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My school 1 Point to the playground. 2 Find Sam. What is he doing?

3 Who is not a good pupil? Circle.

4 Listen and circle the objects you hear.

book

board

pencil

poster

computer

paintâˆŤ

5 Sing the song and do the actions!

6 six

seven

7


Is this my classroom? 1

Write, play, run! 1

Listen, look and point. 1

2

3

4

2

2

Listen and colour. Use the code.

What can you see in your classroom? Circle.

Match.

Look after the place∫ and object∫ in your school. I∫ Sam looking after the classroom material∫? 8 eight

nine

9


My classroom 1

1

What’s in your pencil case? Draw a line.

rubber

2

School subjects

Music

crayon∫

pencil sharpener

phone

sandwich

pencil

Who is a good pupil? Tick (✔).

Listen and point.

Art 2

10 ten

P.E.

Find the stickers.

Music Keep the classroom tidy. Look after classroom material∫. I∫ Amy keeping the classroom tidy?

Science

Art

P.E.

We dø a lot of thing∫ at school. What i∫ Sam doing? eleven

11


My new friends 1

My new school 1

Write and draw a picture of you.

My name i∫ I am

. year∫ old.

There are children in my clas∫. 2

Keep your classroom tidy. 2

Be kind tø everyone at school. Join in and have fun! I∫ Amy a good friend?

Put your hand up.

Line up.

Who is a good friend? Circle.

12 twelve

Look and listen.

Listen to the Classroom chant. Number the actions in order.

Be good at school. Listen tø your teacher. I∫ Sam a good boy? thirteen

13


LET’S INVESTIGATE:

Timetables

MAKE A DIFFERENCE:

Ready, steady, go!

Idea: Make a school timetable.

1

Look at the pictures. Tick (✔) the things you do every day.

Test: Step 1

Step 2

Write the days.

Write numbers.

Step 3 Make pictures for your timetable.

2 1

Eat a good breakfast.

Brush your teeth.

Brush your hair.

Check your school bag.

Dø some exercise.

Sleep well.

Listen to the Ready for school chant. Draw pictures. 1 Say the four actions you

Count and write.

hear in the chant.

How many days are there in your timetable?

2 Draw pictures of the

actions.

3 Do the actions and say

How many school subjects are there?

14 fourteen

Which i∫ your favourite day at school?

the chant!

fifteen

15


Let’s remember 1

Colour the classroom objects.

3

Trace the words.

I write in the I wash my handâˆŤ in the 2

Put the objects in the correct places.

I play in the I eat in the

Name three school subjects.

Well done. Choose a sticker.

Name three classroom objects. Say three classroom rules. I can say the names of all the children in my class!

16 sixteen

seventeen

17


The Solar System Our planet is just a tiny part of the Universe. We cannot measure the Universe because it is so vast, but we know that it is made up of everything around us: living things, planets, stars, galaxies, dust and particles. Did you know the Universe is growing and expanding all the time?

1 Name the planets in our solar system.

2 How many telescopes can you see in the picture?

3 Can we see the stars during the day?

4 Who is not behaving properly in the picture?

5 Listen to the song. Point to the words you hear.

Saturn

comet

the Moon

observatory

the Sun

Earth

7


A trip to an observatory 1

Anna and Tom’s school trip file

Listen and read. A

Anna and Tom are looking at the night sky ...

Look at Anna and Tom’s project, then answer the questions. B

Different senses in the countryside

C

D

B

2 Look at the story. Then read the descriptions and match the sentences to the pictures.

8

1

We use this object to look at things that are far away, such as planets and stars.

2

These objects move around the Sun. The Earth is an example.

3

This object is a satellite. It is a small object that moves around a bigger object.

A C

1 Copy the chart. Add information about Neptune to the chart. You can use the Internet to help you.

2 Tom wants to add Pluto to the table too. Should he or shouldn’t he? 3 Find out which planet the moon Ganymede moves around.

9


The Solar System The Solar System is just a small part of the Universe. It is located in the Milky Way galaxy. The Solar System consists of the Sun and everything that moves around it. This includes the planets, their satellites (or moons), asteroids, comets and other objects.

