Page 1

LEHIGH VIADUCT TRA N SFO RMATION TO A MOD E RN URB A N GR EEN WAY

C A PSTON E R E S TOR ATION D E S IGN P ROJ E C T JING BIAN PROFESSOR BALDEV L AMBA MICHAEL COLL, SUSAN MRUGAL TE MPL E UNIVER SIT Y DE PARTME NT OF L AN DSCAPE ARCH ITE CTU RE AND H O RTICULTUR E 2016-2017


TA BL E O F CO N T E N T

1

acknowledgment

4

reference

139

photo credits

142

appendix

144

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


introduction

5

inventory analysis

7

Site Context History Neighborhood Community Organization Demographic Transportation Landuse Zoning Brownfields Architecture Lehigh Viaduct Street Condition Natural Resource Topography Hydrology Ecology Opportunities and Constraints precedents and research

Promenade Plantee High Line Washington Ave. Pier Phytotechnology design

Conceptual Design Master Plan The Bosque Plaza The Greenway Riverfront Park The Cumberland Pier restoration monitoring

9 13 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 33 35 37 41 43 49 53 61

63 65 67 69 71

79 81 83 89 113 121

131 2


3

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


ACKNOWLEDGMENT This capstone project would not have been completed without the support of many people. I would like to use this opportunity to express my gratitude to everyone who supported me throughout my final year. I would like to thank my capstone stakeholders John Tracy and Andrew Goodman from New Kensington Community Development Corporation (NKCDC) for their invaluable support. Thank you to my capstone advisors Baldev Lamba, Michael Coll, Susan Mrugal, and Pauline Hurley-Kurtz, for their aspiring guidance, constructive criticism, and friendly advice during the project work. Special thanks to Professor Mary Myers for offering me this great site, Professor Tracey Cohen for sharing Washington Ave Pier wetland restoration information, Professor Eva Monheim for reviewing the plant list, Professor David Roberson and Professor Mark Gallagher for advising on restoration reference sites, Professor Brent Whiting for advising on computer graphics, and Computer Services Assistant Director Reid Overturf for technical supports. Thank you to my fellow MLArch studio classmates: Bob Gray, Erin A Smith, Kristin Alexanderson Winters, Lisa Mann, Seyed Hamed, W. Patrick Playdon, Sean M. Vanderslicewho, and Julie Westermeier, who have provided much encouragement and inspiration the past three years in the program. I have learned so much from each of you and your individual projects. I am sincerely grateful to all the people who provided me with facilities required for my project. A special thanks to my dear parents and friends who have provided me with unconditional support throughout my journey in the United States.

4


INTRODUCTION The project site is a portion of the Lehigh Viaduct right-of-way stretching from Kensington Avenue to the Delaware River, including its surrounding land and a former rail yard, in the Kensington neighborhood of Philadelphia. It is about 5 miles northeast of Philadelphia Center City, and Petty Island lies just off shore. Why Here? The Kensington neighborhood was once a manufacturing hub and a bustling railroad port of Philadelphia, which was known the “World’s Greatest Workshop”. 1 As the industry waned, the landscape became patched with bleak vacant lots and desolate industrial buildings and is punctuated by the elevated MarketFrankford Line and Lehigh Viaduct. It became the home of illegal activities. Many challenges hampered the environmental, economic, and social development of the area. Why Now? Starting in the 2000s, many revitalization plans from local community organizations and city planners have attached great importance to this neighborhood. Through several documents released to the public, this area had been identified as an opportune location for environmental restoration and economic revitalization. However, although the Viaduct is potentially envisioned as a state park in a long-term plan, many limitations have been imposed on further developments. The project will document analysis of existing site conditions culturally, physically, and ecologically. The project will develop design programs and restoration improvements inspired by several precedents to transform the Lehigh Viaduct into a public modern urban greenway. There will be a Community Center Complex to provide a social center for neighborhoods; Viaduct pedestrian trails to reduce the railroad physical punctuations on the landscape; wetland restoration and other ecological improvements to uplift ecological services to the area. The project will also seek to include new landscape fabrics to create educational experience and highlight the site’s rich history.

5

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


VISION the goal of this capstone restoration project is to transform the underused lehigh viaduct right - of - way to a modern urban greenway to effectively contribute to reviving urban life , providing ecological services , and encouraging economic development .

GOALS CO N N E C T I O N Create continuous green spaces that will connect neighborhoods with natural resources.

RE S TO R AT I O N Restore brownfields and underutilized railroad viaduct and rail yard to provide neighborhoods with ecological services.

EN G AG E ME N T Promote citizen engagement with the process of “re-placemaking� through operative landscape designs.

6


7

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS

8


bucks county

PE NN SYLVA NIA

montgomery county

montgomery

burlington

ns

county

5 miles 30 mi

county

project site

! center city delaware

camden

county

county

new jersey riv de la wa r e

er

gloucester county

PH I L A DE L PHI A D I S T R I CT S 0 1.25 2.5

9

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

Miles 5

N

0

2.5

5

Mile


SITE CONTE X T |

OVERVIE W

L E HI G H V I A D U CT G R EEN WAY The project site is located along the Delaware River in the River Wards District of Philadelphia, to the northeast of the Center City. The project area, covering 167 acres, is delineated by Kensington Avenue, Somerset Street, the Delaware River, and Lehigh Avenue, including the Lehigh Viaduct structure itself above the street level and parts of the former rail yard along the Delaware River waterfront. The project site is comprised of portions of the East Kensington, Fishtown, Port Richmond, Olde Richmond, and Richmond neighborhoods. Philadelphia was historically known as the "Workshop of the World", and the River Wards District was the original hub of working class Philadelphia with both native and immigrants. 1 Today, diverse communities reside around the project site, and many former manufacturing facilities and brownfields remain.

philadelphia

le

e leh ig

hi

gh

vi

ad

uc

t

h av e

de

la

w

e ar

riv

petty island

er

new jersey

N

0

0.5

1

Mile

RI V E R WARD S D IST RMiles I CT O F PH I L A D E L PHI A 0

0.5

1

2

10


13 le h ig h vi ad u ct

e cam br

14

e som e

C

e leh ig

h av e

rset

11

ia st

st

1 em

ke

n

si

t ng

on

12

A

B

er

f

e av

d al

n ra

st

kf

o

am

5

rd

r be

tr

G

st

en

t

F ins 1/2 mile 10 m

av

on

tu

6

4

e

M

D

E

av

10

lip

11

e

L

9

r

e ad

e

st

o th

i-

5 -9

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

K

m

ri

i

500

av

lg

H

3

Park and Open Space Mills (active or adaptive reused) Mills (status unclear) Mills (demolished) Water N Project Area Railroad 0

in

be

ps

on

ch

m

J

st

d on

st

95

Church

N

m

go

2

ins 0m 2 e 1 mil

School

st

a ar

8

7

e

ile 1.5 m

s min 30

de

la

w

e ar

riv

er

petty island


SITE CONTE X T | L AN DM ARKS |

i-9

I

5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

A B C D E F G

B U IL DIN GS

Visitation BVM Roman Catholic Parish St Anne's Rectory Summerfield Siloam United Methodist Philadelphia Brewing Co Henry A. Brown Elementary School Kensington High School Horatio B Hackett School St Anne's School Richmond Elementary School Memphis Street Academy Willard School Conwell Middle School Lewis Elkin Elementary School Julia De Burgos Elementary

L AND M AR K S I

F I GURE GROUND

|

OPE N SPAC E S

H I J K L M N

McPherson Square Hissey Playground Fairhill Square Cassiano Park Norris Square POPS Skate Park Konrad Square

ROAD S

|

PR IM A RY

E Lehigh Ave Kensington Ave

ROAD S

|

E Somerset St E Cambria St

Cione Playground Monkiewicz Playground Stokley Playground Powers Park Cohocksink Recreation Center Trenton and Auburn Playground Penn Treaty Park

Frankford Ave Aramingo Ave

Richmond St Highway I-95

SE CON DA RY

Emerald St Amber St

Trenton Ave Tulip St

Belgrade St E Thompson St

KE Y INT E R S E CT I O N S E Lehigh Ave and Kensington Ave Intersection E Lehigh Ave and Frankford Ave Intersection E Lehigh Ave and Aramingo Ave Intersection E Lehigh Ave and Richmond St Intersection

Data Sources: City of Philadelphia, River Wards District Plan 2015, ESRI

12


Cohochsink Creek and Gunner’s Run were running through the district.

Kensington and Richmond were consolidated into the City of Philadelphia.

Gunner's Run is converted into Aramingo Canal Anthony Palmer purchased a large part of the River Wards and named it Kensington after London’s Kensington Palace.

13

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

1896

1893

1858

1850s

Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad established its southern terminus as Front and Norris Street.

Penn Treaty Park opened.

1882

Industrial development.

1854

1800

1847

1825

1820

Kensington was established as a district.

late 1800s

Port Richmond became a Kensington emerged major railroad terminus as a major global for shipping coal. manufacturing hub, especially for textiles.

The FrankfordSouthward Passenger Railway operation began.

1834

1730s

1700s

1630s

Swedish colonists settled in today’s River Wards District.

1730-1780

William Cramp and Sons Shipbuilding began to Shipbuilding began to build ships and expanded cluster in Fishtown. to Port Richmond over the next century.

Aramingo Canal was converted into a combined sewer below today's Aramingo Avenue.

Weisbrod and Hess Brewery opened.


HISTORY |

Makers Movement: many of the area’s old mills are renovated for new and cleaner uses, such as artist studios and performance spaces.

SEPTA reconstructs the MarketFrankford Line

Economy, environment, and public safety improvement.

2013

2000

2011

2000s

1985

1950s

1947

The Cramp Shipyard closed. Navy spent $22 million to reopen the yard to build cruisers and submarines.

The Central Delaware Waterfront Plan was released.

2008-present

Industrial decline.

1959-1979

1900

1927

1922

The Cramp Shipyard is officially closed.

The New Kensington Community Development Corporation (NKCDC) was founded.

1985-2003

The Market–Frankford Line’s elevated northeastern extension opened.

The use of Lehigh Viaduct declined along with the coal industry. It continued serving a number of freight rail customers.

A LE GAC Y OF I N DU ST RY

PennDOT began I-95 reconstruction.

I-95 construction. The city received a grant from the Environmental Protection Agency to redevelop the brownfields. River Wards District Plan. 2015. City of Philadelphia. Available at: http://phila2035.org/home-page/district/river-wards/.

1414


philadelphia

le

hi

gh

e leh ig h

vi

ad

uc

t

av e

west kensington

kensington

east kensington

Kensington Port Richmond Olde Richmond Fishtown East Kensington West Kensington Water Project Area River Wards District

port richmond olde richmond

fishtown de

la

w

e ar

riv

er

petty island

new jersey

N

15

0.5

1

Mile

largely with post-industrial structures. Fishtown is known as the truest harbor of artistic, culinary and musical action3. East Kensington is an improving neighborhood with a lot of re-imagined manufacturing. The rich diversity of historical and cultural conditions will serve underlying essences that greatly influence the potential design opportunities. Data Sources: City of Philadelphia, New Jersey GIS Office

KEN SI N GTON

The project site knits together four diverse communities - Richmond, PortMiles Richmond, East Kensington, and - each with its own 0 0.5 1 Upper Kensington 2 distinct cultural heritage, economic development status, and demographic characteristic. Upper Kensington is a neighborhood with rampant openair drug market1. Richmond is a neighborhood with a large Polish immigrant population and deep Polish heritage, where Polish delis and restaurants can be found in many places throughout the neighborhood2. Port Richmond is zoned as industrial land that is left

0

"You can't go outside without seeing a drug addict4." - Current Resident

typical residential street

Somerset Station

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


NEIGHBORHOOD |

D I VE RS E A ND DIST RICT

P O RT RI C H MO N D

"The area is still a little dirty but is gradually getting better with nicer houses and more restaurants moving in, it is slowly becoming a nicer area to live5." - Current Resident row-homes

overgrown vegetation

former railroad structure

OLDE R I CHM O N D

typical residential street

city skyline view from pier

F ISH TO W N

“Great little neighborhood in Philadelphia. It is close to the river in a historical working class neighborhood, which has now turned to the arts6." - Current Resident typical residential street

mural art

E AST KENSIN GTON

"The area is still a little dirty but is gradually getting better with nicer houses and more restaurants moving in, it is slowly becoming a nicer area to live7." - Current Resident current NKCDC office

Philadelphia Brewing Co.

16


philadelphia

le

hi

gh

e leh ig h

vi

ad

uc

t

av e

de

la

w

e ar

riv

NKCDC Port Richmond West CAN DRWC ORCA EKNA Water Project Area River Wards District

er

petty island

new jersey

The project site sits within the North Kensington Community Development Corporation (NKCDC) Miles service area, and 0 0.5 1 portions of2the land also lie within four other Registered Community Groups of Philadelphia. They are: the Port Richmond West Community Action Network (Port Richmond West CAN) on the north of the Lehigh Avenue, the Delaware River Waterfront Corporation (DRWC) along the Delaware River, the Olde Richmond Civic Association (ORCA) on the southwest side of the

N

0

0.5

1

Mile

Lehigh Avenue, and the East Kensington Neighbors Association (EKNA) on the northwest of the Lehigh Avenue. The neighbors have been actively contributing to the trash clean-up and other activities. The proposed project will be able to work with local community groups and engage citizens to make it a success. Data Sources: City of Philadelphia, New Jersey GIS Office

NKC D C - N O RT H KENSI NGTON COM M UNI T Y DE VE LO PM E NT CO R PO R ATI O N

17

Mission

To strengthen the physical, social and economic fabric of Kensington, Fishtown and Port Richmond, Philadelphia, by being a catalyst for sustainable development and community building8.

Website

http://www.nkcdc.org/

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


COMMUNIT Y ORGANIZATION P ORT RIC HMO ND WEST CAN (COM M UNI T Y ACTI O N NE T W O R K )

Mission

An informative affair intended to help residents organize to benefit their neihborhood9.

D W RC - D EL AWARE RI V ER WATERFRONT CO R PO R ATI O N

About

A nonprofit corporation organized exclusively for the benefit of the City of Philadelphia and its citizens.

Mission

To design, develop, and manage the central Delaware River waterfront in Philadelphia between Oregon and Allegheny Avenues, and transform the central Delaware River waterfront into a vibrant destinations location for recreational, cultural, and commercial activities for the residents and visitors of Philadelphia10.

Website

http://www.delawareriverwaterfront.com/

ORC A - O L D E RI CHMOND CI V I C ASSOCI ATI O N

About

A nonprofit civic association of resident citizens and businesses united for the purpose of maintaining and improving the quality of life.

