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03 | 2019

ISSN 1862-5258

May / June

Cover Story bio-PE truck ride-on

Basics Microplastics | 56 Mind the right terms | 54 Captured CO2 vs. biobased | 48 Highlights



Vol. 14

Toys | 10 Injection Moulding | 30

2 countries

... is read in 9

PLAY WITH PLASTICS! Sustainable – Safe – Sophisticated The world we live in is unique, exciting and full of surprises. Children discover their world in a fun way by playing with toys, which generate curiosity and stimulate the imagination while having to withstand countless adventures. Our bioplastics combine sustainability with trend-setting material properties that help to reduce CO2 emissions. With FKuR bioplastics you will get high-quality toys that meet your needs exactly and that children will enjoy for a long time.


dear readers The hottest bioplastics news to break these past two months was surely the publication in April of a study from the University of Plymouth. Taken up and amplified by numerous journalists - including the yellow press – in addition to receiving TV coverage and drawing the attention of many serious publications, it has certainly roiled the bioplastics debate. The study appeared under the title “Environmental Degradation of Biodegradable, Degradable and Conventional Plastic Carrier Bags in the Sea, Soil and Open-Air Over a Three-Year Period“, and sparked blaring headlines, including “‘Biodegradable plastic bags survive three years in soil and sea”. WWW.MATERBI.COM

ISSN 1862-5258

May / June

Five bags were examined: oxo-degradable bags, one fossil-based non-biodegradable polyethylene bag, one bag marketed as – but not proven to be - biodegradable, and only one product certified compostable according to the European Norm 13432.

Cover Story bio-PE truck ride-on

Basics Microplastics | 56 Mind the right terms | 54 Captured CO vs. biobas ed | 48 2 Highlights




Vol. 14

Toys | 10 Injection Moulding | 30


While only the certified compostable bag sample had completely disappeared after three months in the marine environment, the utterly crucial point to emphasize here is that even certified compostable bio-waste bags have not been developed to degrade in the soil or in a marine environment. These certified bags are designed to degrade under industrial composting conditions. Whenever ‘biodegradability’ or ‘compostability’ is claimed, the conditions (environment, temperature etc) must be given. And – neither biodegradability nor compostability is meant to be a solution to littering. Littering, and subsequently also marine pollution can only be solved by changing people’s behaviour, not by any kind of material. As this topic could easily fill many pages, we are planning to give it the necessary space in one of the upcoming issues of bioplastics MAGAZINE. Until then, links to a number of salient comments can be found at www.bioplasticsmagazine.de/201903.

03 | 2019

... is read in 92 countries

05/05/17 11:39

Other highlight topics in this issue are Injection moulding and Toys. Following the very successful 1st bio!TOY conference in Nuremberg in March with about 90 delegates, we are happy to share the articles the event generated in this issue. In the Basics section 3 topics are covered. We first take a closer look at Microplastics, then discuss the question:Can products made from captured/recycled CO2 be called Biobased? Finally, we explain once and for all the difference between Biodegradable - compostable oxo-degradable plastics. Just days before this issue went to print, we hosted the third edition of our bio!PAC conference on biobased packaging in Düsseldorf, which was a very successful event in every respect. And we are already focussing on the next big event this year: The K-Show in October in Düsseldorf, Germany with our 4th Bioplastics Business Breakfast. The call for papers is open. We are looking forward to your contributions. We hope to see you at the K-Show this autumn, or perhaps elsewhere even earlier, and until then, enjoy the summer - and of course, have a great time reading bioplastics MAGAZINE.

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Sincerely yours

Michael Thielen

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14




May / June


Publisher / Editorial Dr. Michael Thielen (MT) Samuel Brangenberg (SB)

Head Office Polymedia Publisher GmbH Dammer Str. 112 41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany phone: +49 (0)2161 6884469 fax: +49 (0)2161 6884468

3 Editorial 5 News 8 Events 42 Application News

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com www.bioplasticsmagazine.com

Media Adviser Samsales (German language) phone: +49(0)2161-6884467 fax: +49(0)2161 6884468 sb@bioplasticsmagazine.com

50 Patents

Michael Thielen (English Language) (see head office)

52 Brand Owner


53 10 years ago

Kerstin Neumeister

54 Basics


58 Suppliers Guide

Poligrāfijas grupa Mūkusala Ltd. 1004 Riga, Latvia

62 Companies in this issue

bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on chlorine-free FSC certified paper. Print run: 3.500 copies

bioplastics magazine ISSN 1862-5258 bM is published 6 times a year. This publication is sent to qualified subscribers (169 Euro for 6 issues). bioplastics MAGAZINE is read in 92 countries.

Toys 10 13 14 16 18 20 22 25 26

Biobased toys a perfect win-win Binabo and other sustainable toys Relaunch of coean safe beach toys Baby Toys - safe and sustainable Danish bio toys - a success story Bioplastic items for kids Consumer Attitudes Toymakers find many paths to sustainability Cooler than wood. Better than plastic.



28 You never forget your first car


30 32 34 36


Optimize PLA for injection moulding Single use cutlery & food containers Injection Moulding Handbook Injection Molding PLA


Every effort is made to verify all Information published, but Polymedia Publisher cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions or for any losses that may arise as a result. All articles appearing in bioplastics MAGAZINE, or on the website www.bioplasticsmagazine.com are strictly covered by copyright. No part of this publication may be reproduced, copied, scanned, photographed and/or stored in any form, including electronic format, without the prior consent of the publisher. Opinions expressed in articles do not necessarily reflect those of Polymedia Publisher. bioplastics MAGAZINE welcomes contributions for publication. Submissions are accepted on the basis of full assignment of copyright to Polymedia Publisher GmbH unless otherwise agreed in advance and in writing. We reserve the right to edit items for reasons of space, clarity or legality. Please contact the editorial office via mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com. The fact that product names may not be identified in our editorial as trade marks is not an indication that such names are not registered trade marks. bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British spelling. However, in articles based on information from the USA, American spelling may also be used.


40 Cosmetic tubes from bio-PE 44 This spoon dies the rext !

A part of this print run is mailed to the readers wrapped bioplastic envelopes sponsored by Taghleef Industries, Italy



46 Pack it in feathers 47 Novel biobased barrier film

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daily upated news at www.bioplasticsmagazine.com


DIN CERTCO cooperates with Scion from New Zealand

Kaneka Americas Holding, to create new biopolymers division

DIN CERTCO (Berlin, Germany) is now starting a new cooperation with Scion (Rotorua, New Zealand) for the testing of compostable products.

Kaneka Americas Holding, Inc. headquartered in Houston, Texas, recently announced the creation of a new biopolymers division, for the sale of Kaneka’s plant-based degradable plastic PHBH compounds in the United States. The new division will also be located in Houston.

Oliver Ehlert (product manager, compostable products, DIN CERTCO) said: “With the acknowledgment of our new testing partner Scion we strengthen our position in Australia and New Zealand. We can offer our customers a faster service for laboratory testing with local partners around the globe.” Florian Graichen (science leader biopolymers and chemicals, Scion) said: “DIN CERTCO is a key partner for Scion in our role to lead the transition of New Zealand to a circular bioeconomy. Scion is helping to solve the new challenges that arise through the transition into a new economy focused on sustainable design and renewable resources. The ability to design, manufacture, test and certify compostable products and materials are crucial for the success and future growth of New Zealand’s packaging and plastics related businesses.” For certifications, according to the AS 4736 and AS 5810 standards in the Australia and New Zealand (Australasia) markets, DIN CERTCO already cooperates with the Australasian Bioplastics Association (ABA) and the certification system there. Scion covers the full scope of laboratory tests for industrial compostable products and home compostable products and can perform the laboratory testing for the certification of compostable products according to all relevant national and international standards: ASTM D 6400, EN 13432, EN 14995, ISO 17088, ISO 18606, AS 4736, AS 5810, NF T 51-800. MT www.dincertco.de/en | www.scionresearch.com

Kaneka's PHBH is a plant-based product that offers both flexibility and heat resistance. It is produced via a novel biofermentation process which uses renewable plant oils as feedstock. Kaneka's products are not only biobased and compostable in aerobic, anaerobic or marine environments, they are also strongly resistant to heat and can act as a barrier to water vapour. Stable under everyday conditions of use, given the right conditions, under either anaerobic, aerobic or marine conditions in the natural environment, the products will begin to biodegrade. PHBH has been granted Food Contact Approval by the FDA and is suitable for all food packaging products. PHBH can be formed into many products such as cups, cutlery, food trays, plates etc. Kaneka has been producing PHBH since 2011 and is currently expanding its facilities in Takasago, Japan. Kaneka hopes to find an alternative solution to the current single-use plastic products as the company recognizes the need to bring to market a plant-based product that will help reduce the ocean and landfill pollution. Currently, it is estimated that about 8 Million tonnes of plastic end up in the marine environment every year, which has created a massive environmental issue in the oceans of the world. MT www.kaneka.com/kaneka-americas

Picks & clicks Most frequently clicked news

Here’s a look at our most popular online content of the past two months. The story that got the most clicks from the visitors to bioplasticsmagazine.com was: tinyurl.com/news20190320

PHA water bottle coming soon (20 March 2019) It may sound like California Dreamin' but a new bottle, manufactured and marketed in California under the brand name Cove, is the first bottle of water made entirely of biodegradable material, say its makers. The material the bottle is made of is PHA, which will break down into CO2, water, and organic waste. This will happen in compost or a landfill, and even in the ocean. PHA, or polyhydroxyalkanoate, is an FDA-approved, naturally occurring biopolymer. It’s biodegradable, compostable, produces zero toxic waste, and breaks down into CO2, water, and organic waste.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14



daily upated news at www.bioplasticsmagazine.com

Arkema selects Singapore as new Rilsan production site In early May, Arkema, headquartered in Colombes, France, announced the location of its planned new worldscale plant for the production of the monomer of PA11 11-Aminoundecanoic acid, derived from castor oil - and its Rilsan® polyamide 11 resins. The company has chosen Jurong Island in Singapore to set up its new bio-sourced polyamide production site, because of the advantages the location offers in terms of infrastructure, logistics, industrial integration and operational excellence, as well as optimization of the carbon footprint of the planned business. Plans for the new plant, which will double global production capacities, were announced in July 2017, in response to strong demand from Asia for high-performance bio-sourced lightweighting solutions. Rilsan polyamide 11 is derived from castor oil and so is the 100% bio-sourced polyamide approved

“This major investment bolsters our global presence in biosourced materials while bringing us significantly closer to our customers in Asia Singapore’s industrial and innovation-friendly environment is, we believe, a key asset for our project, " commented Erwoan Pezron, global group President for Arkema’s technical polymers business line. This project is part of the Group’s exceptional investments of in total some 500 million Euros earmarked for the 2018-2021 period. Construction is scheduled to be completed by late 2021 MT www.arkema.com

From cigars to PLA-films

ERRATUM (Issue 02/2019)

Founded at the end of the 19th century as cigar manufactory the company shifted from cigars to plastics film packaging in the 1970s and became arbo Plastic, a Swiss pioneer company to offer first-class quality films.

Heat Resistant and home compostable PLA resins

2016, after many years of successfully producing specialty Barex barrier plastic films, Barex resin was no longer manufactured by the supplier. These circumstances forced arbo Plastic to carefully evaluate and rethink their future business orientation. The aim is to convert to modern, environmentally friendly, sustainable and compostable materials. 2018 arbo Plastic took up the challenge by stepping into the future. The right moment to recognise the signs of the times. An enormous amount of new materials needed to be tested, the best qualities had to be found and the market has to be conquered anew. An inspiring task for a visionary like the owner and CEO Ursula Friederich and her team. The company recognized that PLA is the material of choice which meets the needs of a rapidly growing market. With their comprehensive experience in the field of film extrusion, mainly in the 80 µm and higher range, arbo Plastic are best prepared for an intensive exchange of knowledge and the repositioning of the company. With uncomplicated flexibility, speed, precision and reliability the Swiss offer personal support and development of individual solutions for specific customer requirements, even for small quantities: arbo Plastic stands for Swiss www.arboplastic.ch quality. MT


for many of the most demanding applications, in particular in the electronics, 3D printing, oil and gas extraction, and automotive markets, as a substitute to metal.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14

In the last issue bioplastics MAGAZINE published an article about Kompuestos' "Heat Resistant and home compostable PLA resins". We sincerely apologize for an error that occured in this article. The production capacity is 170,000 tonnes, not 17,000 tonnes.

The paragraph should red correctly: Kompuestos is a Spanish company founded in 1986 in Palau Solità i Plegamans near Barcelona. Over the past three decades, Kompuestos has acquired an in-depth knowledge of the market and has positioned itself as oneof the main international suppliers of a large variety of masterbatches, all of which are intended to meet the needs of very diverse markets in the plastics industry, among which the packaging sector. With a production capacity of over 170,000 tonnes per year and growing, Kompuestos has established itself as one of the leading companies in the sector, while still seeking to expand its business MT www.kompuestos.com


DowDuPont Inc. selling out on sustainability? During a May 2 conference call, DowDuPont said it is moving six units into a new non-core segment as it considers options, including divestment. Incoming company CEO Marc Doyle who will take over from ED Breen as DuPont’s CEO said the non-core units are photovoltaic and advanced materials, biomaterials – including corn-derived Sorona textiles - clean technologies, sustainable solutions, the Hemlock Semiconductor Group joint venture and the DuPont Teijin Films joint venture. Questions were raised, as four of the six operations be considered for divestment involve environmentally-oriented products. DowDuPont CEO Ed Breen, who will be chairman of DuPont, responding by explaining that “they are more volatile assets than I would want in my portfolio.” The businesses totalled $2B in revenues and generated about $500 million of operating earnings last year, said Doyle. Previously, in November 2018, Breen had sold off DowDuPont’s cellulosic ethanol business, which converts the inedible parts of the corn plant into motor fuel, including a $200 million Iowa biorefinery that opened in 2015. The DuPont cellulosic ethanol plant in the town of Nevada, in Iowa, USA was sold to the US subsidiary of German biofuels company's Verbio. Verbio plans to start construction to transition the plant from ethanol to renewable natural gas in the spring, with commercial production of renewable transportation fuel ready to go by summer 2020. DowDuPont, the company that resulted following the merger of equals in August 2017, is currently in the process of breaking up into three independent publicly traded companies, with Dow being dedicated to commodity chemical production, DuPont to specialty chemical production, and Corteva to agricultural chemicals. Dow, the Materials Science division, was successfully spun off on April; the Agriculture and Speciality divisions will be split up in June 2019. MT www.dow-dupont.com

BASF and Lactips partner to market water-soluble, biodegradable film BASF and Lactips announced in mid-May that both companies have signed an exclusive contract to market Lactips’ water-soluble, 100% biobased and fully biodegradable material prepared from natural ingredients. This long-term partnership supports BASF’s strategy to leverage sustainable solutions to drive business growth. BASF and Lactips will bring in their respective expertise to offer this innovative technology to the home care as well as industrial and institutional (I&I) market. While Lactips focuses on the development of the film material technology based on technical casein obtained from excess of milk protein production, BASF will bring in its expertise in network and supply chain to market the product. The solution of Lactips aims on the replacement of polyvinyl alcohol films in home care and I&I applications, such as dishwasher tabs. “Sustainability plays a major role in all of BASF’s business processes,” said Robert Parker, Director, New Business Development at Care Chemicals, BASF. “Lactips’ solution for films for dishwasher tabs supplements our existing

portfolio of sustainable offerings. It allows us to provide our customers with a broad portfolio of bio-degradable products for the home care industry.” “Lactips is proud to have its technology marketed by a leading global partner with a strong network,” said MarieHélène Gramatikoff, CEO Lactips. “We will benefit from BASF’s experience and latest developments in the home care industry.” Lactips offers the first water-soluble, fully biodegradable plasticfree plastic. Created in 2014 by Marie-Hélène Gramatikoff, plastics and business strategy specialist, and Frédéric Prochazka, researcher at Saint-Etienne University, Lactips designs, develops and markets a watersoluble, biodegradable plastic-free plastic material based on milk protein. This new material is also food contact approved, edible and aligned with the sustainable ambitions of the food processing sector. In the middle term, Lactips plans to build a 2,500 m² plant to expand production to 3,000 tonnes a year and up. MT www.lactips.com | www.basf.com

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14



Anandi Eco+ Compostable sanitary pads from India win again Sustainable fibres from Finland and home compostable coffee capsules from Germany are the runner-up winners of the innovation award


or the 12th year in a row, the innovation award “Biobased Material of the Year” has been granted to the young, innovative biobased chemicals and materials industry by nova-Institute (Hürth, Germany). As usual for this award the three winners were chosen by the expert audience at the “12th International Conference on Bio-based Materials” (Cologne, Germany 15/16 May) from six previously selected nominees. With more than 270 participants and 30 exhibitors, the conference established itself further as one of the world’s most important meeting places for the leaders of the bioeconomy. Organizer Michael Carus, nova-Institute, was enthusiastic about the overwhelming response: “The most important pioneers of the global bioeconomy met in Cologne and exchanged views on the strong dynamics of the industry. Previous hopefuls of the biobased chemistry are weakening and others are making amazing breakthroughs!”

The winners in detail: First place: Aakar Innovations Pvt. Ltd. (India): Anandi Eco+ – 100% Compostable Sanitary Pads Anandi Eco+ is the first and only Govt. of India Lab certified compostable sanitary pad. (cf. comprehensive reports in bioplastics MAGAZINE issues 03/2018 and 06/2018). In a compost environment, at least 90% of the pad are biodegraded within 180 days. Under other conditions in nature it takes

longer respectively. The pads can be disposed easily in the backyard mud pit of any rural household to avoid polluting the environment and create bio-manure for agriculture. Aakar also uses local resources like starch, jute, bagasse, banana fibre and water hyacinth to produce their sanitary pads to reduce cost and utilizes agricultural plant waste materials. Anandi Eco+ pads do not use any harmful chemicals like superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and convert into manure post disposal, which can be further utilised. This way, the pads contribute to environmental protection and increased resource reuse. It also follows the American Standard ASTM D6400 & European Standard EN 13432. Aakar contributes to 12 out of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the UN through their work. Decentralised production is carried out by women in India and soon also in various African countries on the basis of regional raw materials.

Second place: Spinnova Oy (Finland): Spinnova – Sustainable Textile Fibre Spinnova is a sustainable fibre company from Finland that develops ecological breakthrough technology for manufacturing cellulose-based textile fibre. Spinnova’s patented technology does without harmful chemicals and creates no waste or side streams, making the fibre and the production method probably the most sustainable in the world. The biggest difference to other man-made cellulosic fibres is that no chemical dissolution takes place throughout the whole process. Spinnova’s raw material commitment is to only use FSC certified wood or waste stream-based cellulose. Spinnova’s objective is to globally commercialize the fibre products in collaboration with major textile brands. The properties and prices of the new cellulose fibres are based on cotton.

Third place: Golden Compound GmbH (DE): HOMEcap – Home Compostable Coffee Capsules HOMEcap is the world’s first and only home compostable coffee capsule successfully introduced in the market that is ‘OK compost HOME’ certified and made with natural fibres of the sunflower seed hull. The biodegradation in home compost avoids considerable waste streams. The capsule was successfully launched on the market in the spring of this year. It is made from a unique compound comprising PTTMCCs PBS and PBSA mixed with sunflower seed shells and inorganic fillers The nova-Institute would like to acknowledge InfraServ GmbH & Co. Knapsack KG (DE) for sponsoring the renowned innovation award “Bio-based Material of the Year 2019”. MT

Jaydeep Mandal (Aakar Innovations) with Anandi Eco + and the award


bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14

www.bio-based-conference.com www.aakarinnovations.com www.spinnova.com www.golden-compound.com

pe o w no s r e pap r o f Call

n! organized by

Bioplastics in Packaging

16. - 19.10.2019


Messe Düsseldorf, Germany



PLA, an Innovative Bioplastic Bioplastics in Durable Applications PHA, Opportunities & Challenges


At the World‘s biggest trade show on plastics and rubber:

Media Partner:

K‘2019 in Düsseldorf bioplastics will certainly play an important role again. On four days during the show bioplastics MAGAZINE will host a Bioplastics Business Breakfast: From 8am to 12pm the delegates will enjoy highclass presentations and unique networking opportunity. The trade fair opens at 10 am.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14



Biobased toys -

By: Harald Kaeb narocon Berlin, Germany


he intense debate on plastics, their deficiencies and drawbacks when it comes to sustainability and circularity, is centred around packaging. However, the discussion is not limited to this biggest sector of consumption. In this article, Harald Kaeb, inventor and co-organiser of the first bio!TOY conference examines the options for a wider use of renewable raw materials and biobased plastics in the toy sector. He also analyses the supply chain practices in the sector, exploring how it could become an emerging market and outlet for biobased polymers. The ideas and findings discussed in this article were the basis for the bio!TOY conference concept. Looking back at the event - the first encounter between the toy sector and the biobased plastics industry – the feedback from participants confirms that, as a concept, this was a success. Moreover, it offered scope for opening the door for collaborative development, hopefully based on strategic considerations.