Did you know?

The layers of the Earth

Our galaxy, the Milky Way, contains more than 300 billion stars. It takes light 100 000 years to travel from one side of our galaxy to the other!

The Sun is a star and it emits light and heat. It is at the centre of the Solar System. Eight planets move around the Sun. The four inner planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The four outer planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

Uranus is the second furthest planet from the Sun. It is the coldest in the Solar System.

When we see the Earth from space, we can identify its three different layers: the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. A

The atmosphere is all the air that surrounds the Earth. The air we breathe is a part of the atmosphere.

B

The hydrosphere is all the water found on and above the Earth. The oceans are a part of the hydrosphere.

C

The geosphere is the hard part of the Earth. The continents make up the geosphere.

The Sun is a medium-sized star. The light and heat it emits are essential to life on Earth.

Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System.

Neptune is the furthest planet from the Sun.

Mars is sometimes called the Red Planet. Saturn has rings that are made up of rock and ice.

Earth is the only planet we know that supports life.

Mercury is the smallet planet and the closest to the Sun.

A

B C

In other words

Earth is also called the Blue Planet. It has this name because most of its surface is covered in water. Earth is the only planet in the Solar System with lots of liquid water on it.

Venus is the closest planet to Earth and second closest to the Sun. It is the hottest planet in the Solar System.

3 Find out why Mars is called the Red Planet. 1 What are the names of the four inner planets? 2 Which planet is furthest from the Sun?

10

4 Why do you think life exists on our planet? Look at the picture of Alex to help you.

11


How the Earth moves The Sun and the seasons

The Earth moves in two ways: it rotates on its invisible axis and it revolves around the Sun. sible line Rotation: the Earth’s axis is an invi the that goes through the North Pole to axis. South Pole. The Earth rotates on its tion. It takes one day to complete one rota Earth and The Sun shines on one half of the this is why we have day and night.

The Earth’s revolution around the Sun produces the seasons. There are four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Each season is three months long.

NORTH POLE NO

In autumn, the days and the nights are more or less the same length. In Spain, autumn starts on 21 September.

It’s day on the half of the Earth that faces the Sun. SOUTH POLE

is Revolution: the second movement . the Earth’s revolution around the Sun One complete revolution takes 365 is days and six hours (one year). This res, why we have different temperatu weather and seasons.

In summer, the days are longer than the nights. We receive more light and heat from the Sun. In Spain, summer starts on 21 June.

It’s night on the half of the Earth that faces away from the Sun.

In spring, the days and the nights are more or less the same length. In Spain, spring starts on 21 March.

In winter, the days are shorter than the nights. We receive less sunlight and it’s colder. In Spain, winter starts on 21 December.

Dividing up a year It takes the Earth one year to revolve around the Sun. We divide years into months, weeks, days, hours and minutes. Year

Month

Week

Day

Hour

Minute

365 days and six hours

Between 28 and 31 days

Seven days

24 hours

60 minutes

60 seconds

Did you know?

4 Find out what a leap year is.

2 Are there more hours of sunlight in summer or in winter?

5 Use ICTs to make a presentation about calendars.

3 How long does it take the Earth to revolve once around the Sun?

12

When it’s summer in Spain, it’s winter in Australia.

1 How many hours are there in a day?

Include information on: seasons

months

length of day and night.

13


How the Moon moves

Orientation

The Moon is the Earth’s only natural satellite. The Moon takes 28 days to revolve around the Earth. Like the Earth, the Moon rotates on its axis. It also takes 28 days to do this. From Earth we see the bright side of the Moon. This side is illuminated because it reflects sunlight.

In the four boxes we see the Moon as we see it from Earth. third quarter

Does the Moon change shape? The Moon sometimes looks like changes shape. We call these shapes the phases of the Moon. There are four main moon phases: new moon, first quarter, full moon and third quarter.

Cardinal points To know where we are on the Earth or to tell someone how to get somewhere, we need to know how to give directions. To give directions, we use the cardinal points: north, south, east and west. On maps, we see the cardinal points as letters: N, S, E and W.

