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THE BINGHAMTON

BLUEPRINT

2020

REIMAGINING THE RULES OF BROOME COUNTY


The Roosevelt Network at Binghamton University We are a Student Association-chartered, non-partisan, progressive policy organization. We are affiliated with the Roosevelt Institute, a liberal American think tank and part of the Roosevelt Network of colleges and universities with over 130 chapters across the United States. Our goal is to improve the local Binghamton community through policy creation, advocacy, and discourse. We provide our members with a platform to voice their thoughts and develop unique solutions to local issues in an effort to create positive change in our community. We research, write, and advocate for policy solutions to different community issues. As a student organization, we help students become accustomed to the Binghamton community through community service opportunities, guest speakers, and current events discussions. Each of our members developed ideas to help reshape policies ranging from local Binghamton University policy to New York State policy. All members of the Roosevelt Network want to take action and express our opinions on what should change in the current political system. If you want to join us in writing and advocating for policy, visit us at bingroosevelt.org or email us at rooseveltinstitute@binghamtonsa.org.

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Table of Contents OUR VISION _______________________________________4

ENVIRONMENT ___________________________________ 6 HEALTHCARE _____________________________________ 10 STUDENT AFFAIRS ________________________________13 CRIMINAL JUSTICE _______________________________ 16 POVERTY AND HOMELESSNESS __________________ 18

NEXT STEPS _______________________________________21 END NOTES _______________________________________ 22 SPECIAL THANKS _________________________________ 26

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Our Vision Inclusivity and Representation During a time of extreme political polarization and isolating discourse, students have felt alienated and misrepresented in politics, both nationally and locally. As students of Binghamton University, we have witnessed not only the lack of representation of our generation in politics but also the lack of community engagement between students and local citizens of Broome County. According to the survey conducted by Generation Vote, only 15% of students at Binghamton University feel that their voices are heard by Binghamton University administrators, and only 17% plan to vote in local elections. Due to these extremely low percentages, we felt the need to establish a student-driven policy document in order to address not only the lack of student engagement but to ensure that student voices are heard.

The Document Adhering to Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt’s determination to create a government and society that addresses all citizens’ needs, the Roosevelt Network at Binghamton University collaborated with Generation Vote to collect students’ ideas and awareness regarding politics. We established a policy document that reflects the perspectives of Binghamton University students while also confronting Broome County’s most troubling obstacles. We tackled key policy issues addressed by the survey while also taking into account the issues that 2020 has brought to student attention: Environment, Healthcare, Student Affairs, Criminal Justice, and Poverty and Homelessness

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Binghamton Blueprint 2020


Inspiration Inspired by the 2016 Binghamton Blueprint and the Roosevelt Institute’s Next Generation Blueprint’s mobilization of different college campuses across 40 states, the 2020 Binghamton Blueprint was developed in part by the opinions of over 500 students at Binghamton University. We recognize the importance of student involvement in the policy writing process. Therefore, as contributing members of the society of Broome County and Binghamton University, we have the opportunity and responsibility to establish potential solutions that could have a dignified impact on Broome County’s most crucial issues. Although 2020 has been challenging for all, there has been a significant increase in student engagement within the University and surrounding communities. Students began to collectively express concerns with sexual assault and discrimination that occur on our own campus. Inspired by this change in student activism and how 2020 challenged our perspective, we decided that these issues, in addition to those deemed most critical in the survey, must be addressed. We believe that 2020 is a pivotal moment to reveal the powerful effect of connecting student activism to the policy process. We recruited an insightful and ambitious group of student activists in order to realize this goal.

Progress These policies by themselves cannot solve all these problems, but it is a start in the direction of progress. Only through team efforts can we see beneficial change for the entire community. We have called on students to contribute their ideas, ensure that our voices are heard, and invite our local officials to pursue the opportunity to collaborate with our generation.

Our Vision

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ENVIRONMENT We believe that environmental protection is necessary to prevent a global climate crisis. Evidence shows that environmental damage has a significant impact on climate change. A switch to a more environmentally sustainable lifestyle is a major step in protecting our planet. The evidence behind climate change is compelling: −− Earth’s average surface temperature has risen 2.05 degrees Fahrenheit (1.14 degrees Celsius) since the end of the 19th century. This change is driven primarily by increased carbon dioxide and other man-made emissions. 1

2 :“Climate Change Evidence: How Do We Know?” NASA

−− The global sea level has risen 8 inches in the last 100 years. Moreover, the rate has nearly doubled from the last century over the past 20 years alone and continues to increase. 2

WE CHALLENGE BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY TO: Reduce Red Meat Consumption on Campus In order to promote a sustainable lifestyle on campus, Binghamton University should implement a red meat reduction dining plan. Studies have shown that meat production is detrimental to our environment. Approximately 70% of farmland is used for livestock purposes, which is an impelling cause of deforestation and biodiversity loss.4 Livestock production contributes approximately one-third of the phosphorus and nitrogen in freshwater, 55% of the erosion and sediment, 50% of antibiotic use, 37% of pesticide use, 64% of anthropogenic ammonia emissions (which induces acid rain formation), and 18% of greenhouse gas emissions.5 Oakland Unified School District, one of the largest school districts in California with 37,000 students, implemented a menu planning system to reduce meat consumption and

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Binghamton Blueprint 2020

increase plant-based lunches. They created “Meatless Mondays” and “Lean and Green Wednesdays” to limit the meat consumption on campus.6 Over a two year period, this change limited the district purchase of non-organic meats by 30%. Additionally, the change curtailed their carbon footprint by 14% (600,000 Kg of CO2 saved per year—1.5 million miles less per year).7 They conserved a total of 42 million gallons of water per year. Finally, not only did they save nearly $50,000 on this project, but students were overall more satisfied with their fresh, organic, and delicious meals.8 With a student population of approximately 18,000, this meal plan would suit Binghamton University well. The students of Binghamton University have long complained about their discontent with Binghamton’s


current dining menu, whether it be the lack of variety or the outright distasteful options. The University dining halls should replace meat with meat-substitutes or offer only plant-oriented meals at least some days of the week. Studies have shown that not only will this reduce their ecological footprint, but also people will support this transition to healthier and environmentally friendly meals.9 Binghamton University does have respectable plans for sustainability. However, implementing a dining plan similar to Oakland Unified School District’s would forward Binghamton University’s push for sustainability by conserving energy, water, and money, reducing their carbon footprint and increasing contentment among students.

Implement an On-Campus Community Garden Binghamton University administrators should create an on-campus community garden to provide fresh produce for the food-insecure population, which includes many students. In fact, 1 in 3 college students experience low food security.10 Additionally, fresh vegetables and fruit are the healthiest sources of nutrition, yet one of the most expensive and difficult to obtain. No wonder 95% of college students fail to eat the recommended daily amount of fruits and vegetables.11 Furthermore, according to the US Department of Agriculture, Binghamton University qualifies as a food desert, meaning that those who live on campus are between 1 and 20 miles from the nearest grocery store.12 Without a car, it is incredibly difficult to get access to anything besides fast food or campus food (which isn’t always the healthiest option). Colgate University’s community garden produces a wide range of crops, of which half are donated to the Hamilton Food Cupboard, and the other half are split between dining halls and a weekly campus farm stand (from which students, faculty, and staff can buy).13 Similarly, George Washington University’s community garden is fully student-run and its produce feeds hundreds of homeless individuals every day through the food pantry, Miriam’s Kitchen.14 Lastly, climate change is one of the most important issues for many students, as well as the university. This is evidenced by our nature preserve, the wide range of student organizations committed to the environment, and a #1 ranking in Sustainability Research15. Having a community garden allows students to make an individual impact on the quest to save the planet. As environmentalist, activist, and author Michael Pollan argued, “Measured against the Problem We Face [climate change], planting a garden sounds pretty benign, I know, but in fact it’s one of the most powerful things an individual can do to reduce your carbon footprint.” 16 If Binghamton University wants to make a personal contribution to the fight against climate

change, a community garden should be developed. The on-campus community garden would be maintained by a group of students with a faculty/staff advisor and the garden will be funded by the CIW Building a Better Society Fund, which is committed to funding environmental actions led by the campus community. When the garden is able to generate a significant amount of crops, fresh produce will be provided directly to our students and at least half will be donated to local food banks to help the Broome County homeless population. We do have Binghamton Acres, a small farm, which runs an internship program, compost, and gardening demonstration for environmental studies majors and a small number of student volunteers. While incredibly educational and a step in the right direction, this small farm doesn’t produce enough crops to help the foodinsecure population. Additionally, this farm is located on the outskirts of campus and thus, it is difficult for the average student to visit daily.17 For this reason, we need a centrally located on-campus community garden to provide fresh produce to the food-insecure and help the environment.

3 :“Educating Through Gardens:.”/Kids Gardening

Create a “Baxter’s Closet” Free Box Binghamton University officials should create “Baxter’s Closet,” an on-campus adaptation of Telluride’s “Free Box.” The Free Box is an existing institution in Telluride, Colorado. Community members leave gently used items such as books, toys, clothing, shoes, and small household items. Anyone can take as much as they need for free. Baxter’s Closet will promote sustainability and fulfill a need for affordable clothing and other items among Binghamton University students. Sustainability is an important factor in combating problems like fast fashion, which is fueled by companies that produce low-quality clothes and sell them at low costs.18 This process inflicts considerable damage on the

Environment

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environment and encourages a dangerous consumption cycle, where many purchased items in fast fashion end up getting thrown out due to the poor quality.19 “Approximately 85% of the clothing Americans consume, nearly 3.8 billion pounds annually, is sent to landfills as solid waste, amounting to nearly 80 pounds per American per year.”20 Not only is the fast fashion industry one of the largest contributors to pollution, but the industry is commonly linked to worker exploitation, as well.21 22 Unfortunately, fast fashion is incredibly prevalent among college students due to its affordability. Baxter’s Closet at Binghamton University will allow students to source gently-used items for themselves at no cost, which would also discourage the consumption of Fast Fashion. Leonela Leon, a student writer at UC Berkeley states, “buying secondhand means you’ll be keeping plastic out of landfills and positively contributing to the decrease in worldwide textile demand and subsequent waste.”23 Shopping at The Free Box is essentially buying secondhand, though it costs nothing. The Free Box has become a defining and unique feature of the community in Telluride,24 and college students around the country have started similar movements in order to combat fast fashion on their own campuses. Muhlenberg College in Allentown, Pennsylvania, for instance, has already joined this movement with their on-campus consignment shop: Upcycled Apparel.25 The Free Box also allows for additional student volunteer positions, giving students an opportunity to get involved in this sustainability mission. Therefore, “Baxter’s Closet” should be implemented at Binghamton University because it encourages sustainability, serves the student need for affordable clothing and allows for student participation.