Mission

To maintain a safe, stable, and valued community by uniting neighbors for furthering public safety, enhancing neighborhood cleanliness, and beautification, maintaining property values and neighborhood stability, participating in development and making this community a great place to live11.

Website

http://www.olderichmond.org/

EK NA - T HE E A ST KENSI NGTON NEI G H B O R S ASSO CI ATI O N

About

A Registered Community Group (RCO) with the Philadelphia City Planning Commission.

Mission

To organize the voice, concerns, and the actions of East Kensington residents12.

Website

https://ekna.org/

18


philadelphia

le

hi

gh

e leh ig h

vi

ad

uc

t

av e

19134

19125

d

a el

wa

re

e riv

Zip Code 19125 Zip Code 19134 Water Project Area River Wards District

r

petty island

new jersey

N

P O P UL ATI ON 0

Miles 2 22963

0.5 total1

population under 20 yeas 20-34 years 35-64 years 65 years and older

4225

25.4 % 35.4 % 18.4 %

62840

19

1

Mile

20-34 years

22245 35.8 % 35.3 % 37.6%

22183

12.4 % 7.2 % 9.0%

35-64 years

2067 4524

M E DI AN HOUSEH OLD INCOME

Zip Code 19125 Zip Code 19134 Philadelphia

0.5

26.4 % 22.1 % 35.0 %

under 20 years

8037 13888 8634

0

65 years and older

Zip Code 19125 Zip Code 19134 Philadelphia

POV E RT Y $45720

$26014 $38253

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

Zip Code 19125 Zip Code 19134 Philadelphia

26.4% $26014 44.6% 22.9%


DEMOGRAPHIC | The project site lies within Zip Code 19125 and Zip Code 19134. The demographic data from the two sides differs greatly. In terms of population structure, both Zip Codes have more population of 0-34 age group and much less senior population in comparison with the City of Philadelphia. However, there is a greater racial composition variation in Zip Code 19134 than in Zip Code 19125, where sizable Polish, Irish, German, and Italian communities are settled. In terms of economic situation, Zip Code 19125 has much higher household incomes, higher education

COMPOSI TI ON OF POPU L AT IO N

level, and less residents living below the city poverty line. On the contrary, Zip Code 19134 has much less household incomes, less educational attainment, and nearly double poverty percentage. In addition, neighborhoods in Zip Code 19134 has a significantly higher drug violations. Based on the facts, the site should be designed as a public space for all individuals from various economic and cultural backgrounds. Data Sources: City of Philadelphia

less than high school

23.4%

31.2%

7.7%

19% 19% 25.9%

30% 39.5% 33.3%

17.4%

19.7%

33.8%

E D UCATI ON

Zip Code 19125 Zip Code 19134 Philadelphia

high school some college bachelor's degree or equivalent or higher

E T HN I CI T I ES

zipcode

9.8% 7.6%

19125 4.7% 78%

24.7% 1.4% zipcode

19134 19.3% 54.5%

White Black Asian Other

DR U G V IO L AT I O N Count of Point 1 dot = 100 Water Project Area N

0

2.5

5

Mile

20


! ! e som er

!!e l e h ig h a!v ! e

a

o gt

! ! ! n i! !

k

s en

n

set st

a ! ! ! ! !

! !

! ! ! e

em

av

er

a

! !

ld

!t

! kf an fr !! !

!

!

! !

!

! !

s

e ! !!av

d or

! am

be

r

!

!

tr

10

! ! !

mile 1/2

e

nt

on

!v e a

!

in s

! ! !

st

m

!

ins m 2

tu

lip

st

! !!

!

! !

! !e ! !av

a ar

m

in

go

!

!

!

! ! !!

! ! !

! !!

! !

l be

!

! ! !! ! ile 1m

21

n so

ins

2

in 0m

e

t

m ho

!

s

! ! !

st

i-

95

! ! !! !

! ! !! !

! !

500

4m

!

!!! !

0

! !p

!

N

a

!

!

Bus Stop Highway I-95 SEPTA Market-Frankford Line SEPTA Bus Route SEPTA Trolley Line Parks and Recreation Area Water Project Area Railroad

gr

!d e s t

! ! ! ! !

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

3

m 1.5

ile

ins 8m de

la

wa

Feet

ins m 0

riv re

er


TRANSPORTATION | The project area is well served with multi-modal transportation options. The public transportation network is operated by Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) and connects surrounding neighborhoods and the Greater Philadelphia region by the Market-Frankford Line, one Trolley Line (Route 15), and seven bus routes (Route 25, 3, 39, 43, 5, 54, 89). No Regional Rail station is located within or around the project area. The project site is off Exit 23 on I-95 and easy to access through

VE HICU L AR

the city’s street network. Bordered on the southeast by the Delaware River, there are two nearby active port facilities - Tioga Marine Terminal (PA) and Petty Island Terminal Pennsauken (NJ). As a result, the wave energy caused by ships should also be taken into consideration when designing the waterfront restoration. Data Sources: City of Philadelphia, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority

149

15 63rd-Girard to Richmond-Westmoreland 25 Frankford Transportation Center to Columbus Commons 3 33rd-Cecil B Moore to Frankford Transportation Center 39 Richmond-Cumberland to 33rd-Dauphin 43 Richmond-Cumberland to 50th-Parkside 5 Front-Market to Frankford Transportation Center 54 Richmond-Cambria to 33rd-Dauphin 89 Front-Dauphin to Arrott Transportation Center

2

BUS STOPS WITHIN 5-MINS WALKING DISTANCE MARKET - FRANKFORD LINE STOPS bucks county

montgomery county

Market-

Broad St re

I76

montgomery county

US1

et Line

I76

Frankfor d Line

delaware

burlington

I95

county

I67

6 camden county

county

I95 gloucester county

Parks and Recreation Area Water Project Area N

0

2.5

5

Mile

22


½ ¾

½ ¾

½ ¾

e leh ig

½ ¾

set st

½ ¾

e som er

½ ¾

½ ¾

em

e

fr

an

st

kf

d or

av

1 ¾½

½ ¾

am

be

r

e

st

tr

m

st

a ar

½ ¾

½ ¾

½ ¾

in

½ ¾

e

½ ¾

½ ¾

m

av

go

be

r

½ ¾

lg

e ad

½ ¾

2 ½ ¾

½ ¾

e

ile 1m

½ ¾

th

om

p

n so

st

4m

ins

2

in 0m

s i-

95

½ ¾

½ ¾

½ ¾ ½ ¾

st

½ ¾

½ ¾

t

ip ul

½ ¾

½ ¾

½ ¾

e

½ ¾ ½ ¾

½ ¾

½ ¾

av

½ ¾

½ ¾

ins 2m

½ ¾ ½ ¾

e

nt

on

in s

½ ¾

10

mile 1/2

½ ¾

½ ¾

½in ¾

ns

n

½ ¾

d

½ ¾

ke

o gt

e av

l ra

½ ¾

h av e

Lack of Connection

N

23

0

500

1000 Feet

½ ¾

½ ½¾ ¾

½ ¾

Conventional Bike Lanes Sharrows Expansion Priority Tier 1 Parks and Recreation Area Water Project Area Railroad

ins m 30

½ ¾

½ ¾

½ ¾

½ ¾

½ ¾

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

es mil 5 . 1

ins 8m de

la

wa

Feet

riv re

er


TRANSPORTATION | The neighborhood is relatively bicycle friendly, with existing on-road bike facilities on several streets, including Lehigh Avenue, Kensington Avenue, Tulip Street, Memphis Street, and Aramingo Avenue. They serve great connections to the citywide bicycle network - north to the Tacony Creek Park, southwest to Center City, and west to Fairmount Park. However, there is a gap between the existing bike lanes along Richmond St. In addition, as of 2016, the Indego Bike Share Stations are not available within or around the

B I C YC LE NE T WORK

project site. The closest Indego Stations are about 1.5 miles outside the project site. According to the Pedestrian Bike Plan Progress Report (2015), Belgrade Street and E Thompson Street, identified as high value corridors to connect to the existing bike network, are grouped in the Bike Expansion Priority Tier 113. Data Sources: City of Philadelphia

2 1

1 | Conventional bike lane on Lehigh Ave 2 | Conventional bike lane on Aramingo Ave

24


e som er

e leh ig

ke

set st

h av e

ns

in

o gt

n

em

e av

e

l ra

fr

d

an

st

kf

d or

am

av

be

r

e

st

tr

en

t

on

t

av

e

ip ul

st

a ar

m

in

go

av

e

be

lg

r

e ad

e

st

th

om

p

n so

i-

95

Residential Commercial Industrial Civic/Institution Culture/Recreation Transportation Park/Open Space Vacant/Other Water Project Area Railroad N

25

0

500

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

de

st

la

wa

Feet

riv re

er


L AND USE It is important to understand the land use of the project area, which reveals the site's current state of development. It also serves as the foundation for assessing, planning and modifying the future use. Based on the River Wards District Plan (2015), there is a strong mix of residential, industrial, and transportation uses, which accounts for over 70 percent of total land use within the district14. Within the project area, however, vacant (39.3 percent) is the largest category in terms of percentage, followed by transportation (31 percent) and residential (7.6 percent). The majority of vacant land within the

project area is concentrated along the Lehigh Avenue Viaduct and the Delaware River waterfront, which were former railroads and freight terminals. The actual vacant land is more than shown on the map, because categories of residential, commercial and industrial contain both occupied and vacant land15. The large amount of vacant and industrial land offers many opportunities for multi-functional redevelopment and ecological restoration. Data Sources: City of Philadelphia

PROJECT ARE A L AND U SE

3.8%

0.8%

OTH ER CO MM ERCIAL

6.2% INDUSTRIAL 7.6% RESIDENTIAL

VACANT 39.3% TRANSPORTATION

31.0%

26


e som er

e leh ig

ke

set st

h av e

ns

in

o gt

n

em

e av

e

l ra

fr

d

an

st

kf

d or

am

av

be

r

e

st

tr

en

t

on

t

av

e

ip ul

st

a ar

m

in

go

av

e

be

lg

r

e ad

e

st

th

om

p

n so

i-

95

Residential Single-Family Attached Residential Multi-Family Auto-Oriented Commercial Neighborhood Commercial Mixed-Use Community Commercial Mixed-Use Light Industrial Medium Industrial Heavy Industrial Industrial Commercial Mixed-Use Industrial Residential Mixed-Use Parks/Open Space Water Project Area Railroad N

27

0

500

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

de

st

la

wa

Feet

riv re

er


ZONING | The existing zoning reflects both the industrial history and the strength of the residential neighborhood within and around the project area. Much of the industrial land can be found along the Lehigh Avenue Viaduct and the Delaware River waterfront. The existing zoning also highlights the very limited public assets (open space, park, and active recreation center) around the project area, such as the Cione Playground, POPS Skate park, and Cohochsink Recreation Center. Some recreation structures are not well maintained and in need of renovation or replacement. “The Citywide Version recommends e som e e leh ig

ke

n

n si

rset

E XI STI NG 2 0 1 5

that every resident live within a 10-minute walk to a neighborhood park, open space, or recreation center." 16 The large amount of vacant land within the project area offers great opportunities to meet this criterion. According to the River Wards District Plan (2015), the proposed zoning recommends to redevelop some of the industrial parcels as industrialcommercial mixed-use and community-commercial mixed-use17. Data Sources: City of Philadelphia

st

h av e

gt

on

av

e

a ar

m

in

go

av

e

P ROPO SED ZO NING Proposed Zoning Change Parcels Residential Single-Family Attached Residential Multi-Family Auto-Oriented Commercial Neighborhood Commercial Mixed-Use Community Commercial Mixed-Use Medium Industrial Industrial Commercial Mixed-Use Industrial Residential Mixed-Use Parks/Open Space Water Project Area Railroad N

0

500

1000 Feet

i-

95

l de

aw

a

riv re

er

28


e som er

e leh ig

ke

set st

h av e

ns

in

o gt

n

em

e av

e

l ra

fr

d

an

4

st

kf

d or

am

av

be

r

e

st

5 tr

3

en

t

on

1 t

2

av

e

ip ul

st

a ar

m

in

go

av

e

be

6 1. 6 %

lg

r

e ad

38.4% e

167

64.2

acres project

st

th

om

p

acres i-

potential

area

n so

95

brownfields

Potential Brownfields-Vacant Industrial Parcels BAWP Catalyst Sites City-Owned Parcels Conrail-Owned Parcels Parks and Recreation Area Water Project Area Railroad N

29

0

st

500

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

de

la

wa

Feet

riv re

er


BROWNFIELDS |

B AW P C ATA LYST SIT ES

"A brownfield is a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant18." -United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Based on the North of Lehigh-Kensington Brownfields Area-Wide Plan Market Study (2016), Econsult Solutions has classified parcels or buildings as potential brownfields that are currently vacant industrial land with potential pollutions19. Within the project area, there is a notable amount of potential brownfields land, which is about 36.2 percent of the total project site covering 68.3 acres of land. The majority ownership of the brownfields is Conrail (85.4 percent), while city-owned parcels are only 0.1

percent. The five catalyst sites that were identified by the Brownfields Area-Wide Plan (BAWP) project team could help spur further investment of other brownfields20. Data Sources: Center for Sustainable Communities, Philadelphia Water Department, Brownfields AreaWide Plan: Lower North Delaware Industrial District Existing Conditions

C ATA LYST SI TE 1 | TRENTON AND SOM E R SE T

tr

e

o nt

n

st

e so m

e

This site is 2.3 acres and currently occupied largely by an underutilized warehouse building. Directly across the Somerset Street, there is an active metal scrap yard and an auto salvage20.

t

sh

se

ru

er

ig

st

h

st

le h vi ad u ct

t

ip ul

st

N

0

25

50

Feet

C ATALYST SI TE 2 | SOMERSE T AND A R A M IN GO st

e so

t

ip ul

m er se t

h

st

le ig h vi

av am

t

in

uc

go

ad ar

e

This site is 2.06 acres and currently a vacant lot that covered with overgrown trees and shrubs including a lot of invasive species. It abuts the Lehigh Viaduct and its northeast side is located on the border of a large residential neighborhood20. N

0 25 50

Feet

30


h

an

ig

kf

h

o

le

rd

av

e

C ATALYST SI TE 3 | LEH IGH AND T R E N TON

ad

le

fr

vi

e

u

hi

ct

gh av e

This site is located at the key intersection in the project area, covering a 4.06 acres of land. Part of the site is currently being used as a auto and truck sales. Its northeast border abuts the Lehigh Viaduct20. N

0

50

100

Feet

C ATALYST SI TE 4 | AMB ER AND SE LTZE R

l

st

e

t r s tze etl e s

c

a or

sil ve r st

le h

This site is about 0.73 acres. It is currently occupied by Philadelphia Scrap Metal and being reported numerously by the community for its alleged noxious and illegal uses. The site is surrounded by a auto repair yard and residential row-houses in poor conditions20.

ig h vi ad u ct

a

e mb

st

r

N

0

25

50

Feet

C ATALYST SI TE 5 | TRENTON AND AU B U R N

e wi ll ia m

au

st

e bu rn st tr

en

t

on

st

This building footprint is about 0.61 acres and is currently being used as an active metal fabricator. It is the farthest site away from the Lehigh Viaduct among the five catalyst sites. Across the Trenton Street, an affordable townhouse project is under construction14. N

31

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

0

25

50

Feet


BROWNFIELDS |

B AW P C ATA LYST SIT ES

CONRA I L YA RD In the mid-1870s, the Reading Railroad Terminal at Port Richmond was once recognized as the major terminal for shipping coal. It declined along with the collapse of the coal industry in the 1950s and the building of the Delaware Expressway in the 1970s21.

