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Laboratory Work and Reports 1. A laboratory journal is an important part of your experimental work. In this class, you will be asked to keep a lab journal. There are three primary reasons to keep such a journal. a. A journal enables you to keep a permanent record of your laboratory observations, activities and experiences. A journal will be a resource for tests, lab quizzes, the mid-term exam and the AP Exam in May 8. b. A journal gives you an opportunity to learn how to collect and display data, make sketches and write observations and evaluate data to draw appropriate conclusions. In short, your journal will reflect the scientific method you use in the lab. c. The journal is graded and provides a partial basis for your grade in each marking period. 2. The typical lab journal requirements are applicable in this class: -pen only, no white-out, -no pages torn out, -all pages consecutively numbered on both sides of the page in upper right corner; -table of contents including, title, page numbers, date and lab partners on the first two pages of your journal - these guidelines are to be pasted on the inside front cover of your lab journal 3. You are required to prepare a lab prior to the actual day of the lab exercise. This ”prep” must include written completion of the starred (*) items described below as well as appropriate blank data charts. Failure to complete this lab prep will result in a loss of points. It may also result in a student NOT being permitted to work in the lab during class and require an after-school lab session. 4. Your pre-lab journal entry will include: -Title* -Problem/Question*: Identify the problem under investigation as accurately and completely as possible from background information. Strive to be precise and thorough. -Hypothesis*, if applicable: Predict what will happen based upon prior knowledge, your observations and background information. Not all lab work will require a hypothesis. - Materials*: List only those materials and equipment that are essential to the lab -Procedure*: You must develop a sketch or develop a flow chart. Procedures that are a handwritten copy of the handout will receive no credit. -Experimental Design Questions*: For each experiment (i.e. one with a hypothesis) state the following: - The controls – both positive and negative - Dependent and independent variables - How will extraneous factors be handled (e.g. maintain constant temperature, lighting conditions, etc.) - What data will be collected (mg/min, % change/hour, etc) - How will you provide repeat data? -Data Display*: Numerical data must be in well-constructed tables. (Use a ruler!) Qualitative observations should be clearly described. Sketches of microscopic structures should be made in a circle with labels and magnification. NOTE: The above * items are part of your lab “prep”. After the lab exercise is completed in class, you will use data you and your team collected to finish your analysis. This INDIVIDUAL WORK includes: -Analysis of Results: Graphs with correct calibrations, labels, units, title and a short statement beneath the graph describing the trends that your data shows. Mathematical analysis must always include a single example of calculations. Assigned lab questions are answered in this section. A paragraph or two analyzing the data might also be appropriate. -Conclusion: A conclusion is required ONLY if the lab work has a hypothesis. If a hypothesis is required, then a statement that indicates DATA as supporting or not supporting the hypothesis should be made using specific data reference. -Error Analysis: Mathematical (%error, chi squire, etc) and/or descriptive (that is, procedural).