WE CHALLENGE BROOME COUNTY OFFICIALS TO: Execute a Broome County Zero Litter Plan Broome County officials should implement the Broome County Zero Litter Plan, a litter minimization program, to encourage the community to stop littering. Throughout the City of Binghamton, there is litter all around: there are empty plastic bags on the roads and sidewalks, bottles and wrappers consuming backyards and nature trails, and the occasional shopping cart in the Susquehanna River. This is not only especially unsanitary in the time of COVID-19, but this contamination also has negative environmental impacts. Some of these impacts include water, soil, and air pollution, the death of many animals in the ecosystem via ingestion or entanglement, and the transmission of disease, directly and indirectly.26

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Binghamton Blueprint 2020

Scientific evidence for warming of the climate system is unequivocal. 2

- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change The Zero Waste Litter Action Plan from the City of Philadelphia is a shining example of what good the true removal of litter can do for a city and its environment. It has reinvented the public trash can as it hones in on a sustainable future through a sub-program, the Waste Watchers Program. This offers three vessels for garbage: trash, recycling, and composting in one movable unit. In this program, these units are placed all around at largescale events such as music festivals or holiday parades.27 We recommend local officials contrive this tri-bin system, but with permanent versions in public areas like parks and sidewalks throughout the county. This program will make it easier for people to end littering and promote sustainable and clean recycling. In fact, the more units distributed, the higher the reward. Wesley Schultz, a social psychologist at California State University says, “We found that the distance to a trash receptacle was the strongest predictor of littering. So the farther away you are from a trash can or a recycling container, the more likely you are to litter.”28 Additionally, a Litter Cleanup Day can be implemented for volunteers to pick up as much existing litter as possible as these new policies are being put into practice and these cleanup days can be repeated periodically afterwards. We can, and ought to, reduce litter in Binghamton. Through local education, neighborhood cleanup days, and a revamped public waste container program, the public will be informed about the dangers of littering and incentivized to not do so; current masses of litter will be removed and new policies will be put forth that the public will be invested in, respectively. We look forward to engaging the community and seeing the end of litter in the county with the Broome County Zero Litter Plan, so the natural beauty of our neighborhoods can shine as our environment heals.

Transition BC Transit Buses to Electric Broome County Department of Public Transportation should transition the BC Transit bus fleet from a majority diesel-fueled fleet to a fully electricpowered fleet in order to fully realize its potential as a New York State climate action leader. Considering the U.S. transportation sector accounts for nearly 30% of


national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions—the largest contributor of six sectors—mitigating GHG emissions from the transportation sector29 is a vital component of America’s climate change mitigation plan.30 The particular mode of transportation with the greatest percent increase in GHG emissions (158%) over the last 30 years has been America’s buses.31 While this means fewer people are driving passenger vehicles as they opt to take the bus instead, the overall emissions reduction is burdened by the increase in bus emissions.32 The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and New York State have identified a plethora of environmental, health, and economic benefits when communities reduce their fossil fuel use. Communities would then reduce air pollution which causes numerous serious health effects including cancer and cardiovascular and respiratory problems, like asthma, especially in those most vulnerable—the elderly and children.33 Likewise, reducing fossil fuel consumption can yield improvements to soil and water quality by reducing pollutants in stormwater runoff.34 Aside from fuel cost savings and increased energy independence, communities can also anticipate economic development benefits through business and job growth in the electric vehicle and transportation equipment industries—a promising and viable industry in Broome County as exemplified by BAE Systems’ increasing involvement in the industry—as well as potential property value increases due to air quality improvements and sound minimization,35 and the reduction of various other social costs associated with carbon emissions.36 However, the full potential of these benefits can only be realized when emissions from public transit are reduced.37 GHG emissions must be truly reduced, not simply replaced by a different source. Broome County is working to meet these goals and has previously taken action to invest in its transit fleet with electric vehicle technology. In 2018, Broome County was awarded a two million dollar federal grant through the FTA’s Low or No Emission Vehicle Program,38 with which it purchased three hybrid electric buses from BAE Systems.39 With access to these hybrid electric buses, Broome County needs to conduct a localized costbenefit analysis to assess the costs of its current bus fleet compared to the projected cost savings of a modernized bus fleet with zero-emissions electric technology—an integral step jurisdictions take in the transition process.40 In terms of implementation, Broome County can be both bold and financially savvy by utilizing the available resources. Due to the limitation of local grant matching, grant funding is normally difficult to procure for a rural community like Broome County as compared to a more urban municipality. This results in fewer investments in local rural economies,41 which ultimately harms local and regional economic growth.42 However, under the New York State Energy Research and Development

Authority’s New York Truck Voucher Incentive (NYTVI) Program, Broome County Transit is one of the 18 NYS entities eligible to receive program funding without the common barrier of grant matching.43 One barrier to fleet transitioning is the incremental cost—the upfront price difference between a diesel-fueled and electric-powered bus.44 The New York Truck Voucher Incentive Program will assist with financing the incremental costs of new electric bus purchases up to 100%, leaving one less

BC Transit buses/ Wikimedia Commons (Marduk)

implementation barrier to overcome. Electric buses have great potential to reduce GHG emissions, especially in upstate New York. Due to the geography of the Southern Tier, a diesel-fueled bus emits eight times more GHGs than an electric bus—the greatest difference of any US region. Moreover, an electric bus has lower life cycle GHG emissions than even the average passenger vehicle.45 Every year, 7.4 million bus rides are taken in the Southern Tier region and over 40% of that ridership is provided by BC Transit alone.46 A seemingly modest change to the BC Transit fleet, a transition to electric buses will not only have an inordinate impact on GHG emissions nationally, but it will also be incredibly influential to neighboring counties in the larger Southern Tier region in how they choose to continue decarbonizing their local economies. Further than this, through strong leadership Broome County may spur more than just its neighbors within the Southern Tier to act—it could initiate a chain reaction of joint regional action within New York and Pennsylvania in conjunction with the Southern Tier. It is essential that the Broome County Department of Public Transportation takes the opportunity to meaningfully address two pressing issues with one bold policy action: modernize the BC Transit fleet with electric-powered buses, while simultaneously taking a significant step to mitigate climate change.

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HEALTHCARE We believe in a system of healthcare that meets the needs of all people. The expansion of Binghamton University’s health services and the improvement of Broome County’s physician shortage are paramount to achieve this. 1 :“Broome County Community Health Assessment 2019-2024.”/Broome County Health Department. In 2016, just over 25% of physicians were female and only 3.5% were from underrepresented minorities (URM) in the Southern Tier of NYS. Compared to 2013, there was a small increase in the proportion of female physicians (up from 22%) but a large decrease in the percentage of physicians from URMs (down from 6.1%). There is notably less diversity in the physician workforce in the Southern Tier than NYS as a whole, which is 31.8% female and 10.6% underrepresented minority. Compared to NYS, there is a larger proportion of physicians age 50 or older, a smaller proportion that is female, and the physician workforce is overall less diverse.3

WE CHALLENGE BROOME COUNTY OFFICIALS TO: Implement a Grant for Physician Growth In order to promote physician growth in the County, Broome County officials should implement a grant that would assist physicians in repaying their outstanding medical student loan debt. In exchange, they would then need to practice in Broome’s unserved communities for an amount of time equal to the number of grant installments that they’ve received. The University of the State of New York Regents report of Designated Physician Shortage Areas identified the Greater Binghamton service area and the Deposit service area as Primary Care Regents Physician Shortage Areas.4 Furthermore, Broome County is also designated as a shortage area for preventive medicine

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and primary care physicians/psychiatrists within the Developmental Disabilities Services Office.5 The Broome County Community Health Assessment also stated that “physicians will [soon] be ‘aging out’ in large numbers…”6 This would further decrease the number of physicians that would be practicing in the County, greatening the shortage. The demand will continue to outweigh the supply if something is not done. In Lourdes’ Community Health Needs Assessment (CHNA) Report, many of Broome County’s residents expressed their need for more specialist providers.7 Additionally, they also noted that many residents traveled out of the County for care.8 Broome residents


shouldn’t be forced to travel outside of the County to get the care they need. But, for the residents that can’t afford to travel, they are instead forced to experience the long appointment wait times that come with physician shortages. This fact leads to many not getting the care they need. As Lourdes’ in-depth interviews with Broome County residents showed, long wait times were one of the chief barriers that prevented them from getting the care they needed.9 Yet, there is another problem that is also caused by physician shortages, the shortage of physicians of color. Broome has been experiencing population growth from Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics/Latinos over the years, and there is reason to believe this will continue.10 Not to mention that Broome’s population is 51.2% female.11 Yet, Black, Asian, Hispanic/Latino, and female physicians are rarely seen practicing in Broome. This fact leaves many of these residents to settle for its white male physicians. This can become a problem because of those physicians’ implicit bias and it is such bias that leads to the perpetuation of the health care disparities that these residents largely experience.12 Broome can help remedy these problems by instituting a grant that would assist physicians in repaying their outstanding medical student loan debt in exchange for their services. This program would lead to many competent and diverse physicians deciding to practice in Broome County. Thus leading to less of a physician shortage, shorter wait times, as well as giving Broome’s diverse residents physicians who can unbiasedly and adequately treat them. This type of program has been shown to work in multiple states such as Texas and Minnesota.13 The Texas Medical Association even labeled their Physician Education Loan Repayment Program as “the most effective tool for remedying physician geographic maldistribution.” 14 Broome County should follow suit, before the demand further outweighs the supply.

