成為自然:九典建築的生物智慧 Being Nature: The Biological Intelligence of Bio-architecture Formosana

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The Biological Intelligence of Bio-architecture Formosana


Bio-architecture Formosana


Shalun Smart Green Energy Science City: Solar Power Tree


Taipei Public Library Beitou Branch


Fengtay Cultural and Educational Green Park


National Central Library Southern Branch


North Coast Environmental Education Center


MOXA Green Cultural Factory in Taoyuan


Fab Green Village


Fengshan Railway Station


LCY R&D Center


Miaoli Railway Station


TSC Shalun Circular Residences


Taitung Aboriginal Galleria – Innovative Incubator Center


NCKU Macronix Innovation Center


NCKU University Geriatric Hospital


AMBA Taipei Zhongshan HOTEL


Jaodaotian Organic Farm


BaF’s Chronology of Projects & Awards

004-007 008-011 012-019 020-021 022-029 030-037 038-045 046-053 054-061 062-065 066-067 068-071 072-073 074-077 078-079 080-083 084-087 088-089 090-091 092-101

Foreword As the impact of climate change becomes more and more lucid, it seems especially meaningful to stage an exhibition showcasing the work of Bio-architecture Formosana on the theme of "biological intelligence". To begin with, the architectural practice of BaF over the last 20 years represents a rethinking of modernism through the lens of regional and environmental perspectives. Like the brilliant Indian architect Balkrishna Doshi, BaF's practice originates from a solid foundation of rigorous research and reconnaissance of the local lifestyle and environmental characteristics. In addition to actively develop, accumulate and apply knowledge leveraging environmental potential, they also patiently and agilely resolve the never-ending conflicts in architectural problems through the modest functional approach and frank tectonic expressions of modernism. In 2015, BaF co-founder Ching-Hwa Chang presented a talk entitled "Form Follows Energy", which reflects on the modernist doctrine of "form follows function". Aside from winning over the admiration of all the fine Taiwanese architects in the audience with her articulation of the firm's creative philosophy, she also demonstrated their determination to rectify the shortcomings of modernism. Looking from another perspective, the creative path BaF has adopted is not about tracing back the pre-industrial age traditions of vernacular architecture. Rather, they emphasize the utilization of new technology and strive to develop a new typology and a set of architectural aesthetics that are in better harmony with natural ecological cycles, not unlike the approaches taken by Norman Foster, Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers. However, the "new technology" they look to is innovations researched and developed locally in Taiwan rather than ones that come with a steep price tag. Some of the projects presented in this exhibition also show BaF's unparalleled sensitivity, understanding and mastery of local Taiwanese innovations. In their tenacious insistence on the above two principles and honing through countless experience of the hardship and tests brought on


by brutal realities, BaF has molded an idiosyncratic methodology for "low-carbon aesthetics" that has both enriched Taiwan's contemporary architectural landscape and blazed a trail to align Taiwan's architectural community with progressive work in the international arena. Upon self-reflection of these two principles, they have recently advanced "biological intelligence" as the overarching theme of their next explorative mission. They also seek to share this conception with the public through this exhibition and solicit feedback and critique. This is BaF's very first solo exhibition. Special thanks is owed to the invitation and support of National Cheng Kung University Art Center and the tireless effort of NCKU Department of Architecture for making it possible to extend this edifying road that BaF has paved for the public good. Almost every element of this exhibition may be recycled and reused, the event itself exemplifying the theories of biological intelligence. For instance, round tables used in Taiwanese local alfresco banquets were rented as display stands; paper honeycomb that can be repeatedly used and easily folded and stored is used as table covers; and shaped aluminum components that may be recycled are used to construct the display framework to save material.

Chun-Hsiung Wang Chief Editor, Architecture + Tectonics Taiwan (curating organization)

*Balkrishna Doshi (1927-), 2018 Pritzker Architecture Prize recipient **Three architects famous worldwide for high-tech architecture: Norman R. Foster (1935-), British architect, received Pritzker Architecture Prize and made Baron Foster of Thames Bank in 1999; Renzo Piano (1937-), Italian architect, 1998 Pritzker Architecture Prize recipient; Richard G. Rogers (1933-), British architect, made Baron Rogers of Riverside in 1996, 2007 Pritzker Architecture Prize recipient.




The Biological Intelligence of Bio-architecture Formosana After embracing Industrial Revolution and capitalism, the human society has become driven by consumerism. The development of any new technology always aims to produce faster and better goods without any considerations given to the resulting environmental burden; architecture has been no exception. Most contemporary buildings adopt an irreversible construction method, such as reinforced concrete. Problems like massive extraction of raw materials and the ensuing pollution have left indelible scars on our planet. Since the founding of their practice, Bio-architecture Formosana has always believed that any human activities must be premised on respect for nature and has strived to create eco-friendly works based on their "low-carbon aesthetics". In recent years, they have further shifted their practice to embody the broader idea of "biological intelligence". They aspire to create architecture inspired by natureachieve a high standard of 100% recyclable and reusable by not generating any waste during either its use or demolition. They have developed a series of nine concepts to describe the properties of bio-intelligent architecture as well as a set of design approaches to implement these ideas. The concepts are as follows: wilderness, locality, accommodation, lightness, durability, flexibility, comfort, cooperation and connecting. Outstanding and bio-intelligent architecture is apt at adopting new eco-friendly. This is an unstoppable trend in architecture as our environment faces a dire future if we simply continue with the status its oeuvres showcased in this exhibition on how to realize biointelligent architecture and implement the ideal green future.