To know where north is, we use a compass. Compasses have a magnetic needle that always points north.

Sunrise and sunset full moon

new moon

The Sun rises in the east and sets in the west. This is because the Earth rotates from the west towards the east.

Did you know?

The first compasses were invented in China around 1800 years ago. They were made using a natural magnet called loadstone. They weren’t used for orientation, but to help people make decicions.

first quarter

1 How long does it take the Moon to revolve around the Earth? And to rotate on its axis?

2 How long does it take the Moon to revolve once around the Sun? Look at the picture to help you.

14

1 Why do all maps show north? What do you think would happen if they didn’t?

2 Why was the compass was such an important invention?

15


FIND OUT:

Make your own compass

THINK ABOUT IT:

Idea:

We need direct sunlight because it gives us vitamin D. Vitamin D helps us absorb calcium and calcium makes our bones strong.

You can make your own compass.

Needle Cork Bar magnet Small plate Water

Test: We can make a compass using basic materials.

1

2 Cut off a piece of cork. It should be about 1 cm thick.

Protect yourself from the Sun

However, the Sun’s rays can be bad for our skin, so we have to be very careful. Look at the pictures and think about how we can be safe in the Sun.

2 3

3 Rub the pointed end of the needle with the magnet.

1

Stick the needle through the cork. Put it in a plate of water.

4 5

Conclusions: 16_

12 055 1 _ 04

1 Does your compass point north? Use a real compass to check.

2 What do you think happens to the needle?

1 Do you think using sun cream is better than wearing clothes to protect yourself from the Sun?

2 When is the best time of the day to go to the beach? Why?

3 Why do we use cork in this experiment? 4 Can we use the stars to find north?

16

3 Plan a day of summer activities. Think about what you need and the best time for each activity.

17


Look back Study skills

Review

1 Copy and complete.

1 Choose the correct option. Copy the complete sentences. a. There are eight planets in our solar system / galaxy.

Mercury

The Solar System

consists of

the Sun

b. The Sun is a planet / star. c. It takes a day / year for the Earth to rotate on its axis.

...

has one satellite

d. In winter the days are long / short and the nights are long / short.

...

Earth

2 Match. Then write full sentences in your notebook.

moves in two ways

... ...

...

rotation ...

produces the four seasons

Uranus ...

...

...

summer

Neptune

largest planet in the Solar System

Jupiter

furthest planet from the Sun

Mars

the Red Planet

3 Copy the sentences and correct the mistakes. ...

The Earth

The Moon

The Earth has three layers: the atmosphere, geosphere and cosmosphere.

2 Make creative activities to help the class revise. • Divide the unit into parts. Form a group for each part. • Each group designs a visual way to revise and test their part of the unit. • Put the activities around the classroom to help the class revise.

Ideas: Flashcard s, word card s, word scra mble, odd one o ut

Start today! M ake revision ac tivities to help the clas s revise the unit .

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The Moon is a planet. It takes 38 days to revolve around the Earth.

It takes one year to revolve around the Moon.

It has nine moon phases.

The movement of the Earth around the Sun gives us day and night.

It reflects light from the Earth.

4 Work in pairs. Order the questions and test your partner. Pupil A

Pupil B

is / planet / a / the Moon?

is / Earth / the / star / a?

does / produce / the Earth / light?

do / light / stars / produce?

which / planet / Blue Planet / is / called / the?

long / year / how / a / is?

what / cardinal / points / are / the?

phases / can / four / name / the / you / moon?

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The Universe

1 Read and discover. Life on Earth would not exist without the Sun. The Sun is our main source of light and heat. It is also the most important factor in producing weather. The Sun is a very active star. During periods of high activity, the Sun emits huge amounts of energy in solar storms. These explosions can damage satellites orbiting the Earth and even produce power cuts in our homes. Solar storms also create the auroras.