The toy sector - a user analysis Five years ago, a UNEP report was published examining the role and use of plastics in different sectors, including the toy industry [1]. The report revealed that “toy manufacturers have the highest plastic intensity in the consumer goods sector, at 48 tonnes of CO2 equivalents per USD1 million revenue, due to their use of plastic in products (incl. packaging). As a result,

they have the highest value at risk at 3.9% of annual revenue. This would wipe out the profits of several companies if they had to pay the full cost of environmental damage caused by plastic. That is a finding that should make the chief financial officer sit up and take note”. In other words: The toy industry ranks #1 due to its heavy use of plastics, with famous toy brands shown to be indifferent to environmental issues, and, more so than any other consumer sector, to have no thought for the financial consequences of this irresponsible behaviour. Any awareness of the fact that, if these external costs were internalised, their economic model and financial stability would be at risk, seems lacking. Such disregard for environmental responsibility can be fatal to an industry’s image. This obliviousness to environmental concerns, while at the same time continuing to be a heavy (ab)user, will become even more risky with the increasing visibility of climate change and the public outrage this has awakened. Children and young people have taken to the streets to call for strict and powerful action, as they see climate change as the biggest threat to their future. In a survey conducted among almost 11,000 people aged 15-30, climate change ranked as the number one concern [2]. Toy makers who respond to issues by reviewing the materials they use in the light of sustainability performance criteria,

Figure 1 Total natural capital cost and intensity of selected sectors Source [1] 23%


16,000 14,000


12,000 10,000










4,000 2,000





1% 2%











































Corresponds approximately to over 80 million tonnes of plastic. Trucost calculations derived from, but not limited to, World Bank [7]; PlasticsEurope [8]; Eurostat [9], and the US EPA [10] datasets (full set of references and methodologies available in appendices 3 and 4 of this report). 10

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14


A perfect win win? i.e. longevity, circularity and greenhouse gas emissions, will benefit from a growing green consumerism. Failure to find an adequate response may put the whole business at risk as climate change will surely trigger measures to internalise such costs, e.g. through CO2 tariffs. Pioneers like the famous toy brand LEGO, with its clear commitment to making the transition to sustainable materials, will push others to take action. The bio!TOY conference showed how many brands and players from the toy industry are already searching for solutions. The sector is ready for development partnerships.

An analysis of the supply side and user sector adopted EU legislation on the reduction of certain single use plastics items in the environment, which is a threat to the bioplastics industry as a whole. With bans and reduction targets almost everywhere around the globe, the biggest market for biodegradable plastics is up for discussion. Future growth perspectives now rely on how biodegradability will be treated under the new legislation – and whether such products will be exempt from reduction measures [4]. Biobased plastics are facing other challenges as well. The EU Circular Economy policy and its related plastic strategy rank recyclability and the uptake of recycled materials as priority number #1 amongst the envisaged measures. The perspectives of biobased and biodegradable polymers in its #1 market packaging - will strongly depend on whether full compatibility with existing (!) recycling schemes is achieved or not. Products which are hard to recycle, and where recycled content is hard to realise will be also reviewed, and changes in design or materials are likely to occur. As a consequence, the biobased plastics industry needs to review and re-position itself according to these heavy-weighing, global drivers (#NewPlasticEconomy).

The biobased industry - supply side analysis For a long time, the plastics market remained almost untouched by issues such as pollution and over-consumption. Single-use food service packaging and many other shortlife plastic products abounded. As public and legal concerns mounted, the food service packaging sector increasingly turned to biodegradable and compostable plastics and is by far the biggest application segment for this type of plastic today. The study “Consumption of biodegradable plastics in Europe 2015 / 2020” [3] revealed that around 80% of the sales were bags and serviceware like drinking cups or cutlery. Now, however, service packaging is being hit by new regulations: products made from biodegradable plastics are currently not exempt from recently

One element which biodegradable or non-biodegradable plastic products have in common is the renewable or biobased content, which usually results in a low carbon polymer profile.


Priorities for the EU Source: [2]

For young people,the main priorities for EU action in the 10 years to come are:


Young people most likely to see this as a priority are…


67 % 2

70 %

including the free movement of students, apprentices or pupils 2


56 % 4

15-19 yo


56 % 3



71 %

63 % 25-30 yo

64 %

…those still studying

72 %

Young people most likely to see this as a priority are those… … who stayed abroad

61 %

… involved in volunteering

60 %


… living in small towns


49 %



52 %

… who have a negative opinion about the EU

56 %

1 In 11 countries more than two thirds of young people believe environment and climate change should be a priority: Denmark, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Austria, Portugal, Sweden, Belgium, Czechia, Ireland and Spain 2 In 17 countries more than half young people believe that education and training should be a priority at EU level. Netherlands, Hungary, Portugal, Germany, Bulgaria, France, UK, Ireland, Luxembourg, Austria, Spain, Romania, Latvia, Greece, Denmark, Czechia, Belgium 3 In 20 countries half of young people or more believe that fighting poverty economic and social inequalities should be a priority at EU level. Portugal, Germany, Luxembourg, Greece, Belgium, Austria, Cyprus, France, Denmark, Spain, Latvia, Hungary, Estonia, Ireland, Bulgaria, Netherlands, UK, Croatia, Malta, Slovenia 4 In 15 countries, half or more of young people believe that boosting employment and tackling unemployment should be a priority at EU level. Belgium, Bulgaria, Greece, Spain, Croatia, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Luxembourg, Hungary, Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Finland

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14



Greenhouse gas emissions KgCO 2e per kg of product 10 Greenhouse gas emissions 8 KgCO 2e per kg of product 6 10

Fossil-based polymers

48 26

Fossil-based polymers

Bio-based polymers

04 -22

Bio-based polymers

-40 0







megajoules (10 6 joules) per kg of product

-4 0





Fossil-based polymers include: Bio-based polymers include: polypropylene (PP), bio-based polylactic acid (PLA), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), bio-based polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), bio-based polyethylene (PE). polyethylene terapthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS), Fossil-based polymers include: Bio-based polymers include: polycarbonate polypropylene(PC). (PP), bio-based polylactic acid (PLA), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), bio-based polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), bio-based polyethylene (PE). terapthalate Source: polyethylene JRC, 2017 (upper panel);(PET), WEF et al., 2016 (lower panel). polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC). “bioplastics” on climate change contributions rather both industries.

Selling than biodegradability is not a complete novelty in this industry, but has hardly a 2017 game changer in sales discussions Source:been JRC, (upper panel); WEF et al., 2016 (lower panel).in the past. Now, as climate change becomes a number one topic everywhere from politics to the nursery, new opportunities are opening up for biobased plastics.

The biobased plastics industry cannot just deliver on CO2 reduction targets. Looking at toys, and how these are made, it is becoming evident that a combination of functionalities and design characteristics are needed to make a fun and functional toy. The wide spectrum of biobased polymers - polyolefins, PET, polyesters, PAs, (T)PUs or TPEs, and compounds made thereof - allow for a wide use of applications, ranging from fiberbased toys and fillers, soft or hard surfaces, puppets, figures, games or building blocks and many, many more. Biobased CO2-saving polymers can partly or completely replace the conventional plastics used for toys in many applications. The bio!TOY conference has shown that even the initial portfolio is spectacular, and that there are almost no limits to the opportunities for to explore partners.

Fusion & Conclusion For the biobased industry, the development of the toy application sector holds many opportunities and overall, good perspectives. Development will be widespread, driven by the need for so many different toy functionalities, as toy makers embrace the low carbon and GHG emission profile of biobased plastics. The toy sector offers a perfect place for storytelling and for winning over future consumers who are now still in the nursery - in all segments of plastic use. A partnership between the biobased industry and the world’s toy makers presents the opportunity needed to develop sustainable and safe products and solutions against future threats. And to win parents and grandparents today and tomorrow. All in all, this was the basic idea behind the bio!TOY conference. All those who attended and participated in the conference agreed that it had successfully distilled this vision into a practical platform for knowledge exchange and partnering. This first meeting between the biobased industry and the toy industry was an important initial step to support and promote transitions in



Depletion of fossil resources

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14



Depletion of fossil resources megajoules (10 6 joules) per kg of product

Source: JRC, 2017 [upper panel]; WEF et al., 2016 [lower panel]. (in: EU ENV Agency 27 Aug 2018 [5])

Participants were calling for more and we are ready to serve them. [1]: Valuing Plastics: The Business Case for Measuring, Managing and Disclosing Plastic Use in the Consumer Goods Industry, (pdf at tinyurl.com/ valuingplastics) [2]: http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/index.cfm/survey/ getsurveydetail/instruments/flash/surveyky/2224 or tinyurl.com/surveyyoung-people [3]: Kaeb, H.: Market study on the consumption of biodegradable and compostable plastic products in Europe 2015 and 2020, (editor nova institute, April 2016), tinyurl.com/study-consumption [4]: N.N.: Single-use plastics directive fails to acknowledge potential of biodegradable plastics; (European Bioplastics) tinyurl.com/single-usedirective [5]: N.N.: The circular economy and the bioeconomy, Partners in sustainability, https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/circular-economy-andbioeconomy?mc_cid=d946509efd&mc_eid=5bc8123860 or tinyurl.com/eea-circular www.narocon.de | www.bio-toy.info

The first bio!TOY conference organized by bioplastics MAGAZINE together with Harald Kaeb (narocon) took place on 27 and 28 March 2019 in Nuremberg, Germany. The event, which covered topics ranging from technical and ecological issues to practical examples in the market attracted 90 delegates from major players from the entire value chain around the world, including brands such as Lego, Mattel, Playmobil, Habermaaß, Ravensburger and Zapf Creation. Companies that already offer toys made of bioplastics, such as Zoë B, eKoala, Lego, Bioserie, BioBlo, and TicToys shared their experience. Speakers and exhibitors from the bioplastics industry included DuPont, Braskem, Hexpol, Neste, and Total-Corbion, as well as compounders such as Greendot Bioplastics, Tecnaro and FKuR. The participants agreed that there is great development potential. The conference with exhibition was also much welcomed as a platform for dialogue and cooperation. Read also the post-bio!TOY press release at tinyurl.com/biotoy-press

Harald Kaeb, Michael Thielen


Binabo and other sustainable toys A success-story


icToys is a toy manufacturer based in Leipzig, Germany. Founded in 2011 by Matthias Meister and Tony Ramenda, the company has since grown from what was simply a fun idea into a serious player in the international toy market - and a pioneer in the use of bioplastics to produce toys. From the very start, TicToys has adhered to its founding principles: 1. Create toys that foster movement and active play 2. Promote creative and open-ended play by simple design 3. Use high quality materials and processing technologies 4. Only use all natural and renewable materials 5. Produce gender-neutral toys 6. All toys are to be locally „Made in Germany“ The result is a brand with a promises to deliver “Die neue Spielzeugkultur“ (“The new way to play“).


From the very beginning, Tony and Matthias believed in manufacturing their toys from renewable raw materials from the product to the packaging. “Our intention has always been to encourage sustainable consumer behaviour in this area as well,” the two explained, who have since brought their sixth toy creation to market, named Binabo. “This was by far our most difficult project. We spent five years working on a single perfect toy construction element made from bioplastic. The flexible components, which differ only in colour, can be assembled as desired and allow unlimited combination options.” Binabo is also manufactured from a special Arboblend grade. The material is flexible, extremely stable, free of toxins and suitable for indoor and outdoor use.

Holding to these core tenets has meant that is has not always been easy to participate in today’s fast-changing and highly competitive toy market. In particular, the fourth on the list – the company’s determination to use “all natural and renewable materials“ - presented a major challenge, when it came to broadening the product range.

The idea for the Binabo originated from the project to create a ball that can be juggled barefoot - just as has been a tradition in Myanmar for 1500 years. The local pastime called Chinlone, - is a combination of sport and dance and is played with a ball traditionally woven from rattan. However, the bioplastic “Made in Germany” can be used for more than just for making the Chinlone ball.

Although the company originally produced only wooden toys, TicToys first came into the contact with bioplastics during the development of its Tualoop” outdoor game. The ame is played with two sticks that are used to catch and throw a ring – the Tualoop – in various ways.

“The elements can be simply clicked together to create an infinite number of movement games: Throwing discs, catching cups, cones or even a basketball basket are possible. The colorful chips invite you to construct the most daring figures and shapes,” explained Tony.

During the product development, the rings were initially made from wood. However, this soon proved to be the wrong choice, both due to the rigidity of the material and its high cost. In search of an alternative, TicToys stumbled across the possibility of using a bioplastic material and, after researching the subject, decided in favour of Arboblend® compounds. This advanced biomaterial from Tecnaro (Ilsfeld, Germany) consists of a blend of different biobased plastics and wood fibres and is therefore one hundred percent natural.

In the end, it almost doesn’t matter what comes out of it. “It’s about being creative. This is something that nowadays, children are all too often denied. That’s why we hadn’t originally planned to include any building instructions.” Children are more creative than many adults suspect and therefore do not ask for instructions. However, many parents ask for instructions, because they do not have enough confidence in their children’s creativity.

Many trials and tests with different compounds followed, with as result a fantastic game – Tualoop was released in 2013 – that pioneered the use of bioplastics in the toy industry.

Tualoop (Photo: TicToys)

Today, the two entrepreneurs export their toys from the plant in Leipzig to all over the world. However, they still buy cardboard boxes for the packaging from ”nearby” Chemnitz. “Regionality has always been part of our philosophy,” said Mattias. “Production steps that cannot be implemented regionally at least remain in Germany,” he concluded. MT

Levi playing with Binabo during bio!TOY 2019 (Photo: Oliver Reinhardt)

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Relaunch of ocean-safe beach toys


In 2011, Zoë b Organic launched the world’s first biodegradable beach toys using Mirel, a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) bioplastic made from corn sugars which meets established standards for biodegradation in marine environments. Manufactured in the USA, the toys were sold online and also picked up by Pottery Barn Kids, among other retailers. However, disruptions and unfavorable economics in the product’s supply caused Zoë b Organic to ultimately stop selling its beach toys. In 2017, Alterra Plastics, a compounding company operating out of Seymour, Indiana (USA), focused on the emerging need for plant-based and biodegradable materials and re-initiated the development of PHA-based thermoplastic compounds. In collaboration with DuPont BioMaterials, a new family of compounds was developed. TerraBio® is a PHA-based resin that incorporates Nuvolve™ Engineered PolySaccharides to enhance mechanical properties and the overall aesthetics of derived injection-molded products. With building blocks that are all plant-based and inherently biodegradable, these new


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ISSN 1862-5258

September / October

05 | 2014

Highlights Fibers & Textiles | 12 Toys | 36

... is read in 91


Beach toys by Zoë b made from PHA, p. 44

Vol. 9

So how do we start turning the corner toward products that are useful without continuing to destroy our oceans? In 2011, Valerie Lecoeur, founder of Zoë b Organic (Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA), decided to tackle the problem right where she found it every summer–on the beach, in the hands of her kids (cf. bM 02/2011). As a mother of three young children, it sickened her to see the number of stray shovels and orphaned, plastic beach-bucket handles washed up on the shore. So, she decided to use the technology available at the time to make smarter beach toys that are safer for both kids and the environment.

Today Valerie and Zoë b Organic are grateful to be partnering with DuPont to relaunch her Ocean-Safe Beach Toys in the U.S. this summer. While technology continues to evolve, Valerie remains steadfast in her mission: “Bioplastics may not be the solution for replacing all plastics, but those that biodegrade in marine environments are the perfect replacement for every beach toy on the planet.” MT


Of even greater consequence is that fact that much of this debris breaks down over time into tiny particles smaller than 5 mm. These microplastics are found in marine habitats everywhere on earth, and they don’t biodegrade. According to 5 Gyres, a non-profit fighting global plastic pollution, the 2017 United Nations Clean Seas Campaign estimated that there are 51 trillion microplastic particles in the ocean today—500 times more than the number of stars in our galaxy. Unfortunately for the ocean’s ecosystem, marine animals, and even humans who consume seafood, these marine plastics persist and have the potential to cause real harm.

compounds are designed to meet established certification standards for biodegradation into carbon dioxide, water, and biomass–thus avoiding the generation of microplastics and providing the ideal material for beach toys that accidentally get washed out to sea.


bout 350 million tonnes of plastic is produced globally every year with approximately 25 % of it used in packaging, most of which is designed for single use. (The average North American throws away about 100 kg of plastic each year.) An estimated 32 % of all packaging leaks out of the system, leading to both land and ocean pollution. As a result, more than 8 million tonnes of plastic trash winds up in the oceans annually, adding to the estimated 150 million tonnes that’s currently in the marine environments.

Cover-Story bioplastics MAGAZINE 05/2014



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Baby toys – safe and sustainable Simple, down to earth designs made from the safest of biomaterials may be the classic playthings of tomorrow


he Bioserie brand was created at the end of 2009 as an initiative of bioplastic enthusiasts eager to use these exciting new materials to make durable consumer products. While the first products were phone accessories, the self-funded Hong-Kong-based venture soon turned to developing and selling toys. The founders, who are also parents, wanted to use their know-how to bring to families useful basics made entirely of biomaterials, that were smart, fun to play with, and convenient for day-to-day use. The company decided first to focus on baby toys: logically speaking, babies are the ones at greater risk when exposed to traditional plastics. Concern is mounting, both among medical experts in the pediatrics field and the general public, about the lack of (sufficient) screening for the use of harmful chemicals in the toy industry. Since Bioserie has been committed from the start to using only non-petrochemical components, they are firmly convinced that they can answer the needs of the most worried and demanding clients of the sector: parents of babies and infants.

From idea to product Building a new product line that works, with only limited means at their disposal, the brand’s founders have had to be resourceful. First, that meant taking into account the limitations of the material they are working with, which is mostly PLA based. The costs of the PLA compound are significantly higher than that of conventional commodity plastics. Injection moulding cycle times are longer, and it is necessary to use moulds of very high quality. The material is fairly rigid and prone to breaking if not managed properly.


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Toys Therefore, design ideas had to be screened with all these factors in mind to determine the shapes that could be used; and the team had to anticipate potential pain points during assembly or fitting to minimize later trial and error testing processes. Of course, they also had to take into account the price limit that would be acceptable for consumers. They have therefore positioned their offering at prices comparable to toys made from natural materials, such as wood, natural rubber or eco-fabrics. They knew from the start that they would not be able to compete with regular plastics: their objective was to make no compromises on their value proposition and refuse to use any petrochemical additives. Both by necessity, but also because they believe that quality is better than quantity, Bioserie’s owners decided to build a line focused on the basic needs of babies, with six different types of products: ƒƒ Stage 1 (babies aged 0-3 months): Two simple toys for babies to teethe on and to help them grasp (Star Teether and Interlocking Disks, both available in two colors); ƒƒ Stage 2 (babies aged 3-6 months): Two rattles which encourage observation skills and the discovery of the cause and effect relationship (one round shaped rattle and one dumbbell shaped rattle), ƒƒ Stage 3 (babies aged 6-12 months): Two types of stackers which are about matching and learning shapes, sizes, and improving gross motor skills. Bioserie has obtained a patent for the design of its Shape Sorting and Stacking Cube, and their 2-in-1 Stacker has proved to be one of their most popular items over the past year. The progressive concept of the product line is communicated by different colors on the packaging sides for each developmental stage.

The importance of teamwork To get to this point, the brand has been fortunate in being able to gather together a team of motivated and talented people to support them. The brand owners have worked with Batug Koprulu, an industrial designer, to formalize their design ideas and transform sketches into a 3D reality. They have had the support of Dominic Mak, who is a renowned biomaterials scientist, as well as endorsement from leading figures in the toy and nursery industry, such as Pamela Marcus, who created the now famous Lifefactory brand, and Jeff Cornelison, who worked for a long time for Kids II. Making 100 % biobased toys is no easy game, as Bioserie discovered, and far more is needed than scientific knowledge alone. Dedication and enthusiasm is required from everyone involved in the chain to make it work: the people with the idea and the people who actually help turn these ideas into real and effective products. And the process is one of constant fine-tuning. The first toy test run was in 2015, a patent process in 2016 was initiated and since 2017, the company has been creating its own compound, as a means to increase supply chain reliability and facilitate scaling up scenarios. Compounding now takes place at the injection moulding facilities.

By: Stephanie Triau Bioserie

The Bioserie team now feels that they have a CPLA compound that delivers what they wanted: no petrochemicals, high temperature resistance, a better melt flow vs. other compounds they have used, consistency of results across all the different geometries used, good quality touch and feel results. That said, they’re always on the lookout for potential new additives that could enhance the product or make the job easier or better and are frequently in conversations with players in the field.

From the product to the consumer Yes, we’re at a time when the biobased materials trend is going mainstream. 85% of consumers have stated they are committed to buying more sustainable products; policy makers and big brands have also implemented strong initiatives in this direction. However, from Bioserie’s perspective, the key selling point for what they do is chemical safety: over 70% of consumers actually prioritize health and safety over environmental concerns. To communicate their difference vs. other materials clearly to customers, Bioserie is proud to have received two exclusive certifications. Their toys are the first and only to be 100 % biobased certified by the USDA (ASTM D6866: no fossil carbon), and to have obtained MADESAFE’s certification (MADESAFE is a growing third party certification in the US which focuses on non-food products and thoroughly screens each and every chemical used to ensure that they are not dangerous for human health nor for our environment). According to Bioserie, biobased products like theirs should be considered to be “new luxury products”. In other words, products customers can trade up for in their particular category, i.e spend more on them and waive the price concern). Bioserie focusses and delivers on the three key points that influence the decision process: they have technical differences (good design), they deliver health and environmental benefits (a functional performance), and they allow their buyers them to do their bit for the environment (we all like to support a good cause, and these toys don’t use anything that can’t grow again). www.bioserie.com

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By: Johnny Koch Hansen Sales Manager Dantoy Hobro, Denmark


antoy (Hobro, Denmark) has been developing and manufacturing quality toys in Denmark for more than 50 years. In that time, the company has grown into one of the biggest manufacturers of plastic toys in the Nordic countries.