Bio-architecture Formosana

Bio-architecture Formosana was founded in 1999 by ChingHwa Chang and Ying- Chao Kuo. They set out to predicate their practice on "low-carbon aesthetics", aiming to reduce carbon emission as much as possible from the design to construction s t a g e . To a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l , t h e y m u s t m a k e re p e a t e d calculations of the carbon emission associated with every move and deploy a practical and sensible approach. Projects from this period include their best-known Beitou Public Library (2003), hailed by foreign media as one of the "most beautiful libraries in the world", Tamshui Arts Workshop (2007), Dormitary for ITRI Southern Taiwan Campus in Lioujia (2007), Flora Expo Pavilions in Taipei (2008) and Minquan Elementary School in Namasha (2010). This trajectory of works has also made them the emblem and pioneer of green building in Taiwan. In recent years, however, BaF has shifted from simple carbon reduction to adopt the more broad and inspiring idea of "biological intelligence". The watershed project was TSC Shalun Circular Residences, which marks a transition from passive reduction of carbon emission to active recycling of resources toward the goal of "zero waste". This was also the point when BaF has formally closed the "technosphere" loop; all materials and resources may now be reused. In the same way a living thing dies and becomes nutrient for other new life, materials in a building at the end of its lifecycle become columns and piles for the next building—everything comes a full circle around.


Prof. Kwang-Ting Wu of National Cheng Kung University argues that among Taiwanese architectural firms in their prime, BaF is the most astute to the directions of future trends. Furthermore, they achieve this not by intuition but rather through intensive research to develop their own know-how, which is remarkable both in Taiwan and overseas. Many people understand the concept of circular economy, but BaF has a unique ability to realize it. Take TSC Shalun Circular Residences as an example, the applications in both materials and structures are impressive and the execution of circular economy concepts exceptional. They have advanced from the most basic environmental protection in green building to mastering the overall control of light and airflow, enabling them to accomplish a more progressive form of green building. According to Chief Editor Chun-Hsiung Wang of Architecture + Tectonics Taiwan, curator of this exhibition, BaF demonstrates a modest and unpretentious disposition. Rather than pursuing striking stylistic expressions or idealistic illusions, they choose to honestly and thoroughly implement their knowledge through rational analyses in a drive to make every detail friendly to both humans and nature. They are the most extraordinary practitioners of green building in Taiwan, always experimenting with staunch persistence to find different pathways toward a greener future.




Ching-Hwa Chang Ching-Hwa Chang received her M.Arch from University of Pennsylvania and B.Arch from National Cheng Kung University. She is a member of American Institute of Architects (AIA) and U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). She believes architecture must not only consider human needs but also the entire planet earth and future generations. In addition to design, she is also a dedicated educator and researcher. Her representative works include Songshan Public Housing, Beitou Public Library and Flora Expo Pavilions, the last two were awarded First Prize at the Taiwan Architecture Awards. She was named Outstanding Architect in Taiwan at its 11th edition. She is a Principal Architect at BaF.



Ying-Chao Kuo Ying-Chao Kuo received his M.Arch from the University of California, Los Angles and B.Arch from National Cheng Kung University. He believes that in addition to bringing happiness to people, architecture should also promote sustainability and do no harm to the environment. He is one of very few in Taiwan's green building discipline who can deftly integrate theory and design. His representative works include Taijiang National Park Visitor & Administrative Center, Beitou Public Library and Flora Expo Pavilions, the last two were awarded First Prize at the Taiwan Architecture Awards. He was awarded Outstanding Architect in Taiwan in 2011 and Special Contribution to National Construction, Taiwan Real Estate Excellence Awards in 2019. He is a Principal Architect at BaF.



Shalun Smart Green Energy Science City: Solar Power Tree This solar tree is located in a corner of the Green Energy Technology Demonstrative Site at Shalun Smart Green Energy Science City, Tainan. In light of the low-profile buildings here and the location on the sprawling Jianan Prairie, BaF wanted to erect a tall and iconic landmark to punctuate the project's special identity as a demonstrative green energy site, as well as to create a buzz to attract more visitors. A steel structure with its components prefabricated in factory and quickly assembled on-site form three columns intertwining skyward to provide support. Photovoltaic panels at the top continuously generate power. Enchanting landscaping including grassy hills and a pond create the feel of a friendly and open park. A 1:30 replica of this nearly 20-meterhigh solar power tree has been 3D-printed for the exhibition to communicate BaF's determination to fuse green energy and everyday life.