19 2 7

2016

e le

av

gh t uc

gh

ad

hi

hi

vi

le

e

cu m be

95

rl an d st

Conrail has owned this parcel about 39.5 acres of land between Cumberland Street and Allegheny Avenue - since 1976. Currently, the northern part of the site, near Allegheny Avenue, is being used as active industrial uses under a lease agreement22. There are piles of coal, sand, gravel, other construction materials and a few “tank farms�. The southern portion, from Pier 11 to Pier 20, is currently vacant, unused, and left with large post-industrial structures and overgrown vegetations.

1983

ri

i- ond m ch

In the New Kensington Riverfront Plan (2008), a plan that "focuses on the balance between development and open space23", featured this site as a notable redevelopment opportunity. It is documented that the Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC) had been in discussion with Conrail for the and redevelopment of the interior portions as mixed-use with mostly business that "integrate physically and economically with the adjacent neighborhoods22". The piers were envisioned as "Green River Edge" and "River Edge Park" for public uses and improving the ecological functions of the land development24. In the beginning of this capstone project (September 2016),

st

pie pie

r

12

r

pie

16

pie

pie

r

20

pie

r

18

r

r

de

11

14 N

0

w la

250

ar

e

riv

er

500

Feet

I had reached out with the Public Affairs Director of Conrail, in order to better understand the site's history, current status, and future planning. The site is likely being maintained for industrial uses in nearand long-term. However, it is possible for the city or other developers to reclaim the Pier 20 and a narrow strip of land along the Conrail property perimeter and propose new green space. Additionally, there is a high demand for the neighborhoods, since Penn Treaty and Pulaski Park are the only existing access points to and along the river that are about 1 mile away from the Conrail Yard. The piers are popular with fishermen and bird watchers.

32


e som er

e leh ig

ke

set st

1

h av e

ns

in

o gt

n

em

e av

2

e

l ra

fr

d

an

st

kf

d or

av

3

am

be

r

e

st

tr

en

t

on

t

av

e

ip ul

st

a ar

m

in

go

av

e

5

4

6 7

be

lg

r

e ad

e

st

th

om

p

n so

i-

st

95

8

Culturally Significant Philadelphia Row-house Industrial Adaptive Reuse Parks and Recreation Area Water Project Area Railroad N

33

0

500

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

de

la

wa

Feet

riv re

er


ARCHITECTURE The architectures within the project site are grouped into four different categories - culturally significant, Philadelphia row-house, industrial, and adaptive reuse25. The vast majority of the buildings within and around the project area are typical Philadelphia residential row-houses. However, large numbers of the row-houses are vacant or in poor condition that are in need of repair or replacement. The very few culturally significant buildings are civic and institution

spaces that can be accessed by the public. Also, there are some large or small low-story industrial buildings scattered in the project area. The former Orinoka Mill textile factory is under reconstruction to become a mixed-used “Orinoka Mills Civic House” that will include office space for the NKCDC, ground floor retail, and low-to-moderate income apartments. New uses of land and homes will also be proposed in the future planning26.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1 | Proposed new Civic House of the former Kensington Mill 2 | Residential row-houses 3 | Residential row-houses 4 | Community Women’s Educational Program 5 | Scrap metal yard 6 | St Anne’s School 7 | Residential row-houses 8 | Portside Art Center

34


e som er

e leh ig

ns

in

n

em

e av

e

l ra

fr

d

an

st

kf

2

d or

am

av

be

}

}

ke

1

h av e

o gt

set st

r

e

st

en

t

av

e

}

}

tr

on

}

t

st

ip ul

}}

a ar

in

av

e

}

}

}

}

3

m

go

lg

r

st

}

}

be

e ad

}

} }

e

th

om

p

n so

st

}

} }

95

}

}

}

} i-

Active Railroad Inactive Railroad Retaining Wall Viaduct Underpass Parks and Recreation Area Water Project Area N

35

0

500

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

de

la

wa

Feet

riv re

er


LEHIGH VIADUCT |

RI GH T-OF -WAY CORRIDO R

The Lehigh Viaduct is a dominant feature in the project site. It was once a major freight corridor of the New York and Pennsylvania Railroad, running just north of Lehigh Avenue above the street level. In the mid-1870s, rail cars traversed with millions of tons of anthracite coal from upstate Pennsylvania down to the Port Richmond Terminal27. The Viaduct is now owned by Conrail and off-limits to the public. Today, there is only one active rail line in daily service.

1

2

Currently, the viaduct right-of-way structure presents a significant challenge to its adjacent neighborhoods. Since most of the rail lines are unused for a long time, this area is now covered with overgrowth that can be easily seen by the neighborhoods. In order to allow the rail lines to pass through, retaining walls were built to border the Viaduct right-of-way and underpasses were formed by excavating several streets28, including Kensington Ave, Emerald St, Frankford Ave, Tulip St, Aramingo Ave, Belgrade St, and E Thompson St. These features are aging and becoming eye-sores to the neighborhoods, as well as physically form unsafe structures that impede pedestrian access. Besides, the vast underutilized, unattended land and dark, unpleasant tunnel gateway provide an environment for access barriers, illegal dumping, drug use, and other criminal activities. In the New Kensington Riverfront Plan (2008), the Viaduct is envisioned as one of the key Access Gateways - a key connection between the neighborhoods and the riverfront29. According to the GreenPlan Philadelphia, the Viaduct is identified as "a notable opportunity for park and trail creation", connecting the interior neighborhoods to the riverfront30.

1 | Kensington Ave. underpass 2 | Frankford Ave. underpass 3 | Aramingo Ave. underpass

3

36


e som er

e leh ig

ke

set st

h av e

ns

in

o gt

n

e av

em

1

e

l ra

fr

2

d

an

3

st

kf

d or

am

av

be

r

e

st

tr

en

t

on

t

av

e

ip ul

st

4

a ar

m

in

go

av

e

No s alk ew

Sid

5

be

lg

r

e ad

e

st

th

om

p

n so

st

6 i-

95

P E D ES T RIAN ENV I RONMENTAL QUALI T Y IN D E X S CO RE NORTH / WES T SIDE 0 - 20 Unsuitable for Pedestrians 21 - 40 Poor Pedestrian Conditions Exist 41 - 60 Basic Pedestrian Conditions Exist 61 - 80 Reasonable Pedestrian Conditions Exist 81 - 100 Ideal Pedestrian Conditions Exist Parks and Recreation Area Water Project Area Railroad N

37

0

500

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

de

la

wa

Feet

riv re

er


STREE T CONDITION | Pedestrian Environmental Quality Index (PEQI) is “a practical method to evaluate existing barriers to walking and prioritize future investments for increasing pedestrian activity and safety in land use and urban planning processes3�. The information and printable checklist can be accessed online (http:// www.sfhealthequity.org/elements/24-elements/ tools/106-pedestrian-environmental-quality-index). Overall, the condition of the pedestrian sidewalks in project site is poor and unstuitable. The community had also addressed many concerns regarding the pedestrian safety, especially along industrial areas, documented in the Community Engagement North of

1

4

PE QI NORTH/WEST

Lehigh, Kensington Brownfields Area-Wide Plan (2016). The majority of sidewalks lack shades, shelters and trash cans, which create an unpleasant walking environment. The pavements are inconsistent and indicate lack of maintenance. Crumbling sidewalks have been spotted in many places that can cause tripping hazards. Particularly, from Aramingo Avenue to Trenton Street, the pedestrian facility is missing along the Lehigh Ave abutting the Lehigh Viaduct retaining wall31. It is highly recommended that the pedestrian sidewalk maintenance, completion, and greening and beautifying must be addressed in the future planning.

2

3

5

6

1 | E Sliver St. | between Jasper St. and Helen St. west side | score 36 2 | Frankford Ave. | between E Sliver St. and E Sterner St. north side | score 41 3 | E Seltzer St. | between Coral St. and Amber St. west side | score 18 4 | Lehigh Ave. | between Trenton Ave. and Tulip St. north side | score 27 5 | Aramingo Ave.| between Lehigh Ave. and Somerset St. north side | score 52 6 | Lehigh Ave. | between Miller St. and Belgrade St. north side | score 74

38


e som er

e leh ig

ke

set st

h av e

ns

in

o gt

n

e av

em

1

e

l ra

fr

d

an

st

kf

d or

am

2

av

be

r

e

st

tr

3

en

t

on

4 t

6

5

av

e

ip ul

st

a ar

m

in

go

av

e

be

7

lg

r

e ad

st

8 e

th

om

p

n so

i-

st

95

P E D ES T RIAN ENV I RONMENTAL QUALI T Y IN D E X S CO RE SOUTH / E AST S IDE 0 - 20 Unsuitable for Pedestrians 21 - 40 Poor Pedestrian Conditions Exist 41 - 60 Basic Pedestrian Conditions Exist 61 - 80 Reasonable Pedestrian Conditions Exist 81 - 100 Ideal Pedestrian Conditions Exist Parks and Recreation Area Water Project Area Railroad N

39

0

500

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

de

la

wa

Feet

riv re

er


STREE T CONDITION |

1

PE QI S OUTH/E AST

2

5

4

7

6

3

1 | Lehigh Ave. | between Kensington Ave. and Jasper St. south side | score 39 2 | Lehigh Ave. | between Jasper St. and Emerald St. south side | score 53 3 | Lehigh Ave. | between Amber St. and Collins St. south side | score 45 4 | E Somerset St. | between Trenton Ave. and Tulip St. south side | score 34 5 | E Somerset St. | between Tulip St. and Aramingo Ave. south side | score 52 6 | Lehigh Ave. | between Sepviva St. and Tulip St. south side | score 57 7 | Lehigh Ave. | between Miller St. and Belgrade St. south side | score 59 8 | E Steltzer St. | between Belgrade St. and Almond St. | score 36

8

40


P HYS IO GRA HIC P ROV INCE

G E O LO G Y Trenton Gravel

Atlantic Coastal Plain

According to A Natural Heritage Inventory of Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania (2008), the project site lies within the Inner Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. The Atlantic Coastal Plain is "characterized by two distinct areas: an upper flat terrace composed of sand and gravel derived from weathered metamorphic rocks, and the floodplain of the Delaware River, composed of deep alluvial sediments32".

41

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

The geology formation of the project area is termed as Trenton Gravel, which is the “very gravelly sand with crossbedded sand and clay-silt areas ranging from gray to pale-reddish-brown in color and including areas of alluvium and swamp deposits deposited within the last 12,000 years32�. The rock type of the project area is characterized as Alluvial Deposits of Sand, Gravel, and Silt that would allow for quick drainage32.


NATURAL RESOURCE |

D E P OSIT Alluvial Deposits of Sands, Gravel, and Silt

The soil of the project site is classified as Urban Soil, which is highly disturbed from human activities. However, it can be assumed that, in the areas with a permeable surface, the soil would be well drained as a result of the bedrock types and the parent material32. Historically, peat (alluvial deposits with a thick top-layer of organic matter) probably preexisted along the river edge of the project area. The only place likely to still contain this type of soil is within the John Heinz

C I T Y W I D E OV ERVIE W

SO I L T Y PE Ub - Urban land

N

0

2

4

Mile

National Wildlife Refuge32. Since the project area contains a lot of former industrial sites, the soil is likely contaminated at different levels. Further soil sampling and analysis are recommended to determine the proper soil remediation method and procedure. Data Sources: US Department of Agriculture, A Natural Heritage Inventory of Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania (2008)

42


e som er

e leh ig

ke

h av e

ns

in

o gt

n

set st

+H P 3 8 ' em

e av

e

l ra

fr

d

an

st

kf

d or

am

av

be

r

e

st

tr

en

t

on

t

av

e

ip ul

st

a ar

+ L P 8'

m

in

go

av

e

+ L P 8' be

lg

r

e ad

e

st

th

om

p

n so

+ L P 8' i-

st

95

EL E VAT I ON -5’ - 5’ 5’ - 15’ 15’ - 25’ 25’ - 35’ 35’ - 45’ 45’ - 55’ 55’ - 65’ 65’ - 75’ Water Project Area Railroad N

43

0

500

+ HP 36'

+ L P - 4'

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

de

la

wa

Feet

riv re

er


TOPOGRAPHY |

E LE VAT IO N

Because the project site is located within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Physiographic Province, this region has low elevations ranging from 74 feet to -4 feet and is gently sloped from the inner land towards the Delaware River. The highest elevation within the project site is the Interstate Highway 95 (66 feet), and the lowest elevation is along the river edge (-4 feet).In addition, lower elevations occur along the Aramingo Avenue, which reveals the historical topography of the site. Steep slopes are evident along the Lehigh Viaduct, where retaining walls and underpasses have been built. Data Sources: City of Philadelphia

Terrain Model of Existing Topography V

44


18’ Church

10’ 5’

sidewalk

18’

5’

30’

P bike two lanes

30’

Sunoco sidewalk bike two lanes

45

30’

30’

5’ 10’

two lanes bike P

5’

15’

two lanes bike right turn

18’

95’

sidewalk

boarded up lot

15’

18’

150’

P

sidewalk

boarded up lot

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


TOPOGRAPHY |

E XI STI NG SECT IO N S A’

A SECTION A-A’

B

B’

60’ Market-

Frankford Line 0

250 500

1,000

Feet 1,500

38’ Lehigh Viaduct 14’ 150’

12’

viaduct underpass

24’ street level

10’

sidewalk P

two lanes

SECTION B-B’

28’ Lehigh Viaduct 20’ junk yard 16’ street level

12’

