trend. With its online shop for best Eco Design InteriorPark offers extraordinary designs made of sustainable materials.

The Material Shapes The Product

rent from goods in short endless over-supply – this is diffe , susnew ugh thro e labl avai n vatio inno of he high level gn? The doyen of German supply. And what about good desi high the with face to face ght brou tainable materials is together a list of aspects designers, Dieter Rahms, has put in companies whose level of pressure for innovation covering good design: petitive global market calls activity within an ever more com lly it seems that, in terms 1. Innovation for ever more efforts. Technologica The . eved achi be can hing 2. Make a product useable anyt of functional quality, almost sfer of the concept into a 3. Aesthetics challenge lies in the successful tran 4. Make a product understandable marketable product. 5. Frankness and honesty have a key role to play in The designers and architects will 6. Unobtrusive biobased materials. They the development of applications for 7. Long-lived appeal to us tomorrow, il have to develop the things that will 8. Consistent down to the last deta benefit, and that also have that have a maximum consumer dly rien lly-f 9. Environmenta s. Alongside functionality, something to offer in economic term 10. As little design as possible. at gner today has to look aesthetics and economics, the desi ula of its own, and so a Sustainable design has no set form uction processes, the ecotopics such as sustainable prod y for those promoting such passion for the work is necessar balance and life-cycle costs. design. considered and applied These problems are generally such developments is to consumers world-wide The approach taken to promote globally. Products have to appeal and drafts that interact ntial of a good prototype shown in designers‘ prototypes – and function properly! The pote tive topics in areas such rgy usage, an absence of with the intellectual and crea concept includes anticipated ene with the material to be d material selection, and as sustainability, and ultimately noxious contaminants through goo cling system. The potential processed and used. avoidance of scrap by using a recy be can tivity crea his in relevance and we are via Design has gained a lot today savings offered by the designer . eved achi be can to 90% is product design, fashion already addicted to it – whether it huge - in energy savings alone up the and , a reflection of society and me more complex design, or architecture. Design is Thus the designer‘s job has beco on factor in differentiation s in a similar degree the spirit of the times. The deciding future success of his design depend r brands is Design. Thus between consumers and for successful companies and thei all of these factors. He is a key link keting professionals use innovative industrialists and mar manufacturers. ts a real advance in user rchangeable. We are design as a tool, and offer their clien Things have today become inte articles and an apparently benefits. surrounded by mass produced


Intro by Tina Kammer, Architect and


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Managing Director of InteriorPark.

Stuttgart, Germany

Design & Bioplastics

(Photo: 4e solutions /

Product design Raphael Stäbler, Managing Director of 4e solutions (Stuttgart, Germany) said that it was clear from the first moment when he founded his company to create products only from renewable resources. The designer of the award winning stackable storage box system ajaa! emphasized that, for him, it is quite important to create a biobased product that does not look as if it is based on an eco concept … . He wanted to offer products with high design attributes. “ajaa! stands for products which help to make life easier. Practical use is combined with innovative design”, he said. For Johann Beil (of the company Linhardt in Viechtach, Germany) it is important, that bioplastics, being a different sort of plastic, can be processed on existing equipment without significant modification. The manufacturer of collapsible tubes will process bioplastics if a customer asks for it and the materials are processable. In addition the materials must fulfil the ususal performance requirements of the packaging product, e.g. the resilience properties, the impermeability, or the potential for decoration. The headphones developed by British-born and Hong Kong based designer Michael Young, were part of bioplastics MAGAZINE’s Application News in issue 01/2012. When asked about his thoughts in terms of bioplastics for this article, Michael Young stated that in his opinion bioplastics are a field about which many designers and architects do not have very much knowledge. The whole eco-thing is often connected to recycling, he said. But when it gets down to bioplastics on an industrial level, it is not so easy to find companies capable of delivering good bioplastics. For him bioplastics are still too much in their infancy. In their industrial design studio, they often struggle, because for technical applications such as headphones it is difficult to find the right materials and suppliers.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Being asked about the visibility of the natural source of a material, Young said that in his opinion it is beautiful to have materials that have some sort of life. “Real objects resonate with people,” he said, “they last a long time and they have value in a home”. And when a component is reinforced or filled with natural fibres, people would accept the organic look. It becomes a holistic object then. “For me it is important that you can feel the inherent quality. If it is dyed pink it can be any material in the world.”

Architecture bioplastics MAGAZINE recently reported about spekDESIGN (also from Stuttgart). Eberhard Kappler is one of the owners of the company that stands for product and architectural design – the use of innovative materials and technologies, for aesthetic, functional and economical solutions. He said that for designers, from his point of view, the most important factors are: innovative (better, different, more sustainable) materials, the optimization of production processes, userfriendly products, or to make things possible that were not possible before. But not only in order to increase the consumption of such products, as he emphasized, but also to improve the quality and the environmental balance, for which a designers have to take their share of responsibility. When it comes to materials, he says that among the goals that need to be achieved today are energy savings and material savings, for example by choosing the right materials or the right combination of materials. And this is true for all parts of a product life cycle, including sales and transportation. When it comes to architecture, mainly for large public or corporate buildings, Kappler sees a few trends coming up. So could it become true that a building owner does not purchase the materials (for example a façade) any more, but rather rents them for a timeframe of, for example, 30 years. After or maybe even during that period the façade will be replaced by a new one with more upto-date materials. And such materials could well be biobased plastics. The old material will be recycled for other purposes. Or a building-owner does not buy lamps, but rather light or luminance, for example 50,000 lumens per month. It is then up to the supplier of lamps to realize this luminance with upto-date technology and to replace the technology from time to time (Thomas Rau, oneplanet architecture, Amsterdam). Large buildings and their architectural products will become kind of raw-material banks with a lot of steel, aluminium, glass and plastics. In cases where bioplastics and conventional plastics are used in one project, Kappler pointed out, that it is essential that all materials can be separated and do not influence the recyclability of each other.

Michael Young and Eops have developed the EOps Noisezero i+ Eco edition. It uses cornstarch bio-plastics for the ear-buds and the microphone housing (Photo: Michael Young Design)


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Eberhard Kappler is particularly impressed by certain properties of certain bioplastics for certain applications. One example which he mentioned are corner protectors for solar panels. When setting up such solar panels the protectors can simply fall down into the excavation pit and left to biodegrade instead of picking them up for disposal. Musical instruments such as clarinets or recorders are the second example that Kappler mentioned. When producing such flutes from conventional plastic the sound is rather poor. Flutes made from lignin based liquid wood (Tecnaro) exhibit the sound quality of a wooden instrument.