In February 2018, dantoy launched its new line of BIO products, which has gained much more attention than initially anticipated. Today, more than 15% of all dantoy’s products are made from bio materials, a development clearly contributing to this toy company’s healthy sales figures. Located in the middle of Jutland in Denmark and employing some 50 employees, most of whom have been with the company for more than 10 years, dantoy’s production facilities span an area of 15,000 m2. In addition, dantoy employs a number of affiliated colleagues who assemble the products at home or at sheltered workshops. All this says something about dantoy’s DNA, and the company culture dantoy is known for. There is nothing strange about dantoy’s decision to introduce its new bio line last year. It is simply a part of the company’s DNA. Ten years ago, the company’s first products certified with the Nordic Swan, the official ecolabel of the Nordic Countries, appeared on the market. Dantoy’s much-loved scooter, a product familiar to almost every child in Denmark, was the first to bear the label. Today, more than 98 % of all dantoy’s core products have earned certification and carry the Nordic Swan Ecolabel and more are on the way. Dantoy chose to have its products certified because it was the best way to show the customers that children can use all these products without any concerns. Plastic toys licensed for the Nordic Swan Ecolabel must


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Danish bio-toys a success story Products made from sugarcane are a natural development for the Danish toy manufacturer dantoy

comply with the world’s strictest requirements for plastic contents, going far beyond the Danish law. For instance, products bearing the Nordic Swan Ecolabel may not contain harmful substances such as phthalates, perfume, BPA or endocrinedisruptive substances. All this says much about the high standard to which dantoy’s products are manufactured. The world’s first toys to be licensed for the Nordic Swan Ecolabel were from dantoy. The company received their first licence for the Nordic Swan Ecolabel as early as in 2010. The bio product line started with an idea. Like any other dantoy product, the new line needed to comply with the company’s strategy and goals to develop high-quality toys with an environmental focus. There was no doubt that dantoy wanted to create a bio line but achieving the quality required to meet dantoy’s high standards proved to be a challenge. After a few years of struggle and cooperation with the different raw material suppliers, dantoy found a raw material good enough for their new bio line: Braskem’s Green PE™, supplied by FKuR. For now, dantoy is happy to produce its high-quality products in the new bio

Toys material, but the company continues to further develop and improve its bio products on an ongoing basis. At the moment, dantoy has only one raw material at its disposal to make the bio products, while it uses more than twenty different raw materials for its other products. For example, it is currently not possible to produce the scooter from bio material, although this remains a long-term goal for the future. The newest member to join the dantoy family of products is its Tiny line: bio products especially developed for babies. Dantoy is the first in the world to make baby products in bio material, certified with the Nordic Swan. All dantoy products stand for both high quality and care for the environmental, so customers can choose between bio or conventional. One of the company’s goals is to broaden the knowledge of its products in all its 50 different markets. In addition to using biobased plastic raw materials for the bio and Tiny lines, dantoy tries to minimise the impact of its operations on the environment. The company has therefore implemented eco-friendly processes to manage the consumption of energy, water and raw materials and to prevent the possibility of accidental releases or emissions via the manufacturing process. It is important for dantoy to be the best, and to produce the best toys possible, so that children around the world can play safely every day, while they develop their motor skills, learning skills, social skills etc. This is what drives dantoy forward and also the main reason the company chose to certify its products with the Nordic Ecolabel 10 years ago. It’s also why it has now chosen to produce the new Tiny line. www.dantoy.dk


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Bioplastic items for kids… a real bet


peaking at the inaugural bio!TOY Conference was a major event for eKoala, said Beatrice Radaelli, cofounder of the company. bioplastics MAGAZINE talked to her about what it took to start a bioplastics toy company. bM: Why was the bio!TOY such a special event for you? Beatrice: Speaking at bio!TOY was a great opportunity for us to think and finally to talk about what we have done and the results we have achieved so far. bM: How did it all start? Beatrice: After we started our project, and officially founded the company in 2014, we spent more than two years doing research and development work. As a first result, we could officially launch the first eKoala line of products at the end of 2016.

that was suitable for injection moulding made using the highest possible percentage of raw materials from renewable resources. In addition, the material had to be biodegradable as we felt that to gain the full advantages of using a bioplastic, this should be both renewably sourced and biodegradable. bM: Who were your partners? Beatrice: After contacting quite a few bioplastic manufacturers around the world, we finally discovered Mater-bi. The fact that the material is made by an Italian company also allowed us to label our products ‘100 % Made in Italy.’ bM: And then you could “hit the road” and start production? Beatrice: After finally deciding in favour of MaterBi, it still took a while to produce our item number 1. It was a mixture of happiness, pride and relief when we held it in our hands for the first time. Item number 1 is still on our desk, reminding us every day of all the hard work we did to get to it.

bM: What challenges did you face and how did you master them? Beatrice: One of the most difficult issues was finding the right material to obtain a good and stable product. We were looking for a material

eKaboom 20

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Beatrice Radaelli and her brother Daniele Radaelli

Interview with Beatrice Radaelli (Interview: Caroli Buitenhuis, Green Serendipity)

bM: How was the market entry? Beatrice: The following two years (2017-2018) were needed to test the products with the customers. It was a hard start. People are not always aware of what bioplastic really is and the commonly used term “bioplastic” does not really help to identify a material that is different from traditional plastic. That’s one of the reasons why accurate and clear communication is really important when dealing with bioplastic products. bM: How are sales today? Beatrice: In the years since, we have built up and strengthened the distribution in Italy. Our products are available in more than 300 shops all around Italy today. But we also worked to spread our distribution internationally. We now have customers in Germany, Scandinavia and the Baltics, Poland and other Eastern countries. We are discussing possible collaborations with distributors in the USA and in China. bM: Your first line consisted of baby food and teething products, What came then? Beatrice: Each year, we invest in the development of new products to broaden the portfolio. After introducing our basic line, last year we launched the first eKoala toy. eKaboom is a multifunctional stacking toy, that can also serve as a percussion instrument. Currently we are working on two new toys for 2019.

We STARCH your bioplastics.




bM: Are you satisfied? Beatrice: The numbers are not very high yet, but we keep on working to increase our areas of distribution. It’s really hard work, especially for a tiny company like ours. Somebody at the bioToy! conference said the bioplastics have not made him rich…nor us, either. bM: Some final words? Beatrice: But we truly believe in what we are doing and we are still enthusiastic about that. We will keep on working and studying because we strongly believe it’s high time to make a change and we know we are on the right path. MT www.ekoala.eu

AGENACOMP resins are suitable for films of less than 15 µm. Regional & GMO-free – made from our starch. Sustainable – up to 50 % renewable ressources. Home-compostable – no microplastic residues. AGRANA.COM



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Consumer attitudes and bioplastics for Eco-babies & Bio-parenting

By: Clara Blasco, Design & Trend Researcher at Consumer Insights Ana Ibáñez, Bioplastic Researcher at Innovative Materials & Manufacturing Paco Varela, European Project Manager at R&D Department María Costa, R&D Director AIJU, Technological Institute for children’s products and leisure Ibi, Spain.


nvironmental protection is a challenge that cannot be faced by political and economic means alone. As society at large awakens to this task, the children’s products sector must have the commitment to contribute by incorporating environmental values in toy production and consumption. Companies have the responsibility to create innovative strategies to enhance sustainability. In this respect, the owners of companies in the children’s products industry are key stakeholders in implementing and accelerating the biobased economy. Understanding parents’ requirements and attitudes and implementing research into biobased plastics are two ways to face this new reality. AIJU, the Technological Institute for Children’s Products and Leisure — a European research institution which aims to boost research, development and technological innovation in children’s products — have a long history of work on issues of sustainability. Among other competences, AIJU has expertise in studies with children and families as users and consumers as well as research into new plastic materials to be applied in the children’s sector.

New parents, new values The term sustainability means protecting the environment and its natural resources in order to maintain an ecological balance. In this respect, society is acquiring greater awareness of issues related to the environment that are, now more than ever before, influencing the purchasing decisions of today’s new parents — the millennials. Millennials are the generation of people who reached young adulthood in the early twenty-first century, and as parents they have new values and preferences. Families are aware of social challenges: society has undergone the so-called fourth wave of feminism, parents are demanding effective work-life balance policies, and they are also promoting equality and denouncing


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gender stereotypes. Beyond these issues, society has been becoming more activist. On the other hand, new parents are aware of environmental challenges such as climate change and plastic pollution. There is also an increasing concern about air pollution. Parents want to keep their children safe by using products that help create a healthier environment for their babies. It is also relevant that many new parents want to protect children from consumerism. They have a new concept of consumption which is defined by welcoming practices that reduce consumerism and the rise of use of second-hand articles and renting activities. Although each new parenting style understands sustainability differently, a sensitivity towards this concept is common to all of them. Whereas some parents only look for essential products that are respectful to people and the planet — products they can justify purchasing — other profiles understand that a product is sustainable when is adaptable for different ages and the product has a long life. There are other kinds of parents who seek products with an eco concept that is linked with quality, exclusivity, and luxury, whereas others will buy eco products if they offer the healthiest option in the market. The understanding of social changes, together with an awareness of governmental policies and the campaigns being initiated by large companies across several sectors, highlights the need for an in-depth reflexion in the children’s sector.

Sustainability approaches for the toy industry Sustainability can be approached in several ways — not only by introducing eco-friendly materials, but by employing manufacturing processes, carrying out campaigns, or designing play proposals that are in harmony with improving people’s lives and the health of our planet. The text below lays out a series of measures and practices that companies targeting the children’s market can apply to their strategic definition, product development, and marketing strategies in order to achieve a meaningful and respectful impact.

New and old materials that make the difference Toy companies have at their disposal a range of materials that are environmentally friendly, and are perceived as such by consumers. If a single material can be named as iconic,


Figure 1. From left to right: BIOROT, FLEXIROT, ROTELEC and NATURBIOFITOPLAG demonstrators of the mentioned biobased projects.

it is most certainly that of wood. Nevertheless, not just any wood will be accepted. Nowadays, society is highly informed, so parents will look for toys made with wood from forests with an FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) certification — the well-known seal that guarantees the correct management of forest resources. There are other interesting options, such as cardboard. Toys made of recycled cardboard are readily perceived as being eco, as society is generally aware of this material and understands how it can be given a second use. Regarding cork, the use of this material is seen in several toy categories — not just in building blocks to stack, but in more technically complex proposals, such as building bricks, construction games, board games, vehicles, ride-ons and sensory toys for toddlers. For years now, bamboo has been used to manufacture sustainable toys. Companies such as Hape or Janod introduced it to offer a distinctive solution for new products. Organic fabric, especially organic cotton, is the most widely known eco-friendly fabric. At present, its use has extended beyond children’s clothes and textiles and it is now used in childcare products — one example is the Kikadu play gym. It is even possible to find it in products that are not in actual contact with children, such as children’s mobiles. This shows that organic fabrics are not only valued for being good for humans, but for being good for the planet too. Furthermore, toys made from natural rubber have been well received by parents — those with children aged up to 3 years have the greatest number of products available, a wide range of articles — including bath toys, rattles, teethers, and sensory toys — have been designed for this target. The reason behind it being well received by parents is partly motivated by the unified communication strategy (conducted by the companies that use it) of its origin and its environmental benefits. Among all these possibilities, there are also interesting opportunities for the plastic toy industry. Nowadays, the bioplastics industry is becoming more present in the children’s sector, from toys to childcare products. Making products with recycled plastic is one of the options which prove the potential of a new era of plastics. One example is the Ocean Bound Plastic Tide Pool Set by Green toys, which is made with recycled plastic that has been collected from global communities that lack waste-collection infrastructure. Another is the Bugaboo

stroller brand, which uses recycled PET plastic to manufacture the fabrics of the Bugaboo Fox. Another alternative is biocomposite plastics, and it is possible to find toys made from a combination of natural fibres, or wood flour mixed with recycled, biodegradable, or biobased plastics, such as the Dump truck by Luke’s toy factory, which is made from recycled organic fibres (sawdust from furniture factories) and recycled plastic. Among these alternatives, the toy industry is beginning to opt for biobased plastics — plastics made from plant-based materials — which may be non-biodegradable, biodegradable, or compostable. Both well-established and new companies are introducing toys with these materials in their product portfolio — such as Dantoy, who have launched a brand-new “I’m green” line of bioplastic products made from at least 90% sugarcane. We also encounter brands such as eKoala or BiOBUDDi, who are building their entire brands — and their value proposition — on sustainable values.

Research projects about bioplastics in the toy industry In this context, the Technological Institute for Children’s Products and Leisure (AIJU) in Spain has, over the past ten years, been studying the possibility of incorporating biodegradable materials in the manufacture of toys and other consumer products by means of injection (BIOTOYS Project, 2008), rotational moulding (BIOROT project, 2011, ROTELEC 2013 or FLEXIROT, 2018) or blowing (NATURBIOFITOPLAG) (Figure 1). In these projects, the traditional material is replaced by biobased material. Another noteworthy example was the LIFE MASTALMOND project (2011–2014) (Figure 2), in which the objective was the development of new masterbatches, or colour concentrates, based on biodegradable thermoplastics (PLA, PHB, starchbased polymer), containing a natural waste product — almond shells. This filler provides lightness while maintaining adequate hardness and rigidity levels according to industrial standards and is easily processed, which makes it especially interesting in the field of non-structural compound materials from an economic point of view, in addition to its low environmental impact.

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Toys According to the latest market data compiled by European Bioplastics in cooperation with the research consultancy novaInstitute, global bioplastics production capacity is set to increase from around 2.11 million tonnes in 2018 to approximately 2.62 million tonnes in 2023. Furthermore, it is a fact that bioplastics are being used in an increasing number of markets, from packaging, catering products, consumer electronics, toys, the automotive industry, agriculture/horticulture, to textiles and a number of other industries. Despite these positive prospects, the high cost and difficulty of achieving certain mechanical or thermal properties with currently existing biobased materials are some drawbacks that have arisen. Currently, AIJU is working on two projects related to biodegradable materials. The first, the B-PLAS project, whose objective is to achieve an automated treatment plant that enables food waste, WWT (Waste Water Treatment) sludge, and other organic waste to be cheaply and efficiently converted into polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), a biodegradable plastic of biological origin, useful for packaging, one-use articles, toys, among other uses. The second, Becoming Green, aims to develop and improve some properties (thermal or mechanical) of biobased plastics to adapt them to the quality and safety requirements of consumer products, toys, and the household sector.

The power of the play proposal: sustainable topics The TrendGallery at the Spielwarenmesse Toy Fair is a platform which presents the latest toy trends with new toys and know-how for the industry. In 2018, it announced the new trend Explore Nature, which continues to be important. This trend is about encouraging children to discover nature and its inhabitants for themselves and experience and investigate the world with all their senses.

Children’s companies should communicate these good practices to the final consumer. Those which are most conscious of this aspect are involved in designing specific self-explanatory icons and graphics to be included in their packaging, introducing sustainable values in their claims, and creating sustainable manifestos or environmental campaigns supporting reforestation or endangered species by donations to NGOs and non-profit organisations.

Conclusion There are several ways to implement changes and strategies into children’s products and marketing campaigns in order to be able to achieve improvements in the sustainability of businesses in the children’s sector. In this sense, toys are a powerful tool to educate the society of the future by opting for materials and processes that are more respectful of people and the environment, and, moreover, by generating play proposals related to helping children acquire an ecological vision of the world. Today’s new parents — millennials that are becoming mums and dads — are more aware of their contradictions as consumers and feel the need to act. They seek to bring up their children with sustainable products in multiple areas — such as fashion, food, and toys — more so now than ever before. The eco concept in toys will grow in importance for many years! www.aiju.info

Children learn about the adult world through play. Themes such as fruits, vegetables, gardening, and the observation and exploration of the environment are great for this. Parents really perceive them as perfect ways to instil good values related to sustainability. It is also possible to raise awareness by introducing topics related to recycling. Toy recycling trucks have been seen before, but now the theme is being used in board games, dolls, ride-ons and other toy categories as well.

Gentle manufacturing processes: do it and communicate it Beyond positively valuing sustainable products, new parents seek companies which are consistent in all their actions — not only by introducing eco-friendly materials and themes, but also the manufacturing process involved, which is obviously a relevant aspect when analysing whether a toy company is offering sustainable alternatives for the children’s sector. One possibility is to employ eco-friendly processes. This means using manufacturing processes that are sustainable or respectful to the environment, renewable energy sources, meeting safety standards, having environmental certifications, or creating healthy work environments. Moreover, it is possible to reinforce the concept of sustainability by communicating the social value which the toy brings to the market. This means taking into consideration not only the “made in”, but also the “made by”, which is crucial. Some companies are deciding to manufacture in countries and areas where they can actually have a positive impact on the community, helping specific people in need. These actions are also perceived as sustainable.


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Figure 2. Ride-on toy (top) and furniture (bottom) performed with MASTALMOND biobased masterbatches.


Toymakers find many paths to sustainability


oys are one of the most competitive consumer markets. Parents have a myriad of choices from hundreds of manufacturers. In the past decade several toy companies have distinguished themselves in a crowded marketplace by offering toys made with materials created to lighten their environmental impact. Successful companies convey specific value propositions for their products that allow consumers to understand how these products can help contribute to a more sustainable world. Green Dot Bioplastics (Emporia, Kansas, USA) is proud to have worked with award winning toymakers, creating 100% plant-based biocomposites for plastic toys. And, they have helped to make toys designed to biodegrade when their useful life has ended. “We’re also excited to be working with companies seeking to make toys that consumers already know and love more sustainable by reducing non-renewable resources used in its production,” says Kevin Ireland, Communications Manager at Green Dot Bioplastics. “We think that all of these strategies are beneficial, and believe that consumers will respond positively when presented with a clear and accurate value proposition. It’s not enough to simply say a product is ‘greener,’ brand owners must tell consumers how toys are more sustainable and why this matters.” Understanding material properties and the environmental advantages of bioplastic materials is a crucial first step for both product development and marketing. Bioplastics made from plant-based materials decrease dependence on fossil resources, and can lower GHG emissions. Biodegradable bioplastics can serve as an integral role in a closed loop system, where feedstocks are returned to nature after their useful life has ended. In addition, bioplastics are free from toxic plasticizers that parents seek to avoid, like petroleumbased phthalates and bisphenol A.

to take advantage of them.


While some companies have focused on creating toys that are made completely from renewable plant-based materials, or are completely biodegradable, others focus on making their products more sustainable incrementally – adding renewable materials like plant-based fibers and starches to petroleum-based plastics. These fillers and fibers can decrease non-renewable petroleumbased feedstocks by more than half, and can imbue a more natural aesthetic to plastic

This incremental approach can also make a compelling value proposition for consumers. Substituting fibers, starches, or plant-based polymers for fossil-based feedstocks can have significant environmental advantages. For instance, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, reducing petroleum-based feedstocks by just 10 % can save 280 million barrels of oil a year, reducing CO2 emissions equivalent to the sequestration of 100 hectares (250 acres) of forest. Toymakers continue to be on the vanguard of creating safer, more sustainable plastics. “At Green Dot we are committed to serving their needs with plastics that are designed to decrease the use of petroleum-based feedstocks, increase the use of plant-based feedstocks, encourage the use of reclaimed and recycled feedstocks, and enhance the performance of biodegradable feedstocks,” Kevin adds.MT www.greendotbioplastics.com

Not all of these features may be beneficial to all consumers. For instance, a biodegradable toy may not be compelling if industrial composting is not available or if the composting facilities are not willing to take biodegradable plastics. Environmental claims do not equate to environmental benefits if consumers are not able

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Cooler than wood. Better than plastic. How an inconspicuous building brick from Austria has set out to conquer the world.


he story of Bioblo started in summer 2014 when plastics expert Hannes Frech had a random encounter with marketing man Stefan Friedrich in the small town of Tulln, Lower Austria. Stefan, who was really looking for a suitable material to bring his idea of a brick-based furniture system to life, was immediately fascinated by the 12 by 2.4 by 0.8 cm building brick that Hannes pulled from a drawer during their very first meeting. Hannes Frech, who was – and still is to this day – heading the technical laboratory of the Institute of Natural Materials Technology within the Department of Agrobiotechnology at IFA Tulln, had constructed the then-unnamed brick for his daughter a couple of years prior to the encounter. Little did he know that the very same brick would embark on such a successful and far-reaching journey. In September 2014, Bioblo was born – not yet as a company, but as a brand. The two men added a third one to the core team: Dietmar Kreil, who Stefan Friedrich had come to know as one of Austria’s finest art directors during their common employment at Viennese advertising agencies DDB Tribal and Jung von Matt. Stefan came up with the Bioblo name, Dietmar designed the logo, and the very first boxes were sold for Christmas via the company’s webshop.

Broadening the horizon The early customers’ feedback being overwhelmingly positive, Bioblo soon extended their reach into kindergartens and schools, a channel that is not only interesting in itself but also as a multiplier for B2C sales. The rationale behind this is that kids tend to recommend the toys they like in kindergarten to their parents at home. Early distribution partners in this field included the Austrian companies Schmiderer & Schendl, Höller Spiel and Lipura. Shortly after the official foundation of the company “Bioblo Spielwaren GmbH” in May 2015 another important partnership was formed when European distribution rights were


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signed over to “Wiener Spielkartenfabrik Ferdinand Piatnik & Söhne”, a traditional Viennese manufacturer of playing cards, board games and puzzles, and a long-standing player in the toy market. Together, an expansion plan was developed that consequently brought Bioblo to France, Germany, Canada, the UK, Poland, Hungary and many other markets.