Taipei Public Library Beitou Branch Taipei City 2003-2006

Legend has it that when the Pingpu (Taiwanese Plains Indigenous) people first arrived in Beitou, they named it Beitou, meaning "witch", because they thought the misty ambience was the result of a witch's sorcery. A century later, the witch has vanished, the nightclubs have seen their glory and demise, and the hot springs have become historical attractions. It was not until Beitou Library was completed that the crowds of the distant past slowly returned and re-injected vigor into the area. Looking at this library from across the Huanggang River, the wooden structure with one story below and two above grade stands in visual harmony with the surrounding old trees and hot spring museum nearby, neither conspicuous nor imperceptible. The layered shingles insulate both water and heat. Higher up, the roof is slightly lifted, the verdant vegetation above embracing sunshine as well as greeting travelers from afar. Embedded into the topography and clasped by existing trees, the entire building forms a clever triangle that collects all rainwater recycled from the slanted roof and diverts it to the woodland side, leaving only a pure and elegant form.


Crossing the river and climbing the meandering steps shaded by tree foliage, you finally arrive at the entrance. "You can drink water inside; it's pretty user-friendly," you catch the fragment of a conversation between bypassing tourists. It is quiet inside, yet the feeling of pleasant surprises overflowing from people's inner emotion is palpable. They sit between the bookshelves and randomly pull out a volume to read or peruse articles in the newspaper area. Or, they are children who cannot hold back their laughers as they scale the flanking staircases and run over the daylight and shadows falling from the skylights below. Expansive glass doors and windows and total heat exchangers modulating the indoor temperature with outdoor air ensure the interior is always bright, comfortable and 30% more energy-efficient than similar buildings. An elderly local man with a cane, lovebirds clasping hands, schoolchildren on field trips. Everyone feels at home and at ease here and cannot help but linger.


After brief repose, the flow of people offers a hint that the glass doors in the walls may be opened. Once standing on the semioutdoor verandah, your view is instantly broadened and you are engulfed by breezes. Centenarian Beitou Park stretches out from below; a young man tries to capture little creatures in the creeks with his video camera. Blue skies provide the backdrop for buildings of varying heights in the distance. When you sit down in the wooden chair festooned with unicorn beetle patterns, vertical shades protect you from glaring sunlight, you wonder where the bird chatter is coming from, and all your senses become unadulterated. The witch has fallen into deep slumber, and the entertainment district of past no longer fills with singing and conviviality. Now, this place belongs to everyone. "Veiled in clouds and mists, like a dream yet ever so real," extols a line from Song of Beitou by Japanese songwriter Kurihara Shiraya. On a bright sunny day, nevertheless, the clouds and mists are nowhere to be seen and only the surrounding lush forests are in sight, ever so real.







Fengtay Cultural and Educational Green Park Yunlin County 2016-2020

A design that cares about the environment does not seek to suddenly impose an exuberant style but rather allows the architecture to slowly grow from the ground. Its semblance and gesture in harmony with the place, it seeks to accommodate the maximum demand using the least land area. For this very reason, the final developed area of Fengtay Cultural and Educational Green Park is significantly lower than the permitted coverage ratio and floor area ratio.


To understand how to co-exist with the land, one must master the language of the wind first. There are no high-rises anywhere here; a sea of rice paddies stretches all the way to the soaring Jade Mountain in the distance. It is windy year-round and the summer wind mainly blows from southwest. Thus, the north office building is deliberately shifted westward on the site to offset from the south tower. Extruding walls invite the southwesterly wind in to pass through a wind tunnel formed by openings atop the central lobbies of north and south buildings, helping to discharge all the hot air inside. Once air is flowing freely, people feel refreshed too. But this sprawling prairie is frequented not only by wind but also searing sun. To take full advantage of the solar exposure, the roof is first tilted 24 degrees to maximize the efficiency of solar panels. Recessed terraces and insulated walls are added to the east and west facades while deep recessed windows to the north and south provide shelter from the sweltering heat.


The site will house an institution that fosters agriculture, so the warmth of olden-day villages must not be absent at the cost of avoiding baking summer heat. Redbrick buildings are ubiquitous in Yunlin, so fair-faced bricks have also been brought here. They are not bonded by mortar though but are rather combined with stainless steel piping, rubber pads and steel ring pads that form a layered facade to the west of the building. The brick wall is protection; it blocks the glaring sun while filtering in just the right amount of light and wind to cast mesmerizing patterns inside. The brick wall is also commitment; a commitment to never forget one's roots despite the inflow of new things, and to appreciate that farm chores are as heavy, rough and modest as this material. However, agricultural technology of the future will become more and more versatile as technology advances, just like how this wall appears heavy and is in fact airy. It is heavy in its physical mass and light in its mortar-free dry-laid technique; it can be dismantled and reassembled anytime to start a new life on another site, over and over again.


As such, everything is woven together here into a composition that expresses respect and admiration for heaven and earth. Like a humble farmer, the architecture stays low to the ground, letting light in, letting wind through and providing a fortress to shelter people. When rain does fall, the roof also collects it. Inside, water used to wash farm products is recycled to irrigate the surrounding farms. Resources are cherished with care and prudence. The less humans try to rob, the more Nature will give. Nowhere else is this tenet more apparent than here.