Another architect, bioplastics MAGAZINE spoke to is Martin Böttcher from Frankfurt/Main, Germany. From the very beginning of his career, he concentrated on ecologically-sound construction. For him this meant to build houses using ecologically sustainable materials such as wood, clay and straw, but also bioplastics. Böttcher recognized a trend that ecologically sound construction is moving from a treehugger niche to a broader public. And thus, the design requirements are also increasing. In other words, even wood/clay buildings must look modern and stylish. And when it comes to the use of bioplastics, he is convinced that the fact that these applications are made from renewably sourced plastics must not be visible. He calls it kind of understatement: The parts must look cool and when the consumers are told that these parts are made from biobased or biodegradable plastics, they should appear even cooler. Another aspect which is even more important for Martin Böttcher is building biology. It is good, that materials are made from renewable resources and maybe they can be composted after their lifetime. But during use, during the lifetime of a building, under no circumstances may harmful substances evaporate from the building materials. So Böttcher will have a close look at this aspect when choosing a material.

Paneling, thermoformed bioplastic-example by research group: itke, iswa, Tecnaro, Bauer, spek Design (Foto: spek Design)

Carmen Köhler, PhD student and scientific staff member at the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) - University of Stuttgart, contributed an article on bioplastics to be used in façades in the last issue of bioplastics MAGAZINE. She is always looking for unique features in terms of tactile and visual appearance, or technical features. A designer should not constantly try to bring new materials to the market but rather analyse what advantages a certain bioplastic might offer compared to other plastics. For her this was a decisive factor in all her projects so far. Bioplastics combine the advantages of plastics (e.g. easy to bring into shape, transparent, or with different tactile and visual aesthetic aspects) with the merits of natural materials such as wood. Wood cannot be shaped as easily as plastic and the possibilities to vary the visual nature of wood are limited. Wood comes as it was grown, the properties cannot be changed any more. Bioplastics are based on renewable resources as well, but you can tailor them to your needs. Concerning the visibility of the renewable source Carmen Köhler said that one of the fascinating facts about bioplastics is that these materials can be both unconspicously sustainable, minimalistically plain or come in a brown ecodesign. It is always dependant on the architectural task. In discussions with architects she found that many of them are excited about the fact that bioplastics can be transparent or white and can be perfectly shaped and coloured. They can compete with sustainable materials but do not need to restrict themselves with a view to the final appearance.

Façade element made from a thermoformed lignin-based bioplastics (Tecnaro) filled with moss (Photo: M.R. Hammer / ITKE)

The French designer Philippe Starck from Paris prefers synthetic materials because mankind has created them, and not actually found them. “We have found the stone, like it is, wood like it is, leather like it is … but from a black mud we have created a crystal of intelligence”, he said. “The history of plastic is the history of human genius. We are at the end of the fossil era, no more oil means no more gas for cars — who cares? But no more plastic is a drama that we cannot even conceive. The only solution today seems to be bioplastics but we cannot start a new era without rules and ethics.” One of his biggest concerns

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Design & Bioplastics is to make sure that bioplastics will never compete with food. “Scientists forecast the return of world famine for 2022 – and that means tomorrow morning.” Philipp Starck does not prefer bioplastic or conventional plastic. For him it is just a shift in civilization. He does not see a need to choose whether to show the biobased nature of a product or not. “When we need bright colours, or a different finish, we can paint it and when we need a natural effect, which is very interesting, a new range of textures and natural colours, we keep it natural and it brings actually a new range of textures and colours (see Zartan and the Magis broom from Emeco)”. And finally he said: “The end of the fossil era shall be a drama for some members of society. Exploring and searching, with ethics, the new territories of organic materials is a fantastic opportunity for creativity for new designers”.

ELISEbyS+ARCK® Waste basket made from GAÏALENE® (Roquette) (cf. bM 06/2012)

organized by

supported by

17. - 19.10.2013

Bioplastics in Packaging


Messe Düsseldorf, Germany

Bioplastics Business Breakfast



PLA, an Innovative Bioplastic Bioplastics in Durable applications Subject to changes

On-Site Registration possible Last minute registration on-site is possible Just come to the CCD-Ost and bring a credit card.

We thank our Sponsors


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Event Calendar ESBP 2013 European Symposium on Biopolymers 07.10.2013 - 09.10.2013 - Lisbon, Portugal

2nd Conference on CO2 as Feedstock for Chemistry and Polymers 07.10.2013 - 09.10.2013 - Essen, Germany Haus der Technik

Center for Bioplastics Planning Workshop 09.10.2013 - 11.10.2013 - Ames, Iowa, USA Iowa State University - Ames,Iowa

K‘2013, The No. 1 trade fair for plastics and rubber worldwide

16.10.2013 - 23.10.2013 - Duesseldorf, Germany meet bioplastics MAGAZINE in hall 7a booth B10

Bioplastics Business Breakfast

17.10.2013 - 19.10.2013 - Duesseldorf, Germany The unique conference about bioplastics during K‘2013 organized by bioplastics MAGAZINE

g n i D l i Bu D e s a B a Bio futuRe Pe o R u e R fo

Biotech and Bioeconomy Partnering Event 22.10.2013 - 23.10.2013 - Naples, Italy

Biobased materials

14.11.2013 - Mons, Belgium

Ecochem - The Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering Event 19.11.2013 - 21.11.2013 - Basel, Switzerland Congress Center Basel

Fifth German WPC Conference

10.12.2013 - 11.12.2013 - Cologne, Germany Maritim Hotel Cologne

8th European Bioplastics Conference

10.12.2013 - 11.12.2013 - Berlin, Germany InterContinental Hotel

Innovation Takes Root

17.02.2014 - 19.02.2014 - Orlando FL, USA Orlando World Center Marriott

World Bio Markets 2014

04.03.2014 - 06.03.2014 - Amsterdam, The Netherlands RAI Amsterdam

Register now! 10 / 11 December 2013 InterContinental Berlin More information is available at: Phone: +49 (0)30 28 48 23 50