Form follows function. Material follows Form. So what is special about Bioblo? The company’s unofficial slogan “Cooler than wood. Better than plastic.” actually describes it quite well: The unique honeycomb structure that seems to appeal to children more than the usual wooden blocks can only be accomplished by means of injection moulding, which in turn requires a mouldable material. This is where BioFasal, the highly sophisticated wood and plastics composite behind Bioblo, enters the stage. The composite, which has been developed by the above-named institution over a period of almost 20 years, combines the best characteristics of “both worlds”: On the one hand, the sustainability, look and feel of wood; on the other hand, the durability and processability of plastics. Add to that the ecological benefits of bioplastics over fossil-based plastics, and you have already gathered more than enough selling points in a world that is increasingly environment-minded.

Success comes with awards – and vice versa Bioblo soon discovered the relevance of certificates and awards to the quality-minded parents. This is why the bricks were tested extensively to document the absolute absence of heavy metals, bisphenol A, BPA, plasticisers and other potentially harmful substances. As a result of these efforts, Bioblo was the very first toy brand to be awarded the Austrian “Umweltzeichen” as well as the German “Blauer Engel” certificate, which last year celebrated its 40th anniversary making it THE oldest and one of the World’s most trusted ecolabels.



Process PLA with Improved Molecular Weight Retention LOWER MELT TEMPERATURE


Pinch, zoom, swipe – or build? In case you ever asked yourself how we can prevent our children from spending their entire days pinching, zooming and swiping on their smartphones, Bioblos might be just the answer. Building with their own two hands not only drives away our kids’ boredom but actively promotes their handeye and hand-hand coordination. It enhances their physical and mechanical understanding, trains their concentration and improves their patience, stamina and ability to deal with frustration (for example when the cat knocks everything over). Not surprisingly, building with friends, classmates, parents or siblings is even more fun – and it promotes team spirit and communication skills beyond the scope of WhatsApp and Facebook. MT

FREE white paper on the advantages of processing PLA using Continuous Mixing technology. Request your copy today.


The FARREL POMINI Continuous Mixing technology is proven to process PLA at lower melt temperatures than twin screw extruders. These lower melt temperatures translate into improved molecular weight retention, reduced energy consumption and higher throughput rates when compared to other PLA processing techniques. If you are interested in improving your PLA processing, contact a FARREL POMINI representative today or visit farrel-pomini.com/contact to request a copy of our free white paper on PLA production and the advantages of Continuous Mixing technology.

farrel-pomini.com | +1 203 736.5500 |  

Visit us in Hall 9 Stand A24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14


Cover Story

You never forget your first car Especially not your first eco-friendly car!

By: Erik Petraschek Owner Ferbedo Kinderfahrzeuge Fürth, Germany


he bioplastic ride-on truck made by Fürth, Germanybased FERBEDO was one of the product innovations introduced at the Spielwarenmesse 2019, the International Toy Fair in Nuremberg, Germany. In this article bioplastics MAGAZINE presents the company behind this product and the challenges of using bioplastics to produce it. Ferbedo Kinderfahrzeuge was founded in 1898 and is one of many German medium-sized champions who, having carved out a niche for themselves, have been able to hold their own against the big players in the market through innovative thinking and hard work. For many years now, the company has produced ride-on toys for toddlers aged 12 months and older, and go-karts. The realistic design and high-quality workmanship of the company’s range of blow moulded ride-on vehicles have made these particularly popular choices for children. The ride-ons, featuring such details as LED lighting, whisper tires with individual wheel rims and textile or leather seating, are manufactured in particular for automobile OEMs (such as Audi, MAN, Jaguar, Volvo) and sold via their dealer networks. Ferbedo has also been producing beautifully made pedal go-karts for many years. These - and Ferbedo’s own ride-on toys are available directly from the manufacturer. The company is keenly aware of its responsibility for the environment and listens to what its customers say. A few years ago, Ferbedo started exploring how it could best continue making its much loved, highly popular plastic toy products while at the same time reducing their impact on the environment to an ecologically compatible level. The first step is to manufacture products that are as appealing as possible. Ferbedo succeeds in this almost too well, as very often, customers pass the ride-on which they purchased for one child down to others in the family. It’s one of the best approaches to sustainability: crafting products with lasting quality and appeal. Nevertheless, Alexander Bacsics, Managing Director of Ferbedo, was eager to think about an alternative to the plastic materials currently used. Bacsics: “Demand from the market was still low two years ago, when the topic first came up for us, but we noticed that the connection between plastics and the environment was increasingly being addressed in the media. We also wanted to distinguish ourselves clearly from the flood of cheap products from China and offer retailers and consumers an additional selling point.”


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After researching the topic, Ferbedo discovered the existence of Green PE™, which is derived from sugar cane. Use of this material not only cut back on the consumption of petroleum-based plastic; one tonne of the biobased plastic could store up to 3 tonnes of CO2. It was also important that the new material, like the one already in use, met all the existing standards. Bacsics: “Our products are used by children from about one year of age onward. Inevitably, there will be mouth contact - a toddler may lick on the ride-on, for example or some other unusual kind of close contact will occur. We can reassure the parents: The new biomaterial fulfils all relevant standards and is therefore safe for our youngest customers”. In FKuR (Willich, Germany), a producer and distributor of biobased materials, Ferbedo has found a partner able to provide outstanding support, especially in the initial phase, with the expertise to offer the right answers to questions. Ferbedo found it extremely easy to use the material. No special preparation and, above all, no modifications to the existing machines were necessary. It was decided to start with the Ferbedo ride-on truck - the only children’s ride-on truck worldwide. Children are thrilled and fall in love with it immediately because of its size and design. The truck is also available as a fire engine, complete with a functioning siren and flashing blue light. Ferbedo started producing with the environmentally friendly material right away. After heating up the machine and running a few cycles, the production operators had

Cover Story found the perfect setting for the machine. The parameters had to be adjusted only slightly after which the new material could be used without any problem. Bacsics: “We were happily surprised by the result. The surface of the articles with bioplastic corresponds to that of petroleumbased products. Sometimes we could even observe a slight improvement in the surface structure!”

6th PLA World Congress 19-20 MAY 2020 MUNICH › GERMANY organized by

Even though Ferbedo’s ride-on toys regularly get passed down in families, their robustness notwithstanding, there comes a time when even these toys reach the end-of-life. The bio ride-on truck can then be recycled together with conventional PE. If the car ends up in a waste-to-energy incineration plant, the bio-PE becomes a renewable energy source. The solar energy stored in the biobased plastic can then be exploited without releasing additional CO2 into the atmosphere. The interest shown by customers at the International Toy Fair in Nuremberg earlier this year was enormous. Ferbedo has definitely tapped into the mood of the times! The higher price of the material compared to conventional PE remains something of an obstacle, as this has not yet been fully accepted by customers. However, Ferbedo assumes that, as their use becomes increasingly widespread, the cost of bioplastics will eventually fall to a level comparable with oilbased plastics. Then, at last, there will be nothing to hinder the breakthrough of this material. Today’s youngsters will be able to remember their first sustainable car for the rest of their lives! www.ferbedo.de


organized by Co-organized by Jan Ravenstijn

Save the Date

02-03 Sep 20


Cologne, Ger


www.pha-world-congress.com bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14


Injection Moulding

Optimizing PLA for injection moulding


ounded in 2014, Arctic Biomaterials Oy (ABM) from Tampere, Finland is now divided into two segments: Medical materials and Technical materials.

On the medical side of the business, ABM offers innovative raw materials for bioresorbable implant applications such as anchors, pins and screws. This market has never before seen materials with loadbearing properties as high as those in these new materials developed by ABM. This is due to the resorbable glass fiber that ABM has developed. This article, however, will introduce three of the company’s new Technical materials. The background and motivation for these innovations is the willingness to contribute to efforts to decrease global warming and to enable the use of sustainable solutions in an increasing number of applications. These materials allow brand owners to design products with a lower carbon footprint, and hence to contribute to the sustainable targets that countries have globally committed to. ABM previously introduced a degradable glass fiber for use as reinforcement for biopolymers, for which the company received the 2018 “Bioplastic material of the year” award (from nova Institute). In this article, the focus will be on new materials without the degradable glass reinforcement. ABM has adopted a global approach to the market. The three different materials that are introduced here are all PLA-based materials. The end-of-life options for these materials are basically the same as for fossil-based plastics, i.e., incineration or recycling, albeit with the addition of industrial composting, depending on the applications. Through industrial composting, the materials will be transformed into biomass and CO2. This CO2 will eventually be absorbed back by the plants via photosynthesis, thus closing the carbon cycle. ABM also works with other biomaterials such as PBS, PHB, starch and more, always depending on the customer’s requirements regarding mechanical properties and endof-life solutions. However, ABM is not a polymer producer. As a specialty compounder, their strategy is to enhance the properties and reinforce the current bioplastics that are available in the market.

ArcBiox MFA30-B2000, improved temperature resistance with fast cycle and cold mould This novel PLA-based mineral filled material has been developed with a view to improving processability. Temperature resistance has always been one of the challenges for PLAbased materials, as high mould temperatures (110 °C) are required and long cycle times (60 s) needed in order for the material to withstand temperatures above 50-60 °C (HDT B). ArcBiox MFA30-B2000 offers a HDTB of 96 °C and faster cycle times, while the mould temperature can be as low as 30-50 °C. Potential applications for ArcBiox MFA30-B200 range from houseware products to cosmetics; the material truly opens a new window for applications where processing has been the barrier.


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ArcBiox B1005, improved impact properties ArcBiox B1005 was developed as an alternative to fossilbased plastics similar to ABS. The focus has been on improving the impact properties of PLA-based materials. The applications mainly comprise different kinds of housings and covers. The material can be processed in a hot or cold mould. The hot mould will result in extra temperature resistance due to the crystallization of the PLA. In a hot mould, impact properties of 40 kJ/m² (IZOD notched) and NB (no breakage - IZOD unnotched) can be achieved. In a cold mould, these values are 20 kJ/m² (IZOD notched) and 140 kJ/m² (IZOD unnotched). The general impact values for ABS would be 20 kJ/m² (IZOD notched) and NB (no breakage - IZOD unnotched)

ArcBiox B2004, excellent hinge properties ABM’s new ArcBiox B2004 has been specifically designed to offer excellent hinge properties. This grade provides a viable solution for e.g. caps and closure applications. While some development is still ongoing as regards elongation at break, hinge properties of this quality have not been achieved before in a PLA-based material. The experts at ABM aim to fully satisfy the needs of their market. To that end, they always listen to their customers’ requirements in terms of mechanical properties and assess the end-of-life solution offering the best value proposition. The polymer matrix and compound or reinforcement can then be chosen which best meets these requirements.

The product photos are generic pictures to show possible applications. These are not commercial products. MT www.abmcomposite.com


The World’s No. 1 Trade Fair for Plastics and Rubber

H o m e o f I n n o v a t i o n . K

2 0 1 9

No matter what your focus is – circular economy, digitalisation, Industry 4.0, lightweight c o n s t r u c t i o n , a d d i t i ve m a n u f a c t u r i n g , a d v a n c e d materials or other forward-looking topics in the global plastics and rubber industry – K 2019 is the place to be to scout for new solutions. The fascinating forum for innovation and investment. The industry’s most impor tant business platform. Around 3,200 international e xhibitors of fer you the latest in research and development. Welcome to the show! www.k -online.com/ticketing

Messe Düsseldorf GmbH P.O. Box 10 10 06 _ 40001 Düsseldorf _ Germany Tel. +49 211 4560 01 _ Fax +49 211 4560 668

www.messe-duesseldorf.de bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14


Injection Moulding

Single-use cutlery & food containers Compostable, high-heat stable, food-contact safe, easy to process nature2need, located in Heidelberg, Germany with its manufacturing units in Zhejiang, PR China, is a global supplier of biopolymers and natural fiber reinforced compounds and sheets; preferred natural fiber reinforcements are mechanically extracted bamboo fibers. Different grades are available for applications in various industries, like automotive, personal care, houseware, kitchenware, toys, outdoor, agriculture and gardening industry. During April 2019, nature2need launched its new biocompound Bioblend LT25B, a biopolymer that is compostable in industrial compost conditions according to EN 14995 (for Europe) and ASTM D 6400 (for North-America). The Bioblend grade is a blend of different biopolymers, modified with mineral fillers. Main base polymer of the compound is PLA. The compound is very easy to process with industryrelevant cycle times on standard equipment and injection moulds. A quick, in-line annealing process, right after demoulding, is suitable to get all parts heat-stable up to 110 °C (HDT-B). nature2need´s right choice of different biopolymers, natural additives that work as nucleating agents and natural, highly-effective compatibilizers guarantuee a quick and efficient material crystallization to meet high-heat requirements. The material is food-contact safe. Bioblend LT25B targets to replace traditional, fossilbased plastics that are used in single-use items, like cutlery, food-containers, drinking cups, etc. Single-use applications made with non biodegradable materials are already or will be banned in a lot of countries very soon. There are a few alternatives to traditional, single-use plastics parts on the market, most of them are either very expensive or are not performing well. Especially thermal stability at temperatures around 70 – 100 °C is a problem with most of the eco-friendly alternatives. Products made with Bioblend LT25B compounds can even be re-used a couple of times, a camping holiday or a few dish-washer cycles are no problem, even for thin-walled parts. “The spoons, knives and forks we molded with our material are sturdy, high-temperature resistant, they come with a surprisingly high perceived quality; bright-white with a very glossy surface. A much better product than the ones we all know made with traditional, oil-based plastics like PS. The material is completely compostable and - on top of


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this - offers significant reduction in carbon footprint.” says Dr. Karsten Brast, CEO of the nature2need Group. “Low cost and high-quality levels will make it easier to convince everybody out there to finally change to sustainable products!” A biodegradable/compostable solution is good, but not perfect. nature2need is currently developing a new material, biodegradable in soil, with very similar properties that will be commercially available soon. MT http://nature2need.com


PRESEN TS The Bioplastics Award will be presented during the 14th European Bioplastics Conference December 03-04, 2019, Berlin, Germany


Call for proposals Enter your own product, service or development, or nominate your favourite example from another organisation

Please let us know until August 31st 1. What the product, service or development is and does 2. Why you think this product, service or development should win an award 3. What your (or the proposed) company or organisation does Your entry should not exceed 500 words (approx. 1 page) and may also be supported with photographs, samples, marketing brochures and/or technical documentation (cannot be sent back). The 5 nominees must be prepared to provide a 30 second videoclip and come to Berlin on December 3rd, 2019. An entry form can be found at www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/en/events/award/bio-award19.pdf

supported by

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14


Injection Moulding

The bioplastics handbook for injection molders


his article is an excerpt of “The bioplastics handbook for injection molders”, created and published by Green Dot Bioplastics (Emporia, Kansas, USA), edited by Michael Thielen. Download the full handbook via the link given at the end [1].

and burn streaks in the finished part. Changes in the process (e.g., lower temperatures, slower injection speeds) and tooling (e.g., opening a cooling line, enlarging gates) may be needed to alleviate shear stress and prevent the material from overheating.

Processing bioplastics

Although injection speeds might need to be lower for biocomposites, cycle times should remain within an acceptable range because they are being processed at lower temperatures meaning less cooling time is required. And the organic filler adds a degree of dimensional stability to the material, allowing it to be removed from the mold at higher temperatures than conventional plastics and further reducing cycle times.

Bioplastics can be processed with the same equipment and, in many cases, similar cycle times as traditional plastics. As with switching from one traditional plastic to another traditional plastic (e.g., polyethylene to a polystyrene), though, it’s important to understand the processing parameters of the new material. And if you plan to use the same mold, it’s important to choose a bioplastic with similar processing characteristics to the material you’re currently using. Because of the custom nature of many materials, materialspecific processing considerations vary formulation by formulation. Still, there are category-specific processing considerations injection molders would find helpful to know before using a bioplastic. In this guide, Green Dot Bioplastics offers general considerations for these two overarching bioplastic categories: Biocomposites (plastics made with a matrix resin — either petroleum-based or renewable and a reinforcement of natural fibers or fillers) and biodegradables (plastics which are metabolized into organic bio-mass after use). See info-box for details about Green Dot Bioplastics’ materials.

Injection molding with biocomposites Biocomposites can replace as much as 65 % (in cases even up to 70 %) of petroleum-based content with renewable materials such as wood-, flax-, hemp-, bamboo- etc. fibers or starch — a compelling bio story in a time when plastics bans and restrictions are heightening. Most biocomposites do not deviate significantly from traditional plastics and can be processed on the same equipment without major modifications to the injection molding process. As long as injection molders are aware of the small ways in which biocomposites differ from traditional plastics —and the small ways that difference affects the injection molding process— processing problems are easy to avoid. And as with any material change, it’s paramount to follow the processing characteristics laid out by the material manufacturer.

Lower temperatures, slower injection speeds Biocomposites are filled with organic fillers and fibers, which are especially sensitive to high temperatures and shear buildup. If the material gets above about 205°C (400°F), there’s potential for degradation of the cellulose


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Follow drying recommendations The organic fillers (e.g., natural fibers, wood, starch, etc.) in a biocomposite readily absorb moisture from the environment and must be dried in a desiccant dryer prior to processing. Processing biocomposites at moisture levels above about 0.5% can result in a host of processing problems such as drooling from the nozzle or runner and the formation of voids within the part.

Account for differing shrinkage characteristics The higher the ratio of organic fiber and fillers in a biocomposite, the lower the shrink rate. Injection molders who currently make a part out of a traditional plastic (e.g., polyethylene) and want to switch to a biocomposite (e.g., a wood fiber polyethylene composite) need to be conscious of the differing shrinkage characteristics between the two materials. A higher shrink rate isn’t necessarily good, and a lower shrink rate isn’t necessarily bad. But molds are designed with draft angles to accommodate the shrinkage of one plastic material — and if the same mold shall be used for the new material, a material with a similar shrink rate needs to be chosen.

Injection molding with biodegradables Experience shows that the vast majority of processing problems with biodegradable plastics stem back to moisture and temperature. Processing biodegradable plastics at above the recommended temperature will cause the material to degrade. And if excess moisture is present, the resulting parts will be brittle, weak and have a reduced shelf life. If all processing recommendations of the raw material suppliers (e.g. Green Dot Bioplastics) are followed, though, the biodegradable plastic will remain strong and functional until subjected to the specific conditions in which it is designed to biodegrade. Most often, this is in industrial composting facilities or, in special cases, backyard composting settings — not while a product is on a store shelf or in use.

Injection Moulding

Drying time and moisture levels It’s essential to follow the drying instructions specified by the material manufacturer to ensure the material is at or below the recommended moisture level prior to processing. Moisture levels above 0.1% will not only cause problems during the injection molding process (e.g., foaming, drooling, voids) but also product performance problems. The presence of excess moisture can cause the plastic to hydrolyze during the product lifecycle, resulting in a loss of molecular weight and mechanical performance. This can cause parts to be brittle and weak and, ultimately, fail.

Lower processing temperatures Many biodegradable plastics tend to be more shear-sensitive and have lower melting points than most biocomposites and traditional plastics. Because of this, most biodegradable materials have to be dried and processed at much lower temperatures, often well below 175°C (350°F). Processing biodegradable plastics above the manufacturer recommended temperature can result in material degradation. Slower injection speeds and larger gates / runners may be required to further reduce the temperature and shear stress depending on the mold and material you are using.

Meet injection molders who have made bioplastics work In a separate publication by Green Dot Bioplastics, four injection molders provide valuable and promising insights on working with bioplastics. Although each had technical issues at the initial stages, they were eventually able to run the materials successfully in their respective facilities [2].

A research-driven guidebook to processing bioplastics A special guide published by IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics and Biocomposites (Hanover University of Applied Sciences and Arts) and supported by FNR (specialist agency renewable resources) to the processing of bioplastics gives a straightforward explanation of processing considerations for a variety of materials and processing procedures based on years of research [3]. The texts were contributed by IAP – Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research, IfBB, SKZ, SLK, Chair of Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology, Technical University Chemnitz. [1] The bioplastics handbook for injection molders (complete pdf) The Bioplastics handbook for injection molders tinyurl.com/bioplastics-handbook [2] N.N.: Injection molders who have made bioplastics work; tinyurl.com/injection-moulders [3] Offers, J.; Lack, N. (Edts): Processing of Bioplastics – a guideline – tinyurl.com/bioplasticsprocessingguideline

Green Dot Bioplastics materials at a glance Each of Green Dot’s Terratek® material lines don’t describe a discrete material, but rather a class of materials. ƒƒ T erratek BD, is a class of materials that are both bio-based and biodegradable. Within the Terratek BD category, there are near-infinite possibilities to customize a formulation by alloying different polymers and additives to meet customer-specific performance requirements. These grades are more rigid and similar to traditional polyolefin resins. ƒƒ T erratek Flex is a class of biodegradable elastomers that is rubber-like and soft to the touch, Terratek BD and Terratek Flex, are certified compostable according to ASTM D6400 and EN 13432, meaning they will disintegrate within 12 weeks and biodegrade within 180 days in an industrial composting facility. ƒƒ Terratek WC is a class of wood-plastic composites. WC contains up to 60% wood particles ƒƒ Terratek SC is a class of starchplastic composites with starch-toplastic ratios ranging from 30 to 65%. Terratek WC and SC replace a significant portion of traditional plastic with renewable, reclaimed organic fillers. The organic material adds dimensional stability, stiffness and a natural appearance to plastic products without sacrificing performance or processability. The value of Green Dot Bioplastics lies in the material science expertise which gives the supplier the flexibility to customize their material lines to match the unique requirements of each client. Green Dot Bioplastics offers custom formulations for each category, alloying different polymers, additives and fillers to achieve a broad range of performance and processing parameters. www.greendotbioplastics.com

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14


Injection Moulding By: Daniel Ganz, Global Product Manager Bioplastics Sukano Schindeleggi, Switzerland

Injection Molding PLA Make the switch today


ukano, a global Masterbatch specialist for polyester and specialty resins, has leveraged its expertise to enable a broader design variety to be injection molded with PLA without major financial investments. One of the key bioplastics, PLA, is currently the second highest consumed bioplastic worldwide by volume, and it offers a broad range of functionalities optimized for each type of application. It can be processed into a vast array of products using conventional plastics processing technologies – in most cases, the process parameters of the processing equipment simply needs to be adjusted to the individual specification of each polymer.