2 Why is the Sun important? 3 What are solar storms? 4 Sunlight is one of the conditions necessary in the process of photosynthesis. During this process, plants produce chemical energy. What do you think would happen to life on Earth if plants didn’t receive sunlight? 5 What might happen if satellites orbiting the Earth were damaged? Consider the consequences of damage to the different types of satellites:

• weather satellites • navigation satellites • communications satellites 6 There are two types of aurora: aurora borealis and aurora australis. What is the main difference between them?

6

7


Analyse and organise

3

1 Scientific advances have made it possible for us to travel to the Moon and to study planets and distant stars. In your notebook, complete the table using the words in the box.

• space rocket .....

• planetarium

• telescope

• astronauts

Space missions

• Earth

• 1961: Yuri Gagarin, a Russian, became the first human to travel into space. He orbited the Earth in the spacecraft Vostok 1.

• weather

A vehicle used to launch people or objects into space.

space probe

An unmanned space vehicle designed to obtain scientific information from other planets or from outer space and transmit it back to ..... by radio.

artificial satellite

A man-made object which is launched into space and orbits the Earth or another planet in the Solar System. It can be used for TV and telephone communications, GPS, ..... forecasts or map-making.

• 1969: The astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the Moon. The astronauts on his spacecraft, the Apollo 11, had several tasks, such as collecting samples of lunar rocks and soil, examining the Moon’s surface and taking photos. • 1971: The Soviet Union launched the world’s first space station, Salyut 1. A three-man crew lived in the station for 22 days.

A huge spacecraft which orbits the Earth and where ..... can live and do research for long periods.

• 1973: The United States sent its first space station, Skylab, the largest laboratory ever placed in Earth’s orbit.

.....

An instrument used to view distant objects, such as planets and stars.

.....

A building where the images of the night sky are shown.

• 1977: Space probes Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were launched to study Jupiter and Saturn. They made many discoveries, such as finding 22 new natural satellites and Jupiter’s rings. The Voyager 1 is now so far away that it has reached the outer limits of the Solar System.

space station

a. Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 orbit the Earth.

2 Look at the photos below and identify the scientific advances from Activity 1.

a

Read the text and decide if the sentences below are true or false.

b

b. Rock and soil samples from the Moon were collected by the crew of the Apollo 11. c. The first space station, Salyut 1, was launched in 1961.

c

d. Yuri Gagarin discovered Jupiter’s rings.

4

d

e d

f

Listen to the recording about the Hubble Space Telescope. In your notebook, complete the missing information. The Hubble Space Telescope: was launched into space in ..... orbits the Earth every ..... receives radiation which is not blocked by .....

8

9


The Universe

The Universe includes planets, stars, solar systems and galaxies. No one knows exactly how big the Universe is. There are many theories about how the Universe was formed. Most scientists think that the Universe was the result of a giant explosion called the Big Bang. After the Big Bang, the matter in the Universe started to group together forming the different celestial bodies.

What is bigger: a star or a galaxy?

Planets and dwarf planets are celestial bodies that orbit a star and do not emit light. Some planets have satellites in their orbit, which do not emit light either. Pluto is classified as a dwarf planet.

A comet is made of ice, dust and gases. Comets come from areas of the Solar System beyond Neptune and orbit the Sun in elongated ellipses. A comet has a nucleus, a coma and a bright tail which always points away from the Sun. The coma and the tail form as the Sun melts the nucleus.

Stars are huge spheres of gas where nuclear reactions take place. These reactions produce enormous amounts of light and heat. Stars are classified by three characteristics: colour, luminosity and size. A constellation is a group of stars which make an imaginary shape in the night sky. Some constellations, such as the Great Bear, are named according to their shape. A galaxy is an enormous system of stars, dust and gas that is held together by the force of gravity. Galaxies can have different shapes: spiral, elliptical or irregular. There are billions of galaxies in the Universe. Our solar system is one tiny part of a spiral galaxy called the Milky Way. All galaxies are constantly moving through space.

Other celestial bodies

A spiral galaxy

Galaxies group together forming bigger structures called galaxy clusters. A galaxy cluster consists of hundreds or even thousands of galaxies.