BioPlastics 2014: The Re-Invention of Plastics 04.03.2014 - 06.03.2014 - Las Vegas, NV, USA Caesars Palace You can meet us! Please contact us in advance by e-mail. bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8



Glossary 3.2

last update issue 02/2013

In bioplastics MAGAZINE again and again the same expressions appear that some of our readers might not (yet) be familiar with. This glossary shall help with these terms and shall help avoid repeated explanations such as ‘PLA (Polylactide)‘ in various articles. Since this Glossary will not be printed in each issue you can download a pdf version from our website ( bioplastics MAGAZINE is grateful to European Bioplastics for the permission to use parts of their Glossary (see [1]) Readers who would like to suggest better or other explanations to be added to the list, please contact the editor. [*: bM ... refers to more comprehensive article previously published in bioplastics MAGAZINE)

Bioplastics (as defined by European Bioplastics e.V.) is a term used to define two different kinds of plastics: a. Plastics based on → renewable resources (the focus is the origin of the raw material used). These can be biodegradable or not. b. → Biodegradable and → compostable plastics according to EN13432 or similar standards (the focus is the compostability of the final product; biodegradable and compostable plastics can be based on renewable (biobased) and/or non-renewable (fossil) resources). Bioplastics may be - based on renewable resources and biodegradable; - based on renewable resources but not be biodegradable; and - based on fossil resources and biodegradable. Aerobic - anaerobic | aerobic = in the presence of oxygen (e.g. in composting) | anaerobic = without oxygen being present (e.g. in biogasification, anaerobic digestion) [bM 06/09]

Anaerobic digestion | conversion of organic waste into bio-gas. Other than in → composting in anaerobic degradation there is no oxygen present. In bio-gas plants for example, this type of degradation leads to the production of methane that can be captured in a controlled way and used for energy generation. [14] [bM 06/09] Amorphous | non-crystalline, glassy with unordered lattice Amylopectin | Polymeric branched starch molecule with very high molecular weight (biopolymer, monomer is → Glucose) [bM 05/09]

Amylose | Polymeric non-branched starch molecule with high molecular weight (biopolymer, monomer is → Glucose) [bM 05/09] Biobased plastic/polymer | A plastic/polymer in which constitutional units are totally or in part from → biomass [3]. If this claim is used, a percentage should always be given to which extent the product/material is → biobased [1] [bM 01/07, bM 03/10]


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Biobased | The term biobased describes the part of a material or product that is stemming from → biomass. When making a biobasedclaim, the unit (→ biobased carbon content, → biobased mass content), a percentage and the measuring method should be clearly stated [1] Biobased carbon | carbon contained in or stemming from → biomass. A material or product made of fossil and → renewable resources contains fossil and → biobased carbon. The 14C method [4, 5] measures the amount of biobased carbon in the material or product as fraction weight (mass) or percent weight (mass) of the total organic carbon content [1] [6] Biobased mass content | describes the amount of biobased mass contained in a material or product. This method is complementary to the 14C method, and furthermore, takes other chemical elements besides the biobased carbon into account, such as oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. A measuring method is currently being developed and tested by the Association Chimie du Végétal (ACDV) [1] Biodegradable Plastics | Biodegradable Plastics are plastics that are completely assimilated by the → microorganisms present a defined environment as food for their energy. The carbon of the plastic must completely be converted into CO2 during the microbial process. The process of biodegradation depends on the environmental conditions, which influence it (e.g. location, temperature, humidity) and on the material or application itself. Consequently, the process and its outcome can vary considerably. Biodegradability is linked to the structure of the polymer chain; it does not depend on the origin of the raw materials. There is currently no single, overarching standard to back up claims about biodegradability. One standard for example is ISO or in Europe: EN 14995 Plastics- Evaluation of compostability - Test scheme and specifications [bM 02/06, bM 01/07]

Biomass | Material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and material transformed to fossilised material. This includes organic material, e.g. trees, crops, grasses, tree litter, algae and waste of biological origin, e.g. manure [1, 2]

Biorefinery | the co-production of a spectrum of bio-based products (food, feed, materials, chemicals including monomers or building blocks for bioplastics) and energy (fuels, power, heat) from biomass.[bM 02/13] Blend | Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of at least two microscopically dispersed and molecularly distributed base polymers Bisphenol-A (BPA) | Monomer used to produce different polymers. BPA is said to cause health problems, due to the fact that is behaves like a hormone. Therefore it is banned for use in children’s products in many countries. BPI | Biodegradable Products Institute, a notfor-profit association. Through their innovative compostable label program, BPI educates manufacturers, legislators and consumers about the importance of scientifically based standards for compostable materials which biodegrade in large composting facilities. Carbon footprint | (CFPs resp. PCFs – Product Carbon Footprint): Sum of → greenhouse gas emissions and removals in a product system, expressed as CO2 equivalent, and based on a → life cycle assessment. The CO2 equivalent of a specific amount of a greenhouse gas is calculated as the mass of a given greenhouse gas multiplied by its → global warmingpotential [1, 2] Carbon neutral, CO2 neutral | Carbon neutral describes a product or process that has a negligible impact on total atmospheric CO2 levels. For example, carbon neutrality means that any CO2 released when a plant decomposes or is burnt is offset by an equal amount of CO2 absorbed by the plant through photosynthesis when it is growing. Carbon neutrality can also be achieved through buying sufficient carbon credits to make up the difference. The latter option is not allowed when communicating → LCAs or carbon footprints regarding a material or product [1, 2]. Carbon-neutral claims are tricky as products will not in most cases reach carbon neutrality if their complete life cycle is taken into consideration (including the end-of life). If an assessment of a material, however, is conducted (cradle to gate), carbon neutrality might be a valid claim in a B2B context. In this case, the unit assessed in the complete life cycle has to be clarified [1] Catalyst | substance that enables and accelerates a chemical reaction Cellophane | Clear film on the basis of → cellulose [bM 01/10] Cellulose | Cellulose is the principal component of cell walls in all higher forms of plant life, at varying percentages. It is therefore the most common organic compound and also the most common polysaccharide (multisugar) [11]. C. is a polymeric molecule with very high molecular weight (monomer is → Glucose), industrial production from wood or cotton, to manufacture paper, plastics and fibres [bM 01/10] Cellulose ester| Cellulose esters occur by the esterification of cellulose with organic acids. The most important cellulose esters from a technical point of view are cellulose acetate