Overcoming the barriers in injection molding Currently, polyolefins and polystyrenes resin are the most commonly used materials for injection molding. However, a bigger shift toward PLA in injection molding has been slowed by serious issues. There are several challenges that convertors have faced when processing injection molded PLA parts, especially when using existing equipment and tools, including: ƒƒ Difficulties to fill cavities due to higher melt viscosity of the carrier, especially for thin wall applications ƒƒ Additional force required to fill the form, which may lead to shorter lifespan of the tool ƒƒ Material sticking to the mold surface, making demolding more difficult and increasing the risk of surface defects in the end application Due to these issues, processing PLA was not even possible in many cases – until now.

Enabling a broader design variety Formulated to enable a broader design variety to be injection molded with PLA Sukano has developed a mold release additive masterbatch that enables convertors

to injection mold PLA – even for thin wall applications – without needing to change the machine or the equipment. Customer cases have demonstrated that the switch from fossil-based plastics to PLA for injection molding is very much possible, all without major financial investments. SUKANO® Mold Release Masterbatch achieves this by providing the critical barrier between a molding surface and the substrate, facilitating the separation of the cured part from the mold. It acts by migrating to the surface of the final product, which helps to demold the injection molded part from the metal surface of the cavity, therefore reducing the demolding force required. This unique feature can help ensure reduced cycle times, continuous running of production lines, fewer rejects and waste, as well as reduced machine wear out and cleaning.

Melt flow increase as an additional effect Sukano Mold Release Masterbatch also has an interesting and very beneficial side effect, as demonstrated in sophisticated spiral flow length trials conducted in an external lab. By reducing the friction between the polymer chains, it creates a lower melt viscosity – and therefore a higher melt flow – without increasing the temperature. This helps to fill the cavities, which can be especially challenging in thin wall applications, and enables a broader design variety to be injection molded with PLA. It essentially eliminates the critical issue of decreased melt flow, often a major barrier to the switch from conventional plastics to bio-based materials in this type of process. Sukano Mold Release Masterbatch helps producers make the switch to PLA while still achieve a consistent high-quality standard of their PLA-based end products, with high clarity, scratch and scuff resistance, improved surface finish, improved material homogenization, and it is food compliant.

1600 — 1500 —

PLA: Peak demolding force / N Hold pressure: 400 bar, melt temperature: 200°C, mold temperature: 25°C


1400 — 1300 —


1200 — 1075

1100 — 1000 — 900 — 800 — PLA reference


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PLA + 1% PLA mr S533

PLA + 3% PLA mr S533

Injection Moulding Sukano – your guide in the move to bioplastics

To support its customers in making the switch to bioplastics, Sukano has invested in a powerful R&D analytical laboratory and pilot plant. This allows the company to provide industry-leading capabilities to quickly respond to customer’s most urgent demands and flexibility requirements. Together with over 30 years of experience in the field, Sukano is ready and, willing and able to support you to make the switch today.

In our highly interconnected world, the general public has become more and more concerned – and engaged – about the planet’s future in the face of increasingly serious environmental challenges. The debate has reached its tipping point, with the European Commission itself stating that “European consumers are more and more prepared to buy goods and services which have a reduced environmental impact.” People are now prepared to participate via their purchase habits and preferences to ensure their impact on the environment are minimized or at least well reduced.


Specific injection pressure in bar


Performance of Injection Pressure (MB + Ingeo-PLA 3251D)

1050% 1000% 950% 900% 850% 800% 0%




Dosage of mold release SUKANO mr S533




27/28 June 2019, FrankFurt Messe


applications in Packaging, automotive, textiles & transportation PLUS: Increasing use of recycled Materials & end-of-Life solutions sponsors


bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14



Chinaplas 2019 Review


companying the growth of China’s plastics and rubber industries for over 30 years, CHINAPLAS has become a distinguished meeting and business platform for these industries and has also largely contributed to their prosperous development. At present, CHINAPLAS is the world’s leading plastics and rubber trade fair, and also widely recognized by the industry as one of the most influential exhibitions in the world. Its significance is surpassed only by K Fair in Germany, the world’s premier plastics and rubber trade fair. Chinaplas 2019 (21-24 May), the 33rd International Exhibition on Plastics and Rubber Industries, attracted over 180,000 professional visitors from 150 countries and regions to the China Import and Export Fair Complex, Pazhou, Guangzhou. The exhibition space compriswd more than 250,000 square-meters. The show gathered together more than 3,600 leading exhibitors from all over the world, in which more than 1,800 of them are related to the packaging industry. Among the 20 Theme Zones, including for the first time a Recycled Plastics Zone, Chinaplas 2019 again featured a Bioplastics Zone to address the industry’s need for green and circular solutions. The biobased plastics and bio-composites shown in the Bioplastics Zone not only can be used in a wide range of applications such as packaging, electronic appliances, toys, children products, automobiles, and 3D printing but also are degradable, compostable, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and as affordable as petroleum-based plastics. Some examples are: NatureWorks LLC’s Ingeo® biobased plastics come from 100% renewable plant resources. According to ISO 14040 and 14044 standards, Ingeo® reduces greenhouse gas emissions and consumes less non-renewable energy than conventional plastic PS/PET/ABS. Today, Ingeo is favored for its unique features! It has been used in products such as food utensils, coffee capsules, nonwovens and home appliances. As part of its commitment to the recycling bioeconomy and away from petrochemical feedstocks, NatureWorks announced that 100% of all agricultural raw materials used in Ingeo biopolymers will be certified by the International Sustainable Development and Carbon Certification System in 2020, in line with ISCC PLUS agricultural production. Best practice standards. BASF showcased the new biodegradable polymer ecovio® courier bags, indicating that BASF is helping to cope with the white pollution challenge caused by the surge in domestic courier bags. This ecovio degradable courier bag delivers outstanding performance and not only meets customer needs, but also provides an environmentally friendly solution. BASF is working with key downstream partners to explore cutting-edge technologies for biodegradable bags.


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By: John Leung Biosolutions Hong Kong

According to Johannes Becker, BASF’s Global Biopolymer Marketing Director, “Rapid industrialization, economic growth and environmental awareness have driven the development of sustainable living in China. BASF is committed to helping China meet these challenges through innovative, sustainable plastic solutions. ” The biobased and compostable material of Suzhou Hanfeng New Material Co., Ltd. has changed the situation of traditional plastics being difficult to degrade and combustion producing harmful gases. With the technology for blending PLA and PBAT, customers’ various requirements for the physical properties of products and cost control can be satisfied, and the softness and environmental friendliness of products will be enhanced. Users can opt for such degradable and non-toxic packaging with higher quality when purchasing products in the future. The material can be used to manufacture green courier bags, disposable lunch boxes, bowls, cups, supermarket shopping bags, bags on a roll, flat-top bags and so on. Biocosafe® developed by Xinfu Technology uses binary acid and binary alcohol as raw materials, and uses high-efficiency non-toxic catalyst to directly synthesize according to the onestep polycondensation method. Under the ISO14855 detection method, the relative biodegradation rate of the material exceeds 90%. The glass transition temperature of the resin is -35 ° C. It can meet the requirements of cold, hot drinks and lunch boxes, and is a biodegradable material with excellent temperature resistance. It could be applied to stationery, toys, entertainment products, etc. Ecoworld® developed by Jinhui Zhaolong can be decomposed into carbon dioxide and water by microorganisms within 180 days under composting conditions. Under composting conditions, organic fertilizer can be produced, and the degradation process does not produce toxic gases. The main raw material of plastic film is biodegradable and compostable, which can effectively deal with white pollution. www.chinaplasonline.com


h Bio-based Polymers 7 & tBuilding Blocks


20 PDAT 19 E



20 PDAT 19 E


20 ata fDo 21 0 rata 8 1 for

The best market reports available Bio-based Building Blocks Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities and Polymers – Global Capacities and Trends 2018-2023 and Trends 2017-2022 EPDM




Carbon dioxide (CO2) as chemical feedstock for polymers – technologies, polymers, developers and producers





Propylene MEG Bio-based polymers: Terephthalic Vinyl Chlorideproduction capacities Evolution of worldwide from 2011 to 2022 acid Ethylene PMMA

Million Tonnes











Lactic acid


Adipic acid


Plant oils

Dedicated Drop-in

Smart Drop-in


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Fatty acids


Levulinic acid


PU Furfuryl alcohol




© -Institut.eu | 2018 Natural Rubber Starch-based Polymers Lignin-based Polymers Cellulose-based Polymers












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De-icer Engineering plastics and epoxy curing agents/hardeners Herbicides, fungicides, regulators of plantgrowth Intermediate for lacquers + photographic chemicals Plasticizer (replaces phtalates, adipic acid) Polymers Solvents, lubricants Surface cleaning agent (metal-/electronic-/semiconductor-industry)

Bread-softening agent Flavour-enhancer Flavouring agent and acidic seasoning in beverages/food Microencapsulation of flavouring oils Preservative (chicken, dog food) Protein gelatinisation and in dry gelatine desserts/cake flavourings Used in synthesis of modified starch

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Anodizing Aluminium Chemical metal plating, electroplating baths Coatings, inks, pigments (powder/radiation-curable coating, resins for water-based paint, dye intermediate, photocurable ink, toners) Fabric finish, dyeing aid for fibres Part of antismut-treatment for barley seeds Preservative for cut flowers Soil-chelating agent

PHA Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/reports


Authors: Achim Raschka, Dr. Pia Skoczinski, Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus nova-Institut GmbH, Germany

PA Epoxy resins




Authors: Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Michael Carus, Wolfgang Baltus, Baltus, Raj Chinthapalli, Dr. Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Wolfgang Dorisde deGuzman, Guzman,Harald HaraldKäb, Käb,Achim AchimRaschka, Raschka,Jan JanRavenstijn, Ravenstijn, Doris April 2018 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports www.bio-based.eu/reports

Update March 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports

Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change

Standards and labels for bio-based products

Comprehensive trend report on PHA, PLA, PUR/TPU, PA and polymers based on FDCA and SA: Latest developments, producers, drivers and lessons learnt

Selected bio-based building blocks: Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2021

Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change

3,5 actual data

Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Dr. Pia Skoczinski, Achim Raschka, Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany

February 2019

Commercialisation updates on bio-based building blocks

million t/a

Succinic Acid






Superabsorbent Polymers

5-HMF/ 5-CMF




Itaconic acid




Acrylic acid




Acidic ingredient for denture cleaner/toothpaste Antidote Calcium-succinate is anticarcinogenic Efferescent tablets Intermediate for perfumes Pharmaceutical intermediates (sedatives, antiphlegm/-phogistics, antibacterial, disinfectant) Preservative for toiletries Removes fish odour Used in the preparation of vitamin A

Natural Rubber



PA 2





Succinic acid

1,3 Propanediol









Methyl Metacrylate


Succinic acid: New bio-based building block with a huge market and environmental potential?




Jan Ravenstijn 2017







Picture: Gehr Kunststoffwerk 2012












Sebacic acid

Succinic acid




11-Aminoundecanoic acid

-Institut.eu | 2017







Adipic acid

E-mail: j.ravenstijn@kpnmail.nl Mobile: +31.6.2247.8593

Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/reports

Author: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom July 2017

Author: Jan Ravenstijn, Jan Ravenstijn Consulting, the Netherlands April 2017

Authors: Lara Dammer, Michael Carus and Dr. Asta Partanen nova-Institut GmbH, Germany May 2017

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports

Policies impacting bio-based plastics market development

Asian markets for bio-based chemical building blocks and polymers

and plastic bags legislation in Europe

Share of Asian production capacity on global production by polymer in 2016


Market study on the consumption of biodegradable and compostable plastic products in Europe 2015 and 2020 A comprehensive market research report including consumption figures by polymer and application types as well as by geography, plus analyses of key players, relevant policies and legislation and a special feature on biodegradation and composting standards and labels






0% PBS(X)


Authors: Dirk Carrez, Clever Consult, Belgium Jim Philp, OECD, France Dr. Harald Kaeb, narocon Innovation Consulting, Germany Lara Dammer & Michael Carus, nova-Institute, Germany March 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports

-Institut.eu | 2017

APC – cyclic





Starch Blends




Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/markets

Disposable tableware

Biowaste bags

Carrier bags

Rigid packaging

Flexible packaging

Author: Wolfgang Baltus, Wobalt Expedition Consultancy, Thailand

Authors: Harald Kaeb (narocon, lead), Florence Aeschelmann, Lara Dammer, Michael Carus (nova-Institute)

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports

April 2016 The full market study (more than 300 slides, 3,500€) is available at bio-based.eu/top-downloads.

www.bio-based.eu/reports 1 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14



Cosmetic tubes from bio-PE Saving resources, recyclable and promoting sales

With Braskem’s Green PE, FKuR has a family of biobased plastics in its portfolio, which has proved to be a great success with tube producers. It is a sustainable, environmentally compatible and easily printable alternative to fossil based counterparts. (Picture: FKuR)


osmetic tubes made from Braskem‘s biobased Green PE combine sustainability and recyclability along with attractiveness at the point of sale so meeting the demands of brand owners and end consumers. FKuR (Willich, Germany), presents successful applications at CosmeticBusiness 2019 in Munich on 5th and 6th June, in hall 3 booth E02.

Application specific biopolymers FKuR’s portfolio covers a wide range of biobased plastics for the production of cosmetic packaging. Having good barrier properties and durability, all grades provide the required resistance to the ingredients. This is combined with excellent printability giving an attractive product without having to use secondary packaging. The biobased polyethylene Green PE produced by Braskem from renewably sourced sugar cane, is ideally suited for the extrusion blow molding of tubes. Depending on the application, HDPE grades with more than 90 % of biobased content, or LDPE grades with more than 95 % of biobased content, as well as LLDPE grades with more than 80 % of biobased content (according to ASTM D 6866) are available. Furthermore, with its Terralene LL 1712 FKuR offers a ready-to-use compound for tube production based on Green PE. The mechanical characteristics and the recyclability of these materials are the same as those of conventional fossil based PE. Hence, they can be used for identical applications and are also 100 % recyclable in the same PE waste stream. As a sales support measure, brand owners can use Braskem’s license-free I’m green logo on the tubes. The use of this logo requires the communication of the renewable portion of the product, which should be verified by C14 analysis according to ASTM D6866. Also certificates from independent certification bodies can be used, such as the OK Biobased from TÜV Austria or DIN tested by DIN Certco with its corresponding points rating system.

First applications – attractive and successful As a result of customers desires and the end users’ trend of increasingly considering sustainability and environmental compatibility when making purchasing decisions, Emballator Tectubes, a Swedish producer of injection molded and extruded plastics and aluminum


bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14

tubes, made the transition to biobased Green PE several years ago. Supported by Polymerfront, the Swedish distributor for FKuR, the company had previously conducted intensive tests with Green PE and with the alternative PLA. The biobased PE was chosen as a result of its better water barrier and ease of processing. Jan-Erik Svensson, Strategic Purchasing, at Emballator Tectubes comments: “As the first producer who used Green PE for our tubes, we faced a considerable challenge. Special compounds were developed, all processing parameters and the molds were optimized, and after several production trials and result analysis the optimum solution was reached. Again, the help of Polymerfront was extremely valuable.” Today, the company uses Green PE for tubes in a variety of sizes from 5 to 275 ml, and also uses this bioplastic to make caps. Another pioneer in the use of biobased polyethylene is LageenTubes, a leading manufacturer of tubes for the cosmetics, body, hair and oral care, pharmaceutical & food industries, headquartered in Kibbutz Yagur, Israel. They have been active worldwide and for more than 50 years. The company uses Green PE for its sugarcane tubes, citing unrestricted recyclability as an important argument for Green PE. Timor Benari-Shuster, Marketing Communications Manager, says: “At the beginning, more than six years ago until recently, we had to do a lot of convincing work and had to demonstrate the suitability of biobased plastic with supporting facts about the durability and quality. Today, the industry has recognized that tubes made from Green PE have the same performance characteristics as conventional PE and are therefore suitable for cosmetic primary packaging. Lageentubes offers the sugarcane tube in both formats mono layer and co-ex 5 layers. A good argument was also that the change to Green PE does not require any changes in the production or investment in tooling.” At LageenTubes the opportunity to directly digitally print cosmetic tubes made from Green PE is also new. BenariShuster continues: “With this possibility, we now offer a revolutionary direct digital printing that allows design freedom such as end-to-end-printing including the cap, 360° decoration without a gap or overlaps with realistic

Applications images, shades, gradients, and halftones, customized and also personalized on-demand.” LageenTubes will present their sugarcane tube at CosmeticBusiness Hall 2 Stand B19. At its Wasungen (Germany) site, packaging specialist Tubex produces tubes made by co-extruding Green PE with a barrier plastic. Among other things, the company supplies Swox, a Munich-based manufacturer of special sun protection products for outdoor athletes. Katharina Kestler, Public Relations, at Swox affirms: “Our customers have a natural interest in protecting the environment and are fully aware of their responsibilities. That is why Swox also took a closer look at packaging and finally chose Green PE in close cooperation with Tubex.” Sandra Storandt, Account Manager Plastic Tubes at Tubex adds: “We see a steadily increasing customer demand for sustainable packaging solutions, which we can usually fulfill thanks to our close cooperation with the bioplastics expert FKuR, because Green PE is environmentally friendly, compatible with the product and easy to recycle.”

By: Patrick Zimmermann Director Marketing & Sales FKuR Kunststoff Willich, Germany

Tubex / Swox


A future-oriented user of such tubes is also the Austrian bio-cosmetic label Hands on Veggies. Its biocosmetic products, marketed under the same name, contain valuable ingredients from garden vegetables such as pumpkins, carrots, kale & co. Multitubes, a Dutch expert in the field of plastic tubes for cosmetic, food, pharmaceutical and industrial applications manufactures the tubes from Green PE and prints them with bright fresh colors. The use of biobased plastic also creates a real added value, as the company is showing the consumer that it is taking its environmental thinking to the very end and is adopting a logical conclusion.

Emballator Tectubes

The beginning of a promising development Patrick Zimmermann, Director Sales & Marketing at FKuR summarizes: “Green PE offers ideal properties for this purpose. That’s why our cooperation with cosmetic tube manufacturers is already very successful. But in fact, we see the examples given here only as the beginning of a promising development. They show how biobased plastics can be used to particular advantage in this area of application, because they also clearly point out the environmental awareness of brand owners on the point of sales. Based on this, we are involved in the development of further tube applications in the cosmetics and healthcare sectors, where we advise on application technology and if necessary also develop customerspecific modifications of our bioplastics. A good example of this is our Terralene PP as a partially biobased plastic with the properties of polypropylene, used for the production of e. g. the caps with and without film hinges.” www.fkur.com | www.fkur-polymers.com | http://plasticoverde.braskem.com.br/site.aspx/plastic-green | http://tectubes.com/en/green-pe-tubes/ | www.lageentubes.com/2016/10/02/1111/ | www.tubex.de/kunststofftuben.html | www.swox.com/de/produkte/ | www.handsonveggies.de/ | https://multitubes.nl/bio-based/|

Lageen Tubes

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Application News


Plant-based performance shoes Leading global barefoot shoe company Vivobarefoot (London, UK) recently announced the launch of Primus Lite II Bio, the company’s most innovative sustainable shoe to-date and one of the world’s first plant-based performance shoes. The mission-driven brand unveiled the highly anticipated unisex shoe on the heels of independent sustainability research, which highlighted eco materials as a key factor in consumer purchasing decisions. The Primus Lite II Bio has been available in a limited run online since May 20th, 2019. The new vegan shoe is designed with over 30 % renewable plant-based materials, including Bio TPU made from yellow dent field corn, natural rubber and harvested algae called Bloom, instead of single-use petroleum materials. The design is the company’s lightest and most efficient performance shoe yet and weighs on average an estimated 10 % less than today’s standard performance shoes. The new generation of Vivobarefoot’s legacy Primus Lite style is a game-changer for the footwear industry and represents a major stride for the company towards its goal of using 100 % biobased materials in a future iteration of this product.

