IN THIS ISSUE
NEW EYES on OLD ROCKS A Fresh Look At Relevant Gold’s Flagship Project In Historic Lewiston District PLUS
UTILIZING GROUND MAGNETICS
CRD EXPLORATION ADVANCES
UNDER THE SCOPE: PARAGENESIS
Understanding & Applying A Key Exploration Tool
A Virtual Short Course With Dr. Peter Megaw
Building A Comprehesive Ore Deposit Picture
A Fresh Look At A Historic District
CONTENTS NOTE FROM THE CORNER OFFICE
M E E T T H E PA R T N E R S
Building The Team Of The Future
NEW EYES ON OLD ROCKS
GEO TOOLKIT: GROUND MAGNETICS
Introducing Relevant Gold’s Lewiston Project
Understanding & Applying A Key Exploration Tool
C L A I M STA K I N G 1 01 :
BRIDGING THE GAP:
Navigating A Complex Process For Exploration Success
CRD Short Course With Dr. Peter Megaw
P E T R O PA G E - PA R A G E N E S I S
EXPLO R ATO RY D R I L L I N G I N ACT I O N
BIG ROCK IN THE FIELD
ROCKS IN NEWS
Under The Microscope With Aubrey Lee
On The Ground At Horsethief, NV
2020 Field Season In Review
THE ROAD TO SUCCESSFUL 2021 LOAD & Beyond: Big Rock IndustriesEXPLORATION 2.0
C O V E R
NEW EYES On OLD ROCKS
2020 Field Season, Covid Response, New Partners
T H E
We take a fresh look at a historic district - Lewiston, WY with our “New Eyes On Old Rocks” approach to uncover a new project with “elephant potential.” As a prospect generator - junior explorer hybrid, Relevant Gold exists to identify and advance an extensive portfolio of high-grade, district-scale gold opportunities towards discovery. Learn about their 4-pillar approach that utilizes sound science, innovative data analysis, and technical reconnaissance to validate, acquire, and systematically test advanced targets.
NOTE FROM THE CORNER OFFICE
Challenge As Opportunity Industry-Leading Safety Through The Pandemic & Beyond
ovember 2020 marked the 10-year anniversary for Big Rock Exploration! In a year of ups-and-downs, we are extremely excited to celebrate this milestone. We are also very pleased to report that, thanks to careful planning and tireless efforts from our management and staff, we’ve been able to stay very healthy and active, while continuing to add value to a variety of exciting projects. Despite strong commodity markets and a heightened appetite for exploration investment, COVID-19 has presented new challenges for explorers around the world. At Big Rock, we have implemented a variety of safeguards, guidelines, and monitoring practices to create a safe and healthy environment for our crews and the communities that we work in. With these measures in place, our teams have been able to continue safely and successfully providing the quality technical products that we’re known for. Big Rock’s Communicable Disease Control Plan (CDCP) has proven to be a critical tool for providing clients the safety and security required for their programs. As a part of Big Rock’s CDCP, each project is evaluated based on the risks associated with the local setting and the project-speciﬁc conditions. After documenting things such as local guidelines/mandates, local COVID-19 case statistics, and type of accommodations, Big Rock project managers design a control plan that includes speciﬁc requirements for: communication, monitoring, testing, social distancing, reporting, and more.
CO M M U N I CAT IVE DISEASE CONTROL PLAN (CDCP)
NEW SAFEGUARDS & H E A LT H MONITORING
TRANSMISSIONS OF COVID-19 ON PROJECTS
With our CDCP system in place, we’ve been able to successfully operate on a variety of project-types throughout North America with zero instances of COVID-19 transmission attributable to those programs. With such successful mitigation of risk, Big Rock has been able to safely and strategically capitalize on the ever-increasing opportunities to drive exploration programs toward discovery and onward. With Big Rock’s continued growth trajectory, much of our long-term success will be dependent on our strategic succession plan. The partners at Big Rock provide the leadership, guidance, vision, and support required to successfully grow throughout the next decade. This year, we are excited to have promoted Gabe Sweet into a partner role within the company. In this issue, we explore the New Eyes on Old Rocks concept that has been a driving force at Big Rock since Day 1. We’ll explain what it means, how we practice it and why it’s such an important value-add for our clients and their projects. How can we help you Explore and Discover?