Basics (CA with acetic acid), cellulose propionate (CP with propionic acid) and cellulose butyrate (CB with butanoic acid). Mixed polymerisates, such as cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) can also be formed. One of the most well-known applications of cellulose aceto butyrate (CAB) is the moulded handle on the Swiss army knife [11]

(from e.g. sugar cane, a development to make terephthalic acid from renewable resources are under way). Other examples are polyamides (partly biobased e.g. PA 4.10 or PA 10.10 or fully biobased like PA 5.10 or 10.10)

Cellulose acetate CA| → Cellulose ester

EN 13432 | European standard for the assessment of the → compostability of plastic packaging products

CEN | Comité Européen de Normalisation (European organisation for standardization) Compost | A soil conditioning material of decomposing organic matter which provides nutrients and enhances soil structure. [bM 06/08, 02/09]

Compostable Plastics | Plastics that are → biodegradable under ‘composting’ conditions: specified humidity, temperature, → microorganisms and timefame. In order to make accurate and specific claims about compostability, the location (home, → industrial) and timeframe need to be specified [1]. Several national and international standards exist for clearer definitions, for example EN 14995 Plastics - Evaluation of compostability Test scheme and specifications. [bM 02/06, bM 01/07] Composting | A solid waste management technique that uses natural process to convert organic materials to CO2, water and humus through the action of → microorganisms. When talking about composting of bioplastics, usually → industrial composting in a managed composting plant is meant [bM 03/07] Compound | plastic mixture from different raw materials (polymer and additives) [bM 04/10) Copolymer | Plastic composed of different monomers. Cradle-to-Gate | Describes the system boundaries of an environmental →Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) which covers all activities from the ‘cradle’ (i.e., the extraction of raw materials, agricultural activities and forestry) up to the factory gate Cradle-to-Cradle | (sometimes abbreviated as C2C): Is an expression which communicates the concept of a closed-cycle economy, in which waste is used as raw material (‘waste equals food’). Cradle-to-Cradle is not a term that is typically used in →LCA studies. Cradle-to-Grave | Describes the system boundaries of a full →Life Cycle Assessment from manufacture (‘cradle’) to use phase and disposal phase (‘grave’). Crystalline | Plastic with regularly arranged molecules in a lattice structure Density | Quotient from mass and volume of a material, also referred to as specific weight DIN | Deutsches Institut für Normung (German organisation for standardization) DIN-CERTCO | independant certifying organisation for the assessment on the conformity of bioplastics Dispersing | fine distribution of non-miscible liquids into a homogeneous, stable mixture Drop-In Bioplastics | chemically indentical to conventional petroleum based plastics, but made from renewable resources. Examples are bio-PE made from bio-ethanol (from e.g. sugar cane) or partly biobased PET (the monoethylene glykol made from bio-ethanol

Elastomers | rigid, but under force flexible and elastically formable plastics with rubbery properties

Energy recovery | recovery and exploitation of the energy potential in (plastic) waste for the production of electricity or heat in waste incineration pants (waste-to-energy) Enzymes | proteins that catalyze chemical reactions Ethylen | colour- and odourless gas, made e.g. from, Naphtha (petroleum) by cracking, monomer of the polymer polyethylene (PE) European Bioplastics e.V. | The industry association representing the interests of Europe’s thriving bioplastics’ industry. Founded in Germany in 1993 as IBAW, European Bioplastics today represents the interests of over 70 member companies throughout the European Union. With members from the agricultural feedstock, chemical and plastics industries, as well as industrial users and recycling companies, European Bioplastics serves as both a contact platform and catalyst for advancing the aims of the growing bioplastics industry. Extrusion | process used to create plastic profiles (or sheet) of a fixed cross-section consisting of mixing, melting, homogenising and shaping of the plastic. Fermentation | Biochemical reactions controlled by → microorganisms or → enyzmes (e.g. the transformation of sugar into lactic acid). FSC | Forest Stewardship Council. FSC is an independent, non-governmental, not-forprofit organization established to promote the responsible and sustainable management of the world’s forests. Gelatine | Translucent brittle solid substance, colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless and odorless, extracted from the collagen inside animals‘ connective tissue. Genetically modified organism (GMO) | Organisms, such as plants and animals, whose genetic material (DNA) has been altered are called genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Food and feed which contain or consist of such GMOs, or are produced from GMOs, are called genetically modified (GM) food or feed [1] Global Warming | Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation [8]. Global warming is said to be accelerated by → green house gases. Glucose | Monosaccharide (or simple sugar). G. is the most important carbohydrate (sugar) in biology. G. is formed by photosynthesis or hydrolyse of many carbohydrates e. g. starch. Greenhouse gas GHG | Gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of

infrared radiation emitted by the earth’s surface, the atmosphere, and clouds [1, 9] Greenwashing | The act of misleading consumers regarding the environmental practices of a company, or the environmental benefits of a product or service [1, 10] Granulate, granules | small plastic particles (3-4 millimetres), a form in which plastic is sold and fed into machines, easy to handle and dose. Humus | In agriculture, ‘humus’ is often used simply to mean mature → compost, or natural compost extracted from a forest or other spontaneous source for use to amend soil. Hydrophilic | Property: ‘water-friendly’, soluble in water or other polar solvents (e.g. used in conjunction with a plastic which is not water resistant and weather proof or that absorbs water such as Polyamide (PA). Hydrophobic | Property: ‘water-resistant’, not soluble in water (e.g. a plastic which is water resistant and weather proof, or that does not absorb any water such as Polyethylene (PE) or Polypropylene (PP). IBAW | → European Bioplastics Industrial composting | Industrial composting is an established process with commonly agreed upon requirements (e.g. temperature, timeframe) for transforming biodegradable waste into stable, sanitised products to be used in agriculture. The criteria for industrial compostability of packaging have been defined in the EN 13432. Materials and products complying with this standard can be certified and subsequently labelled accordingly [1, 7] [bM 06/08, bM 02/09]