Meteoroids are small pieces of rock or metal from an asteroid or comet that orbit the Sun. When a meteoroid passes through the Earth’s atmosphere, it burns. This burning rock is a meteor, also called a shooting star. At certain times of the year we can see meteor showers. The pieces of meteor which hit the Earth’s surface are called meteorites.

An asteroid is a rocky, irregular mass that orbits the Sun. Some asteroids are the size of small stones, but others can be bigger than a dwarf planet. Most asteroids take three to six years to orbit the Sun.

An elliptical galaxy

1 In your notebook, order the parts of the Universe from the smallest to the largest.

galaxy

Solar System Earth

Universe

galaxy cluster

The Great Bear is a constellation.

10

An irregular galaxy

Sun

Moon

2 Explain the difference between a meteor and a meteorite.

3 Decide if the sentences below are true or false.

a. An asteroid is made of ice, dust and gases and has a bright tail pointing away from the Sun. b. We classify stars according to their shape. c. Planets and dwarf planets do not emit their own light. d. Some stars can also be shooting stars.

11


The Solar System

The Solar System is located at the edge of the Milky Way. It is made up of the Sun and the celestial bodies that orbit it: planets, natural satellites, asteroids, comets and meteoroids.

Celestial bodies in the Solar System The Sun is a star at the centre of the Solar System. It is a huge ball made up of gases, mostly hydrogen and helium. The Sun is about 110 times larger than the Earth. Like other stars, the Sun rotates on its axis. It also revolves (orbits) around the centre of the Milky Way. It takes the Sun about 220 million years to complete one orbit.

Look at the picture of the Solar System. Which planet is closest to the Sun?

Kuiper Belt Neptune Uranus

Did you know? Halley’s Comet is the most well known comet. It can be seen from the Earth every 76 years. The last time was in 1986. When will we see it again?

Saturn comet

The eight planets that orbit the Sun are classified into two groups: • Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are inner planets. They are solid and have a rocky surface. They are warmer and smaller than the outer planets.

Jupiter asteroid belt

• Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are outer planets. These planets are cold and dark because they are far from the Sun. They are called gas giants because they are made up of gases. All the outer planets have rings and many moons. Most of the asteroids in the Solar System are found in two regions: in the asteroid belt, between Mars and Jupiter, and the Kuiper Belt, beyond Neptune.

Mars

Natural satellites orbit some of the planets. They are also called moons. Earth has only one natural satellite, but some planets have more than one.

Earth

Geocentric and heliocentric models Venus

Our understanding of the shape and size of the Universe has changed over time together with advances in technology. Ancient Greeks believed that the Earth was at the centre of the Universe. According to this geocentric model (‘earth-centred’) the Sun, Moon, planets and stars orbit the Earth. In the 16th century, Nicolaus Copernicus suggested that, in reality, the Earth and other planets orbit the Sun: a heliocentric model (‘sun-centred’). Around 100 years later, Galileo used a telescope to support Copernicus’ theory.

Mercury

1 What do these sentences refer to?

a. It is the biggest planet in the Solar System. b. They can be found in the Kuiper Belt. c. According to this theory, the Earth is in the centre of the Universe. d. It is the only star in the Solar System. e. This person proved the heliocentric theory.

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2 Find out more about the geocentric theory. Draw a picture showing the geocentric model of the Universe. Compare it with the picture of the Solar System above. 3 Explain the difference between a natural satellite and an artificial satellite.

13


The Earth When do the four seasons start and end?

The Earth is the only planet where life has been found. From space, the Earth looks blue. This is because about 75% of the surface of the planet is water. The Earth moves in two different ways: it orbits the Sun and rotates on its axis.

The Earth’s rotation The Earth rotates anticlockwise on its axis. Earth’s axis is an imaginary line that goes from the North Pole to the South Pole. This line is not perfectly vertical. It is tilted at about 23 degrees. It takes 24 hours for the Earth to complete one rotation. This rotation gives us day and night.

The Earth’s revolution

Did you know? In a darkened room shine a torch onto a globe. Spin the globe slowly anticlockwise. Where is it day? Where is it night?