BRANDON ISAKSON Director of Operations
TEAM BIG ROCK
MEET THE PARTNERS A Leadership Team Built For The Future
ig Rock was founded upon 4 main principals; 1) Passion for Geology, 2) Bridging the Gap, 3) Boots-on-the-Ground® and 4) New Eyes on Old Rocks. On the surface these may not be self-explanatory principals, but they continue to set us apart in how Big Rock provides a competitive advantage and technical prowess for all of our clients and their projects. Meet the leaders at Big Rock who have grown this through the last decade and into the next!
A N E X T G E N E R AT I O N L E A D E R S H I P T E A M
BIG ROCK ROLE
BIG ROCK ROLE
Leadership, Solutions Expert, & Motivator
Big ideas, Hard work, Organization & Execution
Started my ﬁrst business washing windows at 9 years old; the Radio Flyer I used is still in use at Big Rock HQ!
Homeschooled and attended college during high school
Growth management through uncertainty; with success comes change and constant new challenges
Taking a vacation!
The dedicated and passionate team we’ve built at Big Rock; I’m very proud of this group of professionals
Professionally: Big Rock and F3 Gold…so far Personally: having kids to live, love and learn with
Fluorite; I grew up collecting these as a kid in Galena, IL and years later I studied the same deposits for university thesis
Beryl has always been a favorite. 6 color varieties with some being extremely rare, incredible history and spectacular geology
BIG ROCK ROLE Determined and dedicated, a Big Rock stalwart that elevates others to the highest standard FUN FACT Started an Economics major and hadn’t considered geology until a senior year elective! BIGGEST CHALLENGE Not being able to be in multiple places at once; our team is spread all across North America BIGGEST SUCCESS Fostering a hard-working, tight-knit, and resilient team that always gets the job done!
FAVORITE MINERAL It’s not ﬂashy, but I love zircon. We owe so much of our understanding of Earth’s history to Zircon
BIG ROCK ROLE Organized and thorough, like a good teacher; experienced and enthusiastic, like a good mentor FUN FACT Raised on the coasts, but made for the Midwest! BEST PART OF THE JOB Traveling! Most days my ofﬁce is a remote wilderness with an incredible view – sure beats a desk! BIGGEST CHALLENGE Identifying something we’ve never seen before using all of our geologist and forensic tools
FAVORITE ROCK The “Swiss Roll” from mentor Steve Allard; a circular swirl with euhedral garnets and sphene
BIG ROCK ROLE Organization, consistency and a constant push for superior data and product quality FUN FACT Loves rocks, but wood working holds a special place in my list of hobbies BIGGEST CHALLENGE Finding a good balance between perfection and timeliness BIGGEST SUCCESS The life I’ve been able to build with my family; the opportunity to pursue my passion as a profession
FAVORITE MINERAL Sperrylite – weird, valuable, and the end member of fascinating processes
BIG ROCK ROLE Disciplined data guy with calm and consistent demeanor to perform under pressure FUN FACT My ﬁrst vehicle was a teal 1993 Ford Escort wagon BIGGEST CHALLENGE Learning to manage ﬁeld crews and learning to train others as an independent learner BIGGEST SUCCESS Being part of a team that has developed multiple projects from concept to drill-ready propect
FAVORITE MINERAL I enjoy all sulﬁdes, but speciﬁcally arsenopyrite, due to its common relationship with gold
F E A T U R E D FAERATTIU CR LED ARTICLE
NEW NEWEYES EYESONONOLD OLDROC R
Modern Modern Exploration Exploration In Wyoming’s In Wyoming’s Historic Historic Lew GOLDEN LEGACY: LEWISTON’S HISTORIC MINES
he Lewiston gold district has an old history. In 1875 placer gold was discovered in Strawberry Creek starting a steady gold rush to the region over the next 10-15 years. Little production history was recorded, but historic reports of extremely rich ore and over 30,000 oz of gold mined out by the ﬁrst miners of the district.