National Central Library Southern Branch Tainan City 2019-

Xinying is a small town with no high-rises and little traffic. When tasked with converting a irregular-shaped sports park defined by Jinhua Road and Sanxing Street, BaF's foremost consideration was not to erect a monstrous edifice, but rather to create a library that echoes the town's airy and laid-back feel.


The town is organic, nonuniform and vibrant. The perimeters of the existing sports fields are densely lined with trees. To avoid moving them wherever possible, the new complex is divided into smaller buildings that fill in the gaps left by the fields, with varying heights creating interesting dynamics. Meanwhile, up to 90% of the existing trees, including 698 old trees, has been preserved. The site used to be a park and will continue to be one. The pathway to knowledge is never lonely—clusters of bristling rain trees and a boulevard canopied by the yellow blossoms of golden shower trees accompany visitors all the way to the front door of the library. Buildings converge and diverge, forming gaps where cool breezes gently greet pedestrians.


Then, you enter the library and a surprising journey unfolds. Books in hand, you go and find a cozy spot on the wooden steps in the overheight lobby flooded with daylight. When your eyes tire, close the books and continue further into the library. You will walk by the book museum, archive, restoration and experimental center and digital resource center. Taken on a journey through the life of a book, you come to appreciate how a volume is stored and repaired and it is as if you have also born witness to the passing of millennia of civilization. The library inspired by its host town is quiet and humble and simultaneously cheerful and animated. A mega-sized canopy overlaid with translucent solar panels stretches outward from the roof, conserving almost half the energy consumption for the building while endowing the space below with a sea of gentle shade. This cool area affords residents in hot climate a place to rest, chat, run and play, while comfortable breezes between the alleys spare them from feeling parched. Exiting the lecture hall on the ground floor to get a stretch or coming to the open terrace on the second floor, a tree house furnished with small chairs and bookshelves beckons you to enter and wait for the sunset. It's all right; go ahead and boisterously play or do some exercise. The pace of the little town is slow, reading is slow, and life should be slow, too. There was a time when people think of a library and a majestic palace immediately comes to mind. That is not the case here. The library here is a chest containing a myriad of treasures, awaiting you to come explore and sit for a long while. The wealth of the little town is its people. When people happily gather here, life naturally turn colorful.







North Coast Environmental Education Center North coast 2018-

After a 10-minute winding drive negotiating turn after turn, one finally reaches the top of this hill. This ocean-facing secret spot on the northern coast is little known and windswept. The North Coast Environmental Education Center unfolds on this crescent moonshaped site. The main environmental education center and the auxiliary housing are each situated at two ends of the site, their suppressed heights and light volumes each hugging the hillside to find respite from the relentless wind. Even the most extraordinary humans must remain humble in this paradise for wild flora and fauna. Just like how a newcomer brown shrike would never disapprove of the dense boughs but would instead construct a safe nest to sleep in, the sleeping units are also tucked between trees at the foot of the slope, somewhat insulated from wind in this verdant, quiet and recluse sanctuary. An all-


steel structure and pre-fabrication are the construction method of choice. To minimize disruption to the little creatures that call this place home, prefab components are quickly assembled onsite and concrete casting is kept minimal. Entry into the three-story sleeping units is via a wooden staircase that links to the side ramp. This airy three-story structure is actually cantilevered so that its only contact with the low-lying site is merely a few foundation files with a minimized footprint. "Simple" is the tenet for life here: two single rooms on each level with only a bed, bathroom and balcony. No dazzling neon lights, no drunken boisterousness late at night. Life in-between the trees is emerald during the day and pitch-black at night. Devoid of light and noise, perceptions are infinitely heightened; as if cast into unintended meditation in a primitive world, all that remains is a dialogue with oneself.


Perhaps you would only come to realize that another day has come when you're awakened by sunrise or a holler from a soaring crested serpent eagle in the distant skies. You catch a ride or simply walk by the landscaped rainwater retention pond and experimental farms to arrive at the environmental education center, another pile-supported structure lightly perched aboveground. Asymmetric triangular roofs block wind on their short side and an added shading design deals with western sun exposure. Rhythmic circulation linking the interiors, verandahs and terraces generate different viewpoints toward the sea and mountains at different angles. People come and go, and so will the architecture one day. That day, when these structures have fulfilled their purpose, they can be readily dismantled and the materials reused in another place. Like a migrant bird that, when the time comes, flaps and spreads its wings to fly to the next destination. The ecology here will remain intact and vibrant, as if interruption and interference by humankind have never transpired.







MOXA Green Cultural Factory in Taoyuan Taoyuan City 2016-2019

MOXA's new site is tall and upright just like any other factory, but once you arrive at the front door, the entire building bows down to you. The boxy volume is slightly depressed at the entrance, so that the solar panels atop harness more light thanks to the slant, and people on the ground are greeted with a metaphorical welcome. The story of this seemingly ordinary and yet extraordinary new factory unfolds from this entrance.