Vivobarefoot’s sustainability ethos is uniquely different from other footwear brands in the industry, as it is rooted in design, wellness and social impact, along with utilizing eco-friendly materials. The company believes product design encompasses doing more with less and creating durable products. Its focus on wellness enables people to move in a natural, healthy, connected way, while maintaining performance and durability. “The launch of the Primus Lite Bio represents an exciting step away from the industry’s reliance on single use petroleumbased materials and towards a promising future of plant-based alternatives,” said Asher Clark, Design Director at Vivobarefoot. “We want to challenge the world’s relationship with shoes, the materials they are made from and the impact they are having on us and our environment. Our ultimate goal is complete circularity.” More than 20 billion pairs of shoes are made annually, most from petrochemicals, which have a harmful impact on the environment, contributing to the already serious effects of climate change. The plant-based materials in the Primus Lite II Bio shoe are sourced and managed responsibly, reducing water, energy and CO2 emissions, improving waste water and ultimately reducing their ecological footprint. MT www.vivobarefoot.com

Swedish outdoor brand switches to bioplastic As of this year Swedish Light my Fire (Malmö) transitioned its entire product line to biobased plastics, featuring a new palette of warm and soft colors inspired by nature. “We’re always looking to use the most sustainable raw materials,” says CEO Calill Odqvist Jagusch. “By experimenting with various biobased plastics, we’ve found a solution that meets our sustainability objectives while not compromising on our product’s functionality and durability.” Biobased plastics are still in their infancy, and as they continue to blaze trail LMF wants to share its knowledge and be as transparent as possible. To this end, LMF has prepared a “Little School of Plastic” mini-tutorial and a fully transparent overview of all their product materials and suppliers in “Let’s Talk Materials,” both found on their website. Plastic pollution in nature is a tragedy – and with proper recycling and behavioral changes, it’s completely avoidable. Much of plastic pollution currently consists of single-use items like plastic straws, forks and packaging, and until recycling becomes widespread single-use items really have no place in a sustainable world.


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“Products like our ReStraw, Pack-up-Cup and Spork are in fact durable, reusable replacements of many of these singleuse items,” explains Calill Odqvist Jagusch. “However, like most other brands, we’ve used single-use plastics in our packaging. Moving forward, this year we plan to remove singleuse plastics in all our packaging using RE-PET storage bags as well as recycled and recyclable cardboard where needed.” Light My Fire has cooperated with SK Chemicals, of South Korea, Hexpol and FKuR to arrive at the selection of bioplastic materials appropriate for their products, taking issues such as durability and foodcontact approvals into account. MT www.lightmyfire.com

Application News

Spectacles from coffee and flax


The first Kickstarter campaign with a collection of sunglasses, made from organic coffee residues and flax resulting in durable eyewear that smells of coffee, was a full success in 2018. Now Ochis Coffee (Washington DC, USA) launched a new collection of Ochis Coffee eyewear. Founder Max Gavrilenko wanted to avoid the use of petroleum based plastic: “We use recyclables for the glasses production: coffee grounds and flax. They’re glued together by a biopolymer based on vegetable oil,” Max said. the frame smells slightly of freshly roasted coffee and has a matte texture that is pleasant to the touch. The polarized lenses with UV-filter are made of cellulose triacetate and feature an antiscratch coating. According to Ochis, the frames decompose 100 times faster than ordinary plastic glasses. In fact, the frame completely degrades after 10 years in soil or water, and turns into a natural fertilizer should the wearer lose it. There are four colours of Carl Zeiss lenses available and the frames are Rxable. The new spring 2019 collection was again introduced in a new Kickstarter campaign. MT

First modular storage system from Bio-on’s bioplastic Only a few short months following the announcement of the alliance between Kartell (Noviglio, Italy), a leading design company, and biotechnology company Bio-on (Bologna, Italy), the first fruits of the partnership are being exhibited at the Salone del Mobile, Milan (Italy). Kartell has chosen to produce a new eco-friendly and sustainable edition of one of its best sellers - a modular storage unit designed in 1967 by Anna Castelli Ferrieri - in Bio-on’s 100% natural bioplastic material. The 50-year old design is available in four colours: green, pink, cream and yellow in the three-module version. For Kartell, research is a mission, said company president Claudio Luti. “We will continue to experiment to combine innovation and design.” Kartell celebrates its 70th anniversary this year, thus ‘we are happy to be able to reach another milestone’, he added.

“We have worked with Bio-on to be able to offer our public a very high-quality bioplastic product and we have chosen to do it on one of our historic products, one of the most recognized in the world. Research on bioplastics fits with our quest for innovation and is part of the “Kartell loves the planet” project aimed at enhancing good sustainability practices.” For Bio-on, it is ‘an honour’, said founder and CEO Marco Astorri. The company is proud to see its bioplastic showcased with one of the most famous Italian design brands in the world. To reciprocate and in gratitude for the trust placed in the material, Bio-on has given the biopolymer used for this specific application the name CL, the initials of Claudio Luti. In just a few days, Bio-on first saw the launch of the first line of solar cosmetics based on its technology, and now the first piece of furniture. “It is a clear confirmation of the extreme versatility that our biopolymer can offer, bringing its extraordinary advantages to all sectors,” Astorri concluded... MT www.bio-on.it

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This spoon does the rest!


hether yoghurt cups or jam jars, peanut butter, chocolate cream, bottled baby food or other packaged pasty food: significant residual quantities remain in all the containers of these products even after they have been emptied. In some cases, we lose up to 10% of the contents of food packaging, because their special shapes make it impossible to remove the products completely. When having almost completely emptied a jar, some of us will ambitiously try to take out even this last remnant. A normal tablespoon or teaspoon is not an ideal means for emptying a recipient completely, to avoid cleaning before waste disposal. The water which is consumed for this purpose needs to be cleaned at high costs, too. Additional resource consumption is the consequence. Thomas Griebl, a designer from Oberschneiding, Germany, who has been working for many years as movie and stage designer now developed the Balaenos® - spoon.

The whale For Thomas b i o n i c s should be an important aspect of design. This is very well illustrated by whales, whose bodies are excellently shaped for their natural habitat. For long periods they have been able to adapt themselves to their environment. With the aim of optimizing, evolution has thereby formed back a l l features which are not required any longer. The eponym of the Balaenos- spoon, the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), even gets along without a dorsal fin. It is the only whale species who doesn’t have one. The idea for designing the Balaenos- spoon came up when “plunging” into the yoghurt jar or when “fishing” for remnants of its contents. Both the spoon’s design and function were inspired by this animal.

The spoon Balaenos - spoons are made in one work-step from thermoplastic resin in an injection moulding process. Its special shape distinguishes this spoon from conventional spoons and it simplifies the uncomfortable gathering or scraping of remaining residual quantities. The spoondesign is copyrighted at the German Patent Office and internationally protected by WIPO. Inspired by an international major debate on how to avoid plastic waste and in view of the long-term environmental pollution by conventional plastics, Thomas and his team decided to manufacture the spoon from a biobased and biodegradable PLA compound. “By using biopolymers, both, we and the users, try to achieve the aim of a sustainable and ecologically safe use of plastic materials in the household and to reduce environmental pollution,” Thomas says.


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The PLA material used for Balaenos consists to approx. 70% of renewable raw materials and works therefore as a carbon-dioxide buffer storage. It can be completely recycled, used for energy production, or led back into the ecological cycle, after use. Of course, the material is FDA compliant and approved for use with food. The special compound makes the spoon resistant to temperatures of approx. 75°C. It is therefore not recommended to clean the spoon in the dishwasher, but better wash it by hand like other natural materials (such as wooden knife handles and kitchen utensils). The spoon is home compostable, if such a possibility exists. Mechanical comminution like grinding or rasping accelerates this biological degradation. The Balaenos - spoon is available in two different sizes. The two versions of the spoon are based on the usual dimensions for cutlery. The idea behind Balaenos is to design a complete range of everyday utensils which are produced as sustainably as possible. Their materials are derived from nature in a resource-saving way, in order to return them to their natural cycle at the end of their lifetime. The uniform design language evokes their models from nature and our contact with nature as an integral part of it. “Simple and widely used products, at best produced locally at low cost, sold via different distribution channels, will enrich our everyday life with new, renewable materials, and can substantially influence our attitude and our general behaviour towards existing resources,“ Thomas Griebl says.“ Much could be achieved when the special spoon on the breakfast table, the hygiene product in the bathroom or small office accessories create awareness that we are not consumers, but users, who think in terms of closed circuits!” Balaenos will be manufactured completely in southern Germany and customized and despatched in-line with customers’ requirements. Sustainability is also kept in mind for packaging materials, by using cardboard from grass paper and films from biodegradable PLA. Domestic production for the German and the adjacent European markets avoids long transport routes from overseas and multiple transport itineraries to the end users. MT www.balaenos.de



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bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14



Pack it in feathers pluumo – The world’s first feather-based, sustainable packaging material


housands of tonnes of waste feathers are generated every day by the global poultry industry. The average amount of meat consumed per person globally has more than doubled in the past 50 years, e.g. from 23 kg in the 1960s to 69 kg in 2016 in the European Union [1]. This has a massive impact not only on anthropogenic GHG emissions, but also continues to create a huge amount of waste. In the EU alone, over 20 million tonnes of animal-byproducts (ABP) are produced annually and over 3.1 million tonnes of this material are feathers from poultry production. Feathers protect birds from adverse weather conditions and are inherently biodegradable in their nature. Honing in on these two properties; the team of AEROPOWDER (London, UK) has conducted comprehensive manufacturing testing in order to harness the beneficial assets of feathers and create a high-performance feather-based material. Other early-stage product ideas included water-proof coatings and composite materials. After several years of development, the team just launched a sustainable textile named pluumo, designed to be a highly effective insulation material. The material comes in the form of sheets and batts and is applicable in a variety of sectors, such as building, automotive and furniture. However, the initial focus is on packaging, using the novel textile as a featherbased thermal insulator for chilled shipments. pluumo is composed of feathers making it lightweight. Additionally, its packaging film is fully compostable, and it also adheres to strict environmental standards. The film is supplied by biofilm expert Nuova Erreplast in Italy, which conventionally produce flexible packaging. A pivotal role in the company policy is played by the search for new technologies and sustainable packaging solutions, aiming at having a low impact on the environment: one of the reasons why Nuova Erreplast embraced the pluumo project. Elena Dieckmann (CTO, Aeropowder) states: “The current discourse about the environmental impact of packaging is huge, and rightly so. We thought we could create a circular packaging product that is eco-friendly, waste-derived and high performance. Feathers can replace synthetic insulators, such as polyethylene foams or polystyrene (EPS) without loss of performance. In the booming industry that is online food delivery, this means that for every standard sized packaged being sent to a customer, around 400g of EPS packaging are avoided.” In order to create a fully compostable product, Aeropowder connected with Trevira (Bobingen, Germany), an innovative European manufacturer of high-value branded fibres and filament yarns. Trevira provided a solution in form of innovative, fully biodegradable binding fibres used to fuse the feather fibres together. These recyclable binding fibres are bicomponent fibres consisting of the biopolymers polylactic acid (PLA) and polybutylene succinate (PBS). “Fibres made from biopolymers are a sustainable alternative


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to petroleum-based fibres and provide a basis for intelligent materials with added functions, for new applications and for niche products,” says Joerg Dahringer of Trevira. “They are as economical as they are efficient.” And Elena Dieckmann adds: “ For us, Trevira was the ideal partner – they are real pioneers of sustainability and have the technical expertise to create customized products.” Compostability test for the whole pluumo product are currently performed with accredited laboratories in Europe. In addition to biodegradability, pluumo must observe certain cold chain delivery requirements with regards to its insulative performance. Therefore, pluumo was tested extensively in collaboration with several research facilities in the UK. The product has been designed to outperform conventional EPS packaging (30 mm) by several hours. The secret to this impressive performance is down to the structure of feathers themselves. Feathers are made of keratin, an integral building block in nature. A unique feature of feather composition is their hollow microstructure traps air. Preventing movement of air is critical to preventing conductive heat transfer and thus tied directly to insulative performance. The team at Aeropowder have found a way to optimise the arrangement of feather fibres within the structure of pluumo, resulting in the material having a thermal conductivity 0.032 W/mk. Additionally, the strength of keratin means that pluumo retains its structural integrity after impact, providing additional cushioning protection for fragile items. pluumo’s specifications are also customisable in terms of height and density to meet a variety of demanding applications. Currently, Aeropowder is supplying pluumo Europe-wide, but its potential is wide-reaching. Wherever poultry found, pluumo and other innovative sustainable materials can be can be manufactured. MT [1]: OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2017-2026; http://www.fao.org/3/a-i7465e.pdf www.pluumo.com


Novel biobased barrier films


ccording to recent forecasts by European Bioplastics and nova Institute, global production of biopolymers will increase from about 2.05 million tonnes in 2017 to 2.44 million tonnes in 2022. The trend towards biobased and biodegradable plastics was induced mainly by the global waste problem and increasing environmental regulations for the industry. Consumers’ growing environmental awareness also has a beneficial effect for the bioplastics sector. Furthermore, certain bioplastics offer technical advantages. Due to its unique barrier properties towards oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, polylactide (PLA), for example, is already being successfully applied in the packaging industry - the largest field of application for biopolymers. This is where the Bio-Barrier Films (BioBaFol) project ties in, which was launched as part of the support programme for Renewable Resources by the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL). The project partners, SKZ, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Tecnaro, JenCAPS Technology and Südpack Packaging (all from Germany) are jointly developing PLA-based films with special barrier properties for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. An inorganic-organic functional layer integrated in these films is intended to improve the films’ barrier effect in comparison to conventional multilayer films. Such hybrid polymers are already being used in numerous fields of application, such as photoand electrochromic, scratch- and abrasion-resistant or antistatic coatings. These excellent barrier properties are now being evaluated for use in food packaging and flexible encapsulation of optoelectronic applications. Conventional barrier films are mainly covered by laminated composites. These usually consist of duplex sheets wherein two different films are bonded together by coextrusion. Application-specific polyolefins are added

In the framework of the Bio-Barrier Films (BioBaFol) project, the SKZ and several project partners are jointly developing PLA-based films with special barrier properties for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.

as sealing media. These laminated composites currently cannot be broken down into their individual components, and thus cannot be recycled. “The use of a hybrid polymer layer on a PLA carrier material is now intended to facilitate the recycling process,” explained SKZ scientist Alexander Rusam. “During renewed film extrusion, this layer can be incorporated in the polymer matrix and can thus serve both as a nucleating agent for crystallization and as an additional barrier filler material. It is therefore not necessary to separate the barrier layer from the PLA carrier material, and recycling will thus be possible in the future. “ Besides feasibility, by the end of the project period, in mid 2021, a scale-up at pilot-scale is also aimed at. MT www.skz.de

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14



Captured carbon vs. biobased Can products made from captured/recycled CO2 be called biobased?


iobased carbon content and captured or recycled carbon content are two separate metrics, though not always exclusive of each other. Biobased content is based upon the source of the raw material and is thus a ‘beginning of life’ concept. On the other hand, recycled or captured carbon content is based upon an ‘end of life’ action of e.g. incineration. As such, it is important to understand the differences between the two carbon content types and why each needs to be treated differently when developing standards for measurement or determination.

Defining biobased The term biobased is used to describe materials (products and/or chemicals) derived in whole or in part from biomass resources; organic materials available on a continuous basis (i.e. renewable) from terrestrial and marine agricultural, plant, animal, and fungal sources living in a natural environment in equilibrium with the atmosphere (ref D6866, USDA, Farm Bill, EU). The phrase “living in a natural environment in equilibrium with the atmosphere” in the definition is critical because it provides for the absolute measurement of the biobased carbon content of a product using radiocarbon (carbon-14) analysis, and validates the amount of carbons originating from plant-biomass resources. There are three naturally occurring isotopes of carbon: 12C, C, 14C and all are present in living organisms. Carbon-14 14 ( C), however, is radioactive. The living systems maintain their C-14 content in equilibrium with atmospheric C-14. In other words, all plant-biomass feedstocks will contain the same level of C-14 as the atmosphere does. When a living plant or animal dies, it ceases to take up C-14, and thus no longer maintains an equilibrium level of C-14 with atmospheric C-14. The amount of C-14 in the carbon from this material will then decay exponentially from the equilibrium level with a half-life of 5730 years. Products made from biomass feedstocks like agricultural, plant, animal, marine, and forestry materials will still retain 100% of C-14 radioactivity for a long period of time (only 1% of radioactivity is lost after 100 years). Fossil carbons in products will have zero radioactivity as they are formed over millions of years. The ASTM & ISO test methods use the above radiocarbon concept to quantify the biobased carbons originating from the biomass feedstocks. The amount of biobased carbon in a given sample can be determined using radiocarbon dating, which measures the amount of carbon-14 present.


Because carbon present in biobased materials is recently captured from the atmosphere, the combustion and release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from biobased material results in a net zero carbon footprint: if this carbon dioxide is captured or recycled, then this is also biobased captured or recycled carbon dioxide. In contrast, fossil fuel-derived material is formed over millions of years (devoid of carbon-14) and thus combustion of fossil fuels adds to the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide. But, as will be discussed later, the use of


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captured or recycled CO2 partially mitigates this addition of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

Test standards for biobased testing Carbon-14 testing is performed according to widely accepted test standards such as ASTM D6866 and ISO 16620-2. ASTM D6866 is a standard test method used for determining the biobased content of solid, liquid and gaseous samples using radiocarbon dating [3]. Likewise, ISO 16620-2 is an international standard test method for determining the biobased content of solid, liquid and gaseous samples using carbon-14 analysis [4]. After analyzing a sample, the result is cited as percent modern carbon (pMC) and reported as percent biobased carbon content (or simply percent biobased content). A result of zero pMC indicates a sample is wholly derived from fossil carbon and does not contain any measurable carbon-14. In contrast, one hundred pMC represents a sample comprised entirely of biobased carbons from plantbiomass resources. If the pMC value is between 0 and 100, the content is a mixture of fossil carbon and biobased carbon. Under ASTM D6866, this percentage is a measure of the amount of biomass-derived carbon in a product compared to its total organic carbon (TOC) content. ISO 16620-2 uses this terminology as well [3, 4].

Certifying biobased products Carbon-14 testing has been used for over a decade to validate biobased claims and often to receive product eligibility for third-party certifications and eco-labels. ISO17025 accredited laboratory Beta Analytic has tested the percent biobased content of over a thousand samples within a wide range of product types. The biobased approach has qualified over 2,500 biobased products in the marketplace today [5]. Globally, there are several biobased certification programs. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) BioPreferred® Program requires the measurement of the biobased content of products according to the ASTM D6866 standard. This program includes two parts: a mandatory federal purchasing requirement and a voluntary labeling program for biobased products. The USDA has identified over 100 product categories with a minimum biobased content established per category for which federal agencies have purchasing requirements. Furthermore, the voluntary labeling initiative allows companies to receive the USDA Certified Biobased Product certification label on products that exceed the minimum threshold of biobased content required for the specific product category. This has certified over 2,500 products [6]. Several of these products may also be certified by other programs such as TÜV AUSTRIA’s OK biobased (using a a star system: one-star is for products with biobased content between 20% and 40% while a four-star certified product contains over 80%


By: Kelvin Okamoto, Green Bottom Line, Chair of ASTM D20.96 Ramani Narayan, Michigan State University, Former Chair of ASTM D20.96 Stephany Mason, Beta Analytic Haley Gershon, Beta Analytic

biobased content [7] and DIN CERTCO’s DIN-Geprüft (with three quality divisions: Biobased 20-50%, Biobased 50-85%, and Biobased >85%) [8] in Europe. Beyond those mentioned above, biobased testing has been incorporated into many other eco-labeling programs and biobased product initiatives. These include but are not limited to Japan BioPlastics Association’s BiomassPla certification, Canada’s EcoLogo Program, French Decree 2016-379 on Single-Use Plastic Bags, and Italy’s EU Directive 2015/720 on Biobased Plastic Bags.

Products manufactured from captured/recycled CO2 To reiterate, in order to be called ‘biobased’ a product or chemical needs to be manufactured from renewable, plantbiomass living systems that exist in a natural environment in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. Products obtained from converting smokestack CO2 from coal, natural gas or other fossil fuel burning systems do not fall under the ‘biobased’ definition and do not lend themselves to quantitative analysis by radiocarbon measurement (ASTM D6866) since these products do not contain any carbon-14 content. Therefore, PHAs and algae-based products, polymers, or chemicals produced from only petroleum-based smokestack CO2 are not “biobased.”

However, these products are beneficial to the environment by removing CO2 during production that would otherwise be emitted back into the atmosphere. By using recycled CO2 the product manufacturing process also does not require the burning of additional fossil fuels. Again, this reduces the emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

devoid of carbon-14 content could negatively impact the credibility and market acceptance of biobased products and open the door to non-verifiable products. Separate verifiable standards and validation criteria for environmental benefit should be developed for these products. Approaches using carbon tagging or an audit approach would be useful to develop. Future standards for products captured from recycled CO2 containing only petroleum-based carbon are critical in order to develop this new class of chemicals and polymers. References 1. Narayan, Ramani, The Promise of Bioplastics - Bio-Based and Biodegradable-Compostable Plastics, Editor: Kabasci, Stephan BioBased Plastics, Chapter 14, 347-357, 2014, DOI:10.1002/9781118676646 2. Ramani Narayan, Biobased & Biodegradable Polymer Materials: Rationale, Drivers, and Technology Exemplars; ACS (an American Chemical Society publication) Symposium Ser. 1114, Chapter 2, pg 13-31, 2012 3. ASTM International. ASTM D6866 - 18, Standard Test Methods for Determining the Biobased Content of Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous Samples Using Radiocarbon Analysis. 2018. 4. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 16620-2:2015, Plastics -- Biobased content -- Part 2: Determination of biobased carbon content. 2015. 5. United States Department of Agriculture. Fact Sheet: Overview of USDA’s BioPreferred Program. (https://www.usda.gov/media/pressreleases/2016/02/18/fact-sheet-overview-usdas-biopreferred-program). 6. United States Department of Agriculture. What is BioPreferred? (https:// www.biopreferred.gov/BioPreferred/faces/pages/AboutBioPreferred. xhtml). 7. TUV Austria. OK biobased. Belgium. (http://www.tuv-at.be/certifications/ ok-biobased/). 8. TUV Rheinland Din CERTCO. Certification Scheme Biobased Products in accordance with ASTM D 6866 and/or ISO 16620, Parts 1-3 and/ or DIN SPEC 91236 (DIN CEN/TS 16137). Berlin, Germany, 2015. (https://www. dincertco.de/media/dincertco/dokumente_1/certification_schemes/ Biobasierte_Produkte_biobased_products_certification_scheme.pdf).