Integral Foam | foam with a compact skin and porous core and a transition zone in between. ISO | International Organization for Standardization JBPA | Japan Bioplastics Association LCA | Life Cycle Assessment (sometimes also referred to as life cycle analysis, ecobalance, and → cradle-to-grave analysis) is the investigation and valuation of the environmental impacts of a given product or service caused. [bM 01/09]

Microorganism | Living organisms of microscopic size, such as bacteria, funghi or yeast. Molecule | group of at least two atoms held together by covalent chemical bonds. Monomer | molecules that are linked by polymerization to form chains of molecules and then plastics Mulch film | Foil to cover bottom of farmland PBAT | Polybutylene adipate terephthalate, is an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester that has the properties of conventional polyethylene but is fully biodegradable under industrial composting. PBAT is made from fossil petroleum with first attempts being made to produce it partly from renewable resources [bM 06/09] PBS | Polybutylene succinate, a 100% biodegradable polymer, made from (e.g. bio-BDO) and succinic acid, which can also be produced biobased [bM 03/12]. PC | Polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyester, petroleum based, used for e.g. baby bottles or CDs. Criticized for its BPA (→ Bisphenol-A) content.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Basics PCL | Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossil based), biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as a blend component.

PPC | Polypropylene Carbonate, a bioplastic made by copolymerizing CO2 with propylene oxide (PO) [bM 04/12]

PE | Polyethylene, thermoplastic polymerised from ethylene. Can be made from renewable resources (sugar cane via bio-ethanol)

Renewable Resources | agricultural raw materials, which are not used as food or feed, but as raw material for industrial products or to generate energy

[bM 05/10]

PET | Polyethylenterephthalate, transparent polyester used for bottles and film PGA | Polyglycolic acid or Polyglycolide is a biodegradable, thermoplastic polymer and the simplest linear, aliphatic polyester. Besides ist use in the biomedical field, PGA has been introduced as a barrier resin [bM 03/09] PHA | Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids. The most common type of PHA is → PHB. PHB | Polyhydroxybutyrate (better poly-3-hydroxybutyrate), is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), a polymer belonging to the polyesters class. PHB is produced by micro-organisms apparently in response to conditions of physiological stress. The polymer is primarily a product of carbon assimilation (from glucose or starch) and is employed by micro-organisms as a form of energy storage molecule to be metabolized when other common energy sources are not available. PHB has properties similar to those of PP, however it is stiffer and more brittle. PHBH | Polyhydroxy butyrate hexanoate (better poly 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), Like other biopolymers from the family of the polyhydroxyalkanoates PHBH is produced by microorganisms in the fermentation process, where it is accumulated in the microorganism’s body for nutrition. The main features of PHBH are its excellent biodegradability, combined with a high degree of hydrolysis and heat stability. [bM 03/09, 01/10, 03/11] PLA | Polylactide or Polylactic Acid (PLA), a biodegradable, thermoplastic, linear aliphatic polyester based on lactic acid, a natural acid, is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar or starch with the help of micro-organisms. Lactic acid comes in two isomer forms, i.e. as laevorotatory D(-)lactic acid and as dextrorotary L(+)lactic acid. In each case two lactic acid molecules form a circular lactide molecule which, depending on its composition, can be a D-D-lactide, an L-L-lactide or a meso-lactide (having one D and one L molecule). The chemist makes use of this variability. During polymerisation the chemist combines the lactides such that the PLA plastic obtained has the characteristics that he desires. The purity of the infeed material is an important factor in successful polymerisation and thus for the economic success of the process, because so far the cleaning of the lactic acid produced by the fermentation has been relatively costly [12]. Modified PLA types can be produced by the use of the right additives or by a combinations of L- and D- lactides (stereocomplexing), which then have the required rigidity for use at higher temperatures [13] [bM 01/09] Plastics | Materials with large molecular chains of natural or fossil raw materials, produced by chemical or biochemical reactions.


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Saccharins or carbohydrates | Saccharins or carbohydrates are name for the sugar-family. Saccharins are monomer or polymer sugar units. For example, there are known mono-, di- and polysaccharose. → glucose is a monosaccarin. They are important for the diet and produced biology in plants. Semi-finished products | plastic in form of sheet, film, rods or the like to be further processed into finshed products Sorbitol | Sugar alcohol, obtained by reduction of glucose changing the aldehyde group to an additional hydroxyl group. S. is used as a plasticiser for bioplastics based on starch. Starch | Natural polymer (carbohydrate) consisting of → amylose and → amylopectin, gained from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca etc. When glucose is connected to polymerchains in definite way the result (product) is called starch. Each molecule is based on 300 -12000-glucose units. Depending on the connection, there are two types → amylose and → amylopectin known. [bM 05/09] Starch derivate | Starch derivates are based on the chemical structure of → starch. The chemical structure can be changed by introducing new functional groups without changing the → starch polymer. The product has different chemical qualities. Mostly the hydrophilic character is not the same. Starch-ester | One characteristic of every starch-chain is a free hydroxyl group. When every hydroxyl group is connect with ethan acid one product is starch-ester with different chemical properties. Starch propionate and starch butyrate | Starch propionate and starch butyrate can be synthesised by treating the → starch with propane or butanic acid. The product structure is still based on → starch. Every based → glucose fragment is connected with a propionate or butyrate ester group. The product is more hydrophobic than → starch.

and social equity. In other words, businesses have to expand their responsibility to include these environmental and social dimensions. Sustainability is about making products useful to markets and, at the same time, having societal benefits and lower environmental impact than the alternatives currently available. It also implies a commitment to continuous improvement that should result in a further reduction of the environmental footprint of today’s products, processes and raw materials used. Thermoplastics | Plastics which soften or melt when heated and solidify when cooled (solid at room temperature). Thermoplastic Starch | (TPS) → starch that was modified (cooked, complexed) to make it a plastic resin Thermoset | Plastics (resins) which do not soften or melt when heated. Examples are epoxy resins or unsaturated polyester resins. Vinçotte | independant certifying organisation for the assessment on the conformity of bioplastics WPC | Wood Plastic Composite. Composite materials made of wood fiber/flour and plastics (mostly polypropylene). Yard Waste | Grass clippings, leaves, trimmings, garden residue.