150’ Lehigh Viaduct Rihgt-of-way

junk yard

46


18’ play- sidewalk ground

15’ row sidewalk house

47

10’ P

right turn

30’

30’

two lanes

two lanes

5’

10’

150’

bike P

Lehigh Viaduct Right-of-way

18’

5’

30’

5’

18’

15’

80’

P

bike

one lane

bike

P

sidewalk

art gallery

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


TOPOGRAPHY |

E XI STI NG SECT IO N S

C

C’

SECTION C-C’

D

0

30’ Lehigh Viaduct

250 500

D’

1,000

Feet 1,500

22’ 8’ street level

400’ viaduct underpass

SECTION D-D’

26’ Lehigh Viaduct 18’ 165’

330’

Lehigh Viaduct Right-of-way

viaduct underpass

8’ street level

48


e som er

e leh ig

ke

set st

h av e

ns

in

o gt

n

em

e av

e

l ra

fr

d

an

st

kf

d or

am

av

be

r

e

st

tr

en

t

on

t

av

e

ip ul

st

a ar

m

in

go

av

e

be

lg

r

e ad

e

st

th

om

p

n so

i-

95

Combined Sewer Outfalls Historical Stream-Gunner's Run 100-Year Floodplain 500-Year Floodplain Project Area Railroad N

49

0

500

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

de

st

la

wa

Feet

riv re

er


HYDROLOGY |

F LOOD PL A I N A ND WATER LE V EL The project site is located within the Delaware Direct Watershed. Many of its free-flowing tributaries have been converted into underground sewer systems. The Gunner's Run was once running through the project area and it is now under today's Aramingo Avenue33. In the project area, there is a very small portion of land that lies within the 100- and 500-year floodplains; and there is little to no localized flooding issue reported.

delaware direct watershed

station

8546252

The water level at project site must be known in order to delineate the wetland zones correctly. Elevations referenced to the station 8546252, Bridesburg PA were found, and were converted to reference NAVD8834.

project area

Delaware Direct Watershed Water Project Area de la wa r e

riv

er

0 1.25 2.5

N

0

2.5

5

Mile

Miles 5

According to Green City, Clean Water (2011), Philadelphia has planned to reduce the stormwater pollution entering the city sewer system by implementing green stormwater infrastructures35. The large amount of continuous vacant freight corridor land and noncontinuous small parcels within the project site offer great opportunities to implement various types of green infrastructures and ecological restorations. Data Sources: City of Philadelphia

DAT U MS DATA AT P ROJECT SITE

Datums Value (ft)

Value (ft)

Description

MHHW MHW MTL MSL MLW MLLW

3.77 3.38 0.238 0.367 -2.90 -3.10

Mean Higher-High Water Mean High Water Mean Tidal Level Mean Sea Level Mean Low Water Mean Lower-Low Water

sta. 8546252

26.59 26.17 22.98 23.18 19.78 19.60

ref. to NAVD88

50


0 250 500 !

! !

!

1,000

!! ! ! !!

!

! ! !

! ! ! ! !

!! !

!

!!

!!

!!

! !! !

!

!

! ! ! !

! !

!

!

! !

! ! ! !!

! ! !! !! !

! !! !

! ! ! !

! !

!!

!

! ! ! !

!! !

! !

! !

!! !

!! ! !

!

!

! ! ! !! ! !

!! !! ! !

! ! ! !

!!!

!

!!! ! !! ! ! ! ! !!

! !

! 0

!! !! !!

!

!

! ! !

!!

!

!

! !!

!!

!!

!

! !! !

!!

!

! !

! ! ! !!

! ! !

!

!!

!!

!!

! !! !

! ! !!

!

! ! !!

!

!

! !! ! !

!!

!

! ! !

!!

!

!

! !!

! !!

!!

!!

!

!!

! ! ! ! !!

! !!!

!

!

!!

!!

! !

! ! !!

! !!

!! !!! ! !! ! !

! !

!

! ! !

!

!! !

!

!

! !

! !!

Direction of Street Flow ! ! ! ! Project Area ! ! Railroad ! !

!

!

N ! ! !!

!

0! !! !

500

! ! ! !

! ! !!

!! !!

! ! !!

! 1000 ! !! Feet

! ! !

! ! !! | Restoration

! !

!! !!

!

!

!

! !

! ! !

!

!

!

! !

!

! ! !

! !

! ! ! !

!

! ! !! ! ! !!

!

!

! !!! !!

! ! ! !! !

!

! !

!! ! !

!!

! ! ! !

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection ! ! !

! ! !

!

!!

!

!!

51

!

Drain Inlet Location ! Water Flow on Viaduct !! !

! !

!

! ! !

!!

!

!

! !

! ! !

! !

!

!!

!!

!!

! ! ! !

! ! ! !

! !

!!

! !

!

!

!!

!

!!

! ! !

!! !

!!

! !

!

! !

! !! ! !!

! ! !

!

!!! !

Feet 1,500

1,000

!!

!!! ! ! !

250 500

!!

!!

! ! ! !

! !! !

!

!!

! !

! ! !

! ! !

! !

! ! ! !!

!! !

! !

!!! !

! !

! !

! ! !

!! !

!

!!! !

!! !

!

! !

! ! !

!!!

!

!

!

!

!

!!

! ! !

!! ! ! !!

!!

!

! !

! ! !

!

!

!

!!

! ! !! !

!!

! ! ! ! !

!

! ! !! ! !

!

! ! !! ! ! !!

!

! !

!

! !

!

! !

!! !

!

!! ! !

!

!

!!

! !! ! !

!

!

!

!

!

!! ! ! ! !

! !

!

!! ! !

! !

!! !

!! !

! !!

!

!

!

! ! ! !

!! !

!

!

!! !

!

!

! !

! !! !

!

!! ! !

! ! ! ! !

| Engagement !

! !

!

! !! !

! !

! ! !

! ! !

!

!

!! !


HYDROLOGY |

F LOW D I RECT IO N

0

250 500

1,000

Feet 1,500

+

Drain Inlet Location Water Flow on Viaduct Direction of Street Flow Project Area Railroad N

0

500

1000 Feet

52


e som er

e leh ig

ke

set st

h av e

ns

in

o gt

n

em

e av

e

l ra

fr

4

d

an

st

kf

d or

am

av

be

r

e

st

5 tr

3

en

t

on

1 t

2

av

e

ip ul

st

a ar

m

in

go

av

e

be

lg

r

e ad

e

st

th

om

p

n so

i-

95

Grassland Floodplain Woodland Successional Woodland BAWP Catalyst Sites Water Project Area Railroad N

53

0

500

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

de

st

la

wa

riv re

er


ECOLOGY | The ecosystem of the project area has experienced severe alteration and modification from urban development, as well as from natural impacts including invasive species introduction, top predators removal, and global climate change. It is necessary to know the historic native plant communities that were likely common in this area and could be restored potentially in order to achieve a successful restoration design. After consulting with professor David Robertson and the document Terrestrial and Palustrine Plant Communities of Pennsylvania(1999), it is concluded that the project site likely would have been wooded, with some marsh habitat along the edge of the Delaware River. The possible native plant communities include Sycamore-(River Birch)-Box-elder Floodplain Forest, Silver Maple Floodplain Forest, Red maple-Elm

E XI STI NG PL A NT COMMU N IT IES

-Willow Floodplain Swamp in backwaters, Mixed Forb Marsh in the tidal portion36. The vegetation inventory includes two BAWP catalyst sites (site 1,2, and 3) and Pier 20 in Conrail Yard. A complete ground survey of the Conrail owned property was not available due to inability to obtain the landowner’s permission. The following imprecise baseline data was obtained partly from personal site visits with help from Bob Grey, and partly from the Woodland Design Studio (Fall 2016 Temple University Department of Landscape Architecture) during their site visits. A comprehensive vegetation benchmark assessment of the project site is recommended to determine its existing ecological composition, biological diversity, habitat quality and practical restoration potential.

Left Top | Left Bottom | Bottom |

Successional woodland on Viaduct Floodplain woodland on Pier 20 Grassland

54


2

SH R U B S

FOR B S/ V I NE S

Aesculus L. (Buckeye)

Humulus japonicus (Japanese hops)

Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle)

Paulownia tomentosa princesstree)

Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)

Prunus serotina Ehrh. (black cherry)

Phytolacca americana L. (American pokeweed)

Quercus rubra L. nts (red oak)

Tree Shrub catalyst site

TREES

Ageratina altissima (white snakeroot)

3

native mean C = 2.3 severely degraded

3

catalyst site

4

TREES

SH R U B S

FOR B S/ V I NE S

Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven)

Artemisia vulgaris L. (common wormwood)

Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge)

Malus baccata (Siberian crab apple)

Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)

Calystegia hederacea Wall. (Japanese false bindweed)

Lonicera maackii (bush honeysuckle)

Clematis terniflora (sweet autumn clematis)

Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. (Chinese elm)

Rubus phoenicolasius (wine raspberry)

Humulus japonicus (Japanese hops)

Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust)

Toxicodendron radicans (eastern poison ivy)

Rosa multiflora Thunb. (multiflora rose )

nts Paulownia tomentosa princesstree)

native mean C = 2.7 degraded natural area

Quercus palustris (pin oak) Quercus velutina (black oak) note text in black are non-native species, text in green are native species.

55

Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)

Grassland Floodplain Woodland Successional Woodland BAWP Catalyst Sites Project Area Railroad Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. Oriental bittersweet) Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Japanese honeysuckle) Ageratina altissima (white snakeroot) Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)


ECOLOGY |

VE GE TATI ON SU RVEY

The sketchy existing vegetation survey will be assessed using the Universal Floristic Quality Assessments (FQA), formerly known as the Plant Stewardship Index (PSI), which are measurements of a natural area’s habitat condition or quality37. Native Mean C is an indicator for the overall ecosystem health of the site. The classification is shown below: Native Mean C 0 - 2.4 Overall Health Severely Degraded Natural Area

2.5 - 3.4 Degraded Natural Area

3.5 - 4.4 Quality Natural Area

TREES i-

95

conrail yard pier

20

note text in black are non-native species, text in green are native species.

Grassland Floodplain Woodland Successional Woodland BAWP Catalyst Sites Project Area Railroad

SH R U B S

5.5+ Exceptional Quality Natural Area

FOR B S/ V I NE S

Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven)

Artemisia vulgaris L. (common wormwood)

Hedera helix L. (English ivy)

Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)

Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)

Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Japanese honeysuckle)

Lonicera maackii (bush honeysuckle)

Setaria viridis var. major (green bristlegrass)

Morus alba L. (white mulberry)

Rubus phoenicolasius (wine raspberry)

Rosa multiflora Thunb. (multiflora rose )

Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. (Chinese elm)

Desmanthus illinoensis (Illinois bundleflower)

Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust)

Amorpha fruticosa L. (false indigo bush)

Clematis terniflora DC. (sweet autumn virginsbower)

Catalpa speciosa (northern catalpa)

Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)

Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)

Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac)

nts Ulmus pumila L. (Siberian elm)

native mean C = 1.9 severely degraded natural area

4.5 - 5.4 High Quality Natural Area

Ageratina altissima (white snakeroot) Phalaris arundinacea L. (reed canarygrass)

Acer negundo L. (boxelder)

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (virginiacreeper)

Liriodendron tulipifera (tuliptree)

Celtis tenuifolia Pursh (dwarf hackberry)

Gleditsia triacanthos L. (honeylocust)

Symphyotrichum racemosum (smooth white oldfield aster)

Platanus occidentalis L. (American sycamore) Prunus serotina Ehrh. (black cherry)

56


MAMMALS

1

Norway rat House mouse Feral cat Feral dog Gray squirrel Chipmunk Common opossum

R E PT I L E S A N D A M PHI BI A N S Garter snake Bullfrog Green frog Painted turtles Snapping turtles 2

FI SHE S American eel Smallmouth bass Striped bass Catfish 3

I N S E CT S Butterflies Moths Dragonflies Damselflies

4 1 | Grey squirrel in John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum 2 | Garter snake in John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum 3 | Juvenile American eel found along the Delaware River shoreline in Philadelphia 4 | Monarch Butterfly in John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum 57

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


ECOLOGY |

WILDLIFE

The project site is a heavily urbanized area containing a large amount of brownfields, and much of the natural habitats have been degraded, fragmented, or destructed by human activities. Wildlife, only those species that are common within the urban environment, can be seen throughout the site38. The project site also sits in the middle of the Atlantic Flyway, which is a major bird migration route for a hundreds of bird species. As a result, it is critical to create not only a sustainable environment for the neighborhood, but also restore healthy habitats for the wildlife. Critical bird habitats, for both common and concerned species, will be the restoration design priority in this capstone project. Though the waterfront portion of the site is a highly altered man-made pier structure, there is still a surprising amount of bird diversities because of the overgrown vegetations and a large grassland covering the adjacent abandoned industrial yard. Data form seven eBird Hotspots39 along the Delaware River within City of Philadelphia limits, including one in the project site, will be collected, compared, and analyzed in terms of bird species of different habitats, Atlantic Flyway’s priority birds, wetland species of special concern in Pennsylvania (rare threatened, and endangered). The times of a year of bird species spotted on site - all year, spring migration, breeding season, fall migration, and winter - are also studied in this section in order to direct the further critical habitats restoration. The large amount of underutilized and overgrown land on the Viaduct could potentially offer some woodland edge habitats for common edge species. Restoring the adjacent abandoned yard into native grassland will create habitats for many declining grassland species. More importantly, the wetland restoration will attract many of the concerned species, which have been found in the other six Hotspots.