HIDDEN HAND MINE Ore from 30ft level assayed at 75 oz/ton. One ore shoot produced specimen grade samples assayed at 3,100 oz/ton
Lewiston district today is largely open pasture and grazing land littered with historic prospect pits and small mine adits and shafts; a faint reminder of the past mining days of over 100 years ago.
Historic assays include some high-grade zones from 25 to 250 oz/ton Au with some rare specimen grade at 1,690 oz/ton
WILSON BAR MINE First major placer gold discovery; river mouth drains the Hidden Hand and Burr mine. .2 to .9 oz/ton per pan
GOODHOPE MINE Goodhope was in operation from 1885-1915; 1912 report of 70ft shaft and 40 tons of 5 oz gold ore
Recognizing the complex geology and rich gold mining history, Relevant Gold Corp. acquired over 100 mining claims to explore this old district with some new eyes. The next step was engaging Big Rock to develop a comprehensive exploration strategy to explore and develop the expansive property package. By utilizing Big Rock’s technical expertise and New Eyes on Old Rocks approach, experience with Major Mining companies, and their specialty in complex metamorphic lode gold terranes, Relevant Gold embarked on the modern exploration in this historic district with the best team possible.
H I S T O R I C
T I M E L I N E
L E W I S T O N ’ S
G O L D
E X P L O R A T I O N
Gold is ﬁrst discovered in the South Pass district by early prospectors, though the primitive and hostile environment limited its development for many years.
Martin Lewis discovered placer gold along Strawberry Creek in 1875; this mine produced as much as 19,000 oz. of gold, though some say this estimation is high.
Wilson Bar placer was discovered in 1878; Historic Placer mine which led to the discovery of the Lewiston district.
Burr betw majo Lewi
C O R P O R AT E P R O F I L E
wiston n District District LEWISTON 2020: PROJECT OVERVIEW 5,800
ACRE PA C KA G E
U N PAT E N T E D MINING CLAIMS
PAT E N T E D MINING CLAIMS
HISTORIC SAMPLES REPORTED 2019 R.G. SURFACE SAMPLES
Private, N.A.-based company aimed at district-scale Au opportunities
Hybrid project generator-junior explorer business model powered by technical merit
Focused exploration in major U.S. mineral belts
Diversified project and advanced target portfolio
Why The Lewiston Project now? SHEAR ZONE STRIKE LENGTH SUMMER DRILL PROGRAM
Hand and Hidden lodes Hand lodes ween d 18901886 are the andﬁrst 1890 are the ﬁrst or eries gold in discoveries the in the iston district.
Total gold production for the South Pass-Atlantic-Lewiston districts is estimated at ~369,000 ounces from discovery until decommissioning post-WWII.
HISTORIC DISTRICT FITS ARCHIE’S RULE DISCIPLINE Our exploration is focused on high-grade district-scale gold (Au) opportunities in major U.S. mineral belts.
M E TA M O R PH I C ( M / M ) SHEAR ZONE MODEL Recent exploration proves model with strong technical merit and ready to advance towards drilling.
EXTENSIVE RECONNAISSANCE PROVES THE MODEL Relevant Gold has confirmed this new model through widespread regional reconnaissance work.
TO LEARN MORE VISIT:
THE MODERN EXPLORER’S TOOLKIT
A Complete Picture For Precision Drill Targeting WH AT I S I T ? Ground magnetics is an important geophysical tool that measures the magnetic signature of the rocks at and below the surface. All rocks are made up of minerals, and each mineral has unique density, magnetic and electrical characteristics. For example, some metal-bearing minerals have a distinct magnetic signature. Magnetite is a naturally occurring iron-rich mineral that is strongly magnetic. In some deposit types, the detection of magnetite by ground magnetics can be an important indicator of nearby minerals of economic interest.
H OW D O E S I T H E L P EXPLO R AT I O N ? Ground magnetic surveys can help geologists “see” beneath soils and other surface cover, and provide a window into the nature of rocks at depth. Having information on the underlying rocks’ magnetic properties allows geologists to build bedrock maps, ﬁll in areas where outcrop is not present, and predict the presence or absence of potential mineral systems below the surface. With this data in hand, geologists can make a much better plan for exploring and targeting their next drill holes.