References: [1] Environmental Communication Guide, European Bioplastics, Berlin, Germany, 2012 [2] ISO 14067. Carbon footprint of products Requirements and guidelines for quantification and communication [3] CEN TR 15932, Plastics - Recommendation for terminology and characterisation of biopolymers and bioplastics, 2010 [4] CEN/TS 16137, Plastics - Determination of bio-based carbon content, 2011 [5] ASTM D6866, Standard Test Methods for Determining the Biobased Content of Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous Samples Using Radiocarbon Analysis [6] SPI: Understanding Biobased Carbon Content, 2012

Sustainable | An attempt to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural environments both now and into the indefinite future. One of the most often cited definitions of sustainability is the one created by the Brundtland Commission, led by the former Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland. The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as development that ‘meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’ Sustainability relates to the continuity of economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of human society, as well as the non-human environment).

[7] EN 13432, Requirements for packaging recoverable through composting and biodegradation. Test scheme and evaluation criteria for the final acceptance of packaging, 2000

Sustainability | (as defined by European Bioplastics e.V.) has three dimensions: economic, social and environmental. This has been known as “the triple bottom line of sustainability”. This means that sustainable development involves the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental protection

[13] de Vos, S.: Improving heat-resistance of PLA using poly(D-lactide), bioplastics MAGAZINE, Vol. 3, Issue 02/2008

[8] Wikipedia [9] ISO 14064 Greenhouse gases -- Part 1: Specification with guidance..., 2006 [10] Terrachoice, 2010, [11] Thielen, M.: Bioplastics: Basics. Applications. Markets, Polymedia Publisher, 2012 [12] Lörcks, J.: Biokunststoffe, Broschüre der FNR, 2005

[14] de Wilde, B.: Anaerobic Digestion, bioplastics MAGAZINE, Vol 4., Issue 06/2009

Suppliers Guide 1. Raw Materials

AGRANA Starch Thermoplastics Conrathstrasse 7 A-3950 Gmuend, Austria Tel: +43 676 8926 19374

Showa Denko Europe GmbH Konrad-Zuse-Platz 4 81829 Munich, Germany Tel.: +49 89 93996226

GRAFE-Group Waldecker Straße 21, 99444 Blankenhain, Germany Tel. +49 36459 45 0

Jincheng, Lin‘an, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311300, P.R. China China contact: Grace Jin mobile: 0086 135 7578 9843 Europe contact(Belgium): Susan Zhang mobile: 0032 478 991619 Natur-Tec® - Northern Technologies 4201 Woodland Road Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA Tel. +1 763.225.6600 1.1 bio based monomers Fax +1 763.225.6645 Corbion Purac Arkelsedijk 46, P.O. Box 21 4200 AA Gorinchem The Netherlands Tel.: +31 (0)183 695 695 Fax: +31 (0)183 695 604

DuPont de Nemours International S.A. 2 chemin du Pavillon 1218 - Le Grand Saconnex 1.2 compounds Switzerland Tel.: +41 22 171 51 11 Fax: +41 22 580 22 45 API S.p.A. Via Dante Alighieri, 27 36065 Mussolente (VI), Italy Telephone +39 0424 579711 Evonik Industries AG Paul Baumann Straße 1 45772 Marl, Germany Tel +49 2365 49-4717 Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co., Ltd. No.33 Kefeng Rd, Sc. City, Guangzhou Hi-Tech Ind. Development Zone, Guangdong, P.R. China. 510663 Tel: +86 (0)20 6622 1696 Shandong Fuwin New Material Co., Ltd. ® Econorm Biodegradable & FLEX-162 Biodeg. Blown Film Resin! Compostable Resin Bio-873 4-Star Inj. Bio-Based Resin! North of Baoshan Road, Zibo City, Shandong Province P.R. China. Phone: +86 533 7986016 Fax: +86 533 6201788 Mobile: +86-13953357190 CNMHELEN@GMAIL.COM FKuR Kunststoff GmbH Siemensring 79 D - 47 877 Willich Tel. +49 2154 9251-0 Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51

Simply contact:

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467 Stay permanently listed in the Suppliers Guide with your company logo and contact information. For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you can be present among top suppliers in the field of bioplastics.

For Example:

PolyOne Avenue Melville Wilson, 2 Zoning de la Fagne 5330 Assesse Belgium Tel.: + 32 83 660 211

Polymedia Publisher GmbH Dammer Str. 112 41066 Mönchengladbach Germany Tel. +49 2161 664864 Fax +49 2161 631045

Sample Charge: WinGram Industry CO., LTD Great River(Qin Xin) Plastic Manufacturer CO., LTD Mobile (China): +86-13113833156 Mobile (Hong Kong): +852-63078857 Fax: +852-3184 8934 Email:

39mm x 6,00 € = 234,00 € per entry/per issue

Sample Charge for one year: 6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 € The entry in our Suppliers Guide is bookable for one year (6 issues) and extends automatically if it’s not canceled three month before expiry.

1.3 PLA

Shenzhen Esun Ind. Co;Ltd Tel: +86-755-2603 1978 1.4 starch-based bioplastics

Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients ZAC „Les Portes de Riom“ - BP 173 63204 Riom Cedex - France Tel. +33 (0)4 73 67 17 00 Fax +33 (0)4 73 67 17 10

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Suppliers Guide 1.6 masterbatches

3. Semi finished products 3.1 films

BIOTEC Biologische Naturverpackungen Werner-Heisenberg-Strasse 32 46446 Emmerich/Germany Tel.: +49 - 2822 - 925110

ROQUETTE 62 136 LESTREM, FRANCE 00 33 (0) 3 21 63 36 00

GRAFE-Group Waldecker Straße 21, 99444 Blankenhain, Germany Tel. +49 36459 45 0

PolyOne Avenue Melville Wilson, 2 Zoning de la Fagne 5330 Assesse Belgium Tel.: + 32 83 660 211

Huhtamaki Films Sonja Haug Zweibrückenstraße 15-25 91301 Forchheim Tel. +49-9191 81203 Fax +49-9191 811203 Sidaplax UK : +44 (1) 604 76 66 99 Sidaplax Belgium: +32 9 210 80 10 Plastic Suppliers: +1 866 378 4178

2. Additives/Secondary raw materials

Grabio Greentech Corporation Tel: +886-3-598-6496 No. 91, Guangfu N. Rd., Hsinchu Industrial Park,Hukou Township, Hsinchu County 30351, Taiwan