It takes the Earth just 365 days to orbit the Sun. During this period we experience different seasons because the Earth’s axis is tilted. As a result, our part of the planet receives more or less light during different months. When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun, we receive more sunlight making it summer. During winter the opposite happens: the Earth is tilted away from the Sun and gets less sunlight. The first day of a season is called a solstice or an equinox. The solstices and equinoxes in the Northern Hemisphere are the opposite of those in the Southern Hemisphere. The four seasons

rotation axis

Vernal equinox: 21 March Summer solstice: 21 June

day

Winter solstice: 22 December night

Autumnal equinox: 22 September

Equinoxes and solstices in the Northern Hemisphere

Day and night

The midnight sun

Day and night vary in length according to the season and your distance from the Equator. At the Equator day and night are approximately the same length all year round. As you get closer to the poles, winter nights become longer. Similarly, the closer you are to the pole the longer summer days become. At the poles the effect is extreme. In summer you experience the midnight sun, while in winter the polar night lasts 24 hours!

1 Why is it winter in the northern part of the world when it is summer in the southern part?

3 What season is it in New Zealand now?

2 Explain the difference between the Earth’s rotation and revolution. What each of these movements causes?

5 Do you think the seasons are the same all

4 How do seasons affect life on Earth?

over the world? Why?

The polar night

14

15


The Moon What are artificial satellites?

The Moon is the Earth’s only natural satellite and its nearest neighbour. It is about 384 000 kilometres from the Earth.

Tides gravity

Although the Moon is much smaller than the Earth, it has a great influence on our planet. The Moon’s gravity pulls at the ocean water and creates tides. Tides are periodic changes in sea level. Every day we experience two high tides and two low tides.

The Moon is about four times smaller than the Earth. It rotates on its axis and revolves around the Earth. It takes the Moon about 28 days to complete one revolution and the same time to complete one rotation. This is why we always see the same side of the Moon from the Earth. There is no air or atmosphere on the Moon because its gravity isn’t strong enough. The temperature on the Moon varies from -153 ºC at night to 123 ºC during the day. The Moon’s surface is rocky and has craters and mountains. These craters are caused when meteorites hit the surface of the Moon. We can observe these countless craters because the Moon has no atmosphere. There is also no wind or rain on the Moon to erode them.

low tide

Eclipses An eclipse occurs when a celestial body moves into the shadow of another. Eclipses can be solar or lunar: The near side of the Moon

• During a solar eclipse, the Moon blocks the sunlight and casts a shadow on the Earth. • During a lunar eclipse, the Earth blocks the sunlight and casts a shadow on the Moon.

high tide

The Moon doesn’t produce its own light. We can see the Moon because it reflects sunlight. Obviously we can only see the illuminated part that is facing the Earth. This is why, when we look at the Moon on different nights during the lunar month, its shape changes. These different shapes are called the phases of the Moon. The far side of the Moon last quarter

A solar eclipse

new moon

full moon

A lunar eclipse

1 What shape is the Moon? Why does it appear to change shape? first quarter

3 What are the two movements of the Moon? Compare them with the movements of the Earth.

2 Can life exist on the Moon? Why?

Phases of the Moon

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17


SCIENCE PROJECT:

Build a planetarium

FRAGILE WORLD:

What is space debris?

Aim Understand how a planetarium works and learn about different constellations.

Method 1. In one of the short sides of the box cut a hole of about 7 × 7 cm. 2. Choose several constellations from the constellation charts and find some information about them. 3. On a piece of card draw dots showing the stars of a constellation. Poke holes through the dots with the punch.

Space debris

• a shoe box • scissors • constellation charts • a pencil • 4 pieces of card (11 cm × 9 cm) • a torch • a punch • tape • a few books

Humans produce a huge amount of rubbish not only on Earth but also in space. Space debris (or space junk) is all the man-made material orbiting the Earth that is no longer used. It includes abandoned satellites, pieces of broken satellites, rocket parts and even human waste. There are more than 20 000 pieces of debris larger than a tennis ball orbiting the Earth. Millions of pieces are too small to be detected.