WE CHALLENGE BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY TO: Expand Decker Health Services Binghamton University administrators should expand hours at Decker Health to be open on weekends and offer after hours emergency telehealth communications. The Binghamton University Decker Health Services Center offers limited hours and no assistance outside of open hours. The current hours are Monday through Friday from 8:00 am to 4:45 pm during the semester with even more limited walk-in hours, being from 8:00-11:00 in the morning. 15 A campus health center serves little purpose if it is largely inaccessible with

“For students who pay for University Health Insurance, the health center is very inaccessible and their services are limited in reach.” scattered and restricted hours. Students should be able to visit the health center on the weekend or receive emergency medical consultation at any time, especially in the instance of a minor—or even acute—medical emergency. While there is a UHS urgent care walk-in clinic located across from campus gates, students should not be expected to go off campus when they need medical attention. This is an issue because it requires students to be able to get to the health center (since in a more minor emergency an ambulance would not be provided), as well as to be able to pay for these services, since at outside locations, cost for care is the student’s responsibility. On-campus, many services incur no additional fee since they’re covered by the student health fee, which covers the following: office visits, certain immunizations, MMR Vaccine (measles, mumps, rubella), tuberculin/PPD, certain medications (if part of the center’s dispensary), isoniazid (INH) therapy, health education and counseling, alcohol and other drugs programming, and HIV counseling. 16 Services like these would most likely incur an additional fee off campus, even for students who pay for issuance. However, since the health center is very inaccessible, their services are limited in reach. Therefore, students will ultimately be in a place where they are unlikely to receive proper medical care. This is because, both of these factors (cost and convenience) discourage students from seeking medical attention. In addition to the physical open-hours being expanded, emergency telehealth consult should also be made available to students on weekends, if not 24/7. The University Counseling Center, which is a similar institution on campus, has an emergency line for afterhours. 17 Ideally, Decker would match this and have 24/7 or after-hours telehealth services, as well as expand to offer their weekday hours on weekends. Having an adequate and accessible health center is something very important for students, but also very achievable. Public universities, such as Penn State which is a very similar school to BU in terms of size and caliber, have a 24/7 advice nurse. 18 This change would benefit students who live on campus at Binghamton by providing them with more accessible healthcare, thus creating a healthier and safer campus since students will be more inclined to seek medical attention. This also could be an expansion to the health center that could enable them to offer work or volunteer opportunities for students entering the health field.

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Increase Funding for the UCC to Hire More Counselors Binghamton University administrators should improve funding for the University Counseling Center to hire more counselors and expand to permanent telecommunication services. Many students report difficulty with the University Counseling Center (UCC): excessive wait times, sessions with intern graduate student counselors, and a cap on sessions making long term mental health services inaccessible. This demonstrates the strain on the current number of counselors and the need for more. Hiring more counselors and offering the option of outsourced telecounseling services will allow more students to access mental health services. Active Minds, a mental health awareness nonprofit, reports that 39% of college students experience a significant mental health issue and 67% of youth don’t seek treatment for anxiety or depression.19 Hiring additional staff is a investment in the long term health of students as NAPSA, an organization of Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education, cites, “Research indicates that students who receive campus mental health services have a greater quality of life and are more likely to persist from one year to the next, which results in added tuition revenue for the institution and a positive return on investment.”20 Access to mental

health care improves student retention and student success. Students are also facing an unprecedentedly stressful time, having to deal with a shift to online classes, increased isolation with social distancing measures, and the increased anxiety of learning during a pandemic. This makes comprehensive counseling services an even more vital resource for student success. The last time Binghamton University hired counselors was in 2018, the three added still meant there were only 15 counselors for 17,000 students.21 This was still not enough to serve the university population. Hiring more diverse counselors would alleviate the current strain on UCC resources and increase access to mental health care for all students. The strain on current counseling resources means many students are not able to access long term mental health care. When students exceed the limit on counseling sessions, they are referred to off campus providers. This is not an option for many students due to the lack of counselors in the Broome area, the time and cost of transportation, not having health insurance, and not being able to afford paying out of pocket. This means after the campus session limit, many students will be left without any support for mental health issues. Hiring more counselors may allow longer term treatment for students, preventing those who can’t afford outside treatment referrals to be stuck without any option for care.

2 :“Broome County Community Health Assessment 2019-2024.”/Broome County Health Department.

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STUDENT AFFAIRS We believe Binghamton University should do more to serve their students academically and ensure student success. The administration must address the lack of resources for survivors of sexual assult and meet the needs of the student body. WE CHALLENGE BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY TO:

1: “The Current State of Professional Mentor Relationships.”/HR Daily Advisor

Implement a Harpur College Student Mentoring Program New students at Binghamton University have a1 difficult time adjusting to the standards of college. A one-to-one mentoring of Harpur College of Liberal Arts and Sciences students by upperclassmen would ease the need for Harpur Advising as well as establish relationships between new students and upperclassmen. As of Fall 2020, there are 16 advisors serving more than 9,400 students.2 When entering Harpur College, students are not assigned a specific advisor instead recommended to visit any available advisor during walk-in hours or through appointments.3 By instituting a mentoring program, underclassmen will have one-on-one help with a student who has already experienced the challenges they might be facing. Additionally, in a 2017 survey of nearly 48,000 college students, 64% said they had felt “very lonely” in the previous 12 months, while only 19% reported they never felt lonely, according to the American College Health Association.4 Establishing relationships with others on-campus is beneficial in many ways. Many institutions across the country implement mentoring programs. At the University of Southern Indiana, the Peer Mentoring Program provides an opportunity for first-year students to be mentored by upper-level students who would assist them with the transition from high school to college.5 Mentors assist students in making a healthy transition from high school to college, provide consistent, reliable sources of support and inspiration to students, and advance the firstyear students’ knowledge about campus services and educational goals.6 A Harpur College mentoring program

is an ideal solution to problems faced by many Harpur College students. Typically, students have a difficult time standing out in the large environment of Harpur College and finding opportunities or advice to guide them in the right direction. In the more specialized schools at Binghamton University, like the School of Management or the Watson School of Engineering, students have personal mentors and advisors but, no such program exists for Harpur College students who have to deal with problems on their own. A mentoring program would also serve as an excellent advertisement for Harpur College to the many families with students seeking degrees in liberal arts. Implementing a Harpur College mentoring program helps solve the problem of the lack of resources for Harpur College students. Many upper-level students are looking to boost their resumes with on-campus involvement and many first-year students seek one-onone help. In order to minimize the number of students searching for help with class selection or degree progress, a mentoring program will help aid in this issue.

Healthcare (cont.) & Student Affairs 13


STUDENT AFFAIRS

HIGHLIGHTING SURVIVORS ON CAMPUS

72.8%

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of college victims of sexual assault reported mental health complications (insomnia, depression, anxiety, PTSD)

Hire More Counselors Trained in Treating Sexual and Interpersonal Violence Binghamton University should hire a total of sixteen new professional counselors that are trained in treating sexual and interpersonal violence. Student morale at Binghamton University has decreased due to the troubling amount of sexual assault cases exemplified on the Instagram account @shareyourstorybing.11 Among undergraduate students, 26.4% of females, 23.1% of the LGBTQ+ community as well as 6.8% of males are survivors of sexual assault.12 The Roosevelt Network has a plan that could help students get the personalized attention they need. The Roosevelt Network challenges Binghamton University to adopt the practices of Columbia University by devising new counselors into different teams to help students through workshops. Columbia University has twenty-two representatives that are split into two teams called the Alice! Health Promotion and the Sexual Violence Response team. The Alice! Health Promotion team provides Columbia University with evidence and theory based research on how new initiatives will help students.13 For example, the Alice! Health Promotion team has adapted to the students’ needs and changed its services to confidential. In doing so, the team saw a 91% increase in one-on-one visits with students from 2017-2019. The Sexual Violence Response team provides students with trauma-informed personnel that help the students of Columbia University cope with past sexual assault cases.14 The Sexual Violence Response team introduced the Step Up program in 2014 in order to help students know

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8 :“Stand With Survivors: PC Needs More Resources”/The Cowl

how to react instead of being a bystander, through an informative workshop. The Step Up Program received the Ambassador Award by the Avon Foundation, which advocates for breast cancer and violence against women awareness.15 Columbia University provides a number of different workshops dealing with the well being of their student body. Programs that are facilitated by the Alice! Health Promotion include: Alcohol and Networking, Healthy vs Unhealthy Relationships, Sleep, as well as Reducing/ Managing Stress. Programs facilitated by Sexual Violence Response team include: Survivor Advocacy, Bystander Invention and Consent/ Healthy Sexual Relationships. By having Binghamton counselors familiarize themselves with these programs, they would be able to convey these workshops to students in an informative manner.

Create and Develop a Violence, Abuse, and Rape Crisis Center on Campus Binghamton University administrators should create an on-campus Violence, Abuse, and Rape Crisis Center (VARCC) as proposed by the Women’s Student Union, to provide important resources and services for survivors.16 Among undergraduate students, 26.4% of female students, 23.1% of transgender and gender nonconforming students, and 6.8% of male students


experience sexual assault.17 According to the US Department of Justice, only 20% of female student survivors report to law enforcement and only 16% received assistance from a victim services agency.18 Sexual assault is clearly an issue at Binghamton University, as evidenced by over 800 individual, anonymous stories of sexual harassment, assault, and/or rape posted on the Instagram account @shareyourstorybing.19 While the University administration did respond, their response was inadequate and major changes need to be made. The resources BU has for survivors are insufficient. First of all, there is no one office space that survivors can conveniently and easily access for all of their support. Thus, in their search for help, they are forced to relive their trauma by having to share their story over and over again at different university offices, because no office provides all of the necessary resources.20 Additionally, the services of the University Counseling Center can only be used for one semester and Decker Health Center doesn’t offer rape kits or test for date rape drugs on campus. Lastly, if a survivor goes to the UPD, anyone in Residential Life, or the Office of Student Conduct, they don’t have the option of remaining anonymous, which some survivors definitely want.21 Binghamton University needs an on-campus crisis center for survivors. Other universities also have rape crisis centers, such as Columbia University and Barnard College’s shared Rape Crisis/Anti-Violence Support Center. This center provides 24/7 services, and specialized support for those in abusive relationships, and survivors of sexual harassment, sexual assault, stalking, and trauma, as well as male survivors of violence.22 The proposed Binghamton University VARCC would include an on-campus office for the Crime Victims

10 : “Yes Means Yes”/End Rape On Campus

Assistance Center (CVAC), which will run many of the services. VARCC will offer 24-hour accessibility, either over Zoom or by hotline, and provide drug tests (for date rape drugs), STD testing services, as well as any other necessary medical care. In case a survivor wants to press charges against the perpetrator, free rape kits will be provided (which often constitute the only physical evidence in sexual assault trials). Survivors will have access to legal advising (in case they want to take legal action) and counseling/therapy, in order to mentally heal. All services will be completely confidential and the UPD will only be contacted if the survivor decides to open a case. Lastly, there will be a survivor match program within VARCC so that survivors of the same perpetrator can receive group therapy and legal advice, to promote collective healing and strength.23 We hope this crisis center will continue to improve by adding resources and services over the years in order to better accommodate all survivors.