The stereotypical factory life is uniform, mundane and even gloomy. The walls of MOXA Green Cultural Factory are all light gray, but a deliberate splash of brilliant orange at the entrance hints at an extraordinary working life inside. The first impression of the interior is its brightness-created by warm sunlight instead of glaring fluorescent. If you look up, you will realize the light is coming from a giant round aperture at the center of the sixth top story. A gallery begins at the aperture and spirals down floor after floor until it eventually arrives at your foot. The air does not feel stuffy, because that aperture invites in not only daylight but also breezes. You will not sense the tense tempo of a regular factory because the ambience here can only be described as leisurely. There are no escalators along this artery-like gallery and one must slowly scale it level by level via ramps or stairs. You will pass by offices, meeting rooms, lounge, coffee bar, nursery and numerous green plants reliant on the daylight for their survival. One of the ramps even turns into a slide! On your stroll, you will see your coworkers and their children in nursery, while they will also see you. Your line of sight expands from a production line up close to encompass every department inside the factory; you know with whom you're working everyday, and whether or not they're having a good day today.


This is not a bustling city center. Looking out, you will only see icy cold and mammoth highways and replicated factories all around. You're much better off retreating your attention from the monotonous sceneries outside back to this luminous gallery. People have left their hometown to find a living here, and a spiraling path connects them all within this second home. At lunchtime, they go to the top floor to enjoy their meals, or stretch their legs in the outdoor garden, or get a cardio workout at the in-house gym. For those so inclined to become a sky runner, there is also a full track around the rooftop perimeter. When the spatial boundaries between work and leisure blur, work truly turns into life. Should there be any minute difference from the ordinary factory workday, it must be because this is a place you actually don't want to leave. After all, if there is a spot where you can enjoy warmth, health and laughter all while earning a living, who would want to leave?







Fab Green Village Taipei City 2013-2019

A new destination has been added to the historical streets and Fortress San Domingo for your next visit to Tamsui: Fab Green Village. Located between the Drop of Water Memorial Hall (a.k.a. Tamsui Itteki Memorial House) and Cloud Gate Theater, Fab Green Village stands gracefully on a slope. To protect the ecosystem of an adjacent stream, the east end of the structure is designed to curve toward the center, as if one corner is missing. The lower stories of the structure accommodate shops and the upper stories a hotel. The rooftop of the shops becomes an outdoor garden outside the hotel lobby. The grass of the garden merges with trees surrounding the building, immersing the structure in nature. The outdoor garden overlooking the river mouth provides a perfect river view. Geometrically-shaped bedroom balconies are inspired by artillery batteries. Recessed behind the balconies, the bedroom windows are insulated from the baking sun as hotel guests take in the panoramas of Tamshui River.





Fengshan Railway Station Kaohsiung City 2017-

Taiwan Railway Administration has been keeping and storing reusable parts from dismantled stations and railroads around Taiwan. The new Fengshan Railway Station is built using aluminum recycled from these predecessors. Light and resistant to oxidation, this aluminum is used in the grating fences along the new station’s exterior walls, complete with an enamel finish to give it the texture of red bricks. The aluminum-lined four-story-high arched ceiling alludes to the image of a brick artillery battery from the past. The central hallway of the new structure links the north and south sides of the station, which were previously separated by railroad tracks. With the tracks moved underground, the new station now also boasts green corridors extending to the east and west of the main structure. The verdure stretches upwards to every story of the station and outwards to a north-south grassy slope. Natural resources are well used: the west walls incorporate a special ventilation design to accommodate the prevalent westerly wind on the site, and rooftop solar panels are installed to generate power.



LCY R&D Center Kaohsiung City 2011-2014

This 8-story building has one story below and seven stories above ground. Recognized by the U.S. LEED and Diamond-rated Green Building Label (the highest rating in Taiwan), the building is a true model of green buildings. The polypropylene pipes developed by LCY Chemical Corporation feature high strength, UV resistance, radiant heat absorbance, cooling property and recyclability. The pipes are used as sunshade grilles on the east, north and south sides of the building. The atrium has a high ceiling and is designed to dissipate heat, which is lighter than cool air, saving up to 22.5% of energy in spring and autumn. In addition, multiple layers of plants on the exterior walls and rainwater recycling also help reduce energy consumption. The rooftop solar panels fulfill 10% the building's electricity load. Wide spans and colorful palettes animate the indoor spaces and create a sustainable and healthy workplace where researchers can readily collaborate with colleagues across different disciplines.





Miaoli Railway Station Miaoli City 2010-2013

As the construction had to proceed without affecting the train traffic, steel frames, which require less construction time, used to build the overpass connecting the east and west sides of Miaoli Railway Station. The undulating roofs resonate with the mountainscape in the distance. Glass walls of the overpass let in ample light, while the openings above allow for ventilation. No air-conditioning is required even in the heat of summer. The station is also equipped with a wind power generator to save energy. Stretched right above the tracks, the overpass has unhindered views and attracts visitors to gather, transforming into a living room in the city. With accessible ramps on both ends, walls decorated with wood to echo the celebrated local woodcarving craft and a plaza on the west side, the overpass is a pleasant hangout even for people who are not here to take the train.