WH AT D O E S I T LO O K L I K E? Raw geophysical data is represented by speciﬁc measurements in time and space. Determining the accuracy and precision of these measurements is imperative in making this data useful for mineral exploration. The process of reducing and analyzing raw geophysical data is complex and intricate, and data quality must be maintained in order to have conﬁdence in interpretations.
The BIG ROCK Advantage Big Rock provides tailored consultation and turnkey services to plan, execute, and interpret any survey. Our advanced technology and technical expertise ensure the efﬁciency, economics, and execution demanded for successful modern exploration.
(763) 347-4473 email@example.com
O PE R AT I O N I N N OVAT I O N
CLAIM STAKING 101:
Navigating A Complex Process For Exploration Success he General Mining Act of 1872, signed into law by President Ulysses S Grant, laid the groundwork for mineral exploration in the U.S.A. This law established the rules by which U.S. citizens or corporations could register legal rights, or claims, to minerals on federal lands within the United States. The mining law has been amended many times, but still today the act of acquiring legal rights to minerals on federal lands remains rooted in the act of locating, or “staking” a claim.
BY THE NUMBERS
A N AVE R AG E YE A R O F C L A I M STA K I N G FO R T H E B I G R O C K T E A M TA K E S:
The physically demanding work of claim staking is only the ﬁrst step towards the legal ability to mine. Coupled with stringent environmental analysis and regulatory procedures, the U.S. permitting process is the most lengthy and robust in the world. Though claim staking only means obtaining the legal rights to the minerals, this is a very important ﬁrst step in any mineral exploration project.
D I G D E E P E R // F R O M T H E A R C H I V E
CONCEPT TO DISCOVERY
DOWNLOAD ISSUE 7
NAVIGATING THE U.S. CLAIM STAKING PROCESS:
Identify available / open lands, generate packages to acquire based on geologic AOI (areas of interest)
Determine federal ownership / jurisdiction of land targets & regulatory pathway for ﬁling
Deploy Boots-on-the-Ground® to navigate remote, rugged terrain to physically stake claim boundaries
Large, disorganzied database Fragmented & disparate geography Requires regional geologic expertise
Complex, bureaucratic fed system Decentralized records & oversight Irregular standards & regulations
Specialized geographic knowledge Land access & regulations expertise Stakeholder & strategic relationships
Deep Applied EXPERTISE
Rapid, precision AOI targeting
Nuanced, practical experience with governmental bodies & regulators
Effective, efﬁcient, and responsible ﬁeld operations
Getting Technical On Carbonate Replacement Deposits arbonate Replacement Deposits, or CRD, are a signiﬁcantly important type of mineral deposit. Team Big Rock was excited to host the distinguished and world-renowned CRD geologist, Dr. Peter K. M. Megaw, to give an exclusive 2-day short course on CRD deposits; what they are, how they form and keys to explore for them.
The unique and customized virtual learning from Dr. Megaw was a great opportunity for Team Big Rock. With many conferences and in-person courses being cancelled this year, it was an exciting time for everyone to learn together from a world expert, albeit through a computer screen.
Complexity... is the hallmark of large CRD / skarn systems.”
WHAT IS A CRD? “ CA R B O N AT E R E PL AC E M E N T D E P O S I T ” Carbonate-hosted (Ls or Dolo) High temperature (>250
Dr. Peter Megaw
Intrustion-related Polymetallic (Ag, Pb, Zn, Cu, Au) Dominated by replacement
Interested in booking a technical short course with your team?
Continuous mineralization Polyphase-evolving systems Complex overprinting Large-scale zoning
KEY ADVANCEMENTS IN EXPLORATION: WH Y U N D E R STA N D I N G C R D I S C R I T I CA L Improved understanding of regional controls Recognition of CRD/Skarn/PPY spectrum Mappable large-scale alteration halos Geochemical & Isotopic halos Large-scale coherent zoning of many features Outcrops of big systems distinguishable Near misses more recognizable Blind discoveries being made!