9 :“U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics’ Campus Climate...”/End Rape On Campus

Student Affairs 15


CRIMINAL JUSTICE We believe in a fair and impartial criminal justice system that respects human rights without targeting BIPOC communities. Broome County must address abuses faced by inmates in Broome County Jail and work for transparency and reform. We must be open to programs that focus on solving the root causes of crime. −− From 2014 to 2016, the Commission on Correction received 6,500 complaints and 6,850 grievances. The commission failed to track their resolution and the NYS Comptroller’s Office stated that “the COC cannot fully fulfill its oversight duties.”2 −− More than 80% of Broome County’s incarcerated have substance use disorders which have consistently been unaccommodated for in the County Jail.3 −− Black people are disproportionately jailed in Broome County, constituting 28% of the jail population while composing only 5% of the total population of Broome County.4 1 :“Documenting Injustice in...”/Justice and Unity for the Southern Tier

WE CHALLENGE BROOME COUNTY OFFICIALS TO: Implement a Broome County Assisted Diversion Program Broome County must implement an Assisted Diversion program to combat the growing rate of incarceration in our district and to direct people to proper resources outside the legal system. The incarceration rate in Broome County has grown steadily since 1990 and as of 2015, Broome County imprisoned people at a rate 45% higher than in New York City (551 per 100,000 residents aged 15-64 in Broome, compared to 380 per 100,000 in NYC).5 The Broome County Assisted Diversion program (BCAD) would reroute offenders of minor drug and poverty crimes to case managers who can offer plausible resources, such as counseling and addiction support groups. According to the American Civil Liberties Union, people incarcerated for minor crimes relating to drug abuse and homelessness do not often receive the help they need from their time in prison.6 Furthermore, the Broome County budget is

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fiscally burdened by the growing cost of maintaining the system of mass incarceration and prosecution.7 In 2011, King County, Seattle established a program called the Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) arrest diversion program to offer “...law enforcement [as] a credible alternative to booking people into jail for criminal activity that stems from unmet behavioral health needs or poverty.”8 A study evaluating LEAD’s effectiveness demonstrated that people going through the program were 58% less likely to be rearrested, twice as likely to have housing, and 46% more likely to get a job after program completion.9 Decreasing rates of recidivism, the likelihood to reoffend, would be beneficial socially and economically for overpoliced communities and pressured prison systems respectively. Mass incarceration is just as much of an issue in Broome County as on a national level, in regards to both


the quantity of those incarcerated and the racial disparity. Similar to national rates of incarceration, Black people in Broome County are more likely to face jail time.10 With the fight for civil rights for Black Americans as pressing as ever, more Alternative to Incarceration programs (ATI) could have huge social implications in the demand for equality. Furthermore, though rates of death have decreased the past few years, the county nonetheless struggles with an opioid epidemic.11 The introduction of a program to divert minor offenders to proper resources can tackle both the rising jail population and drug epidemic in Broome County. The current ATI programs in Broome County do not face the challenges created by the growing rate of imprisonment, moreover, most of the pre-existing ATI programs pertain to the Department of Probation and do not divert offenders to resources which will get them the help they need.12 A Broome County Assisted Diversion (BCAD) arrest diversion program appropriately responds to both the social and economic shortcomings of the current criminal justice system in Broome County.

Create an Independent Oversight Board for Broome County Jail Broome County officials should implement an independent oversight board of the Broome County jail to ensure transparency and acceptable conditions. The current oversight board is composed of three exsheriffs who refuse to release information on the deaths and abuse of inmates. When Sheriff David E. Harder was asked after two inmate deaths if he planned to change their policy, he responded “there’s no reason to.” 13 There are abundant reasons to. Broome County jail represents a uniquely abhorrent case of the United States’ abusive criminal justice system. Charges of maltreatment of inmates and countless grievances have gone uninvestigated, including: improper medical care, falsification of medical records, frequent beatings, and unnecessary impositions of solitary confinement.14,15 The death rate of Broome County jail from 2013 to 2016 was six times the average for jails of its size in the US.16 Nonetheless, present oversight fails to provide transparency. Official reports on the deaths in the jail from years ago remain unreleased, and the Commission on Correction (COC) has failed to investigate thousands of grievances.17 18 The “independent” part of the oversight board is imperative. An oversight board would be composed of visitors appointed in terms, with a range of representatives from civil rights groups, community members, and corrections professionals. Those appointed would not be from governmental institutions. Impromptu visits would be conducted, with reports made public. The Corrections Division would have to

cooperate and respond quickly and publicly to the board’s findings. This policy draws from a similar policy in Maine’s county jails which was successful in revealing abuses within the system.19 20 This policy also integrates community suggestions from Justice and Unity for the Southern Tier (JUST) and guidelines from the Federal Sentencing Reporter (FSR) for effective jail oversight.21 22 Broome County must employ more effective methods and policies than the status quo and listen to community feedback to improve accountability in the jail system.

Establish MHAST’s Mental Health Crisis Team as a 24/7 Alternative to the Police Broome County officials should increase funding to expand the Mental Health Association of the Southern Tier (MHAST)’s Mobile Crisis team23 to make it a 24/7 permanent alternative to traditional police, dispatched directly by 911 for non-violent crisis calls. People with untreated mental illness are 16 times more likely to be killed during a police encounter than others and are involved in at least 25 to 50% of all fatal police shootings according to the Treatment Advocacy Center.24 MHAST’s current Mobile Crisis Team has mental health professionals assisting the police with individuals warranting a mental health assessment. While this is a great first step, the team has limited weekday hours and heavily relies on law enforcement who are dispatched alongside them. The Mobile Crisis team has been shown to be effective, with police transports for mental health calls being reduced to 32% in 2019 from 70% in 2016.25 With increased funding to hire more mental health professionals to the team, they will be able to service more calls directly from 911 and be a reliable 24/7 service to the Broome County community. However to truly be most impactful, MHAST’s Mobile Crisis team must be funded enough with the resources to directly divert 911 calls to Mobile Crisis Service Responders,26 without the police, working with the Broome County Emergency Management team to relieve some of the burden on law enforcement. This would be similar to Eugene, Oregon’s CAHOOTS where two person teams composed of a medic and crisis worker, with training in the mental health field, are dispatched instead of the police for some 911 calls that deal with homelessness and mental illness for non-violent crisis resolution. With a budget of $2.1 million compared to the area’s police budget of $90 million, CAHOOTS answered 17% of the Eugene Police’s call volume, saving Eugene an estimated $8.5 million in annual public safety spending.27 With 10% of 911 calls in Broome County being a mental health call,28 an expanded team could save Broome County millions of dollars in public safety, reduce the burden on police, and make Broome County safer for its most vulnerable citizens.

Criminal Justice 17


POVERTY AND HOMELESSNESS We believe that no human being should suffer from a lack of food or proper shelter. The shortage of sustainable housing options in Broome is alarming. Through policy and advocacy we can combat the situation of poverty and homelessnes in our community. Over the past two years the 34 member Anti-Poverty Advisory Council has worked to identify opportunities for individuals and families. They have also identified barriers that prevent people from making strides forward. One of their goals is to achieve a 30% reduction in the number of individuals and families living in poverty by 2025. Approximately 23% (9,400) of children under the age of 18 live in poverty. More than 21% (8,000) children in Broome live in households that struggle to put food on the table. 47% of all Broome County students (13,000) enrolled in free/reduced price meals and only 14% (1,893) received meals during the summer.1 2

In 2018, 1,500 people accessed shelters, including 300 families with children, half of them younger than six years old.3 Four core challenges rose to the top: 1. Transportation 2. Childcare 3. Services, Supports, Community and Civic Engagement 4. Housing.4

WE CHALLENGE BROOME COUNTY OFFICIALS TO: Expand Multi-Unit Zoning in Binghamton and Johnson City (“Upzoning”) The City of Binghamton and the Village of Johnson City must expand zoning for multi-unit dwellings within their respective jurisdictions. According to the United States Census Bureau, it is generally accepted that for housing to be affordable, the average household should not pay more than 30% of the household income on rent.5 The United States Census Bureau estimates that the median renter household in the City of Binghamton pays between 35% and 40% of their household income on rent. The Village of Johnson City is estimated to be better, with the median renter household paying between 30% and 35% of their household income on rent.6 However, in both municipalities, housing is not affordable for the majority of households. In fact, in three of Binghamton’s

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16 census blocks (Census Blocks 1, 13, and 14), the median renter household spends 50% or more of their household income on rent. To continue, in Broome County, the median household income in a census block generally correlates negatively with median percent income spent on rent.7,8 Thus, poorer neighborhoods are generally paying a higher percentage of household income on rent. To help rectify this problem officials in the City of Binghamton must expand zoning for “residential multiunit dwellings” and officials in the Village of Johnson City must expand zoning for “urban multi-family” dwellings. Expanded zoning for multi-unit dwellings, also known as “upzoning,” has been theorized and shown to lower rent


prices by spreading out maintenance costs, tax costs, and potential profit across more paying tenants, therefore allowing prices to be reduced to meet the demand for rental units.9, 10 Keith R. Ihlanfeldt’s study found that housing prices correlate positively with the restrictiveness of zoning, meaning that cities that “upzone” should see a drop in the cost of housing.11 Yonah Freemark found in a study that this drop in the cost of housing may not cause a drop in the value of the land. Instead, “upzoning” may actually increase the value of the land by increasing the profit potential of the land.12 New York City has seen this result from “upzoning” a part of Brooklyn. The city expanded zoning in Brooklyn, turning former industrial land that was not in use into multi-unit residential land. Along with a density bonus for developers who met an affordability target, the city was able to produce 2,700 affordable housing units for rent between 2005 and 2013. Furthermore, 949 of those units were along the highpriced Brooklyn waterfront, accounting for 13% of the total amount of units built in the area.13 Furthermore, “upzoning” has also been found to lower the percentage of vacant lots. Ihlanfeldt found that more restrictive zoning correlates with a higher percentage of vacant lots, implying that vacant lots have more to do with construction costs than actual land costs. For this reason, “upzoning” can decrease the number of vacant lots by increasing the likelihood that new housing would be bought and/or rented by spreading the construction costs over several households.14 Therefore, extending multi-unit zoning has been found to be beneficial to not only renters, but also homeowners. Thus, Binghamton and Johnson City officials must expand multi-unit zoning.