4. Repeat step 3 for several constellations. 5. Put one of the pieces of card over the hole in the box and tape it. 6. Put a few books inside the box. Put the torch on the books. The torch should point at the corner of the box. 7. Darken the classroom and turn on the torch. Put the lid on the box. Project your constellations on the wall.

The problems with space debris Space debris travels through space at a speed of about 27 000 kilometres per hour. At such speed even a very small object can damage a satellite or a spacecraft. When this happens, even more space junk is created. If debris enters the Earth’s atmosphere, it usually burns up. However, occasionally larger pieces reach the Earth’s surface. Scientists have proposed various solutions to remove space junk, but these continue to be expensive and require very advanced technology.

Conclusions 1 Which constellations did you choose? Find out more about them. Explain the origins of their names. What is the brightest star in each of them? 2 Have you ever noticed that the night sky in winter looks different than in summer? We see different constellations at different times of the year. Why? 3 On a starry night try to identify your constellations. Can you find all of them? Why? 4 Why don’t we see stars during the day?

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1 What is space debris? How does it differ from the rubbish that we produce every day? 2 List the problems that space junk creates. 3 Objects that are bigger than a tennis ball are tracked by radars. How can this be helpful? 4 How do think working satellites or spacecraft are protected from space junk? 5

Work with your friend. What could be done to reduce space debris? Think of some possible solutions.

19


Revise Let’s remember Study skills

Review

1 In your notebook, complete the diagram using the words in the box below.

• asteroids

• Pluto

• comets

• Saturn

1 In your notebook, complete the sentences

• Sun

• inner planets

with the words from the box. There are some extra words. constellation outer

a star: the ..... such as Venus

planets is made up of

galaxy clusters

geocentric

heliocentric

.....

The Solar System

inner

4 In your notebook, complete the diagram using the words or phrases from the box.

day

equinox

dwarf planets

such as .....

other celestial bodies

..... satellites .....

such as .....

(text B). In your notebook, decide whether the sentences below refer to text A, B or both. A constellation is an artificial group of stars that appear to be close to each other when seen from Earth. They are, in reality, very far apart. The stars of a constellation form a pattern which depends on your point of view and your imagination. Throughout history constellations have been named after the mythological beings of different cultures. Greek astronomers named 48 of the 88 recognised constellations, such as the Great Bear and the Small Bear; Hercules, the most popular of Greek heroes; and Pegasus, the mythological winged horse. Many of these constellations were also recognised by the Arabs, Egyptians and the Babylonians. Modern astronomers have given names to the remaining constellations.

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Earth’s rotation

d. Mercury, Earth and Mars are ….. planets. e. Pluto is classified as a ….. planet. f. Our solar system is located in a galaxy called the …..

a

b

5 Talk about the Earth and use the diagram to help you.

rotates The Earth

revolves belongs to has

one natural satellite. on its axis. around the Sun. the Solar System.

6 Complete the summary on page 153. c

d

Checklist • I can identify the different types of celestial bodies.

b. Lots of the constellations’ names have a Greek origin.

d. There are 12 zodiac constellations.

rotation axis

Earth’s revolution

c. The ….. model suggested that the Earth was at the centre of the Universe.

a. Stars in a constellation form patterns in the night sky.

c. Pisces, Virgo and Capricorn are zodiac constellations.

365 days

a. Galaxies group together forming …..

2 Name the celestial bodies in the photos and define them. 2 Read the text below (A). Then, read the text about zodiac constellations on page 150

night

dwarf

b. All the ….. planets have rings and moons. outer planets

midnight sun

Northern Hemisphere

Milky Way

Kuiper Belt

winter

3 Explain the following phenomena. In your notebook, draw pictures.

e. Constellations are groups of stars which seem to be close to each other in the sky.

a. solar eclipse

f. The constellation Pegasus is named after a horse with wings from Greek mythology.

c. tide

b. lunar eclipse d. phases of the Moon

• I can explain where the Solar System is located in the Universe. • I can remember what the Solar System is composed of. • I can explain the movements of the Earth and their consequences.

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Samples - Pupil's Book - Social Science ByME