Arkema Inc. Functional Additives-Biostrength 900 First Avenue King of Prussia, PA/USA 19406 Contact: Connie Lo, Commercial Development Mgr. Tel: 610.878.6931

Taghleef Industries SpA, Italy Via E. Fermi, 46 33058 San Giorgio di Nogaro (UD) Contact Frank Ernst Tel. +49 2402 7096989 Mobile +49 160 4756573

Minima Technology Co., Ltd. Esmy Huang, Marketing Manager No.33. Yichang E. Rd., Taipin City, Taichung County 411, Taiwan (R.O.C.) Tel. +886(4)2277 6888 Fax +883(4)2277 6989 Mobil +886(0)982-829988 Skype esmy325

NOVAMONT S.p.A. Via Fauser , 8 28100 Novara - ITALIA Fax +39.0321.699.601 Tel. +39.0321.699.611

President Packaging Ind., Corp. PLA Paper Hot Cup manufacture In Taiwan, Tel.: +886-6-570-4066 ext.5531 Fax: +886-6-570-4077

4. Bioplastics products

PSM Bioplastic NA Chicago, USA +1-630-393-0012 1.5 PHA

A & O FilmPAC Ltd 9 Osier Way Olney, Bucks. MK46 5FP Tel.: +44 1234 714 477 Fax: +44 1234 713 221

TianAn Biopolymer No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd, Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800 Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2 Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0


bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

GRAFE-Group Waldecker Straße 21, 99444 Blankenhain, Germany Tel. +49 36459 45 0

Rhein Chemie Rheinau GmbH Duesseldorfer Strasse 23-27 68219 Mannheim, Germany Phone: +49 (0)621-8907-233 Fax: +49 (0)621-8907-8233

Seemore New Material Tech Co., Ltd Zhe Jiang Overseas High-Level Talents Innovation Park, 998 West Wen Yi Road, Hangzhou, China MP: 86 - 13486379521 Email:

Cortec® Corporation 4119 White Bear Parkway St. Paul, MN 55110 Tel. +1 800.426.7832 Fax 651-429-1122

WEI MON INDUSTRY CO., LTD. 2F, No.57, Singjhong Rd., Neihu District, Taipei City 114, Taiwan, R.O.C. Tel. + 886 - 2 - 27953131 Fax + 886 - 2 - 27919966 6. Equipment 6.1 Machinery & Molds

Eco Cortec® 31 300 Beli Manastir Bele Bartoka 29 Croatia, MB: 1891782 Tel. +385 31 705 011 Fax +385 31 705 012

Molds, Change Parts and Turnkey Solutions for the PET/Bioplastic Container Industry 284 Pinebush Road Cambridge Ontario Canada N1T 1Z6 Tel. +1 519 624 9720 Fax +1 519 624 9721

Suppliers Guide

Roll-o-Matic A/S Petersmindevej 23 5000 Odense C, Denmark Tel. + 45 66 11 16 18 Fax + 45 66 14 32 78

ProTec Polymer Processing GmbH Stubenwald-Allee 9 64625 Bensheim, Deutschland Tel. +49 6251 77061 0 Fax +49 6251 77061 500

8. Ancillary equipment

10. Institutions

9. Services

10.1 Associations

Osterfelder Str. 3 46047 Oberhausen Tel.: +49 (0)208 8598 1227 Fax: +49 (0)208 8598 1424

Institut für Kunststofftechnik Universität Stuttgart Böblinger Straße 70 70199 Stuttgart Tel +49 711/685-62814

BPI - The Biodegradable Products Institute 331 West 57th Street, Suite 415 New York, NY 10019, USA Tel. +1-888-274-5646

Simply contact:

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467

European Bioplastics e.V. Marienstr. 19/20 10117 Berlin, Germany Tel. +49 30 284 82 350 Fax +49 30 284 84 359

Stay permanently listed in the Suppliers Guide with your company logo and contact information. For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you can be present among top suppliers in the field of bioplastics.

For Example:

6.2 Laboratory Equipment

7. Plant engineering

EREMA Engineering Recycling Maschinen und Anlagen GmbH Unterfeldstrasse 3 4052 Ansfelden, AUSTRIA Phone: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-0 Fax: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-23

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH Holzhauser Strasse 157–159 D-13509 Berlin Tel. +49 30 43 567 5 Fax +49 30 43 567 699 Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG Via Innovativa 31 CH-7013 Domat/Ems Tel. +41 81 632 63 11 Fax +41 81 632 74 03

nova-Institut GmbH Chemiepark Knapsack Industriestrasse 300 50354 Huerth, Germany Tel.: +49(0)2233-48-14 40 E-Mail:

Bioplastics Consulting Tel. +49 2161 664864

10.2 Universities

IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics and Biocomposites University of Applied Sciences and Arts Hanover Faculty II – Mechanical and Bioprocess Engineering Heisterbergallee 12 30453 Hannover, Germany Tel.: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 22 69 Fax: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 99 - 22 69

39 mm

MODA: Biodegradability Analyzer SAIDA FDS INC. 143-10 Isshiki, Yaizu, Shizuoka,Japan Tel:+81-54-624-6260

narocon Dr. Harald Kaeb Tel.: +49 30-28096930

Polymedia Publisher GmbH Dammer Str. 112 41066 Mönchengladbach Germany Tel. +49 2161 664864 Fax +49 2161 631045

Sample Charge: 39mm x 6,00 € = 234,00 € per entry/per issue

Sample Charge for one year: 6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 €

Michigan State University Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science Professor Ramani Narayan East Lansing MI 48824, USA Tel. +1 517 719 7163

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is bookable for one year (6 issues) and extends automatically if it’s not canceled three month before expiry.