Develop Their Rent Control Program In Binghamton, NY the owner-occupied housing rate is a mere 43.2%,15 leaving many dependent on landlords for housing. While the median household income in Binghamton is $31,905 (adjusted for inflation),16 the median gross rent is about $735 per month.17 While this is lower than the national median rent of $1,343 for a two-bedroom unit, the median household income in Binghamton ($31,905) is likewise substantially lower than the median income in the U.S. ($68,700). When taking into account other living expenses, taxes, and utility payments, tenants are left with very little disposable income. Particularly amidst the Coronavirus pandemic, the cost of rent has been economically suffocating for tenants.18 Rather than instituting a flat cap of monthly rent prices, we propose the improvement of the rent control system that is proportional to a given tenant’s income. Furthermore, a given cap must only take into account the number of tenants in a unit, and their per capita

4: “Food Bank Fact Sheets - Broome County.”/Food Bank of the Southern Tier

income, not the property value of said unit. For instance, in a given two-bed unit (with a median cost of $889 per month),19 housing two people with a household income of $30,828, rent must be capped in order to allow tenants more disposable income,20 and thus stimulate the local economy through spending. In Binghamton, landlords are notoriously predatory,21 frequently raising rent on tenants, even in substandard living conditions, while tenants also have very little protection against predatory lending and evictions. Enacting a system of rent control is also a matter of necessity. Several studies, across different regions have shown that rent control is highly beneficial for tenants, and may even help the local economy as a whole. A 2018 study found that “rent control limits renters’ mobility by 20% and lowers displacement from San Francisco,” thus allowing tenants to remain in their unit.22 23 A common concern regarding rent control is that it may cause owners to reduce the housing supply, thus raising rents in the long term. However, a 2015 study, which examined the housing supply in New Jersey, calls this assertion

Poverty and Homelessness 19


into dispute, finding that rent control had no discernible effect on the state’s housing supply over a period of 40 years.24 Moreover, studies examining rent control in Cambridge, Massachusetts found that “rent decontrol generated substantial, robust price appreciation at decontrolled units and nearby never-controlled units,” suggesting not only that rent control is successful in limiting rent increases, but promotes socioeconomic stability in affected neighborhoods.25 26 Rent control will be administered and overseen by the Housing Division of the Binghamton City Government, and will be proportioned based on a given household’s (or unit’s) income and other living expenses. Under this cap of rent, landlords will be limited, or even prohibited, from increasing rent and tenants will thus be protected against evictions stemming from an inability to pay. Particularly amidst the Coronavirus recession, tenants need both protection against predatory lending and economic security. Without instituting a cap of rent, more residents will fall into debt and possibly face eviction, which may see an increase in the homeless population of Binghamton, posing a threat for both the health of tenants and the general public amidst the Coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, if a cap on rent increases was instituted, not only will the quantity of housing stock be unaffected, but landlords may also be incentivized to better maintain current units. Rent control will also be highly beneficial for tenants, as their physical and mental well-being will be protected with the risk of eviction mitigated. Furthermore, with more disposable income, tenants will have more money to spend at local businesses, which will generate more tax income for the area: income which may be used for future investments. For this reason, Binghamton must enact a system of rent control as it will not only be beneficial to the socioeconomic and physical well-being of tenants and the community at large, but will also promote long term growth for local businesses and the city as a whole.

Expand Transitional Housing Broome County officials and the City of Binghamton Housing Division should devote a greater share of entitlement funds to transitional housing programs in order to aid in the addition and expansion of them. Binghamton’s current allocation of resources undermines the severity of chronic homelessness.27 The status quo provides a temporary solution to a long term issue through its emphasis on emergency crisis sheltering, which only allows for stays up to one month, as a means for relief. Meanwhile, transitional housing, an intermediary program between immediate crisis sheltering and affordable housing, allows for stays from at least three months up to three years. With its focus

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Binghamton Blueprint 2020

The Greater Binghamton Area has seen a

40% increase in housing instability and homelessness.31

on housing first as a driving ideology of the program, transitional housing consistently provides the best results for alleviating and potentially eliminating the homelessness crisis. These outcomes are due to the program’s priorities of providing the homeless with the vocational and social skills necessary to navigate an increasingly competitive and educated job market.28 By providing access to a support network and improving the dysfunctional environment the homeless suffer from, transitional housing programs aid the homeless community in their reintegration into society by helping them locate affordable housing and access the labor force. However, transitional housing programs such as Catholic Charities of Broome County receive funds of about $15,500, a number that pales in comparison to the $24,431 allotted to other programs such as Volunteers of America, which no longer accepts women and children into their emergency relief shelters.29 Rebecca Rathmell, the Street Outreach coordinator at the YWCA, notes that the Greater Binghamton Area has seen a 40% increase in housing instability and homelessness recently.30 Denver, which has implemented comparatively more extensive transitional housing programs, has experienced savings of $15,733 in public costs per capita annually – evidence of the program’s fiscal and operational efficacy. The savings were enough to completely offset the cost of housing by $13,400 and still save taxpayers $2,373, while producing observable increases in employment rates of 18-38% as well.31 Amidst the novel Coronavirus pandemic, residents of Broome County and surrounding areas are experiencing increased financial instability as a result of the pressures placed on the economy.32 With homelesness already being a sizable problem within the area, now more than ever we must establish efficient housing-first programs to protect those most at risk against the virus. Therefore, we hold true that Broome County must focus a greater share of resources to supporting and expanding existing transitional housing programs as well as implementing more of them in order to reduce the rate of homelessness and protect the livelihood of the most vulnerable residents of the county.


Next Steps To advocate for the policies in the Blueprint, over the next four years the Roosevelt Network at Binghamton University plans to work with community partners, student organizations, University Administration, and local officials to: • Advocate for policy solutions to better our community, prioritizing the immediate need to tackle the problem of mass incarceration, the urgent neccesity to solve poverty and homelessness, and the obligation to control environmental degredation • Boost the voices of Black, Indigenous, and people of color students and community members, especially surrounding law enforcement/policing and mass incarceration on campus and in Broome County • Diversify student input in university decisions through the establishment of public forums and fostering studentadministration cooperation • Increase transparency surrounding university decisions, especially on decisions regarding university finances

Our goal is to elevate the voices of our fellow students and community members.

Poverty and Homelessness (cont.) & Next Steps 21


Endnotes Environment 1 “Climate Change Evidence: How Do We Know?” NASA. NASA, October 6, 2020. https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/. 2 Ibid. 3 Klorane. “Educating Through Gardens: Q&A with Helen Rortvedt of KidsGardening” Accessed October 23rd, 2020. https://www.kloraneusa.com/blog/ kids-gardening-q-and-a 4 Lombardini, Chiara, and Leena Lankoski. “Forced Choice Restriction in Promoting Sustainable Food Consumption: Intended and Unintended Effects of the Mandatory Vegetarian Day in Helsinki Schools.” Journal of Consumer Policy 36, no. 2 (2013): 159–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10603-013-9221-5. 5 Ibid. 6 Hamerschlag, Kari, and Julian Kraus-Polk. “Shrinking the Carbon and Water Footprint of School Food: A Recipe for Combating Climate Change,” October 25, 2018. https://foe.org/resources/shrinkingcarbon-water-footprint-school-food/. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Apostolidis, Chrysostomos, and Fraser Mcleay. “Should We Stop Meating like This? Reducing Meat Consumption through Substitution.” Food Policy 65 (2016): 74–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. foodpol.2016.11.002. 10 Burch, James. “1 in 3 college students faces food insecurity.” The Hill. February 3, 2020. https://thehill. com/ changing-america/respect/poverty/480339have-you-heard-the-joke-about-collegekids-living-on-ramen 11 Lee, Bruce Y. “College Food Needs To Get Better, This PHA Initiative Is Helping.” Forbes. September 2, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/ brucelee/2018/09/02/college-food-needsto-get-better-this-pha-initiative -ishelping/?sh=1aaa7e0e4d0a 12 United States Department of Agriculture. “Food Access Research Atlas.” Economic Research Service. Last modified August 26, 2020. https://www.ers.usda.gov/ data-products/food-access-research-atlas/ go -to-the-atlas.aspx#.UUDJLTeyL28 13 Colgate University. “Community Garden.” Accessed October 23rd, 2020. https://www.colgate.edu/about/ sustainability/community-garden 14 Bahrampour, Tara. “In planting campus gardens, university students root themselves in the larger world.” The Washington Post. September 1, 2019. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/ inspired-life/wp/2018/09/ 01/in-plantingcampus-gardens-university-students-rootthemselves-in-the-larger-world/

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15 Kerr, Jacob T. “Binghamton earns top ranking in sustainability research.” Discover-e Binghamton Research. Published December 12, 2019. https://discovere.binghamton.edu/news/ binghamton-earns-top- ranking-insustainability-research-7645.html 16 Pollan, Michael. “Why Bother?” The New York Times Magazine. April 20, 2008. https://www.nytimes. com/2008/04/20/magazine/20wwln-lede-t. html 17 Binghamton University. “Acres.” Accessed October 23rd, 2020. https://www. binghamton.edu/services/auxiliary/acres/ 18 Wicker On 09/01/16 at 6:40 AM EDT, Alden. “The Earth Is Covered in the Waste of Your Old Clothes.” Newsweek, March 16, 2017. http://www.newsweek. com/2016/09/09/old-clothes-fashion-wastecrisis-494824.html. 19 “Fast Fashion, Goodwill and the College Lifestyle.” The Butler Collegian, November 20, 2019. https:// thebutlercollegian.com/2019/11/fastfashion-goodwill-and-the-college-lifestyle/. 20 Bick, Rachel, Erika Halsey, and Christine C. Ekenga. “The Global Environmental Injustice of Fast Fashion.” Environmental Health 17, no. 1 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-018-0433-7. 21 Schlossberg, Tatiana. “How Fast Fashion Is Destroying the Planet.” The New York Times. The New York Times, September 3, 2019. https://www.nytimes. com/2019/09/03/books/review/how-fastfashion-is-destroying-the-planet.html. 22 McFall-Johnsen, Morgan. “The Fashion Industry Emits More Carbon than International Flights and Maritime Shipping Combined. Here Are the Biggest Ways It Impacts the Planet.” Business Insider. Business Insider, October 21, 2019. https://www.businessinsider.com/fastfashion-environmental-impact-pollutionemissions-waste-water-2019-10. 23 Leon, Leonela. “Why Thrifting Is Good for the Planet, Not Just Your Wallet.” Student Environmental Resource Center, 26 Oct. 2015, serc.berkeley.edu/whythrifting-is-good-for-the-planet-not-justyour-wallet/. 24 McRann, Collin. “Finding the Free Box.” Telluride Daily Planet, December 19, 2014. https://www.telluridenews.com/ news/article_f9ab68dd-fb0d-59ba-9e8e5e8817c67eee.html. 25 Siegel, Rachel. “Fast Fashion: a Growing Trend among College Students.” The Muhlenberg Weekly, April 17, 2019. https://muhlenbergweekly.com/news/fastfashion-a-growing-trend-among-collegestudents/. 26 Texas Disposal Systems. 2020. “How Does Littering Affect the