There are, however, fuel combustion sources that burn municipal solid waste (MSW) or mixed fuels (biomass-derived and fossil fuel). Any captured or recycled CO2 from these sources will have a radiocarbon signal. The US EPA Greenhouse Gas (GHG) reporting rule requires the determination of the biogenic (biomass-derived) CO2 contribution from these sources using the ASTM D6866 standard. Thus, products made from these sources of captured CO2 may have biobased content.

Conclusion While products derived from recycled CO2 may provide environmental benefits, they do not always meet the requirements to be considered as biobased products. There are over 2,500 products certified under the USDA BioPreferred Program based on testing per ASTM D6866 and countless products in Europe and Asia that qualify as biobased and whose biobased carbon content can be accurately validated. Modifying the existing D6866 (and ISO) standards to accommodate products made with recycled carbon dioxide

Biobased vs. recycled CO2

Want to help ASTM D20.96 ? ASTM D20.96 Environmentally Degradable Plastics and Biobased Products subcommittee is moving forward with developing a recycled/capture carbon content standard and is actively seeking individuals interested in helping. If you have interest in this, please email Kelvin Okamoto (kelvin@greenbottomline.com).

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14


new series

Bioplastic Patents

U.S. Patent 10,087,305 (October 2, 2018): “Nucleated Crystallization of Poly(Trimethylene-2,5-Furandicarboxylate) (PTF) and Articles Made Therefrom”, Gordon Mark Cohen, Frederik Nederberg, Bhuma Rajagopalan, (E. I. DuPont De Nemours and Company. (Wilmington, DE USA) Ref: PCT WO2015/095466 EP The composition taught is a block copolymer consisting of a hard segment, poly(trimethylene-2,5-furandicarboxylate) and a soft segment, 2,5-furan dicarboxylate based poly(alkylene ether glycol). A critical teaching is the use of a nucleating agent, a neutralized carboxylic acid salt or trisodium phosphate, for promoting crystallization of the hard segment from the melt which is key for the injection molding process cycle time. The level of nucleating agent is 1 – 2.5 weight %

By: Barry Dean, Naperville, Illinois, USA

This section highlights recently granted patents that are relevant to the specific theme/focus of the Bioplastics Magazine issue. The information offered is intended to acquaint the reader with a sampling of know-how being developed to enable growth of the bioplastics markets. The five patents cited demonstrate compositions and process for renewable/ biodegradable injection moldable compositions. Key for injection molding are compositions that deliver bulk properties in the final article but also must offer fast cycle times for the production of the molded article.

The ratio of hard segment to soft segment will influence bulk mechanical properties such as modulus, impact strength and compressive strength.

U.S. Patent 9,914,831 (March 13, 2018): ”Injection Molded Article”, Maximillian Lehenmeier, Gabriel Skupin, Martin Bussmann , (BASF SE, Ludwigshafen DE) Ref: PCT WO2015/169660 This patent teaches an injection molding composition exhibiting an HDT of 80 – 105 C with balance of Charpy impact strength and modulus to allow for thin wall structures. The multi-component composition consists of 47 – 59 weight % of polyester derived from succinic acid and a C6 – C20 aliphatic acid with 1,3-propanediol and 1,4-butanediol; 314 weight % of polyester derived from C6 – C20 aliphatic acid and terephthalic acid with 1,3-propanediol and 1,4-butanediol; 15 – 24 weight % of polylactic acid and 10 – 35 % mineral filler(eg talc). Chain extender is used in the polyesters to control molecular weight. The compositions illustrated are tailored to control HDT, modulus and impact based on application as well as injection molding cycle time and structure dimensional stability. Preferred applications are coffee capsules, coffee cup lids and tableware. The biodegradability/compostability of the injection molded article is determined by the polymer matrices selection.


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U.S. Patent 10,189,989 (January 29, 2019): “Polyester Mixture Including Polyethylene-2,5-Furandicarboxylate”, Anne K. Moeller, Klan Molawi, Motomori Yamamato, (BASF SE) Ref: PCT WO2015/150141 This patent teaches poly(cyclohexylenedimethylene2,5-furandicarboxylate)(PCF) can be nucleated with poly(ethylene-2,5-furandicarboxylate). PCF is a semicrystalline polyester with a Tg of 86 – 87 C, Tm of 267 C and onset of recrystallization at 217 – 223 C. For the injection molding process a higher onset of recrystallization is important for both cycle time and dimensional stability. Other nucleating agents are shown to increase the onset of crystallization of PCF by 10 – 12 C while 1 weight % PEF is shown to increase the onset of nucleation of PCF to 243 C, an increase of 25 C relative to non-nucleated PCF. The patent also teaches that PEF can have nucleation benefits in other renewable polymers such as PBS and PBAT

U. S. Patent 10,160,857 (December 25, 2018): “Thermoplastic Resin Composition and Molded Article Made Therefrom”, Chansu Kim, Kyunghae Lee, Jun Chwae, Mooho Lee, Kwangmyung Cho, (Samsung Electronics Ltd Korea) A thermoplastic composition based on a polylactic acid and a inorganic-organic particle tailored to improve impact strength and heat resistance is taught. The particle consists of an inorganic core and an organic coating layer on the core. Significant improvement in impact strength and heat resistance are illustrated when the inorganic-organic particle is based on organic coating layer that is a block copolymer for polycaprolactone and PLA. Lower impact strength and heat resistance are shown when the organic coating layer is either polycaprolactone or PLA or when the polycaprolactone/PLA layer is a copolymer and not a block copolymer. The inorganic particle diameter is less than 100 nm. The thermoplastic composition illustrated is 74 % by weight PLA, 20 % by weight inorganic-organic particle and the remainder is a plasticizer and nucleating agent. The inorganic-organic particle can be ranged from 5 – 40 weight % to tailor properties.

U.S. Patent 10,240,007 (March 29, 2019): “Shaped Polylactide Article and Method of Preparation”, Siebe Cornelis De Vos, Robert Edgar Haan, Geraldus Gerardus Johannes Schennink, (Purac Biochem BV Netherlands) Ref: PCT WO2016/102163 This patent teaches a method to maximize the formation of the stereocomplex(sc) crystallinity from mixtures of two enantiomers PLLA and PDLA. The method consists of mixing a first homopolylactide with an excess of a second homopolylactide where the first and second homopolylactide are poly-L-lactide(PLLA) or poly-D-lactide(PDLA). This mixing is done in the molten state and the pellets allowed to cool and crystallize as a blend of the sc-PLA. The pellet sc-PLA is blended with pellets of the first homolactide and melt processed into an article where the melt processing temperatures are above the melting points of the PLLA and PDLA(Tm= 175 C) but below that of the sc-PLA(Tm = 230 - 240 C). This method maintains the modulus, impact and elongation while providing an increase in bulk thermal performance via maximizing the sc-PLA.

The organic layer that is taught as a block copolymer of polycaprolactone and PLA is key to enabling the bulk composition to offer improved impact strength and heat resistance compared with the polylactic acid matrix.

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14


Brand Owner

Brand-Owner’s perspective on bioplastics and how to unleash its full potential With bioplastics we see an opportunity to increase the renewable content in our cars, but there are still some concerns regarding availability and recyclability in some cases. At this stage, we see the use of renewable fibres for reinforced plastics as the first option to increase bio-content. The addition of a portion of renewable raw material in normal plastics production, and calculate the biomass balance, would also be an option for us. www.volvocars.com

Christina Zander,

spokeswoman for


‘Basics‘ book on bioplastics This book, created and published by Polymedia Publisher, maker of bioplastics MAGAZINE is available in English and German language (German now in the second, revised edition). The book is intended to offer a rapid and uncomplicated introduction into the subject of bioplastics, and is aimed at all interested readers, in particular those who have not yet had the opportunity to dig deeply into the subject, such as students or those just joining this industry, and lay readers. It gives an introduction to plastics and bioplastics, explains which renewable resources can be used to produce bioplastics, what types of bioplastic exist, and which ones are already on the market. Further aspects, such as market development, the agricultural land required, and waste disposal, are also examined. An extensive index allows the reader to find specific aspects quickly, and is complemented by a comprehensive literature list and a guide to sources of additional information on the Internet. The author Michael Thielen is editor and publisher bioplastics MAGAZINE. He is a qualified machinery design engineer with a degree in plastics technology from the RWTH University in Aachen. He has written several books on the subject of blow-moulding technology and disseminated his knowledge of plastics in numerous presentations, seminars, guest lectures and teaching assignments.

110 pages full color, paperback ISBN 978-3-9814981-1-0: Bioplastics ISBN 978-3-9814981-2-7: Biokunststoffe 2. überarbeitete Auflage

Order now for € 18.65 or US-$ 25.00 (+ VAT where applicable, plus shipping and handling, ask for details) order at www.bioplasticsmagazine.de/books, by phone +49 2161 6884463 or by e-mail books@bioplasticsmagazine.com

Or subscribe and get it as a free gift (see page 61 for details, outside German y only) 52

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14

10 Years

10 Automotive Years ago

Published in bioplastics MAGAZINE



Rigid Packagi

Thermal Cooler Box



user with rding the end , thereby affo the outer box s. h ces wit pro al pos and KTM end-of-life dis Jersey, USA) t effective flexibility in the inceton, New ently validate a cos andoz, Inc. (Pr higan, USA) rec design, test and hain shipping . (Lansing, Mic Kuhl set out to d-c r Inc col Mr. ole s, us Co rie oro ll ust rig Ind Green Ce that met the rmaceutical launch of the ‘green’ cooler sensitive pha compostaannounced the for protecting and completely ll Foam not requirements 100% biobased ered Green Ce aceutical cov rm dis pha he t ts Box - the first tec g his tes to pro orbs excess is products. Durin thermal cooler ne but it also abs yre yst ll Cooler Box Ce pol ble/recyclable as en of ll Gre as we the contents shipment. The only insulates ially damage els of cornproducts during re t would potent lined with pan ambient moistu densation tha ate box outer M. out con k KT rug wic by cor to d rd lity ure a standa inating m, manufact Green Cell’s abi tomer by elim cifithe package. Green Cell Foa cus spe 8 the sed 10 for -ba e ISO rch sta D400 and aner packag . presents a cle m meets ASTM densation. ting conditions Green Cell Foa water due to con under compos any pooling of degradability tly improved er nag cations for bio Ma vides significan ent pro m also ing Developm age when Green Cell Foa Kuhl, Packag way of vibration dam new and a to ck Led by Mark se s respon inst sho ystyrene cooler project was in protection aga become a ng coolers. Pol has ppi shi lity l for Sandoz, the er abi ona tain diti sity to crack und the doz where sus compared to tra have the propen unity to shift thinking at San ort and can opp ttle t m bri fec foa ak in the are somewhat This was a per that utilizes impact. A bre top priority. ing solution from a single ing a channel find a packag stress – even cooler by provid ironmentally paradigm and integrity of the offers an env the e can absorb and mis ces pro our com e res en Cell Foam Gre . ide ins bio-renewabl re ow to fl . providing a mo -of-life option for outside air is ng or breaking, r cki responsible end cra ppe t act shi hou insulated le hits wit improved imp ltip al ing mu vid utic pro ace o als pharm rall 24-2 hours barrier while The typical ue to the ove and is used for stable thermal This adds val h polystyrene polystyrene is the contents. constructed wit protection to Non-renewable ims. . cla ded age car and dam dis ited lim reducing before it is enable this are package while ject. Sandoz ’ the facilities to ver to this pro dfills. Sandoz recyclable but from was a key dri ting it to lan Sustainability tive cts of switching e, thus relega rna effe itiv l alte hib nta e pro me abl t cos the environ ctive sustain Dr. Ramani wanted to see to find an effe KTM turned to t would tha m. s Foa ll ock mission was Ce dst fee Green the answer. based on bio polystyrene to iversity for sion was to polystyrene an State Un use. The mis nt data which an of Michig nature after its me ray le ess into Na tab k ass pos bac le cyc is com assimilate of provided life ll Foam which in all but one Dr. Narayan with Green Ce eam along improvement accomplished er recycling str a significant with Green demonstrated ycled in the pap slightly higher is ion cat phi and can be rec s (eutro ison are an 80% the LCA indice the LCA compar rgy metrics from decrease in ene Cell). The key gases and a 0% e ous enh gre reduction in of requirements. ce the outside phics will gra refreshed gra recognize and ers In June 2009, tom cus e cat is ich will help edu oler. Mr. Kuhl the coolers wh Green Cell Co benefits of the rs for use understand the en Cell Coole Gre of es siz additional s. now designing can operation ’ North Ameri ers: within Sandoz and their custom doz San for n n situatio and a big It’s a real win-wi convenience ed rov imp , formance improved per ment. for the environ improvement



AZINE [03/09] bioplastics MAG

In May 2019, Tim Colonnese, CEO, KTM, said: A lot can change in 10 years. For KTM, everything has changed in 10 years. In 2009, bioplastics MAGAZINE published this article about the launch of KTM’s Green Cell Cooler Box, a biobased, compostable alternative to polystyrene coolers made from KTM”s cornstarchbased Green Cell Foam. Sandoz, a subsidiary of Novartis (Basel, Switzerland), was the first adopter, using the Green Cell Cooler Box as an effective way to ship pharmaceuticals while demonstrating environmental sustainability. Today, Sandoz and Novartis are using Green Cell Coolers to protect lifesaving products in transit. And they’re not alone: over 36 other pharma-based companies have integrated Green Cell Coolers into their operations. And over 200 other companies in the food, nutritional supplement, and life sciences industries have jumped on board, helping Green Cell Coolers develop and maintain a reputation for consistent, high-level performance. And the changes don’t stop there. KTM now offers its customers access to a team of packaging engineers equipped with design software, testing equipment and an ISTA-certified lab to help design, test and certify custom packaging using Green Cell Foam. From a 1,600m² (18,000 sqft) facility in 2009, KTM has recently moved into a 7,900 m² (85,000 sqft) facility in Michigan and has committed to a 5-200 m² (56,000 sqft) manufacturing facility in Nevada to better serve western US customers, expected to open in August 2019. Plans are in process to expand outside of the US in 2020. Yes, a lot has changed in 10 years. And we expect that the changes over the next ten years will be even greater.

Vol. 4


bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14



Mind the right terms Biodegradable vs. compostable vs. oxo-degradable plastics: A straightforward explanation


s consumer demand for sustainable products grows, bioplastics —which can reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions— will become more prevalent. Production of bioplastics is expected to grow by as much as 20% by 2022 [1], and as it does, consumer understanding of bioplastics will need to grow with it. A major source of confusion is the difference between three terms: Biodegradability, compostability and oxodegradability. Although these terms are often used interchangeably, they are not synonymous. Confusion regarding common bioplastics terminology such as these, especially where it concerns the disposal of bioplastic products, can have dire consequences. Companies need to understand the distinctions between each category in order to accurately and honestly market their products. And consumers need to understand these terms in order to make educated purchasing decisions and properly dispose of bioplastic products at the end of use.

Understanding bioplastics: Biobased vs. biodegradable To understand these three terms (i.e., biodegradability, compostability and oxo-degradability), it is important first to clearly understand the definition of bioplastics [2]. Bioplastics refer to a large family of plastics which are sourced from biomass at the beginning of their life (biobased), metabolized into organic biomass at the end of their life (biodegradable), or both. Based on this, bioplastics can be broken down into three distinct classifications [3]: ƒƒ Fully or partially biobased but NOT biodegradable. (e.g., biobased PET, biobased PE, Terratek® SC or Terratek® WC) ƒƒ Fully or partially biobased AND biodegradable (e.g., PLA or starch blends such as Terratek® BD). ƒƒ Biodegradable and petroleum-based (e.g., PCL). Biodegradable plastics are a relatively small subset of bioplastics which can be converted into water, carbon dioxide (CO2) and bio-mass over time with the help of micro-organisms — this process is called biodegradation. And because the biodegradability of a plastic lies within the chemical structure of the polymer —and not the source of the feedstock— biodegradable plastics can be either bio- or petroleum-based.

Biodegradable vs. compostable vs. oxodegradable plastics Nearly every material will biodegrade, given enough time. But the length of the biodegradation process is highly dependent on environmental parameters such as humidity and temperature, which is why claiming that a plastic is


bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14

“biodegradable” without any further context (i.e., in what timeframe and under what environmental conditions) is misleading to consumers. Reputable companies will often make more specific claims, primarily certifying that their bioplastics are compostable. Compostable plastics are a subset of biodegradable plastics, defined by the standard conditions and timeframe under which they will biodegrade. All compostable plastics are biodegradable, but not all biodegradable plastics would be considered compostable.

Certified compostable: A more specific claim of biodegradability Compostable plastics are those plastics which have been tested and certified by a third party (e.g. BPI [4], DIN Certco, TÜV Austria etc.) to adhere to international standards such as ASTM D6400 (in the U.S.) or EN 13432 (in Europe) for biodegradation in an industrial composting facility environment. Materials certified according to ASTM D6400 or EN 13432 will disintegrate within 12 weeks and biodegrade at least 90% within 180 days in a municipal or industrial composting facility. Approximately 10% of solid material will be left at the end of the six-month-long process in the form of valuable compost, or biomass and water. These standards also ensure that the leftover compost will be free of toxins, so the compost will not cause harm when the facility sells it for gardening or agricultural applications. Unless otherwise denoted, certified compostable products must be disposed of in a designated municipal composting facility, not at home. Many certified compostable materials require the higher temperatures of industrial settings to biodegrade quickly enough, or in some cases at all. Other than in many countries (in Europe e.g. Germany, Italy, France, Sweden, The Netherlands etc.) few areas in the USA have curbside collection for industrial composting, which is why certified compostable products are best utilized in closed systems such as amusement parks, stadiums and schools, where compostable and organic waste is carefully monitored and controlled to ensure proper disposal in an industrial composting facility. San Francisco International Airport [5] and Safeco Field in Seattle [6] are two good examples of organizations using composting as a means of reducing their carbon footprint and diverting organic waste from landfills. Find more info on the differences in different countries in bM 05/2018.

A quick note on oxo-degradable plastics While often confused with biodegradable plastics, oxo-degradables are a category unto themselves. They are neither a bioplastic nor a biodegradable plastic, but rather a conventional plastic mixed with an additive in order to imitate biodegradation. Oxo-degradable plastics

By: Kevin Ireland Communications Manager Green Dot Bioplastics Emporia, Kansas, USA


quickly fragment into smaller and smaller pieces, called microplastics, but don’t break down at the molecular or polymer level like biodegradable and compostable plastics. The resulting microplastics are left in the environment indefinitely until they maybe eventually fully break down. A scientifically backed evidence for “bio”degradation was not presented until today.

Leading compounding technology for heat- and shear-sensitive plastics

The importance of clearly and accurately labeling plastic products As bioplastics continue to gain market share in the coming years, being clear about the environmental benefits in product and material marketing is imperative. Looking to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) Green Guides [7] is a good place to start. The Green Guides outline best practices for clearly labeling and marketing green products to ensure the expectations of the consumer align. Not only will transparency allow consumers to make smarter purchasing decisions, but it will ensure bioplastics are disposed of through the proper channels. Ultimately, better end-of-life disposal of bioplastics strengthens their environmental value proposition of diverting organic waste from landfills, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and ensuring the sustainable consumption of resources. For further reading we also suggest previous articles published in bioplastics MAGAZINE [8, 9, and 10]. They are available for download at www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/ en/miscellaneous/downloads.php References [1] www.european-bioplastics.org/market/ [2] www.greendotbioplastics.com/bioplastics-101-introduction-key-termssustainable-plastics/ [3] www.european-bioplastics.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2.1_ Material-Koordinatensystem_eng_2015_150109-1.jpg [4] https://bpiworld.org/CertifiedCompostable [5] www.sfexaminer.com/news/at-sfo-zero-waste-means-zero-confusion/ [6] www.mlb.com/mariners/ballpark/information/sustainability [7] www.ftc.gov/news-events/media-resources/truth-advertising/greenguides [8] Narayan, R.: Biodegradability - Sorting through Facts and Claims; bioplastics MAGAZINE 01/2009 [9] Narayan, R.: Misleading Claims and Misuse of Standards Continues to Proliferate in the Bioplastics Industry; bioplastics MAGAZINE 01/2010 [10] Ißbrücker, C.: Can Additives make conventional plastics biodegradable? bioplastics MAGAZINE 01/2017


Uniquely efficient. Incredibly versatile. Amazingly flexible. With its new COMPEO Kneader series, BUSS continues to offer continuous compounding solutions that set the standard for heat- and shear-sensitive applications, in all industries, including for biopolymers. • • • • •

Moderate, uniform shear rates Extremely low temperature profile Efficient injection of liquid components Precise temperature control High filler loadings


bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14



Plastic microparticles


mall particles of plastic were first reported in marine environments in the early 1970s. However, it wasn’t until the term ‘microplastics’ was coined in 2004 that the issue started to generate significant attention.