F LYWAY OF THE A MERICA

ATL ANTIC FLYWAY 58


SE LEC T ED BI R D SP E C IE S IN 7 EBI R D HOT S POT S (2007- 2017)

wetland

grassland

woodland edge

Habitat

59

Species (common name) Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Eastern Bluebird Eastern Towhee Gray Catbird Orchard Oriole Prairie Warbler Red-tailed Hawk Yellow-breasted Chat American Kestrel Common Yellowthroat Eastern Meadowlark Field Sparrow Grasshopper Sparrow Killdeer Savannah Sparrow Short-eared Owl Mallard Red-winged Blackbird Swamp Sparrow American Coot Marsh Wren Sedge Wren Sora Pied-billed Grebe Bald Eagle Osprey Northern Harrier Peregrine Falcon Great Blue Heron Green Heron Black-crowned Night-Heron American Bittern Least Bittern King Rail Virginia Rail Great Egret

Status

Relative Abundance PROJECT SITE 1 2 3 4 5 6

C

P

S1B, S3N, PE, C C C D S2S3B, C C D S3B, S4N, D S3B, DL, P, C S3B, PT, C S2B, S4N, PE, C S1B, S1N, C

S1B, PE, C S1B, PE, C S1B, C S1B, PE, C S3B, D S1B, PE

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

Season B M W A B B M A B A A B A M A B

M

M

M

M

W A A A A B M M W A A B M A A B B B B B B A

M W

M M M


ECOLOGY |

BIRD

TOTA L N U M B E R OF B IR D SP E C I E S I N 7 E B IR D H OTSPOTS (2 0 0 7 - 2017)

7m il e

6

s

5 4

140

benjamin rush state park

244

pennypack on the delaware

244

palmyra cove nature park

103 3

173 2

1 de la wa r e

riv

180 217

er

0 1.25 2.5

N

0

2.5

5

cumberl and st . on the delaware site )

( project

delaware river trail - reed st .

weelabrator wildlife refuge john heinz nwr - wetlands

Mile

Miles 5

KEY NatureServe Ranks40

State PBS Codes40

Audubon Bird Guide41

S1 S2 S3 S4 B N

PE Pennsylvania Endangered PT Pennsylvania Threatened DL Delisted

P C C

Critically Imperiled Imperiled Vulnerable Apparently Secure Breeding Nonbreeding

Relative Abundance Very Common Common Uncommon Scarce Rare

Priority Birds Climate Engangered Climate Threatened D Declines in recent decades

Season A

All Season

B

Breeding

M

Migration

W

Winter 60


e som er

e leh ig

ke

set st

h av e

ns

in

o gt

n

em

e av

e

l ra

fr

d

an

st

kf

d or

am

av

be

r

e

st

tr

en

t

on

t

av

e

ip ul

st

a ar

m

in

go

av

e

be

lg

r

e ad

e

st

th

om

p

Constriant

n so

i-

st

95

Opportunity Noise Active Railroad Inactive Railroad Primary Vehicular Circulation Potential Pedestrian Access to the Waterfront Potential Pedestrian Access to the Viaduct BAWP Catalyst Sites Water Buildings Project Area N

61

0

500

1000 Feet

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

de

la

wa

riv re

er


OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS STRENGTHS

W E A K N E S SE S

• Active community organizations • Active community events • Diverse communities • Community supports for new developments • Kindness of the people • Ease of transit • Proximity to downtown, shopping, and art galleries • Proximity to the Delaware River

• Illegal dumping/trash • Lack of street lighting • Lack of green space/open space • Lack of connectivity to natural resources • Large numbers of vacant buildings and lots • Former industrial pollutions and contaminations • Depressed properties • Bordered up Lehigh Viaduct structure • Concerns of pedestrian safety

O PPORT UN IT IE S

T H R E AT S

• EPA AWP grant to revitalize catalyst sites • Large vacant land on Lehigh Viaduct • Large underused land within Conrail Yard • Vacant buildings and lots for redevelopment • Vacant lots for green infrastructure implementations • Lehigh Avenue streetscape redesign • Historic investment

• High rate of drug and related criminal activities • Poor educational oppotunities • One active railroad remains on Lehigh Viaduct

OTHER A RE A P L ANS CONSU LT ED • River Wards District Plan (2015), by Philadelphia City Planning Commission • New Kensington Riverfront Plan (2008), by Fishtown, Port Richmond, Kensington, state and local agencies, New Kensington Community Development Corporation (NKCDC), and planning firm Wallace, Roberts and Todd, LLC. • North of Lehigh Neihborhood Revitalization Plan (2013), by NKCDC. • Community Engagement North of Lehigh, Kensington Brownfield Area-Wide Plan (2016), by Temple Univeristy Department of Planning and Community Development Research Team and NKCDC. • North of Lehigh, Kensington Brownfields Area-Wide Plan Market Study (2016), by Econsult Solutions, Inc.. • Lehigh Somerset A conceptual Mater Planning Study (2011), by Community Design Collaborative.

62


63

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


PRECEDENTS RESEARCH

64


PROMENADE PL ANTEE | Landscape Architecture Landscape Architecture

Jacques Vergely

Architect

Philippe Mathieux Architects for Viaduct des Arts

Patrick Berger, Jamine Galiano

Construction Year 1988

Completion Year 1994 Parkway 2000 Viaduct des Arts

Size 2.9 -mile-long

Cost Unknown

PA RI S

Project Goal To create new public open spaces out of old infrastructure and industrial sites to meet one piece of a continued park policy.

Background It is the world’s first elevated park built on an former railway track. The viaduct was only active for a decade (1859 -1869), and it was abandoned for years until 1983 that the city of Paris agreed to transform the elevated line into a linear park. It has been a sole case study for other projects of repurposing rail infrastructure42.

Key Features • 70 brick-and-stone arches are converted into glass-fronted shops to support the viaduct structure43. • “Coulée Vert” - A Flowing Green. It is planted with widely diverse range of vegetations to create an impression of forest in city, including rosebushes, acanthus, lavender, bamboo, ivies, wisteria, cherry, maple, lime trees, and others44. • The breaks between plants offer great sweeping views of the surrounding neighborhoods. • Various features are integrated into different sections to enhance the visitor’s experience, such as rectangular murky pond, sundial, sculptures, seating areas, and tree planters. • The walkway then becomes a metal suspension footbridge going over a sunken circular central lawn45.

Left | Bird’s-eye view of Promenade Plantee Right | Axonometric illustration of Promenade Plantee

65

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


1

2

3

4

5

1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6|

Fall view of the Promenade Plantee Tree planters on Promenade Plantee Water feature on Promenade Plantee Viaduct des Arts Grand staircase up to Promenade Plantee Suspension footbridge

6

66


HIGH LINE |

N E W YO R K C I T Y

Design/Build Team Project Lead

James Corner Field Operations Architect

Diller Scofidio Planting Design

Piet Oudolf

Lighting Design

L’Observatoire International Engineering Design

Buro Happold

Construction Year 2006

Completion Year 2009 Section 1 2011 Section 2 2014 Section 3

Size 1.45 -mile-long

Cost $152.3 million

Section 1 and Section 2

$75 million Section 3

67

Project Goal To preserve the rail infrastructure and transform it into public space.

Background High line was referred to as “the life of New York” for the delivery of dairy, meat, and produce from all over the country, from 1934 to 1980. In 1999, Joshua David and Robert Hammond together founded the Friends of High Line, the non-profit group raised money, gained support from various people, became the leading role to save the railroad46.

Key Features • A key component is designed at each entrance to attract visitors to explore the complete park. • The railroad track were removed and marked piece by piece, so that it will return to its original place to be integrated into design and planting. • Various plant communities were planted to created different experience as visitors walk through and also create interests all year long, such as woodland, grassland, bog, wildflower field, and thicket. • Design Elements • Pavers - a special designed discrete paving units created a “pathless” landscape that encourage natural growth. • Benches - a special designed benches made from South American tropical hardwood and precast concrete “peel-up” from the pavers. • Railings - a special designed diamond and square- patterned decorative railings are placed at street crossing only, where they can be appreciated by pedestrians. • Mulch - stone mulch were selected to resemble the railroad ballast • A drip irrigation system is included since in actually an intensive green roof with relatively shallow depth of soil (18in-36in). • A large variety of energy-efficient LED lighting were mostly below eye-level, to gently illuminate the path and shine on the plants and grasses. (La Farge et al., 2014)

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


1

2

4

5

Top | 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| 10 |

High Line Map High Line at the Rail Yards Rail Track Walks Philip A. and Lisa Maria Falcone Flyover Seating steps and lawn Chelsea Thicket 10th Avenue Sqaure Northern Spur Preserve Chelsea Market Passage Diller – von Furstenberg Sundeck & Water Feature Tiffany & Co. Foundation Overlook

Opposite Left | Overgrowth on High Line before design, 30th Street, 2000 Opposite Right| High Line after design

3 6

7 8

9

10

68


WASHINGTON AVENUE PIER | PH I L A D E LPH I A Design/Build Team Project Lead

Applied Ecological Services Public Art

Jody Pinto Studio Constructor

Neshaminy Constructors Engineering Design

Langan Engineering & Environmental Services

Construction Year 2013

Completion Year 2014

Size 1 acre

Cost $2.15 million

Project Goal To create public green space to reconnect the neighborhood to the Delaware River and improve natural habitat48.

Background The Washington Avenue Pier, formerly known as Pier 53, is located near the intersection of Columbus Boulevard and Washington Ave, behind the Sheet Metal Workers Union. It was the location of Philadelphia’s immigration station, where more than one million immigrants were landed here from the 1870’s through the World War I 49. Pier 53 is part of the Central Delaware Master Plan, which will stretch from Pier 53 to Pier 70 for wetlands restoration. The pier park will spur development on nearby neighborhoods, as well as serve as a demonstrations of urban wetland restoration practices48.

Key Features • An on-grade granite path and an elevated boardwalk lead visitors to the tip of the pier with panoramic views of the river. • A tidal beach where people can touch the water. • A 550-feet tall public art “Land Buoy” by artist Jody Pinto was installed at the end of the pier to highlight the history of the pier, where visitors can climb partway up with a spiral staircase48. • Site furnishings, such as benches, entrance pillars, and the gateway marker, are built with original site materials like old timbers, bricks, and stones. • Treated wooden retaining walls are built to prevent soil erosion from waves and tides. Large stones were placed at the end of the pier to reduce the wave energy. • Native species were planted based on subsurface conditions, while several large non-native trees were kept.

1 69

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6 -8 |

2

Rendering of Washington Avenue Pier Washington Avenue Pier Gateway View of “Land Buoy� from boardwalk Salvage benches on Pier Native planting Educational signage

3

4

5

7

6

8

9

70


R E SE ARC H

| PHY TOTECHNOLOGY

D E F INI T I O N “Phytotechnology is the use of vegetation to remediate, contain or prevent contaminants in soils, sediments, and groundwater, and/or add nutrients, porosity, and organic matter. It is also a set of planning, engineering and design tools and cultural practices that can assist landscape architects, site designers, engineers, and environmental planners in working on current and future individual sites, the urban fabric and regional landscapes.” - by Kirkwood and Kennen as an expansion of previous definitions (Kennen and Kirkwood, 2015)

W H Y DO W E NE E D IT ? 1 | Brownfield is Universal 450,000 - 600,000 identified sites in the U.S. (EPA) more than 16% land areas impacted by soil pollution worldwide undiscovered sites in private ownership and currently occupied by industry that can still produce pollutions 2 | Limitations of Conventional Remediation Practice expensive and energy intensive (‘pump-and-treat’, ‘dig-and-haul’, ‘soil washing’, etc.) extremely invasive and disruptive limited site-design potential beyond treatment 3 | Everyday Pollutants prevent daily release and build-up of small amounts of pollutants and contaminations

71

OPPORT UN I TIE S

CO N S T R A I N T S

• natural, passive, solar energy-driven methods • less disruptive and invasive • wide range applications • less expensive when applicable • relative high public acceptance • can be integrated into other landform designs • future pollutions prevention • vegetal indicator species • stakeholders and neighborhoods involvement with installations • educational uses for local students at all levels • habitat creation • biomass production that may offset remediation costs • climate change mitigation in long-term • agricultural benefits

• not applicable for many contaminants • dependent on the adaptability and climate zone of the plants that can be used • plants may need to be harvested and disposed in some cases • contaminants stored in plants could be consumed or exposed to human and wildlife • need ongoing maintenance • may need monitoring plan • soil and groundwater testing may be expensive • its elongated timescale may not be applicable in short-term remediation projects • suitable plants may not be available from local nursery • a lack of understanding of science may lead to failed design and implementation

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


CON TAMI NANT C H ART

Good Opportunity for Field Application

Some Potential

Less Current Applicability at Field Scale Relative Opportunity to Consider Phytotechnology Options for this Contaminant in Less Time (1-10 years) Landscape Design Relative Remediation Time

More Time (10+ years)

... potential to take many decades

The most promising application is for: nitrogen , VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds ) including chlorinated solvents , petroleum products , and some pesticides .

72


7 MECHA NI SM S | processes that a pollutant can be modified by plants

Phytovolatilization plant turns it into gas

Phytometabolism plant uses it in growth, incorporates it into biomass

Phytodegradation plant destroys it

Phytoextraction plant takes it up, stores it and is harvested

Rhizodegradation soil biology destroys it Phytostabilization plant caps and holds it in place Phytohydraulics plant pulls up water and the contaminant may come with it

Rhizofiltration contaminant is filtered from water by roots and soil

• Multiple mechanisms could be combined at the same time in any given phytotechnology.

73

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


18 PL A NT I N G T Y P E S | highly adaptive planting modules that can be combined with

non-remediation plantings and integrated with landscape design

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Planted Stabilization Mat - holds contaminants on site Evapotranspiration Cover - minimizes water infiltration Phytoirrigation - irrigating plants with contaminated water Green Roofs - minimizes stormwater run-off Groundwater Migration Tree Stand - trees pump and treat groundwater Interception Hedgerow - assists in groundwater contaminant degradation Degradation Bosque - degrades contaminants by deep-root tree and shrubs Degradation Hedge and Living Fence - degrades contamination by shrubs Degradation Cover - removes contaminants through deep-root herbaceous Extraction Plots - hyperaccumulator or high-biomass plants to be harvested Multi-Mechanism Mat - provide maximum benefits using low-height species Air-Flow Buffer - intercepts particulate matter from moving air Green Wall Multi-Mechanism Buffer - provides maximum amount of benefits without harvest Stormwater Filter Surface-Flow Constructed Wetland Surface Gravel Wetland - filters water through root zone Floating Wetland

16 L AND-USE C AT E G O RIE S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Roadways and parking lots Parks, open spaces, lawns, and golf courses River corridors and greenways Railroad corridors Light industrial and manufacturing sites Gas stations and auto repair shops Dry cleaners Funeral homes and graveyards Urban residences Vacant lots Community gardens Agricultural fields Suburban residences Landfill Former manufactured-gas plant (MGP) Military uses

Plants must be selected based on specific site conditions (existing soils, groundwater, micro-climate, contaminant being addressed, etc.) and specific pollution prevention or remediation goals. Monitoring plan is essential to show impacts and results accurately.

74


L A ND USE 1 |

RAILROAD CORRIDOR

E X I STI N G POT ENTIAL CONTAMINATION S

75

Air Pollution

Pesticides POPs Metals Salt

Petroleum POPs Metals Nutrients

Emission

Corridor Control -Vegetation

Illegal Dumping

Train Operation Debris

Treated Lumber

Petroleum Metals

Petroleum Metals

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

Treak Ballast/Urban Fill Petroleum Metals


P RO PO SED PHY TO DESIGN

P L AN T I N G TYPE

Degradation Hedge

Multi-mechanism Buffer

Multi-mechanism Mat

F U NCT I ON

Buffer adjacent land from surface soil contaminants in rail ROWs.