TSC Shalun Circular Residences Tainan City 2017-

Nearly 1.4 hectares in area, with a central courtyard surrounded by five buildings, this residential area will provide housing for people who work in Shalun Green Energy Science City. The latest BIM technology is used to reduce waste resulting from mistakes. The project also incorporates the idea of “material bank�. By modularizing the residential units, materials can be recycled and reused. The units are rent-only and notfor-sale, contributing to reduce waste from maintenance and renovation and ease in management. The courtyard is a social space as well as a small self-sufficient circular ecosystem where rainwater and food waste are recycled to grow vegetables. Residents may also run aquaponics systems or keep bees on their balconies. Electricity is supplemented by solar rooftop panels to maximize use of natural resources.


What is BIM? BIM stands for Building Information Modeling. It is a process supported by computer software to integrate comprehensive data in a construction project, such as dimensions, proportions, locations, qualities and quantities of materials, and even concealed conduits. Unlike traditional vector diagrams, BIM integrates all graphic data. Details can be extracted for closer examination. More importantly, BIM is a database where project files are kept. It is a bridge between the designer, contractor and owner. They can access update information via BIM to confirm every detail beforehand, minimize errors, and ensure every effort in the construction process is well coordinated.




Taitung Aboriginal Galleria – Innovative Incubator Center Taitung City 2011-2016

The design draws inspiration from the bewildering variety of terrain in Taitung. The wavy canopy shading the market below is supported by rhombic steel structures that represent “eyes of the ancestral spirits�. Besides channeling rainwater into a pool on the ground, the canopy also gives shade in the sun while letting in light and breeze. The market comprises two areas: an airy concourse and hallways, and recycled cargo containers. Indigenous Taiwanese handicrafts are sold in the market stalls. Instead of a central air-conditioning system that cools the entire market, each shop is fitted with its own air conditioner, cutting the air condition tonnage by half and saving up to 60% of power consumption.



NCKU Macronix Innovation Center Tainan City 2019-

Although the site is located along an important axis of the bustling campus life, the design does not seek to highlight the significance of the building. Instead, the massing is placed to avoid conflict with the native trees and along the north side adjacent to a historical building, and a recessed north-south passage with extra celling height conveys a humble gesture. The rectangular building is narrow in the east-west and wide in the north-south axis. Expanded metal mesh and balconies are extensively deployed in the building envelope to shield direct sunlight. The roof is also covered with sunshade canopies as well as solar panels that provide renewable energy. Classrooms are equipped with movable partitions to serve multiple functions. The south end of the passage extrudes to form a tube-like space that adds to the diversity of the spatial units and creates a uniquely shaped meeting room, while also engaging in a dialogue with the towering old trees outside.





NCKU University Geriatric Hospital Tainan City 2019-

To create a hospital that integrates medical care, education and community while consoling its elderly clientele, the design centers on "immersing greenery”. On the ground level, a green corridor leads to NCKU College of Medicine. A “garden of five senses" at the center of NCKU’s Ching-Yeh Campus welcomes visitors young and old to take a break here. Plants are grown on open terraces to extend the greenness of vegetation vertically. Inside spacious and warm hospitals wards, beds are separated by plants and a “one window to each bed” design allows both patients and their families to enjoy the verdure surrounding the hospital and find relief from ailment and suffering. Rooftop solar panels also collect rainwater for recycling and let in natural light. Exterior walls made from recycled materials shelter the building from sunlight and heat. The complex is a healing green city thriving with life.





AMBA Taipei Zhongshan HOTEL Taipei City 2013-2015

To reduce carbon footprint in the renovation, materials from the existing building were extensively reused, including the aluminum window frames and iron lattice windows. The recycled materials were cleaned, cut and reassembled to form new patterns. Seven patterns were developed based on the number of window frames and the various forms of notches. During renovation, the old lattice windows were placed on the ceilings for protection. The reinforced concrete walls of the 40-plus-year-old building were first sprayed with a fire-retardant, stain-resistant, insulating and eco-friendly coating before they were mounted with metalwork containing new patterns and an “amba� sign also made from old aluminum frames. The results are walls with a metallic sheen and a modern ambiance, perfectly in tune with the philosophies of this hotel located in the Zhongshan District: "eco-friendly, cultural creativity and technology".