What are microplastics? Plastic particles smaller than 5 millimetres are generally considered to be microplastic. ‘Primary’ microplastics are purposely made this size. However, most are ‘secondary’ microplastics derived from the degradation and fragmentation of larger plastic items. Microbeads used in personal care products, such as facial cleansers are a well-known example of primary microplastics. Secondary microplastics are often fibres originating from the wear and laundering of clothing. Another major source of secondary microplastics is vehicles on the road, where normal wear and tear of tyres and plastic components of the vehicles contribute as well as wear of paints from road markings. Uncontrolled plastic waste and litter also break down into microplastics over time through weathering. Microplastics frequently end up in the ocean. Secondary microplastics are often swept there directly during rainfall, or, like primary microplastics, which are designed to be washed into sewers, eventually make it their way via wastewater treatment systems where they are not captured due to their small size.

physical damage such as obstructions or abrasions and potentially transfer plastic additives such as phthalates. The long-term effects of microplastics on humans is still unknown. However, it is believed that ingested microplastics larger than 150 microns (the size of fine sand grains) will pass through the body without any issues. Particles smaller than this can pass through the gut wall and travel to different parts of the body. The main ways microplastics are consumed by humans are through seafood, including salt, or drinking water and breathing in of household air (or dust).

Expectations of public, industry and government Many countries have implemented policies to ban plastic microbeads and reduce single use plastics such as plastic bags. However, as only a portion of microplastics originate Plastic and microplastics on a Caribbean beach

Microplastics downunder Scientists at Scion (Rotorua, New Zealand) and the University of Canterbury (Christchurch, New Zealand) have been identifying, quantifying and characterising plastic microparticles in Auckland waterways. Auckland is New Zealand’s largest city with zones of high industry, varying land use, estuaries, two harbours and western and eastern coastlines. Over 170 sediment samples were collected and analysed. In line with international trends, the majority of the microparticles recovered were fibres, likely derived from textiles. Higher counts were observed in samples collected near the discharge of wastewater treatment plants. Infrared spectroscopy of the microparticle polymer type showed the majority of the plastic microparticles to be polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene. Around 40% were found to be cellulose and regenerated cellulose [1].

Effects of microplastics In the ocean, microplastics can be ingested all along the food chain up to shellfish and fish. This can cause

from these items (the major sources being synthetic textiles, tyres, city dust, paint…), expectations of a quick fix are misguided.

Bioplastics as a solution? Substituting with marine biodegradable polymers is touted as one potential solution to the microplastic problem. Unfortunately, the situation in not that simple. Some polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been shown to be marine biodegradable, however the estimated lifetime of objects made from PHA in a marine environment still range from 1 to 5 years. Further, the impact of the PHA microparticles on marine organisms within this period is


bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14

By: Jamie Bridson and Kate Parker Biopolymers and Chemical Technologies Scion Rotorua, New Zealand

still unknown. As reported by Francesco Degli Innocenti in Bioplastic Magazine Vol.14/1, biodegradability reduces the risk, but ultimately mitigation using bioplastics should be based on sound impact and risk assessment methodology. Oxo-degradable plastics are sometimes suggested as another possible solution. However, oxo-degradable plastics are designed to fragment into microplastics meaning they actually contribute to the problem.

Turning the tide A wide range of clean-up strategies have been proposed by various groups from community litter collections to vast ocean clean ups. However, preventing microplastics being generated or reaching the environment in the first place are better solutions. Improved waste management, circular

Join us at the

14th European Bioplastics Conference The leading business forum for the bioplastics industry economy principles and new materials will all form part of the solution to this challenging but extremely important issue.

Acknowledgements This work was funded by the New Zealand Ministry for the Environment through the Waste Minimisation Fund and Packaging Council of New Zealand (PAC.NZ). Work was supported by collaborators at Auckland Council, Watercare and the University of Auckland. [1] https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_ id=1&objectid=12164041 www.scionresearch.com

3/4 December 2019 Titanic Chaussee Hotel Berlin, Germany


@EUBioplastics #eubpconf For more information email: www.european-bioplastics.org/events conference@european-bioplastics.org

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14


Suppliers Guide 1. Raw Materials

AGRANA Starch Bioplastics Conrathstraße 7 A-3950 Gmuend, Austria bioplastics.starch@agrana.com www.agrana.com

BASF SE Ludwigshafen, Germany Tel: +49 621 60-9995 martin.bussmann@basf.com www.ecovio.com

Simply contact:

Stay permanently listed in the Suppliers Guide with your company logo and contact information. For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you can be present among top suppliers in the field of bioplastics.

Gianeco S.r.l. Via Magenta 57 10128 Torino - Italy Tel.+390119370420 info@gianeco.com www.gianeco.com

39 mm

Sample Charge: 39mm x 6,00 € = 234,00 € per entry/per issue

Sample Charge for one year: 6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 € The entry in our Suppliers Guide is bookable for one year (6 issues) and extends automatically if it’s not canceled three month before expiry.

www.facebook.com www.issuu.com www.twitter.com www.youtube.com


bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/19] Vol. 14

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH Siemensring 79 D - 47 877 Willich Tel. +49 2154 9251-0 Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51 sales@fkur.com www.fkur.com

1.2 compounds

GRAFE-Group Waldecker Straße 21, 99444 Blankenhain, Germany Tel. +49 36459 45 0 www.grafe.com

Cardia Bioplastics Suite 6, 205-211 Forster Rd Mt. Waverley, VIC, 3149 Australia Tel. +61 3 85666800 info@cardiabioplastics.com www.cardiabioplastics.com

For Example:

Polymedia Publisher GmbH Dammer Str. 112 41066 Mönchengladbach Germany Tel. +49 2161 664864 Fax +49 2161 631045 info@bioplasticsmagazine.com www.bioplasticsmagazine.com

Jincheng, Lin‘an, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311300, P.R. China China contact: Grace Jin mobile: 0086 135 7578 9843 Grace@xinfupharm.comEurope contact(Belgium): Susan Zhang mobile: 0032 478 991619 zxh0612@hotmail.com www.xinfupharm.com

Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co., Ltd. No.33 Kefeng Rd, Sc. City, Guangzhou Hi-Tech Ind. Development Zone, Guangdong, P.R. China. 510663 Tel: +86 (0)20 6622 1696 info@ecopond.com.cn www.kingfa.com

1.1 bio based monomers

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467 suppguide@bioplasticsmagazine.com

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe Polyester Co., Ltd. No. 316, South Beijing Rd. Changji, Xinjiang, 831100, P.R.China Tel.: +86 994 2716865 Mob: +86 18699400676 maxirong@lanshantunhe.com http://www.lanshantunhe.com PBAT & PBS resin supplier

PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd. info@pttmcc.com / www.pttmcc.com Tel: +66(0) 2 140-3563 MCPP Germany GmbH +49 (0) 152-018 920 51 frank.steinbrecher@mcpp-europe.com MCPP France SAS +33 (0) 6 07 22 25 32 fabien.resweber@mcpp-europe.com API S.p.A. Via Dante Alighieri, 27 36065 Mussolente (VI), Italy Telephone +39 0424 579711 www.apiplastic.com www.apinatbio.com Microtec Srl Via Po’, 53/55 30030, Mellaredo di Pianiga (VE), Italy Tel.: +39 041 5190621 Fax.: +39 041 5194765 info@microtecsrl.com www.biocomp.it

Tel: +86 351-8689356 Fax: +86 351-8689718 www.jinhuizhaolong.com ecoworldsales@jinhuigroup.com

BIO-FED Branch of AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH BioCampus Cologne Nattermannallee 1 50829 Cologne, Germany Tel.: +49 221 88 88 94-00 info@bio-fed.com www.bio-fed.com

Global Biopolymers Co.,Ltd. Bioplastics compounds (PLA+starch;PLA+rubber) 194 Lardproa80 yak 14 Wangthonglang, Bangkok Thailand 10310 info@globalbiopolymers.com www.globalbiopolymers.com Tel +66 81 9150446

Green Dot Bioplastics 226 Broadway | PO Box #142 Cottonwood Falls, KS 66845, USA Tel.: +1 620-273-8919 info@greendotholdings.com www.greendotpure.com

NUREL Engineering Polymers Ctra. Barcelona, km 329 50016 Zaragoza, Spain Tel: +34 976 465 579 inzea@samca.com www.inzea-biopolymers.com

Sukano AG Chaltenbodenstraße 23 CH-8834 Schindellegi Tel. +41 44 787 57 77 Fax +41 44 787 57 78 www.sukano.com

Suppliers Guide 1.5 PHA

3. Semi finished products 3.1 films

Natureplast – Biopolynov 11 rue François Arago 14123 IFS Tel: +33 (0)2 31 83 50 87 www.natureplast.eu

TECNARO GmbH Bustadt 40 D-74360 Ilsfeld. Germany Tel: +49 (0)7062/97687-0 www.tecnaro.de 1.3 PLA

Total Corbion PLA bv Arkelsedijk 46, P.O. Box 21 4200 AA Gorinchem The Netherlands Tel.: +31 183 695 695 Fax.: +31 183 695 604 www.total-corbion.com pla@total-corbion.com

Bio-on S.p.A. Via Santa Margherita al Colle 10/3 40136 Bologna - ITALY Tel.: +39 051 392336 info@bio-on.it www.bio-on.it

Kaneka Belgium N.V. Nijverheidsstraat 16 2260 Westerlo-Oevel, Belgium Tel: +32 (0)14 25 78 36 Fax: +32 (0)14 25 78 81 info.biopolymer@kaneka.be

TianAn Biopolymer No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd, Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800 Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2 Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0 enquiry@tianan-enmat.com www.tianan-enmat.com 1.6 masterbatches

Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co.,Ltd. No.97 Waisha Rd, Jiaojiang District, Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province, China Tel: +86-576-88827723 pla@hisunpharm.com GRAFE-Group www.hisunplas.com Waldecker Straße 21, 99444 Blankenhain, Germany 1.4 starch-based bioplastics Tel. +49 36459 45 0 www.grafe.com

BIOTEC Biologische Naturverpackungen Werner-Heisenberg-Strasse 32 46446 Emmerich/Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 2822 – 92510 info@biotec.de www.biotec.de

Grabio Greentech Corporation Tel: +886-3-598-6496 No. 91, Guangfu N. Rd., Hsinchu Industrial Park,Hukou Township, Hsinchu County 30351, Taiwan sales@grabio.com.tw www.grabio.com.tw

Plásticos Compuestos S.A. C/ Basters 15 08184 Palau Solità i Plegamans Barcelona, Spain Tel. +34 93 863 96 70 info@kompuestos.com www.kompuestos.com

Albrecht Dinkelaker Polymer and Product Development Blumenweg 2 79669 Zell im Wiesental, Germany Tel.:+49 (0) 7625 91 84 58 info@polyfea2.de www.caprowax-p.eu

TIPA-Corp. Ltd Hanagar 3 Hod Hasharon 4501306, ISRAEL P.O BOX 7132 Tel: +972-9-779-6000 Fax: +972 -9-7715828 www.tipa-corp.com 4. Bioplastics products

Bio-on S.p.A. Via Santa Margherita al Colle 10/3 40136 Bologna - ITALY Tel.: +39 051 392336 info@bio-on.it www.bio-on.it

Natur-Tec® - Northern Technologies 4201 Woodland Road Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA Tel. +1 763.404.8700 Fax +1 763.225.6645 info@natur-tec.com www.natur-tec.com

Bio4Pack GmbH D-48419 Rheine, Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 5975 955 94 57 info@bio4pack.com www.bio4pack.com

NOVAMONT S.p.A. Via Fauser , 8 28100 Novara - ITALIA Fax +39.0321.699.601 Tel. +39.0321.699.611 www.novamont.com 6. Equipment 6.1 Machinery & Molds

BeoPlast Besgen GmbH Bioplastics injection moulding Industriestraße 64 D-40764 Langenfeld, Germany Tel. +49 2173 84840-0 info@beoplast.de www.beoplast.de

Buss AG Hohenrainstrasse 10 4133 Pratteln / Switzerland Tel.: +41 61 825 66 00 Fax: +41 61 825 68 58 info@busscorp.com www.busscorp.com 6.2 Degradability Analyzer

INDOCHINE BIO PLASTIQUES 2. Additives/Secondary raw materials (ICBP) SDN BHD 12, Jalan i-Park SAC 3 Senai Airport City 81400 Senai, Johor, Malaysia Tel. +60 7 5959 159 marketing@icbp.com.my www.icbp.com.my GRAFE-Group Waldecker Straße 21, 99444 Blankenhain, Germany Tel. +49 36459 45 0 www.grafe.com

Minima Technology Co., Ltd. Esmy Huang, COO No.33. Yichang E. Rd., Taipin City, Taichung County 411, Taiwan (R.O.C.) Tel. +886(4)2277 6888 Fax +883(4)2277 6989 Mobil +886(0)982-829988 esmy@minima-tech.com Skype esmy325 www.minima.com

C, M, Y , K 45, 0,90, 0

C , M, Y, K 10, 0, 80,0

C, M, Y, K 50, 0 ,0, 0

C, M, Y, K 0, 0, 0, 0

MODA: Biodegradability Analyzer SAIDA FDS INC. 143-10 Isshiki, Yaizu, Shizuoka,Japan Tel:+81-54-624-6155 Fax: +81-54-623-8623 info_fds@saidagroup.jp www.saidagroup.jp/fds_en/ 7. Plant engineering

EREMA Engineering Recycling Maschinen und Anlagen GmbH Unterfeldstrasse 3 4052 Ansfelden, AUSTRIA Phone: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-0 Fax: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-23 erema@erema.at www.erema.at

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/19] Vol. 14


Suppliers Guide 9. Services (continued)

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH Holzhauser Strasse 157–159 D-13509 Berlin Tel. +49 30 43 567 5 Fax +49 30 43 567 699 sales.de@uhde-inventa-fischer.com Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG Via Innovativa 31, CH-7013 Domat/Ems Tel. +41 81 632 63 11 Fax +41 81 632 74 03 sales.ch@uhde-inventa-fischer.com www.uhde-inventa-fischer.com

nova-Institut GmbH Chemiepark Knapsack Industriestrasse 300 50354 Huerth, Germany Tel.: +49(0)2233-48-14 40 E-Mail: contact@nova-institut.de www.biobased.eu

Osterfelder Str. 3 46047 Oberhausen Tel.: +49 (0)208 8598 1227 thomas.wodke@umsicht.fhg.de www.umsicht.fraunhofer.de

Innovation Consulting Harald Kaeb

narocon Dr. Harald Kaeb Tel.: +49 30-28096930 kaeb@narocon.de www.narocon.de

10.2 Universities

IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics and Biocomposites University of Applied Sciences and Arts Hanover Faculty II – Mechanical and Bioprocess Engineering Heisterbergallee 12 30453 Hannover, Germany Tel.: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 22 69 Fax: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 99 - 22 69 lisa.mundzeck@hs-hannover.de www.ifbb-hannover.de/ 10.3 Other Institutions

Institut für Kunststofftechnik Universität Stuttgart Böblinger Straße 70 70199 Stuttgart Tel +49 711/685-62831 silvia.kliem@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de www.ikt.uni-stuttgart.de

Bioplastics Consulting Tel. +49 2161 664864 info@polymediaconsult.com

9. Services

European Bioplastics e.V. Marienstr. 19/20 10117 Berlin, Germany Tel. +49 30 284 82 350 Fax +49 30 284 84 359 info@european-bioplastics.org www.european-bioplastics.org

10. Institutions 10.1 Associations

BPI - The Biodegradable Products Institute 331 West 57th Street, Suite 415 New York, NY 10019, USA Tel. +1-888-274-5646 info@bpiworld.org

Michigan State University Dept. of Chem. Eng & Mat. Sc. Professor Ramani Narayan East Lansing MI 48824, USA Tel. +1 517 719 7163 narayan@msu.edu

Green Serendipity Caroli Buitenhuis IJburglaan 836 1087 EM Amsterdam The Netherlands Tel.: +31 6-24216733 www.greenseredipity.nl

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05.06.2019 - 07.06.2019 - Greenville, SC, USA http://www.beps.org/meetings/

Biobased Coatings Europe 2019

19.06.2019 - 20.06.2019 - Duesseldorf, Germany https://www.wplgroup.com/aci/crce2_agenda_mkg/

Plastics beyond Petroleum - BioMass & Recycling

2) aged 35 and below. end a scan of your student card, your ID or similar proof ...

25.06.2019 - 27.06.2019 - New York City Area, USA http://innoplastsolutions.com/conference.html

Plastic Free World

27.06.2019 - 28.06.2019 - Frankfurt, Germany




2-5258 ISSN 186

ng | hts mformi Highlig / Thero 23 | ckaging Rigid pa truction & Cons Building

... is





co in 92


4th International Conference on Bio-polymers & Polymer Chemistry


02 | 2019



Mar / Ap

May /


03 | 2



Basics ing | 46 Packag Biobased

9th World Congress on Biopolymers & Bioplastics

Cover Story bio-PE truck ride




itenhuis Caroli Bu endipity Green Ser

26.08.2019 - 27.08.2019 - London, Great Britain https://biopolymers.insightconferences.com/

SPC Engage:London

23.10.2019 - 24.10.2019 - London, Great Britain




Vol. 12



.2017 r1_05






Vol. 14







Vol. 14

Basic s Micro plastic s | 56 Mind the Captur right term s | 54 ed CO 2 vs. bi obased | 48 Highl ights Toys | 10 Inject ion M ouldin g | 30


11.07.2019 - 12.07.2019 - Las Vegas, NV, USA


... is rea

d in 92 cou



Mention the promotion code ‘watch‘ or ‘book‘ and you will get our watch or the book3) Bioplastics Basics. Applications. Markets. for free (new subscribers only) 1) Offer valid until 31 July 2019 3) Gratis-Buch in Deutschland nicht möglich, no free book in Germany

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/19] Vol. 14


Companies in this issue Company


5 Gyres



Global Biopolymers


Aakar Innovations


Golden Compound




GRABIO Greentech Corporation

Agrana Starch Bioplastics

21, 58




Green Bottomline

Alterra Plastics


Green Dot Bioplastics





Nuova Erreplast


58, 59

Green Serendipity



48 12, 25, 34, 54



19, 39, 60



59, 64



Nurel 58

Ochis Coffee



58 43 46





Arctic Biomaterials


Hands on Veggies











Hexpol TPE

12, 42

Pottery Barn Kids




Hötter Spiel




Beta Analytic


Indochine Bio Plastiques


Infraserv Knapsak


Inst. F. Bioplastics & Biocomposites






12, 26



Bio-Fed Branch of Akro-Plastic Bio-on



BPI Braskem

Cardia Bioplastics Cove


Saida 60



Schmiderer & Schendl




59 53 26 5, 56


SK Chemicals




35, 47


JinHui Zhaolong







Südpack Packaging










Kingfa 55, 59

Caprowachs, Albrecht Dinkelaker




12, 18, 40




12, 16



PTT MCC Biochem 59

Institut f. Kunststofftechnik, Stuttgart


















TianAn Biopolymer

Lageen Tubes




12, 13, 47


18, 23




5, 40

Light my Fire










Luke's Toy Factory






TÜV Austria




60 12, 14


12, 20, 23

Emballator Tectubes


Messe Düsseldorf (K'2019)



European Bioplastics

24, 47

57, 60



Farrel Pomini Ferbedo

1, 4,28



2, 58

Michigan State University


Microtec Minima Technology Multitubes


narocon InnovationConsulting

10 32

Univ Chemnitz


Univ. Stuttgart (IKT)


Volvo Cars


Wiener Spielkarten


Zapf Creatiuon



Fraunhofer Silicat Research




Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharm.

Fraunhofer UMSICHT




Zoë B Organic




Editorial Planner Issue


Publ. Date



08 Apr 19




edit/ad/ Deadline


60 28, 52 26 58 12

Zeijiang Hisun Biomaterials

59 58 12, 14



Subject to changes

Trade-Fair Specials

Edit. Focus 1

Edit. Focus 2


08 Mrz 19

Thermoforming / Rigid Packaging

Building & construction

Bioplastics in packaging (update)

Chinaplas Preview

03 Jun 19

03 May 19

Injection moulding



Chinaplas Review


05 Aug 19

05 Jul 19

Blow Moulding

Biocomposites incl. thermoset

Home composting





Fiber / Textile / Nonwoven

Barrier materials

Land use for bioplastics (update)

K'2019 Preview





Films/Flexibles/ Bags

Consumer & office electronics

Multilayer films

K'2019 Review

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/19] Vol. 14



Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe Polyester 

Fraunhofer IAP



Uhde Inventa-Fischer 31


12, 13

DIN Certco





Dr. Heinz Gupta Verlag


8, 23

arbo Plastic

BeoPlast Besgen





Made from potato starch, BIOPLAST® resins are designed to work on existing standard equipment for blown film, flat film, cast film, injection molded and thermoformed components. 100‹% biodegradable, BIOPLAST® is particularly suitable for ultra-light films with a thickness of approx. 10-15 μm.







w w w. b i o t e c . d e S002


member of the SPHERE group of companies

LJ Corporate – © JB Mariou – BIOTEC HRA 1183





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bioplastics MAGAZINE 03-2019  

bioplastics MAGAZINE is the only independent trade magazine worldwide dedicated to bioplastics (i.e. plastics made from renewable resources...

bioplastics MAGAZINE 03-2019  

bioplastics MAGAZINE is the only independent trade magazine worldwide dedicated to bioplastics (i.e. plastics made from renewable resources...