Prevent pollution migrating to adjacent land. Organics can potentially be degraded; inorganices can be capstured and held in soils; particulate matter can be captured on leaf surfaces.

Stablize, egrade or even extract existing pollutants on site.

N AT I VE P L AN T S SEL ECTI ON

willow

hackberry eastern redbud eastern red cedar red mulberry jack pine virginia pine bur oak black locust sycamore pin oak Canadian goldenrod osage orange ninebark northern red oak

common evening primrose big bluestem Canada wild-rye bottlebrush grass switchgrass arrowhead little bluestem Indiangrass prairie cordgrass eastern gamagrass

76


L A ND USE 2 |

VACANT LOTS

E X I STI N G POT ENTIAL CONTAMINATION S

77

Urban Fill

Illegal Dumping

Petroleum POPs Metals

Petroleum Metals Chlorinated solvents

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

Leaky Underground Storage Tanks Petroleum


P RO PO SED PHY TO DESIGN

P L AN T I N G TYPE

Multi-mechanism Buffer

Interception Hedgerow

F U NCT I ON

Street planting along property edges to intercept contaminantd groundwater or buried waste on site.

Low-maintenance (yearly mowing) urban meadow mix as a holding strategy to start remediating pollutants.

N AT I VE P L AN T S SEL ECTI ON

common evening primrose big bluestem Canada wild-rye bottlebrush grass switchgrass arrowhead little bluestem Indiangrass prairie cordgrass eastern gamagrass

boxelder red maple serviceberry silky dogwood sweetbay magnolia poplar cottonwood white oak elderberry

78


_______TRASH _____ CRIME ____ DRITY _______ __EYE-SORES ____ DEPRESS PROPERTY VALUES __ DETERIORATION_____ LACK OF SIDEWALKS _____ ________ EMOTIONALLY EDPRESSING__________ ____ LACK OF LIGHTING AND GREEN SPACE _____

what do residents NOT like about brownfields?


DESIGN what do residents WANT?

MORE ACTIVITIES _____GREEN SPACES _______ ____ AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS ___________ LIBRARIES AND PARKS ___ TRASH CANS

_______COMMUNITY CENTER _______ __ BETTER LIGHTING____PLAYGROUND

________BENCHES ___ BUS SHELTERS________ FRESH FOOD ___ EDUCATION ___HOMES _____ 80


81

CONCEPTUAL 1 |

L I N E A R GRE E N S PI NE

CONCEPTUAL 2 |

C U RVE -LI NE A R GRE E N RI B B ON

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


Two conceptual alternatives are proposed.

F E AT U R E S I N T HE DESI GN

Conceptual one is designed on the basis of a primary linear pedestrian path. Pocket Parks will be designed within each street block at grade with Lehigh Avenue. Much of the riverfront will remain for industrialcommercial mixed-use development except Pier 20 which will be reconfigured as public green space.

Community Center Green Roof Rain Garden Children Playground Community Garden Pedestrian Trials Gateway Feature Boardwalk Parking Lot Seating Area Signage Amphitheater

Conceptual two features multi-curve-linear pedestrian trails that are at street level as well as elevated on the Viaduct. The riverfront parcel will be proposed for mainly ecological restoration while only a small portion will remain for development.

82


FINAL DESIGN MO D E R N U R B A N G R EE N WAY A contemporary approach to brownfields restoration and urban development while connecting to the neighborhood’s industrial history.

83

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


G OAL The transformation of continuous green spaces that connect residents and visitors to natural and cultural resources of Kensington, provide ecological services, and support local economic development. O BJECTIV ES

• • • • • • • • • •

Propose free flow pedestrian/bike trails Improve way-finding Provide BMP’s Provide wildlife habitats Provide outdoor activity/event spaces Propose mixed-use building with ground floor retail space Add lighting elements and seating areas Improve streetscape Enhance native plantings Provide educational opportunities

84


MASTER PL AN

7 6

6

5 2

4

st

s

p

er

2

2

tr en

e

m so

et

li

3 st

tu

2

8

to

1

n av e

fr

ke ns in gt on av

85

e

h le

ig

h

av

e

an

kf

or

d

av

e

e


de la w ar e ri ve

e

r

m

t

st

i-

95

e

so

e rs

18 8 7 e

le

hi

gh

av

17

e

9

12

11

be

10

ara

min

go

16

15 14

13

ac

h

st

av e ri

ch

SIT E P L AN

on

d

st

Phyto Garden Commercial Mixed-Use with Residential (Green Roof) The Bosque Plaza Rain Garden Amphitheater Lehigh Greenway Lower Trails

95

Lehigh Greenway Upper Trails Active Conrail Rail line Bike Lane Lehigh Greenway Riverfront Park Parking Lot Meadow Restoration LOVE Statue Riverfront Amphitheater Tidal Freshwater Wetland Restoration The Cumberland Pier Mudflat Restoration Industrial Commercial Mixed-Use Development

i-

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

m

N

0

200

400

Feet

86


lehigh riverfront park greenway trails the bosque pla za future open space

e

h le

ig

h

av

D I ST R I CT S 3 distinct districts make up the Lehigh Greenway. The active railroad is remain off-limits by public for future open space development.

e

N O DE S 6 nodes are created, including 3 primary nodes and 3 secondary nodes.

e

h le

ig

h

av

e

E N T R A N CE S A series of primary and secondary entrances help clarify the way-finding of the site.

87

e

le

h

i

gh

av

e

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


PE DE ST R I A N CI RCUL ATI ON Proposed Lower Trails are along the Lehigh Avenue and Richmond Street.

e

h le

ig

h

av

e

BI K E CI RCU L AT I O N A bike lane is proposed to link existing bike facilities on Lehigh Avenue and Richmond Street.

e

h le

ig

h

av

e

V E HI CU L A R CI RCU L ATI ON Vehicular circulation is not changed. A one-way loop is proposed for proposed building complex at waterfront.

e

h le

ig

h

av

e

88


e

so

m

e

e rs

t

st

ro

a

d

J

H

ac

ti

ve

ra

il

A

K

A

G H F

A

D E K

B

m

B

ar th a st

C co ll

d

e

hi

r

e

le

e

be

av

av

am

or

gh

st

kf

s

an

in

fr

st

89

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


THE BOSQUE PL A ZA D E S I G N DE V E LOP MEN T

tu

K

li p st

K I

e

le

hi

gh

av

The Bosque Plaza is the innermost district that links surrounding neighborhoods and the proposed green space. Designs are developed on the basis of recommendations from “Community Engagement North of Lehigh, Kensington Brownfields Area-Wide Plan”. The new community-oriented plaza turns what was a Auto Sales into a vibrant destination for multi programmatic elements and yearly events, and spurs economic development of the neighborhood. Gateway features, street trees, new paving and safe crosswalks are proposed to enhance the way-finding experience.

e

se pv iv a st

tr en to n

SI T E L E G E N D

av e

A

N

0

100

200

Feet

B C D E F G H I J K

Residential Housing Development with Ground Floor Retail (Green Roof) Commercial Mixed-Use Community Center (Green Roof) Phyto Garden Community Garden Children’s Natrual Playground The Bosque Spray Fountain Rain Garden Amphitheater Railroad Meadow Lehigh Greenway Trail Entrance

90


PH Y TO G A R DE N The Phyto Garden is designed as an elevated backyard of the adjacent proposed Community Center. Phytotechnology has been applied on the planting plan. A combination of highly adaptive remediation plants and multi-interests native plants is derived around providing maximum brownfields remediation benefits, buffering air-flow and street noise, creating habitats for wildlife, enhancing yearround interest, and promoting interaction between visitors and nature.

91

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


PL A ZA E N T R A N CE Cercis canadensis, Cercis canadensis “Hearts of Gold”, and Cercis canadensis “Rising Sun” (eastern redbud) are planted along this entrance to welcome visitors with four-season attractive colors and forms.

92


SW I TCH BACK G A R DE N R A M PS Working with existing grades, an ADA accessible switchback ramp is proposed with Green Roof Gardens on both sides to reduce on-site stormwater runoff.

93

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


CH I L DR E N ’ S N AT U R A L PL AYG RO UN D Surrounded by native fragrant low-height plants, kids can enjoy this nature based playground which contains stepping logs, climbing ropes, fallen tree balance beam, and hollow logs.

94


95

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


G RO W WI T H LO N D O N PL A N E T R EE

Y E AR 1

A series detailed plans and perspectives illustrate how the sense of place evolves with the growth of plants from small trees to large canopies that provide shades to The Bosque Plaza.

PL A N TIN G TE C HNI Q U E

London planetree will be planted with“Structural soil� - a designed medium which can meet or exceed pavement design and installation requirements while remaining root penetrate and supporting tree growth51.

Y E AR 10

YE A R 5

ST R U CT U RAL SOI L

96


SPR AY F O U N TA I N The interactive Spray Fountain provides a cooling and fun space for residents and visitors during the season, where they can enjoy changing spray jets, a limpid wading pool, a gathering lawn, and seating. Sustainability is achieved by utilizing the reclaimed air conditioning concentrate water (with biocide treatment) and rain water collection. On-site stormwater runoff will be collected in a rain garden that is located at the lower elevations of this parcel across the pedestrian walk.

97

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


Sunset View of the Spray Fountain V

98


G R E E N WAY G AT E WAY Focused on pedestrian way-finding, an alley of Taxodium distichum (bald cypress) and an industrial gateway signage offer visitors a unique formal entrance to the viaduct trails.

99

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


BI R D ’ S- E YE V I E W The southern part of The Bosque Plaza features a few elements that form an urban green oasis, including a rain garden, a upland wildflower meadow, an amphitheater, and a winding entry path.

100


Existing Condition V

U PL A N D W I L DF LO W E R M E A DO W The abandoned railroad tracks are removed, marked piece by piece, returned to the original place, and integrated into design and planting after grading and soil preparation. 101

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


Movie Night Illustrative V

A M PH I T H E AT E R The amphitheater is designed to accommodate large group as well as family activities. At night time, the amphitheater can be transformed as a venue for programmatic activities, such as concerts and movie nights. 102


103

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


THE BOSQUE PL A ZA I L LU ST R AT I V E L I G HT I NG P L AN Variety of atmospheric lighting elements are added throughout the Bosque Plaza to promote a safe and environmental-friendly night activities within the community hub. Energy-efficiency, beautiful, and appropriate LED lighting will be considered to enhance the site’s visual experience and safety while avoiding over-illumination. The types of lighting in The Bosque Plaza include seating under-lighting, step lighting, uplighting, bollard lighting, wall lighting, path lighting, and street lighting.

N

0

100

200

Feet

104


Bollard Lighting

Examples of bollard lights, below eye-level (24-in to 39-in), will be placed along the edge of raised planting beds and near bike racks to gently illuminate the path and shine on the low-height plants, and at entrances to prevent vehicles from entering.

Street Lighting

Wall Lighting

Seating Under-Lighting

Stone seatings and wooden benches will be under-lit to illuminate the seating area.

Dual-arm street lights will be placed Special designed wall lights will be placed on the walls of Phyto Garden to along the Lehigh Street to create gently cast over the grass. ambient light for the area and enhance street safety.

105

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


Wall Lighting

Wall lights will be placed on the top of the existing walls boarded the Lehigh Viaduct, as well as on the building facades facing pedestrian walks.

“ lighting ,

we need more lighting

in the neighborhood for security .”

- Participant 2 from “Community Engagement North of Lehigh, Kensington Brownfields AreaWide Plan”

Path Lighting

Contemporary lamppost will be placed in arrays along pedestrian trails to cast soft illuminations and enhance pedestrian safety within Lehigh Greenway.

Uplighting

Up lights are used to gently illuminate prominent features like gateway signs and spray jets.

106


107

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


THE BOSQUE PL A ZA PL A N T I NG P L AN The plant palette was carefully selected for their phytotechnology benefits and other multiple interests, including seasonal foliage colors, special bark textures, food sources, and drought resistance. All of the species are native to Pennsylvania.

PL A N T I N G D I AG R A M K E Y Multi-Mechanism Buffer A mixed planting targeted to provide maximum amount of phytotechnology benefit in a small footprint without harvesting any plant materials.

Air-Flow Buffer Leaf surfaces of plants can physically intercept particulate matter from moving air so that to enhance the air quality of areas.

Multi-Mechanism Mat A mixed low-height herbaceous plants to provide the maximum amount of phytotechnology benefit.

Green Roofs Minimize stormwater runoff and prevent water from entering onto contaminated areas.