Jaodaotian Organic Farm Yilan City 2017-2019

The main idea behind this design is carbon reduction. As the volume of wood used for the beams, columns, and ceilings in this project consumed dozens of times more wood than average renovation, plenty of saplings were planted in designated areas for the purpose of “carbon fixation�. Saplings fixate more carbon than full-grown trees. For this project, the estimated volume of fixated carbon can amount to several dozens of tons. This also marks the first time CLT boards made of Japanese juniper were used in a Taiwanese building project. Juniper timber does not require preservative treatment. Buildings constructed with CLT boards are a new style of wooden structures. Compared with their reinforced concrete or traditional wooden counterparts, they are more eco-friendly due to less carbon emission during construction, shorter construction time and high strength. What is CLT? CLT stands for cross-laminated timber. It was first developed in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria more than 20 years ago. In the last decade, the technology has matured and seen wider usage around the world, including in Taiwan. CLT is a wood panel product made from gluing layers of solid-sawn lumber together and is used in such structures as beams, columns and ceilings. CLT boards are pre-fabricated, pre-trimmed and then assembled on site. Hence the construction is accelerated and carbon emission is reduced. CLT structures are not inferior to reinforced concrete structures in terms of strength, making it possible to build multi-story buildings with CLT materials. Unlike traditional wooden buildings, with CLT, it is possible to construct wooden buildings of 20 or even 40 stories. That is why CLT is considered a significant technological advancement in the modern development of green buildings.



BaF’s Chronology of Projects & Awards 1999 Founding of Bio-architecture Formosana 1999 Guangming New Village 1999 Fenyuan Baozang Temple 2000 Yuteh Kindergarten 2000 Taichung municipal Wu Feng Junior High School 2000 Sheh Fung 2000 Sheh Fung 2001 The Affiliated Senior High School of National Chi-Nan University 2001 Jian Gung Primary School Classrooms Addition 2002 Hsinchu Municipal Hsiang Shan Senior High School 2002 Shi-Pai Branch of Taipei Public Library The 6th Taipei Urban Landscape Award

2002 Sheh Fung 2002 Changnan Regional Service Centers and Sports Leisure Park 2002 AliShan Hotel 2003 Mackay Medicine College 2003 Taipei Public Library Beitou Branch 2007 The 29th Taiwan Architecture Award, 2007 FIABCI-Taiwan Prix D'Excellence Awards, 2007 MOI 5th Best Practice Green Building Award/Design, 2007 The 6th Taipei City Innovative Quality Award (9 awards in total)

2003 Zhonghe Primary School 2003 Sheh Fung 2003 Sheh Fung 2003 Sheh Fung 2004 Hsinchu Science Park Dormitory 2004 Sheh Fung 2004 Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant Solar BIPV System 2004 Fulong Beach Resort Hotel


2005 TRA Dalin Railway Station 2008 9th Public Construction Commission Golden Quality Award

2005 TRA Minsyong Railway Station 2005 Chen's Residence at Xiugang Villas 2005 N.C.U. Scholar Dormitory 2006 TRA Zhubei Railway Station 2006 N.C.U. Humanities and Social Sciences Building 2009 The 1st Taoyuan County Urban Design Award

2007 Solar LEO House 2007 Bank of Taiwan Yilan Branch 2007 The Dormitory for ITRI Southern Taiwan Campus 2011 MOI 6th Best Practice Green Building Award

2007 Tamshui Arts Workshop

2011 FIABCI-Taiwan Prix D'Excellence Awards/Construction Management, 2008 FIABCI-Taiwan Prix D'Excellence Awards/Planning & Design (4 awards in total)

2008 Chunan Science Park Administration Center 2008 Taipei International Flora Expo,Pavilions in XinSheng Park 2012 International Awards for Livable Communities/Silver Award, 2010 The 32th Taiwan Architecture Award, 2010 FIABCI-Taiwan Prix D'Excellence Awards/Planning & Design, 2014 The 8th Far Eastern Architectural Design Award (9 awards in total)

2008 Taipei International Flora Expo,Pavilions in XinSheng Park 2008 Nanfang'ao Visitor Center 2009 Taipei European School Solar BIPV System 2009 Chiayi Industrial Innovation Center 2018 1st Excellent Intelligent Building Award, 2013 MOI 7th Best Practice Green Building Award (4 awards in total)

2009 Department of Health Office Building 2009 I.T.R.I. Chung Hsing Branch East Gate 2009 San Chung Commertcial and Industrial Vocational High School Teaching Building


2010 Zhongxing New Village construction project 2010 Namasha Ming Chuan Elementary School 2012 Kaohsiung City Barrier Free Public Building Certificate, 2012 The 34th Taiwan Architecture Awards(5 awards in total)

2010 Miaoli Railway Station 2015 Taipei International Design Award/Distinction, 2015 MOI 8th Best Practice Green Building Award, 2014 The 36th Tiawan Architecture Awards(6 awards in total)

2010 Shifeng Zhongnan section urban renewal project 2010 Sendfuel Beian Section II 2010 Shumei Center 2011 Art & Arch Museum 2011 Dragon Steel Felicity Residential Development 2011 N.T.H.U. Low Carbon, Green Energy Research and Education Building 2018 S.ARCH AWARD shortlist

2011 Taipower D/S General Building 2011 N.T.H.U. Innovation Incubation Center 2011 Taming Senior High School Branch of Applied Arts 2011 Taipei Metro System LG04 & LG05 Stations Of Wanda-ZhongheShulin Line 2011 LCY R&D Center 2011 Taitung Aboriginal Galleria – Innovative Incubator Center 2017 39th Taiwan Architecture Awards/shortlist