UL International TTC GmbH Rheinuferstrasse 7-9, Geb. R33 47829 Krefeld-Uerdingen, Germany Tel: +49 (0)2151 88 3324 Fax: +49 (0)2151 88 5210

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8


Companies in this issue Company

Editorial Advert

4e solutions



Editorial Advert

Huhtamaki Films


Plastika Kritis




Adsale (Chinaplas)




Inst. f. Textiltechnik RWTH Aachen


President Packaging

Inst. of Building Struct. and Struct. Design


ProTec Polymer Processing

Agrana Starch Thermoplastics AIMPLAS



37, 46




Inst. for bioplastics & biocomposites (IfBB)


Institut für Kunststofftechnik


64 65




Qmilch Deutschland

24 11




Rhein Chemie














Kingfa Koser


Cortec Corpopration



Les Jardins de Gaïa


Croda Coating & Polymers



Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients

Deutsches Kunststoffmuseum




Showa Denko






Medical Univ. Graz


spek DESIGN SPI Bioplastics Council




32, 48










33, 51




Michael Young Design

Ecoplast Technology


Elevance Renewable Sciences


EMS Chemie




European Bioplastics

29, 42

Evonik Industries

35, 59, 65 63


Swiss Coffee Company






Graz University of Technology


64 38, 52, 56 64












Uhde Inventa-Fischer



UL International

nova-Institut Novamont

63, 64

Tecnaro TianAn Biopolymer




Taghleef Industries 23

Fraunhofer IVV






64 56





Minima Technology

Fraunhofer ICT

Grabio Greentech Corporation




geba Kunststoffcompounds



Sunham Home Fashion




Shenzhen Esun Industrial

Sulzer Chemtech


Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Shenzhen Esun


Ferrarini & Benelli

2, 34, 63

65 34, 47, 63

Michigan State University Mitsubishi Chemical 15, 65

Saida Shandong Fuwin New Material Co


oneplanet Architecture Parkside





64 64

34, 63




30, 58

36, 42

Corbion Purac


53, 65



64, 68

Vienna Nat. Res.& Life Science


56 47

17, 65

Vienna University of Technology



48 37




Great River Plastic Manufacturing


Philippe Starck


Wei Mon




Plastic Suppliers






Xinfu Pharm


Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt


Editorial Planner





edit/ad/ Deadline






02/2014 03/2014

Editorial Focus (1)

Editorial Focus (2)


Fair Specials


Films / Flexibles / Bags

Consumer Electronics

biobased (12C / 14C vs. Biomass)

K'2013 Review





Land use for bioplastics (update)




Thermoforming (Rigid packaging)

Polyurethanes / Elastomers


Chinaplas & Interpack Preview




Injection moulding


Injection Moulding

Chinaplas & Interpack Review

Subject to changes


63, 64



BPI - The Biodegradable Products Institute







44, 46


Editorial Advert

bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/13] Vol. 8

Follow us on twitter!

Be our friend on Facebook!

Bookstore Order now! phone +49 2161 6884463 e-mail * plus VAT (where applicable), plus cost for shipping/handling details see

Michael Thielen

Bioplastics - Basics. Applications. Markets.

General conditions, market situation, production, structure and properties New ‘basics‘ book on bioplastics: The book is intended to offer a rapid and uncomplicated introduction into the subject of bioplastics, and is aimed at all interested readers, in particular those who have not yet had the opportunity to dig deeply into the subject, such as students, those just joining this industry, and lay readers. r 5o * 0 8.6 € 1 $ 25.0 US

Author: Jan Th. J. Ravenstijn

Edited by Srikanth Pilla

(Special prices for research and non-profit organisations upon request)

Engineering Applications

The state of the art on Bioplastics

Handbook of Bioplastics and Biocomposites Engineering Applications

‘The state-of-the-art on Bioplastics 2010‘ describes the revolutionary growth of bio-based monomers, polymers, and plastics and changes in performance and variety for the entire global plastics m arket in the first decades of this century... 0* 0.0 ,50 rice € 1 uced p





Hans-Josef Endres, Andrea Siebert-Raths

Engineering Biopolymers

Markets, Manufacturing, Properties and Applications Hans-Josef Endres, Andrea Siebert-Raths

Technische Biopolymere

Rahmenbedingungen, Marktsituation, Herstellung, Aufbau und Eigenschaften





The intention of this new book (2011), written by 40 scientists from industry and academia, is to explore the extensive applications made with bioplastics & biocomposites. The Handbook focuses on five main categories of applications packaging; civil engineering; biomedical; automotive; general engineering. It is structured in six parts and a total of 19 chapters. A comprehensive index allows the quick location of information the reader is looking for.

This book is unique in its focus on market-relevant bio/renewable materials. It is based on comprehensive research projects, during which these materials were systematically analyzed and characterized. For the first time the interested reader will find comparable data not only for biogenic polymers and biological macromolecules such as proteins, but also for engineering materials. The reader will also find valuable information regarding micro-structure, manufacturing, and processing-, application-, and recycling properties of biopolymers



Rainer Höfer (Editor)

Sustainable Solutions for Modern Economies Apocalypse now? Was the financial crisis which erupted in 2008 the ‘writing on the wall’, the Menetekel for the Industrial Age? Is mankind approaching the impasse of Easter Island, Anasazi and Maya societies shortly before collapse – ‘‘which followed swiftly upon the society’s reaching its peak of population, monument construction and environmental impact’’? Or will mankind be capable of a new global common sense?




A real sign of sustainable development.

There is such a thing as genuinely sustainable development.

Since 1989, Novamont researchers have been working on an ambitious project that combines the chemical industry, agriculture and the environment: “Living Chemistry for Quality of Life”. Its objective has been to create products with a low environmental impact. The result of Novamont’s innovative research is the new bioplastic Mater-Bi®. Mater-Bi® is a family of materials, completely biodegradable and compostable which contain renewable raw materials such as starch and vegetable oil derivates. Mater-Bi® performs like traditional plastics but it saves energy, contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect and at the end of its life cycle, it closes the loop by changing into fertile humus. Everyone’s dream has become a reality.

Living Chemistry for Quality of Life.

Visit us at K 2013 in Dusseldorf, Germany, at Booth E09, Hall 06

Within Mater-Bi® product range the following certifications are available

The “OK Compost” certificate guarantees conformity with the NF EN 13432 standard (biodegradable and compostable packaging) 6_2013

Profile for bioplastics MAGAZINE

bioplastics MAGAZINE 05/2013  

bioplastics MAGAZINE is the only independent trade magazine worldwide dedicated to bioplastics (i.e. plastics made from renewable resources...

bioplastics MAGAZINE 05/2013  

bioplastics MAGAZINE is the only independent trade magazine worldwide dedicated to bioplastics (i.e. plastics made from renewable resources...