Environment?” Texas Disposal Systems. https://www.texasdisposal.com/blog/thereal-cost-of-littering/. 27 United States, City of Philadelphia, Zero Waste and Litter Cabinet. 2016. Zero Waste Litter Cabinet Action Plan. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. https://cleanphl.org/wp-content/ uploads/2017/07/Zero_Waste_and_Litter_ Action_Plan.pdf 28 Blouin, Lou. 2016. “The Psychology Of Littering.” The Allegheny Front. https:// www.alleghenyfront.org/the-psychologyof-littering/. 29 “Transit’s Role in Environmental Sustainability.” Transit’s Role in Environmental Sustainability | FTA, 4 Dec. 2015, www.transit.dot.gov/regulations-andguidance/environmental-programs/transitenvironmental-sustainability/transit-role. 30 “Public Transportation’s Role in Responding to Climate Change.” Public Transportation’s Role in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions , Jan. 2010, https:// www.transit.dot.gov/sites/fta.dot.gov/files/ docs PublicTransportationsRoleInRespondingToClimateChange2010.pdf. 31 “Fast Facts on Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, July 29, 2020. https://www.epa.gov/greenvehicles/fast-facts-transportation-greenhouse-gas-emissions. 32 “Cars, Trucks, Buses and Air Pollution.” Union of Concerned Scientists, Union of Concerned Scientists, 23 July 2018, www. ucsusa.org/resources/cars-trucks-busesand-air-pollution. 33 “Particulate Matter: Health,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, updated June 15, 2012, http://www.epa.gov/pm/ health.html 34 Federal Highway Administration, “FHWA Environmental Technology Brief: Is Highway Runoff a Serious Problem,” updated July 19, 2012, http://www.fhwa.dot. gov/publications/research/ infrastructure/ structures/98079/runoff.cfm 35 Kenneth Y. Chay and Michael Greenstone, “Does Air Quality Matter? Evidence from the Housing Market,” Journal of Political Economy 113, no. 2 (April 2005) 376–424 36 Interagency Working Group on Social Cost of Carbon, Technical Support Document: Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis – Under Executive Order 12866 (Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, February 2010), http://www.epa.gov/oms/ climate/regulations/scc-tsd.pdf. 37 Kenneth Y. Chay and Michael Greenstone, “Does Air Quality Matter? Evidence from the Housing Market,” Journal


of Political Economy 113, no. 2 (April 2005) 376–424 38 “Low or No Emission Vehicle Program - 5339(c).” Low or No Emission Vehicle Program - 5339(c) | FTA, 2016, www.transit. dot.gov/funding/grants/lowno. 39 “Broome County Transit Unveils New Electric Hybrid Buses.” Edited by Mischa Wanek-Libman, Mass Transit Mag, Endeavor Business Media, 28 Feb. 2020, www.masstransitmag.com/bus/vehicles/ hybrid-hydrogen-electric-vehicles/press-release/21127591/bae-systems-hybridrive-solutions-broome-county-transit-unveils-newelectric-hybrid-buses. 40 Casale, Matthew, and James Horrox. “Electric Buses in America.” U.S. PIRG, Environment America Research & Policy Center and Frontier Group, Oct. 2019, uspirg.org/feature/usp/electric-buses-america. 41 Kwon, Osung. “Local Decision-Making on Capital Spending in US Cities (1980-2000).” International review of public administration 10, no. 2 (January 1, 2006): 37–48. 42 Rodriguez-Pose, A, and R Ezcurra. “Is Fiscal Decentralization Harmful for Economic Growth? Evidence from the OECD Countries.” Journal of economic geography 11, no. 4 (July 6, 2010): 619–643. 43 “NY Truck Voucher Incentive Program.” NYSERDA, Feb. 2020, www. nyserda.ny.gov/All-Programs/Programs/ Truck-Voucher-Program. 44 Sclar, Ryan, et al. “Barriers to Adopting Electric Buses.” World Resources Institute, 24 Apr. 2020, www.wri.org/ publication/barriers-adopting-electricbuses. 45 O’Dea, Jimmy. “Electric vs. Diesel vs. Natural Gas: Which Bus Is Best for the Climate?” Union of Concerned Scientists, Union of Concerned Scientists, 19 July 2018, blog.ucsusa.org/jimmyodea/electric-vs-diesel-vs-natural-gaswhich-bus-is-best-for-the-climate?_ ga=2.39191460.604296445.16039287511168552179.1543815051. 46 Marx, Ed, et al. “Cleaner Greener Southern Tier: Regional Sustainability Plan.” Be Part of the Cleaner Greener Southern Tier Plan, The Southern Tier Regional Consortium , 9 Oct. 2012, tompkinscountyny.gov/news/be-partcleaner-greener-southern-tier-plan.

Healthcare

1 Broome County Health Department. “Broome County Community Health Assessment 2019-2024.” Go Broome County, Accessed October 28, 2020. https:// www.gobroomecounty.com/sites/default/ files/dept/hd/pdfs/Broome%20County%20 Community%20Health%20Assessment%20 2019-2024_All.pdf. 2 Broome County Health Department. “Broome County Community Health Assessment 2019-2024.” Go Broome County, Accessed October 28, 2020. https://www.gobroomecounty.com/sites/

default/files/dept/hd/pdfs/Broome%20 County%20Community%20Health%20Assessment%202019-2024_All.pdf. 3 Broome County Health Department. “Broome County Community Health Assessment 2019-2024.” Go Broome County, Accessed October 28, 2020. https:// www.gobroomecounty.com/sites/default/ files/dept/hd/pdfs/Broome%20County%20 Community%20Health%20Assessment%20 2019-2024_All.pdf. 4 The University of the State of New York. “REGENTS - DESIGNATED PHYSICIAN SHORTAGE AREAS In NEW YORK STATE.” Health New York, January 1, 2008. https:// www.health.ny.gov/professionals/doctors/ graduate_medical_education/reform_incentive_pool/docs/regents_list. 5 Ibid. 6 Broome County Health Department. “Broome County Community Health Assessment 2019-2024.” Go Broome County, Accessed October 28, 2020. https:// www.gobroomecounty.com/sites/default/ files/dept/hd/pdfs/Broome%20County%20 Community%20Health%20Assessment%20 2019-2024_All.pdf. 7 Our Lady of Lourdes Memorial Hospital. “Lourdes Community Health Needs Assessment 2019-2021.” Healthcare Ascension, Accessed October 28, 2020. https://healthcare.ascension.org/-/media/ Healthcare/Compliance-Documents/NewYork/2019-2021-Ascension-Lourdes-CHNAReport.pdf. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. 10 Broome County Health Department. “Broome County Community Health Assessment 2019-2024.” Go Broome County, Accessed October 28, 2020. https:// www.gobroomecounty.com/sites/default/ files/dept/hd/pdfs/Broome%20County%20 Community%20Health%20Assessment%20 2019-2024_All.pdf. 11 Ibid. 12 Chapman, Elizabeth N., Anna Kaatz, and Molly Carnes. “Physicians and Implicit Bias: How Doctors May Unwittingly Perpetuate Health Care Disparities.” Journal of General Internal Medicine 28, no. 4 (2013): 1504-1510. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11606-013-2441-1. 13 Illinois State Medical Society Council on Education and Health Workforce “Best Practices in Recruiting Physicians to Rural Areas.” Illinois State Medical Society, February 18, 2016. https://www.isms.org/Resources/For_Physicians/Recruiting_Physicians_to_Rural_Areas/. 14 Ibid. 15 “Decker Student Health Services Center: Binghamton University,” Decker Student Health Services Center (Binghamton University), accessed November 3, 2020, https://www.binghamton.edu/health/ index.html. 16 “Student Health Fee ,” Decker Student Health Services Center (Binghamton University), accessed November 1, 2020,

https://www.binghamton.edu/health/services/health-fee.html. 17 “University Counseling Center Counseling: Binghamton University,” Counseling (Binghamton University), accessed November 2, 2020, https://www.binghamton.edu/counseling/index.html. 18 “University Health Services,” Penn State Student Affairs (Penn State University), accessed November 1, 2020, https:// studentaffairs.psu.edu/health. 19 “Statistics.” Active Minds. October 08, 2020. https://www.activeminds.org/ about-mental-health/statistics/. 20 Wesley, Alexa. Rep. Strategies for Addressing Mental Health Support on Campus. 4th ed. NAPSA Research and Policy Institute, n.d. 21 Amy Donovan - October 22, 2018. “University Counseling Center Adds New Counseling Positions, Increases Mental Health Resources.” Pipe Dream. Pipe Dream, October 22, 2018. https://www. bupipedream.com/news/98851/university-counseling-center-adds-new-counseling-positions-increases-mental-health-resources/.

Student Affairs 1 Grensing-Pophal, Lin. 2019. “The Current State of Professional Mentor Relationships.” HR Daily Advisor. https:// hrdailyadvisor.blr.com/2019/08/16/the-current-state-of-professional-mentor-relationships/. 2 “Harpur Academic Advising Staff.” 2020. Harpur Academic Advising. https:// www.binghamton.edu/harpur/advising/ about/staff.html. 3 “Preparing for an Advising Appointment.” 2020. Harpur Advising. https:// www.binghamton.edu/harpur/advising/ about/prepare.html. 4 “Fall 2017 Reference Group Executive Summary.” 2017. American College Health Association National College Health Assessment, (Fall). https://www.acha.org/ documents/ncha/NCHA-II_FALL_2017_REFERENCE_GROUP_EXECUTIVE_SUMMARY. pdf. 5 “Peer Mentoring Program.” n.d. University of Southern Indiana: Pott College of Science, Engineering, and Education. https://www.usi.edu/science/student-resources/pott-college-student-campus-community/peer-mentoring-program/. 6 Ibid. 7 Wagatwe Wanjuki Wanjuki, “INFOGRAPHIC: Campus Sexual Assault Impact on Education and Career,” INFOGRAPHIC: Campus sexual assault impact on education and career (Wagatwe Wanjuki, January 21, 2020), https://wagatwe.com/ blog/campus-rape-impact-infographic. 8 “Stand With Survivors: PC Needs More Resources For Victims of Sexual Assault,” The Cowl, accessed December 22, 2020, https://www.thecowl.com/opinion/ stand-with-survivors-pc-needs-more-resources-for-victims-of-sexual-assault.