2011 Taiwan Fund for Children and Families Taitung Center 2012 Taijiang National Park Visitor & Administrative Center 2019 FIABCI-Taiwan Prix D'Excellence Awards, The 9th Best Practice Green Building Award (4 awards in total)

2012 Songshan Public Housing 2012 YFY Inc. Yangzhou Administrative Center 2012 Wanhua Public Housing 2012 Linkou citizens'dwellings & 2017 Summer Universiade contestants village 2013 Kenting Hotel for Teachers Public Workers 2013 Tamshui Light Rail 2013 AMBA Taipei Zhongshan HOTEL 2013 Fab Green Village 2017 FIABCI-Taiwan Prix D'Excellence Awards


2014 Sanchong Fruit & Vegetable Market 2014 Yangde Residence 2014 Dapeng Bay National Scenic Area 2014 Taiwan Water Corporation Office Park Area 2015 Fame Hall Garden Hotel 2015 PAUIAN Archiland 2015 Sanying Line 2015 Xindian Public Housing 2017 FIABCI-Taiwan Prix D'Excellence Awards

2015 NTUT Teaching & Resarch Building 2015 Taoyuan Chunglu Public Housing 2019 FIABCI-Taiwan Prix D'Excellence Awards

2015 Ming Lun Public Housing 2015 LCY R&D Center2 2015 Hsin-Dar Environment Corp. 2016 Jaodaotian Organic Farm 2016 Dormitory 1 of NTUST 2016 Fengtay Cultural and Educational Green Park 2016 MOXA Green Cultural Factory in Taoyuan 2018 MIPIM AR Future Project Awards/shorlist

2016 Taiwan Water Corporation 2016 ITRI Guangfu Research & Design Innovatio Center 2016 Renovation of Chiayi Hotel Discover 2017 Shalun C. 2017 Yuen Foong Yu Group 2017 Green Energy Technology Demonstration Site of Shalun Green Energy Science City 2019 FIABCI-Taiwan Prix D'Excellence Awards, 2018 MIPIM AR Future Project Awards/ shorlist

2017 Bifido Factory Tour 2017 NCKU Guiren Campus 2017 Yamani Culture Park 2017 Fengshan Railway Station 2017 Taiwan Cement


2017 TSC Shalun Circular Residences 2019 FIABCI-Taiwan Prix D'Excellence Awards, 2018 World Architecture Festival Awards/shortlist

2017 Taoyuan underground railway master plan 2017 Wanda 1st Produce & Seafood Wholesale Market 2018 Shalun Smart Green Energy Science City 2018 Taoyuan Waste to Energy Plant BOT Project 2018 The Promiseland Resort 2018 National Archives 2018 Ling Jiou Mountain Buddhist Society 2018 Paraguay Technological University(Taiwan Tech) 2018 National Central Library Southern Branch 2019 World Architecture Festival Awards/shortlist

2018 Kaohsiung Marine Technology Industry Center 2018 National Taiwan University Experimental Farm 2018 Taisugar's CircuLAND 2018 North Coast Environmental Education Center 2019 Nanmen Market 2019 NCKU Macronix Innovation Center 2019 Wanda-Zhonghe-Shulin Line 2019 Taipei Metro Y Circular Line 2019 NCKU University Geriatric Hospital 2019 Deep Water Basin in Kaohsiung Marine Technology Industrial Zone 2019 Chang An Book Pavillion 2019 Taipei Metro Y19-Y29 Circular Line




























Being Nature : The Biological Intelligence of Bio-architecture Formosana Issuer : Architecture + Tectonics Taiwan Publisher : Bio-architecture Formosana

Chief Editor : Chun-Hsiung Wang Executive Editor : Ya-Ling Su Assistant Editor : Wei-Ting Ma / Da-Cheng Chou Contributing Editor : Chen-Jou Ou Yang Editorial Assistant : Ellysa Chai / Nicky Lin (Bio-architecture Formosana) Graphic Designer : Hui-Yu Tseng Translator : Debbie Liu / Judy Lo

Curator : Chun-Hsiung Wang Organizer : Bio-architecture Formosana / NCKU Art Center Curating Organization : Architecture + Tectonics Taiwan Exhibition Designer : Sheng-Feng Lin / Mu-Sen Wang

Co-organizer : National Cheng Kung University Department of Architecture, NCKU Architecture Foundation (Alumni Association), National Central Library, Taipei Public Library, MOXA, Taitung County Government, NCKU Hospital, Macronix International, Taiwan Sugar, Feng Yu Construction, Taiwan Railways Administration, Fengtay Foundation, Fabulous Cultural and Creative Enterprise, Industrial Technology Research Institute, LCY Chemical, Te Feng Lumber, Ambassador Hotel, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology Department of Architecture, Shang-Seng Chen Architect

Sponsor : BaF Foundation for Arts & Architecture

Address : No. 218, Xinhu 1st Rd., Neihu Dist. Taipei City Website : archi-tec.com.tw E-mail : ttectonic2017@gmail.com Publishing Date : November 2019 ISBN : 978-986-98468-0-6 Graphics and Photo credits : Bio-architecture Formosana

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