Rain Gardens

N

0

100

200

Plantings and soil remove and trap contaminant from stormwater at the source, before they spread to groundwater or other water bodies. Feet

(Kennen and Kirkwood, 2015)

108


P L A NTI N G LI ST trees

evergreen

flowering tree

109

botanical name

/

common name

interests

Acer rubrum / red maple

fall foliage / showy flower / air pollution

Acer rubrum ‘Redpointe’ /redpointe maple

fall foliage / showy flower / air pollution

Betula nigra / river birch

winter texture / drought tolerance / air pollution

Betula populifolia ‘Whitespire Sr.’ / gray birch

winter texture / showy flower

Liriodendron tulipifera / tulip tree

fall foliage / showy flower / air pollution

Magnolia grandiflora / southern magnolia

winter interest / showy and fragrant flower / air pollution

Morus rubra / red mulberry

birds / drought tolerance / air pollution

Platanus occidentalis / American sycamore

winter texture / air pollution

Platanus x acerifolia / London plane tree

winter texture / air pollution

Quercus macrocarpa / bur oak

drought tolerance

Quercus palustris / pin oak

fall foliage / wet soil tolerance

Quercus rubra / red oak

drought tolerance / air pollution

Robinia pseudoacacia / black locust

drought tolerance / fragrant flower / air pollution

Taxodium distichum / bald cypress

fall foliage / wet soil tolerance / air pollution

Ulmus americana ‘Princeton’ / American elm

drought tolerance / air pollution

botanical name

/

common name

interests

Juniperus virginiana / Eastern red cedar

winter interest / drought tolerance / air pollution

Juniperus virginiana ‘Skyrocket’ / Skyrocket juniper

winter interest / drought tolerance / air pollution

Pinus banksiana / jack pine

winter interest

Pinus rigida / pitch pine

winter interest

Pinus virginiana / Virginia pine

winter interest / birds

Pinus virginiana ‘Wates Golden’ / Virginia pine

winter interest / birds

botanical name

/

common name

interests

Cercis canadensis / eastern redbud

flower color / fall foliage / butterflies

Cercis canadensis ‘Hearts of God’ / eastern redbud

flower color / fall foliage / butterflies

Cercis canadensis ‘Rising Sun’ / eastern redbud

flower color / fall foliage / butterflies

Cornus florida ‘White’ / White flowering dogwood

drought tolerance / fragrant flower / air pollution

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


shrubs

ground covers

botanical name

/

common name

interests

Aesculus pavia / red buckeye

hummingbirds / showy flower

Clethra althernifolia / sweet pepperbush

butterflies / showy and fragrant flower

Fothergilla gardenii / dwarf fothergilla

fall foliage / showy and fragrant flower

Hamamelis vernalis / Ozark witch hazel

fall foliage / winter interest / showy and fragrant flower

Hamamelis vernalis / common witch hazel

fall foliage / winter interest / showy and fragrant flower

hydrangea arborescens / smooth hydrangea

showy flower / wet and dry soil tolerance

Hydrangea quercifolia / oakleaf hydrangea

fall foliage / winter interests / showly flower

Itea virginica ‘Henry’s Garnet’ / sweetspire

fall interest / showy and fragrant flower / shade tolerance

Itea virginica ‘Longspire’ / Virginia sweetspire

fall interest / showy and fragrant flower / shade tolerance

Myrica pensylvanica / northern bayberry

winter interest / drought tolerance / birds

botanical name

/

common name

interests

Andropogon gerardii / big blue stem

fall foliage / winter interest / air pollution / birds

Panicum virgatum / switch grass

drought tolerance / air pollution

Schizachyrium scoparium / little bluestem

drought tolerance / winter interest / air pollution

Sorghastrum nutans / Indian grass

fall foliage / winter interest / air pollution / birds

Spartina pectinata / prairie cordgrass

drought tolerance / showy flower

Solidago canadensis / Canadian goldenrod

showy flower / butterflies

110


P L A NTI N G LI ST CO NT. seed mix

name

interests

Green Roof Mixed Flats-Leaf Greens

special mix of green roof plants, sturdy, heat tolerant, grow quickly, help reduce weeding

Green Roof Mixed Flats pollinator Friendly Blend

variety of herbaceous perennial accent plants that attract pollinators to the succulent based green roof

Green Roof - Phedimus takesimensis ‘Golden Carpet’

holds its leaves much later into winter season, new leaves emerge much earlier

Green Roof - Sedum album

small but extremely tough plant, heat and drought resistant, airy white flowers in mid-summer

Green Roof - Sedum hybridum ‘Immergrunchen’

bright gold flowers in summer that attract pollinators, leaves turn bright red-orange with lime and yellow tones

Green Roof - Sedum kamtchaticum

withstands a wide variety of conditions, large yellow flowers in mid-summer, turns pinkish to red in early winter

Community Garden Ernst NJ Salt Tolerant Basin Mix

species that have low to moderate salt tolerance

Elymus riparius / riverbank rye Juncus effusus / soft rush Juncus tennis / path rush Panicum amarum / dune panic grass Panicum clandestinum / deer tongue Panicum virgatum / switch grass

Ernst Retention Basin Wildlife Mix Asclepias incarnata / swamp milkweed Aster puniceus / Swamp aster Carex lupulina / hop sedge Carex lurida / lurid sedge Carex scoparia / broom sedge Carex vulpinoidea/ brown fox sedge Elymus riparius / riverbank rye Juncus effusus / soft rush Helenium autumnale / sneezeweed Mimulus ringens / monkeyflower Panicum clandestinum / deer tongue Poa palustris / fowl bluegrass Scirpus cyperinus / wool grass Verbena hastata / blue vervain

Ernst Showy Northeast Native Wildflower and Warm Season Grass Andropogon gerardii / big blue stem Aquilegia canadensis / Canadian columbine Asclepias tuberosa / butterfly milkweed Aster laevis / smooth blue aster Aster novi-belgii / New York aster Aster prenanthoides / crooked stem aster Baptisia australis / blue wild indigo Baptisia tinctoria / yellow wild indigo Bouteloua curtipendula / side oats grama Chamaecrista fasciculata / prairie senna Echinacea pupurea / purple coneflower Liatris aspera / rough blazing star Penstemon digitalis / beard-tongue Rudbeckia amplexicaclis / black-eyed susan Solidago juncea / early goldenrod

111

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

native wildflowers and grasses that provide a wide variety of colors and forms from spring to fall

grass, grass-like species and forbs that provide a diverse cover while attracting insects, bees, butterflies, and birds.

(Ernst Conservation Seeds, 2017) (Greenroofplants.com, 2017)


SPR I N G /SUM M E R

FA LL

W INT ER

112


G

C

F D

E

B

ri ch m on d st

C

I-9 5

113

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

A


D E S I G N DE V E LOP MEN T

I

The Lehigh Greenway Riverfront Park, currently the underused Conrail Yard, is redesigned to become a local destination that consists of industrial mixed-use development space and large public open space. The Bobbin Plaza is inspired by the history of Kensington neighborhood, which was known as the major manufacturing hub of carpet in the late 1800s and knitting in the late 1900s. It features the grand entry point to the Delaware Riverfront Park and a lively sunny gathering place with shade seatings for residents and visitors.

H

F F

ac

h

st

SI T E L E G E N D

be

F

RIVERFRONT PARK

N

0

10

20

Feet

A B C D E F G H I

The Bobbin Plaza Richmond Street Bike Trail Bike Rack Seating Area The Great Lawn Rain Garden Waterfront Park Trail Parking Lot Meadow

114


115

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


B I R D ’ S- E Y E VI E W OF T H E R I VE R F RO NT PAR K


R I V E R F RO N T PA R K G AT E WAY Focused on pedestrian way-finding, same industrial gateway signage and a wide entrance walkway offer a warm welcome to residents and visitors who come here by any mode of transportations.

117

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


T HE BO B BI N PL A ZA The clean and simple design of The Bobbin Plaza consists of open spaces, shade seatings, and native plants that allow passive activities and create a pleasant panoramic view. The proposed parking lot can accommodate 51 cars including 3 accessible parking spaces. A series of rain gardens are designed in-between the plaza and the parking lot in such a way as to manage stormwater runoff.

118


Existing Condition V

M E A DO W R E S TO R AT I O N A meadow is already existed at the adjacent abandoned land, but mostly covered with invasive grasses. It is proposed to restore the meadow with native species to provide maximum benefits for birds and insects. 119

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


LO V E STAT U E LOVE Statue is the iconic sculpture of Philadelphia. By placing the statue at the high point of the Greenway Riverfront Park, it aims to create a focal point that invites residents and visitors to explore the park, as well as to strengthen the connection between Kensington neighborhood and the broader city context.

120


B

A

121

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


CUMBERL AND PIER D E S I G N DE V E LOP MEN T

de

The curve-linear Greenway trial continue to the tip of the Pier 20 - Cumberland Pier. The design is inspired by a drawing of method and means for producing a carpets invented by Marcel Vitek in 1963. It aims to activate the riverfront through creating new open spaces, strengthening connections to communities, and restoring the historic ecosystem that is unique to the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

la

D

w ar e ri ve r

F E C D D C

SI T E L E G E N D

N

0

10

20

Feet

A B C D E F

Riverfront Amphitheater Freshwater Tidal Wetland Restoration Seating Area Binocular Boardwalk Floating Wetland

122


123

B I R D’S- EYE VIE W O F THE AM PHITHE ATER Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


A M PH I T H E AT E R Facing the freshwater tidal wetland and open water, the amphitheater creates a space for relaxation and education.

124


PI E R T R A I L The pier is proposed to replanted with native floodplain vegetations to clear up and frame views to the Delaware River. Trail is ADA accessible for all site users.

125

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


PI E R O U T LO O K A N D BOA R DWA LK The tip of the Cumberland Pier is designed with two seating areas and a circular boardwalk. It is intended to create an intimate place for a variety of activities including relaxing on a bench, enjoying the shimmering river view, overlooking the panorama of Benjamin Franklin Bridge, and bird watching.

126


M LW (- 2 . 9 F T) mean low water

M S L (0 . 3 7 F T) mean sea level

M H W (3 . 3 8 F T) mean high water

M H H W (3 . 7 7 F T)

mean higher - high water

127

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


CUMBERL AND PIER FR E SHWAT E R T I DA L W E T L A N D R E S TORATI ON Based on the existing topography and Mean High Water (MHW 3.38ft), a portion of the pier edge is regraded to create a freshwater tidal wetland with three plant communities. Deep Marsh is from elevation 1.38ft to 2.63ft (0.75 feet to 2.00 feet below MHW); Intermediate Marsh is from elevation 2.63ft to 3.38ft (0 feet to 0.75 feet below MHW); and Shallow Marsh is from elevation 3.38ft to 4.13ft (0.75 feet to 0 feet above MHW).

PL A N TIN G TE C HNI Q U E

COI R LOGS Coir logs (tubes of coconut fiber) will be used to stabilize the regraded water edge. Herbaceous plants will be inserted into the coir fiber to prevent from washing away by tides54.

4.13 ft Shallow Marsh

3.38 ft Intermediate

2.63 ft

1.38 ft Deep Marsh

Open Water MHHW 3.77 MHW 3.38 MSL 0.367 MLW -2.90 MLLW -3.10

EL E VATI ON OF FRES H WATER TIDAL W E TL A N D PL A N TIN G ZON E

4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 FEET

128


PL A NT I N G LI ST /

zones

botanical name

deep marsh

Pontederia cordata / pickerel weed

butterflies

peltandra virginica / arrow arum

showy flower

Nuphar luteum / spatterdock

showy and fragrant flower

Nymphae odorata / water lily

showy and fragrant flower

Lemna minor / common duckweed

birds

Scirpus tabernaemontani / softstem bulrush

air pollution

Scirpus spp. / bulrush

showy flower

Acorus americanus / sweet flag

colorful leaf

Saururus cernuus / lizard tail

showy and fragrant flower

intermediate marsh

common name

interests

Sparganium spp. / bureed Hibiscus moscheutos / marsh mallow

showy and fragrant flower / butterflies

Scirpus americanus / three square shallow marsh

Iris versicolor / blue flag iris

showy flower

Carex lurida / shallow sedge

erosion tolerance

Carex crinita / fringed sedge

showy flower / birds

Decodon verticillatus / swamp loosestrife

showy flower / birds

Juncus effusus / soft rush

showy flower / erosion tolerance

Juncus canadensis / Canada rush

showy flower / erosion tolerance

Lobelia cardinalis / cardinalflower

showy flower / butterflies / hummingbirds

Lobelia siphilitica / great blue lobelia

showy flower

Eupatorium maculatum / spotted joe-pye-weed

showy flower / butterflies

Mimulus ringens / monkeyflower

showy flower

Chelone glabra / white turtlehead

showy flower / butterflies

Veronia noveboracensis / New York ironweed

showy flower

Asclepias incarnata / swamp milkweed

showy and fragrant flower / butterflies

Dulichium arundinaceum / three way sedge Orontium aquaticum / goldenclub

129

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

showy flower


BIRD FRIENDLY DESIGN

O SPR EY PL ATFORM Osprey platforms will be placed in areas that are several hundred feet from human

disturbance, which will be outside the project boundary, but visitors still be able to use binoculars at the pier to observe their activities.

P EREGR I N E FALCON B IRD B OX Peregrine Falcon usually can be found in wide variety of open

habitats, from tundra to cliffs. The bird box will be placed on the roof of the proposed high-rise residential house.

130


131

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


REST O R AT MON ION I TO R ING

132


INVASIVE MANAGEMENT Not all spotted invasive species are listed here, since the restoration in the Cumberland Pier will require grading and it is assumed that some of the invasive will be eradicated during the earthwork. The following chart is a description of the priority classes to facilitate the invasive management. Priority 1 - High - these are highly invasive and severely impacting the site, treatment should be applied firstly. Priority 2 - Medium - these are highly invasive and have potential to severely impact the site. Priority 3 - Low - these are invasive but may also provide some benefits. Species Artemisia vulgaris common mugwort Rosa multiflora multiflora rose Humulus japonicus Japanese hops Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle

Feb

Mar

Apr

May Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1 1 1

Fallopia japonica Japanese knotweed

1

Ailanthus altissima tree of heaven Rubus phoenicolasius wineberry

2

Celastrus orbiculatus bittersweet Lonicera maackii bush honeysuckle

2

Euphorbia esula Leafy Spurge

2

Clematis terniflora Sweet autumn clematis toxicodendron radicans Siberian elm

2

Morus alba white mulberry Broussonetia papyrifera paper mulberry Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust

3

Hand pull

133

Priority Jan 1

2

2

3

3 3

Cut/mow

Foliar spray

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

Cut-stump

Basal bark drench


MONITORING CHECKLIST The site will be monitored for 5 years after the restoration is completed to document the ecological conditions and assess whether the restoration goals are being met. The following monitoring checklist outlines the specific objectives that must be achieved by the end of the 5-year monitoring plan to ensure the success of the restoration project. 1. At least 85% of the vegetation must be native species in three restored segments at year 5 of the project. 2. At least 85% of the survival of new plantings at year 5 of the project. 3. Increase in the Simpson’s Biodiversity Index and above 0.75 after year 5. 4. Increase in the Floristic Quality Assessments (FQA) Native Mean C and above 3.5 after year 5. 5. Increase in the bird abundance and diversity in the Pier 20 after restoration as compared to before restoration. 6. Evidence of decreasing soil contaminants and soil health improvement. 7. Evidence of increasing human interaction with the restored sites.

M ONITOR I NG SCHEDUL E The monitoring schedule will be repeated for 5 years. Vegetation survey will be conducted twice annually - once in May in the early growing season and once in September in the late growing season. Bird point counts will be conducted at least three times during the breeding season from early May to late June. Soil test will be conducted in early fall once a year. Data of trail counter will be collected once a month. A graphic of the overall yearly monitoring schedule is shown below. Jan Monitoring Task Vegetation Survey Bird Point Count Soil Test Trail Counter Data Collection Annual Monitoring Report Submission

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

134


tr

en

n to

cpw1

st

cpw2 e

e hi

so

le

m er

gh

cpw3 b1

se

e

t

av

st

cpw4

av e

cpw5

ara

min

go

cpw6 b2 cpw7

i-

cpw fp

95

Coastal Plain Woodland Monitoring Plot Floodplain Woodland Monitoring Plot Bird Count Point 50’x 100’ Plot Brownfield Catalyst Site 2 Lehigh Viaduct Cumberland Pier

Fw1

Fw2 b3 Fw3 b4 b5

135

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

b6

de

la

w

e ar

riv

er


M ONITOR I NG LO CATIO N S Monitoring locations include ten 50x100 feet plots and six bird count points. One plot in the Brownfield Catalyst Site 2 and 6 plots in the Lehigh Viaduct will be the monitoring locations for restored Coastal Plain Woodland ecosystem; and three plots in the Pier 20 will be the monitoring locations for restored Floodplain Woodland ecosystem. Within each plot, vegetation survey and soil test will be conducted according to the Monitoring Schedule. In addition, photos should be taken in each plot in four directions (north, east, south, west) as well as above (for tree canopy cover estimate). There are two bird count points up in the Lehigh Viaduct and four points in the Pier 20. The trail counters will be installed at the entrance of each trail after the design is completed.