Endnotes 23


9 End Rape On Campus, “U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics’ Campus Climate Study Confirms Epidemic of College Sexual Assault,” END RAPE ON CAMPUS (END RAPE ON CAMPUS, January 27, 2016), https://endrapeoncampus.org/erocblog/2016/1/26/bjs-campus-climate-surveykey-highlights. 10 “Yes Means Yes,” Yes Means Yes & Affirmative Consent, accessed December 22, 2020, https://endrapeoncampus.org/yesmeans-yes. 11 Nicole Marks Kaufman and Jackson Galati - July 4, 2020. “Instagram Account Shares Stories of Sexual Violence from BU Community.” Pipe Dream, July 4, 2020. https://www.bupipedream.com/ news/117409/auto-draft-291/. 12 “Campus Sexual Violence: Statistics.” RAINN. Accessed November 10, 2020. https://www.rainn.org/statistics/campus-sexual-violence. 13 “Alice! Health Promotion.” Columbia Health. Accessed November 10, 2020. https://health.columbia.edu/content/ alice-health-promotion. 14 “Sexual Violence Response.” Columbia Health. Accessed November 10, 2020. https://health.columbia.edu/content/ sexual-violence-response. 15 “Workshops and Trainings.” Columbia Health. Accessed November 10, 2020. https://health.columbia.edu/content/ workshops-and-trainings. 16 Women’s Student Union. Letter to Harvey Stenger, Binghamton University Board of Trustees, Andrew R. Baker, et. al. “Letter to Administration on Sexual Assault.” September 21, 2020. https://mcusercontent. com/ 390823c99f8217b81d788924d/ files/53a8cdce-7c00-46db-ac3a-6ff8fb77e3ed/WSU_Statement_.pdf?utm_ source=WSU+General+Body&utm_ campaign=2a7fc1b1dd-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2020_09_21_08_15&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_83b1187ad2-2a7fc1b1dd-74899975 17 RAINN. “Campus Sexual Violence: Statistics.” Accessed October 25, 2020. https://www.rainn.org/statistics/campus-sexual-violence 18 United States Department of Justice. Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995–2013. by Sofi Sinozich and Lynn Langton. NCJ 248471. United States: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2014. https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rsavcaf9513.pdf 19 Kaufman, Nicole M. & Jackson Galati. “Instagram account shares stories of sexual violence from BU community.” Pipe Dream, July 4, 2020. https://www.bupipedream.com/news/117409/auto-draft-291/ 20 Women’s Student Union. Letter to Harvey Stenger, Binghamton University Board of Trustees, Andrew R. Baker, et. al. “Letter to Administration on Sexual Assault.” September 21, 2020. https://mcusercontent. com/ 390823c99f8217b81d788924d/

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files/53a8cdce-7c00-46db-ac3a-6ff8fb77e3ed/WSU_Statement_.pdf?utm_ source=WSU+General+Body&utm_ campaign=2a7fc1b1dd-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2020_09_21_08_15&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_83b1187ad2-2a7fc1b1dd-74899975 21 Binghamton University. “Assault.” Accessed October 25, 2020. https://www. binghamton.edu/counseling/resources/faculty/assault.html 22 Columbia University. “Sexual Violence Response.” Accessed October 25, 2020. https://health.columbia.edu/content/ sexual-violence-response 23 Women’s Student Union. Letter to Harvey Stenger, Binghamton University Board of Trustees, Andrew R. Baker, et. al. “Letter to Administration on Sexual Assault.” September 21, 2020. https://mcusercontent. com/ 390823c99f8217b81d788924d/ files/53a8cdce-7c00-46db-ac3a-6ff8fb77e3ed/WSU_Statement_.pdf?utm_ source=WSU+General+Body&utm_ campaign=2a7fc1b1dd-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2020_09_21_08_15&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_83b1187ad2-2a7fc1b1dd-74899975

Criminal Justice 1 Martin, William, and Andrew J. Pragacz. “Documenting Injustice in Broome County: The Need for an ...” Justice and Unity for the Southern Tier. Justice and Unity for the Southern Tier, March 2017. http://www.justicest.com/wp-content/ uploads/2017/03/Documenting-Injustice-in-Broome-County-March-26-2017.pdf. 2 Schwarz, Hannah. “State Correction Commission Failed in Tracking Grievances, Audit Says.” Press & Sun-Bulletin. pressconnects.com, January 19, 2018. https://www.pressconnects.com/ story/news/local/2018/01/19/state-corrections-commission-failed-tracking-grievances-audit-says/1048176001/. 3 Martin, William, and Andrew J. Pragacz. “Documenting Injustice in Broome County: The Need for an ...” Justice and Unity for the Southern Tier. Justice and Unity for the Southern Tier, March 2017. http://www.justicest.com/wp-content/ uploads/2017/03/Documenting-Injustice-in-Broome-County-March-26-2017.pdf. 4 Exler, Jacob. “A Repository of Social Ills: Mass Incarceration in Broome County.” The Contemporary, March 29, 2019. https://thecontemporarygroup.com/2019/03/29/a-repository-of-social-ills-mass-incarceration-in-broome-county/. 5 Henrichson, Christian, Jacob Kang-Brown, and Oliver Hinds.“Expanding our Knowledge on Local Incarceration Trends.” Vera Institute of Justice, December 13, 2018. https://www.vera.org/blog/expanding-our-knowledge-on-local-incarceration-trends. 6 Dansky, Kara. “Jail Doesn’t Help Addicts. Let’s Stop Sending Them There.”

American Civil Liberties Union, October 17, 2014. https://www.aclu.org/blog/smart-justice/mass-incarceration/jail-doesnt-helpaddicts-lets-stop-sending-them-there. 7 Martin, Bill. “Broome County’s 2019 Budget Revisited: Maintaining Mass Incarceration, Prosecution, Policing.” Just Talk, January 14, 2019. http://www.justtalk. blog/index.php/2019/01/14/broome-countys-2019-budget-revisited-maintaining-mass-incarceration-prosecution-policing/#_ednref3. 8 King County Department of Community and Human Services.“Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD).” Accessed November 10, 2020. https://www.kingcounty.gov/depts/community-human-services/ mental-health-substance-abuse/diversion-reentry-services/lead.aspx. 9 Collins, Susan E., Heather S. Lonczak, and Seema L. Clifasefi. “Seattle’s Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD): Program effects on recidivism outcomes.” Evaluation and Program Planning 64:4956. https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/6f124f_ f4eed992eaff402f88ddb4a649a9f5e6.pdf. 10 Justice and Unity for the Southern Tier. “JUST the Facts: Mass Incarceration Thrives in Broome County.” Accessed November 10, 2020. http://justicest.com/ wp-content/uploads/2017/06/JUST-theFacts_-Mass-Incarceration-Thrives-in-BC. pdf. 11 Broome County New York. “Deaths & Overdoses.” Accessed November 10, 2020. https://www.gobroomecounty. com/boac/surveillance. 12 New York State Agencies. “Broome County Alternatives to Incarceration Programs.” Accessed November 10, 2020. https://stage.criminaljustice.ny.gov/ opca/broome.htm. 13 Schwarz, Hannah. “State Correction Commission Failed in Tracking Grievances, Audit Says.” Press & Sun-Bulletin. pressconnects.com, January 19, 2018. https://www.pressconnects.com/ story/news/local/2018/01/19/state-corrections-commission-failed-tracking-grievances-audit-says/1048176001/. 14 Martin, William, and Andrew J. Pragacz. “Documenting Injustice in Broome County: The Need for an ...” Justice and Unity for the Southern Tier. Justice and Unity for the Southern Tier, March 2017. http://www.justicest.com/wp-content/ uploads/2017/03/Documenting-Injustice-in-Broome-County-March-26-2017.pdf. 15 Briga, Vince. “Former Broome County Jail Nurses Claim They Were Forced to Falsify Medical Records.” spectrumlocalnews.com, April 25, 2018. https:// spectrumlocalnews.com/nys/binghamton/ news/2018/04/25/former-broome-countyjail-nurses-claim-they-were-forced-to-falsify-medical-records-. 16 Martin, William, and Andrew J. Pragacz. “Documenting Injustice in Broome County: The Need for an ...” Justice and Unity for the Southern Tier. Justice and Unity for the Southern Tier, March


2017. http://www.justicest.com/wp-content/ uploads/2017/03/Documenting-Injustice-in-Broome-County-March-26-2017.pdf. 17 Martin, William. “When Jail Becomes a Death Sentence.” Jacobin. Jacobin, February 27, 2017. https://www. jacobinmag.com/2017/02/jail-deathsbroome-county-alvin-rios-salladin-bartonupstate-new-york-prisons/. 18 Schwarz, Hannah. “State: Broome Inmate Death Likely a Suicide.” Press & Sun-Bulletin. pressconnects.com, October 27, 2016. https://www.pressconnects.com/story/news/local/2016/10/26/ broome-inmate-death-likely-suicide-statecommission/92790546/. 19 Title 30-A, §1651: Examination of Jails; Board of Visitors. Maine Legislature. Accessed October 27, 2020. http:// legislature.maine.gov/statutes/30-A/title30-Asec1651.html. 20 Bleiberg, Jake. “‘We Will Have Another Incident’: Prison Cannot Treat Severely Mentally Ill Youth, Report Says.” Bangor Daily News, December 17, 2017. https://bangordailynews.com/2017/02/28/ news/portland/we-will-have-another-incident-prison-cannot-treat-severely-mentally-ill-youth-report-says/. 21 “JUST ACTION PLAN.” Justice and Unity for the Southern Tier. Accessed October 27, 2020. http://www.justicest.com/ index.php/just-action-plan/. 22 Deitch, Michele. “The Need for Independent Prison Oversight in a PostPLRA World.” Federal Sentencing Reporter 24, no. 4 (March 2012). https://doi. org/10.1525/fsr.2012.24.4.236. 23 “Mobile Crisis Services.” The Mental Health Association of the Southern Tier. Accessed January 5, 2021. https://mhast.org/ mobile-crisis.html. 24 Carroll, Heather. “People with Untreated Mental Illness 16 Times More Likely to Be Killed By Law Enforcement.” Treatment Advocacy Center. Accessed January 5, 2021. https://www. treatmentadvocacycenter.org/key-issues/ criminalization-of-mental-illness/2976people-with-untreated-mental-illness-16times-more-likely-to-be-killed-by-law-enforcement-. 25 “BPD, MHAST Outline Programs In Mental Health Crisis Response.” City of Binghamton. City of Binghamton, September 17, 2020. http://binghamton-ny. gov/bpd-mhast-outline-programs-mentalhealth-crisis-response. 26 “New Crisis Mobility Program in Broome County Influences Outcomes for the Mental Health Community.” Care Compass Network . Care Compass Network, February 3, 2017. https:// carecompassnetwork.org/new-crisis-mobility-program-in-broome-county-influences-outcomes-for-the-mental-health-community/. 27 “What Is CAHOOTS?” White Bird Clinic. White Bird Clinic, November 8, 2020. https://whitebirdclinic.org/what-is-cahoots/. 28 “New Mental Health Diversion Ini-

tiative Launches in Broome County.” Care Compass Network . Care Compass Network , February 4, 2020. https://carecompassnetwork.org/new-mental-health-diversion-initiative-launches-in-broome-county/.