BIG ROCK’S BOTTOM LINE Team Big Rock is actively working on a number of CRD projects in the U.S. The training from Dr. Megaw through this short course provided our staff with an intellectual toolbox to bring to our client’s projects. As we continue to adapt to the ever-changing world we work in, making opportunities to learn together about geology continues to excite and inspire the team. You can’t discover if you don’t explore - you just need to know how and where to start looking!
LEARN MORE 11
T E C H N I C A L LY S P E A K I N G
Petro Page: Paragenesis Developing A Cohesive Picture For Ore Deposit Formation
Such a study is dependent upon selecting a representative suite of samples – this is possibly the most difﬁcult part in that a limited number of samples must represent the whole deposit in its various rock types and wall-rock lithologies. Petrographic analysis of polished thin sections is the preferred method to study the interrelationships between host lithologies, ore minerals, and gangue minerals.
A Framboidal pyrite Bravoite M I N E R A L I Z A T I O N
he term paragenesis refers to the sequential order of formation of minerals over time. A paragenetic study is meant to describe the conditions under which each mineral phase is formed and the events which gave rise to their formation. Minerals, including gangue, are reported in order from oldest to youngest or earliest to latest. The sequence of events and mineral formation is represented with a bar or ﬂow diagram (ﬁgs). The aim of a paragenetic study is to identify the phases present, recognize the textures exhibited in the samples, and report on the features which may help to diagnose the timing of events. This information can be used to deduce the geological history of the ore and even correlate different zones of a deposit.
Nickeliferous pyrite Pyrite Nickeliferous marcasite Marcasite Chalcopyrite Galena Sphalerite
T I M E Figure A. The above visualization is a simulated graph of the process of paragenesis. The most valuable insights to be gathered from this type of data report are determining the sequence of mineral formation from oldest to youngest, and the timing of those events which may indicate a coinciding occurance of the targeted mineral of exploration.
A typical paragenetic sequence for an ore deposit begins with gangue minerals like silicates and carbonates; then oxides; then sulﬁdes and arsenides of iron, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum shortly after the oxides; then lead and zinc sulﬁdes; and lastly the native metals, tellurides, and antimony and mercury sulﬁdes. Multiple periods of hydrothermal, magmatic, or deformation activity will certainly muddy this picture and the petrographer will have their work cut out identifying which minerals were affected by various events. Additional techniques which could supplement paragenetic data include trace element variations, stable and radiogenic isotope abundances, and ﬂuid inclusion analyses.
Figure B. A petrographic image of Pyrite crystals (pale yellow) with multiple growth phases are subsequently decomposed around the rims and replaced by multiple phases of oxidation.
is a petrologic concept meaning an equilibrium sequence of mineral phases, referring to the sequential order of formation of minerals over time.
At Big Rock, paragenesis is a major component of our petrographic studies. Attempting to nail down a paragenetic sequence helps to tie together the mineralogy, mineral habits and rock texture into a cohesive picture for ore deposit formation.
Horsethief, NV >1700 11 1500’
ACRE CLAIM PACKAGE DRILL HOLES TARGET DEPTH
Major Drilling team setting up the rig for their ﬁrst hole.
DATA CO L L ECT I O N
Big Rock project geologist Eric Nowariak samples RC chip and logs pertinent geologic data.
D R I L L I N G AT D E PT H
Major Drilling team drills an exploratory hole; the 45-degree angle is critical to ensure intercepting the target.
Big Rock project geologists Ben Keute and Eric Nowariak work with the Major Drilling team to collect RC drilling return.
Drill pad setup and maintenance is a crucial activity from beginning to end to ensure safe and responsible operation.
H I G H A LT I TU D E EXPLORATION Big Rock Exploration Vice President Brian Lentz utilizing some Colorado sunshine at 12500’ to determine mineralization from a recent mining blast.
The Big Rock technical team scales an outcrop to survey their newly staked claims and enjoy a well-earned, panaromic vista.
MAPPING & SAMPLING
Systemataic collection of surface samples and recording surface features are critical to understanding geologic targets at depth.
DATA CO L L ECT I O N
Big Rock geologists get a ﬁrst look at fresh core samples to determine if they’ve intercepted their target.
Big Rock’s Boots-on-the-Ground® services, such as surveying, require mobilizing to some of the most remote, rugged terrain in the western U.S.
MARTIAN MINING WITH MICROBES
NEW YORK TIMES
“Microbes may be the friends of future colonists living off the land on the moon, Mars or elsewhere in the solar system and aiming to establish self-sufﬁcient homes. Space colonists, like people on Earth, will need what are known as rare earth elements, which are critical to modern technologies. But mining them on Earth today is an arduous process. It requires crushing tons of ore and then extracting smidgens of these metals using chemicals that leave behind rivers of toxic waste water. Experiments conducted aboard the International Space Station show that a potentially cleaner, more efﬁcient method could work on other worlds: let bacteria do the messy work of separating rare earth elements from rock.” Kenneth Chang | November 4th, 2020
“One of the biggest diamonds ever found has been unearthed in Botswana by a small Canadian miner that keeps discovering huge stones. Lucara Diamond Corp. said it has found a 998-carat high white diamond, putting it among the ﬁve largest stones ever discovered. Still, Lucara said the diamond was clivage, meaning it will need to be split before further processing into polished gems.” Thomas Biesheuvel | November 11th, 2020
Commodity Investing Infographic
“Commodities are the basic materials that build the goods and services we use every day. Despite this, they are prone to massive swings in their prices which creates opportunities for investors. Metal price increases can translate into higher proﬁts for mining companies, but they can also change the outlook and value of the equity in mineral exploration companies.” Nicholas LePan | October 22nd, 2020
A 1 5 -Y E A R PA R T N E R S H I P, B I G R O C K T U R N S 1 0 , & I N N OVAT I N G F O R T H E F U T U R E :
BIG ROCK INDUSTRIES 2.0
Reﬂecting On Where We’ve Been To Chart Our Course Ahead
E A R LY CAREERS
THE GREAT RECESSION
BIG ROCK FORMED
Rob and Brian meet in ﬁeld mapping class at Winona State University.
Rob and Brian start work as independent contractor geologists in Canada.
While managing multiple U.S.-based projects, Rob and Brian use downturn to create vision for Big Rock.
Rob and Brian seize market opportunity to launch technical consulting ﬁrm.
TECHNICAL TEAM OF 15+
BIG ROCK GOES INT’L
Big Rock recruits and hires comprehensive team of 15+ geologists.
Big Rock signs ﬁrst international contract with Rio Tinto Canada.
Big Rock signs ﬁrst consulting agreement with Kennecott Exploration U.S.
Big Rock signs ﬁrst U.S. client contract with Kiska Metals on Whistler project.
F3 GOLD FORMED
EXSOLVE TECH CREATED
Big Rock expands into production side of industry with Diavik Diamond Mines.
Brian and Rob launch gold exploration company in S.D. after 5+ years of R&D.
Developed battery metal recycling tech for EVs & green energy in N. American markets
Started hybrid, multi-commodity prospect generator focused on U.S. belts.
NAVIGATING A GLOBAL PANDEMIC
THREE FIRMS SECURE FINANCING
Big Rock Exploration celebrates 10-year anniversary; demonstrates resilient growth & high-quality results with zero Covid-19 cases transmitted on projects.
Relevant Resources divests assets to form new companies - Relevant Gold and Relevant Copper; All three ﬁrms Exsolve, R.G., and R.C. - close on ﬁrst round of ﬁnancing.
Big Rock staff surpasses 35+; F3 Gold drill permits pending; Exsolve proves concept with bench-scale test; Relevant Resources establishes diverse asset portfolio of Cu/base metals and Au/Ag projects.
2021 BIG ROCK INDUSTRIES 2.0 By continuing to expand our New Eyes On Old Rocks mission, we’re creating an innovative business ecosystem to be at the leading edge of mineral development in the U.S. now and into the future. We’re ready to Explore & Discover with you.