Poverty and Homelessness 1 “Hunger & Poverty Stats, Info - Broome County, NY.” Food Bank of the Southern Tier. Food Bank of the Southern Tier, February 17, 2020. https:// www.foodbankst.org/broome-county-profile/. 2 “Food Bank Fact Sheets Broome County.” Food Bank of the Southern Tier. Food Bank of the Southern Tier, 2019. https://www.foodbankst.org/ wp-content/uploads/2019-Broome-County-Facts.pdf. 3 Brega, Vince. “Homeless Coalition: Issues Are Much Deeper Than Trash Under a Bridge.” Homeless Population Growing in Broome County. Charter Communications, 2019. https://spectrumlocalnews.com/nys/binghamton/ news/2019/09/27/homeless-coalition-trash. 4 Broome County Anti-Poverty Advisory Council. “Reducing Poverty in Broome County Policy Recommendations” New York Assembly, 2019. https:// nyassembly.gov/write/upload/member_ files/123/pdfs/20190723_0088197.pdf. 5 Schwartz, Mary and Ellen Wilson. “Who can afford to live in a home?: A Look at data from the 2006 American Community Survey.” (US Census Bureau, n.d.) Accessed November 10, 2020. URL: https:// www.census.gov/housing/census/publications/who-can-afford.pdf. 6 US Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2018: ACS 5-Year Estimates Detailed Table, TableID: B25070. 7 US Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2018: ACS 5-Year Estimates Detailed Table, TableID: B19013. 8 US Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2018: ACS 5-Year Estimates Detailed Table, TableID: B25070. 9 Metcalf, Gabriel, “Sand Castles Before the Tide?: Affordable Housing in Expensive Cities,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 1 (Winter 2018): 66-67, 73. DOI: 10.1257/jep.32.1.59. 10 Lubell, Jeffrey, “Preserving and Expanding Affordability in Neighborhoods Experiencing Rising Rents and Property Values,” Cityscape, Vol. 18, No. 3 (2016): 139, 148. Accessed November 11, 2020. URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/26328276. 11 Ihlanfeldt, Keith R., “The effect of land use regulation on housing and land prices,” Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 61 (2007): 429. DOI: 10.1016/j. jue.2006.09.003. 12 Freemark, Yonah, “Upzoning Chicago: Impacts of a Zoning Reform on Property Values and Housing Construction,” Urban Affairs Review, Vol 56, No. 3 (2020): 765, 771-773. DOI: 10.1177/1078087418824672.

13 Lubell, “Preserving and Expanding Affordability in Neighborhoods Experiencing Rising Rents and Property Values,” 139. 14 Ihlanfeldt, “The effect of land use regulation on housing and land prices,” 422. 15 “U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Binghamton City, New York.” Census Bureau QuickFacts, 2019, www.census.gov/ quickfacts/fact/table/binghamtoncitynewyork/. Ibid. 16 Ibid. 17 18 Gager, Sarah. “Without Better Organization, Binghamton Tenants Told To Avoid A Rent Strike: News Break.” News Break Binghamton, NY, Wskg.org, 1 May 2020, www.newsbreak.com/new-york/ binghamton/news/1558147380637/without-better-organization-binghamton-tenants-told-to-avoid-a-rent-strike. 19 Jungle, Rent. “FIND APARTMENTS IN YOUR AREA.” Rent Jungle: Apartment Search, 2019, www.rentjungle. com/average-rent-in-binghamton-nyrent-trends/. 20 “U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Binghamton City, New York.” Census Bureau QuickFacts, 2019, www.census.gov/ quickfacts/fact/table/binghamtoncitynewyork/. 21 “Clerk Mihalko Is Fighting Back Against Predatory Lenders.” WIVT NewsChannel 34, WIVT - NewsChannel 34, 22 Jan. 2019, www.binghamtonhomepage. com/news/up-to-the-minute/clerk-mihalko-is-fighting-back-against-predatorylenders/. 22 Mason, J. W. “Why Rent Control Works.” Jacobin, 2019, www.jacobinmag. com/2019/11/rent-control-housing-crisis-affordability-supply. 23 Diamond, Rebecca, et al. “The Effects of Rent Control Expansion on Tenants, Landlords, and Inequality: Evidence from San Francisco.” American Economic Review, 2019, www.aeaweb.org/ articles?id=10.1257%2Faer.20181289. 24 Ambrosius, Joshua D., et al. “Forty Years of Rent Control: Reexamining New Jersey’s Moderate Local Policies after the Great Recession.” ECommons, 2015, ecommons.udayton.edu/pol_fac_ pub/40/ 27 Vince Briga, “As One Shelter Closes, Broome County’s Homeless Face Challenges,” SpectrumNews, November 11, 2019, https://spectrumlocalnews. com/nys/binghamton/news/2019/11/11/ broome-homeless-issues As One 28 Byrne, T., Fargo, J., Montgomery, A., Munley, E., & Culhane, D. (2014). The Relationship between Community Investment in Permanent Supportive Housing and Chronic Homelessness. Social Service Review, 88(2), 234-263. doi:10.1086/676142 29 Programs Funded This Year | City of Binghamton. (2017). City of Binghamton NY. http://www.binghamton-ny.gov/programs-funded-year

Endnotes 25


30 Vince Briga, “As One Shelter Closes, Broome County’s Homeless Faces Challenges,” SpectrumNews, November 11, 2019, https://spectrumlocalnews. com/nys/binghamton/news/2019/11/11/ broome-homeless-issues 31 Kaitlyn Snyder, “Study Data Show that Housing Chronically Homeless People Saves Money, Lives,” National Alliance to End Homelessness, June 30, 2015, https://endhomelessness.org/study-datashow-that-housing-chronically-homelesspeople-saves-money-lives/#:~:text=In%20 Denver%2C%20PSH%20saved%20 %2415%2C733,and%20still%20save%20 taxpayers%20%242%2C373. 32 Jeff Platsky, “Here’s how serious the financial outlook from coronavirus could be for Binghamton, Binghamton Press & Sun Bulletin, March 17, 2020, https://www.pressconnects.com/ story/news/local/2020/03/16/coronavirus-new-york-economic-binghamton-state-city-budget/5057815002/

Photographs Unless otherwise indicated all photos were taken by Grant Gilfor or provided by Roosevelt Network at Binghamton University. All group photos were taken before Covid (before February 2020).

Environment (page 9) Marduk. “BC Transit buses on the campus of Binghamton University, May 2008.” Image. Wikimedia Commons, https:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BC_ Transit_buses.jpg#filelinks (accessed January 11, 2021).

Healthcare (page 10) Rye bread92. “Binghamton University School of Pharmacy building on new Health Science campus.” Image. Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia. org/wiki/File:Binghamton_University_ School_of_Pharmacy_building_.jpg.

26

Binghamton Blueprint 2020

From a February 2020 meeting where we conferenced with the 2016 Blueprint chair and current Senior Program Associate at the Roosevelt Network, Eamon Ross


Special Thanks EXECUTIVE BOARD AT BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY Tara Rosen (President) Samantha Wing (Vice President) Philip Beebe (Treasurer) Gregory Orlando (Policy Director) Shane Healy (Public Relations Director) Daniel Coughlin (Secretary) Liam Rosario (Equity & Inclusion Officer) Grant Gilfor (Blueprint Intern) Isabel Londono (Senior Advisor)

Special Thanks to Garrett Shor, Eamon Ross, and the 2016 Blueprint team Women’s Student Union (WSU) New York Public Interest Research Group (NYPIRG) Generation Vote Collegiate Professor Stephen Ortiz

Graphic Designer Samantha Wing

POLICY AUTHORS Environment Tara Rosen - Red Meat Reduction on Campus Johanna Seppala - Binghamton University Community Gardens Ella Chinn and Francesca Giovannetti - Baxter’s Closet Philip Beebe - Broome County Zero Litter Plan Joseph Kovar Jr. - Transportation Sustainability Healthcare Liam Rosario - Grant to Incentivize Physician Growth Lisa Foreman - Expansion of Decker Health Services Samantha Wing - Expansion of University Counseling Center Services Student Affairs Isabel Londono - Harpur College Mentoring Program Shane Healy - Sexual Assault Education Program Johanna Seppala - Violence Abuse Program Criminal Justice Daniel Coughlin - Broome County Jail Independent Oversight Board Gregory Orlando - Broome County Assisted Diversion Program Samantha Wing - Increase Funding for MHAST Mental Health Crisis Team Poverty and Homelessness Grant Gilfor - Expanded Multi-Unit Zoning (“Upzoning”) Colin Mangan - Rent Control Joshua Samuel - Transitional Housing Expansion

Endnotes (cont.) & Special Thanks 27


Binghamton Blueprint 2020 @bingroosevelt bingroosevelt.org

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Binghamton Blueprint 2020  

The 2020 Binghamton Blueprint is a student written progressive policy agenda focused on Binghamton University and Broome County published by...

Binghamton Blueprint 2020  

The 2020 Binghamton Blueprint is a student written progressive policy agenda focused on Binghamton University and Broome County published by...

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