M E THOD A ND MATERIA L S | V E G E TAT I O N SU R V E Y monitoring materials

Tape measure (25 feet +) Flagging tape Five-foot metal stakes Tree caliper Watch/timer Hand-held GPS Hand lens Compass Camera Clipboard Pen or pencil Field data sheets Graph or engineering paper Field note books First aid (bug spray, poison ivy antidotes, sunscreen, sunglasses) Plant identification skills Plants field guide method

• The center of each plot will be marked in the field with metal staking and will also be GPS-located. • Setup the 50x100 feet plot accordingly. • Identify and tally every tree and shrub per plot. Identify each species and give the individual plants a code (T-1;SH-1;SAP-1,etc.). Mark the code on the species with survey tape. Obtain the height, diameter, spread for each species. Sketch the location of the species (planar view) on graph or engineering paper. • Estimate the percent Canopy Cover and Ground Cover (each species and total coverage) per plot. • Take site photos in four directions and Canopy Cover. • Summarize and calculate Simpson’s Biodiversity Index and Floristic Quality Assessments (FQA).

136


M E THOD A ND MATERIA L S | BI R D PO I N T CO U N T monitoring materials

Binoculars Watch/timer Hand-held GPS Compass Camera Clipboard Pen or pencil Field data sheets Field note books First aid (bug spray, poison ivy antidotes, sunscreen, sunglasses) Bird identification skills Birds field guide method

• Only one observer should be permitted to count birds at a single station. • When it is raining, during heavy fog, or when the noise from wind-blown vegetation interferes with counting, bird should not be surveyed. • If the travel times between stations are less than 15 minutes, the standard count period will be 5 minutes per station. If the travel times between stations are greater than 15 minutes, the standard count period will be 10 minutes. • When a 5-minute point count is used, data should be recorded into separated two segments (0-3 min. and 3-5 min.). When a 10-minute point count is used, data should be recorded into three segments (0-3 min., 3-5 min., and 5-10 min.). • Birds detected within a radius of 50 meter surrounding the count point should be recorded separately from those at all distances. • Birds that are detected flying over the point, rather than detected from within the vegetation, should be recorded separately. •Juvenile birds or birds that fledged during the current breeding season should be recorded separately. • Bird point count should be conducted during the breading season (from early May to the first week of July). • For maximum comparability in counting the species, it will be best to start counting birds at sunrise.

137

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


M E THOD A ND MATERIA L S | SO I L T E ST monitoring materials

Soil core sampler Trowel Munsell Color Chart Hand-held GPS Hand lens Compass Camera Clipboard Pen or pencil Field data sheets Field note books First aid (bug spray, poison ivy antidotes, sunscreen, sunglasses) method

• Two soil core will be sampled in each plot. • Use clean sampling equipment, avoiding brass, bronze, or galvanized tools because they contaminate samples with copper/zinc. • Mix two soil samples that come from one plot in a clean, plastic bucket. • Soil should be sampled to a depth of four to six inches. (A&L Eastern Laboratories)

Soil Core Sampler ^

Munsell Color Chart ^

138


REFERENCES

139

1. En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Kensington, Philadelphia. [online] Available at: https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kensington,_Philadelphia [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 2. En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Port Richmond, Philadelphia. [online] Available at: https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_Richmond,_Philadelphia [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 3. Philadelphia - Official Visitor Site - visitphilly.com. (2017). Fishtown - Philadelphia Neighborhoods — visitphilly.com. [online] Available at: http://www.visitphilly.com/philadelphianeighborhoods/fishtown/#sm.00001ky46m8lfferoxub65z6nkt95 [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 4. Niche. (2017). Living in Upper Kensington. [online] Available at: https://local.niche.com/n/ upper-kensington-philadelphia-pa/ [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 5. Niche. (2017). Living in Richmond. [online] Available at: https://local.niche.com/n/ richmond-philadelphia-pa/ [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 6. Niche. (2017). Living in Fishtown - Lower Kensington. [online] Available at: https://local. niche.com/n/fishtown---lower-kensington-philadelphia-pa/ [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 7. Niche. (2017). Living in East Kensington. [online] Available at: https://local.niche.com/n/ east-kensington-philadelphia-pa/ [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 8. Nkcdc.org. (2017). NKCDC - home. [online] Available at: http://www.nkcdc.org/ [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 9. Star news. (2017). New group takes shape in Port Richmond – Star news. [online] Available at: https://starnewsphilly.com/new-group-takes-shape-in-port-richmond-61712c491183 [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 10. Delawareriverwaterfront.com. (2017). DRWC. [online] Available at: http://www. delawareriverwaterfront.com/ [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 11. Olde Richmond Civic Association. (2017). Home. [online] Available at: http://www. olderichmond.org/ [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 12. EKNA. (2017). EKNA. [online] Available at: https://ekna.org/ [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 13. Community Engagement North of Lehigh, Kensington Brownfields Area-Wide Plan. (2016). 1st ed. City of Philadelphia: Temple University Tyler School of Art, p.22. 14. River Wards District Plan 2015. (2015). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia, pp.20-21. Available at: http://phila2035.org/home-page/district/river-wards/ [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 15. North of Lehigh, Kensington Brownfields Area-Wide Plan Market Study. (2016). 1st ed. City of Philadelphia: Econsult Solutions, Inc., p.4. 16. River Wards District Plan 2015. (2015). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia, pp.94-103. Available at: http://phila2035.org/home-page/district/river-wards/ [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 17. Epa.gov. (2017). Brownfield Overview and Definition | Brownfields | US EPA. [online] Available at: https://www.epa.gov/brownfields/brownfield-overview-and-definition [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 18. North of Lehigh, Kensington Brownfields Area-Wide Plan Market Study. (2016). 1st ed. City of Philadelphia: Econsult Solutions, Inc., p.9-10. 19. North of Lehigh, Kensington Brownfields Area-Wide Plan Market Study. (2016). 1st ed. City of Philadelphia: Econsult Solutions, Inc., p.39-42. 20. Ruins.wordpress.com. (2017). Port Richmond Coal Terminal – The Necessity for Ruins. [online] Available at: https://ruins.wordpress.com/category/port-richmond-coal-terminal/ [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 21. New Kensington Riverfront Plan. (2008). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia: New Kensington Community Development Corporation, Wallace Roberts & Todd,LLC Planning and Design, p.12. Available at: http://www.nkcdc.org/_files/live/NKCDC_Riverfront_Plan.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


22. New Kensington Riverfront Plan. (2008). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia: New Kensington Community Development Corporation, Wallace Roberts & Todd,LLC Planning and Design, p.3. Available at: http://www.nkcdc.org/_files/live/NKCDC_Riverfront_Plan.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 23. New Kensington Riverfront Plan. (2008). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia: New Kensington Community Development Corporation, Wallace Roberts & Todd,LLC Planning and Design, p.22-23. Available at: http://www.nkcdc.org/_files/live/NKCDC_Riverfront_Plan.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 24. Via Philadelphia. (2012). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia: Temple University Landscape Architecture Senior Design Studio VI, p.58. Available at: https://issuu.com/amy.syverson/docs/ via_philadelphia [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 25. PlanPhilly | Plan calls for apartments/office/retail at former Kensington mill, and new efforts to shut down nearby drug market. (2017). Plan calls for apartments/office/retail at former Kensington mill, and new efforts to shut down nearby drug market. [online] Available at: http:// planphilly.com/articles/2014/07/16/plan-calls-for-apartments-office-retail-at-former-kensingtonmill-and-new-efforts-to-shut-down-nearby-drug-market [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 26. PlanPhilly | How rail plays infrastructure role. (2017). How rail plays infrastructure role. [online] Available at: http://planphilly.com/articles/2008/08/27/3743 [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 27. Lehigh Somerset A conceptual Mater Planning Study. (2011). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia: Community Design Collaborative. Available at: http://www.nkcdc.org/_files/live/ lehigh_somerset_cdc_plan.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 28. New Kensington Riverfront Plan. (2008). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia: New Kensington Community Development Corporation, Wallace Roberts & Todd,LLC Planning and Design, p.36-44. Available at: http://www.nkcdc.org/_files/live/NKCDC_Riverfront_Plan.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 29. Green Plan Philadelphia. (2017). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia, pp.88-89. Available at: http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/cs/groups/public/documents/document/DCNR_20028547.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 30. Philadelphia Pedestrian and Bicycle Plan Progress Report. (2015). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia, p.18. Available at: http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/cs/groups/public/documents/ document/DCNR_20028547.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 31. Delaware Direct Watershed Rivers Conservation Plan. (2011). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia, pp.4-1. Available at: http://www.phillywatersheds.org/doc/Delaware_RCP_ Complete.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 32. A Natural Heritage Inventory of Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. (2008). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia, pp.3-5. Available at: http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/ factsheets/21721.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 33. Delaware Direct Watershed Rivers Conservation Plan. (2011). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia, pp.5-3 – 5-11. Available at: http://www.phillywatersheds.org/doc/Delaware_RCP_ Complete.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 34. https://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/datums.html?id=8546252 35. Phillywatersheds.org. (2017). Green City, Clean Waters | Philadelphia Water Department. [online] Available at: http://www.phillywatersheds.org/what_were_doing/documents_and_data/ cso_long_term_control_plan [Accessed 17 Jan. 2017]. 36. Terrestrial and Palustrine Plant Communities of Pennsylvania. (1999). 1st ed. [ebook] Pennsylvania: Jean Fike. Available at: http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/cs/groups/public/documents/ document/dcnr_001872.pdf [Accessed 17 Jan. 2017].

140


37. Freyman, W., Masters, L. and Packard, S. (2017). The Universal Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) Calculator: an online tool for ecological assessment and monitoring. 38. A Natural Heritage Inventory of Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. (2008). 1st ed. [ebook] City of Philadelphia, pp.23-46. Available at: http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/ factsheets/21721.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2017]. 39. eBird. (2017). eBird--Cumberland St. on the Delaware. [online] Available at: http://ebird. org/ebird/hotspot/L3237831 [Accessed 17 Jan. 2017]. 40. Naturalheritage.state.pa.us. (2017). Rank and Status Definitions. [online] Available at: http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/RankStatusDef.aspx [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 41. Audubon. (2017). Priority Birds. [online] Available at: http://www.audubon.org/birds/ priority [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 42. En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Coulée verte René-Dumont. [online] Available at: https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coul%C3%A9e_verte_Ren%C3%A9-Dumont [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 43. Planet, L. (2017). Promenade Plantée in Paris, France. [online] Lonely Planet. Available at: https://www.lonelyplanet.com/france/paris/attractions/promenade-plantee/a/poisig/372523/359279 [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 44. Encyclopedia Britannica. (2017). Promenade Plantee | parkway and promenade, Paris, France. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/place/Promenade-Plantee [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 45. Architectuul.com. (2017). Promenade plantée. [online] Available at: http://architectuul. com/architecture/promenade-plantee [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 46. En.wikipedia.org. (2017). High Line. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ High_Line [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 47. La Farge, A., Darke, R., Mlyn, S. and Valentin, J. (2014). On the high line. 1st ed. New York: Thames & Hudson. 48. PlanPhilly | New Pier 53 park opens on the Delaware, near Washington Ave. (2017). New Pier 53 park opens on the Delaware, near Washington Ave.. [online] Available at: http://planphilly.com/articles/2014/08/15/new-pier-53-park-opens-on-the-delaware-nearwashington-ave [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 49. Bizjournals.com. (2017). Cite a Website - Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: http:// www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/news/2014/08/18/delaware-river-waterfront-corp-opensnewest.html [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 50. Kennen, K. and Kirkwood, N. (2015). Phyto. 1st ed. London: Routledge. 51. Hort.cornell.edu. (2017). Urban Horticulture Institute, Horticulture Section, Cornell University. [online] Available at: http://www.hort.cornell.edu/uhi/outreach/csc/article.html [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 52. Ernst Conservation Seeds. (2017). Ernst Conservation Seeds offers hundreds of species of native & naturalized seeds & live plant materials. [online] Available at: http://www.ernstseed. com/ [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 53. Greenroofplants.com. (2017). Emory Knoll Farms. [online] Available at: http://www. greenroofplants.com/ [Accessed 1 May 2017]. 54. Nursery, P., Nursery, P. and Nursery, P. (2017). Pinelands Nursery. [online] Pinelandsnursery.com. Available at: http://www.pinelandsnursery.com/search/label/Erosion_ Control [Accessed 1 May 2017].

141

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


PHOTO CREDITS http://www.history-map.com/picture/004/pictures/Revolutionary-Philadelphia-Map. jpg \ http://www.philaplace.org/media/philaplace/images/2/4/21440_ca_object_ representations_media_2429_hsp4.jpg \ http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/ kensington/kensington_files/page3_1.jpg \ https://www.google.com/search?q=birdseye+view+of+cramps+ship-yards_delaware_river&espv=2&biw=1067&bih=933& source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjg2b-ClbnSAhUKPCYKHWL0AMoQ_ AUIBigB#tbm=isch&q=philadelphia+port+richmond+1917&*&imgrc=QcZYneVNRA65GM: \ http://penntreatypark.org/site/wp-content/gallery/historic-images/ptp1.jpg \ http:// www.phillyh2o.org/backpages/ara/Ara/21.jpg \ http://hiddencityphila.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/06/DSC_9329.jpg \ https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/ originals/77/0f/50/770f50824f7fc56242c66d98b16aca55.jpg \ https://kensingtonphiladelphia. files.wordpress.com/2011/12/nkcdc-logo.jpg \ http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_nXeJU89D7qk/ TLySR1eTdyI/AAAAAAAAAHU/MScx5trwNbA/s1600/Picture+13.png \ http:// philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Part_of_the_Frankford_El_ dismantled_for_construction_on_I95.jpg \ https://www.google.com/maps \ http:// phillyskyline.com/photo/conrailyards/ \ https://www.google.com/maps \ http://cdn. phillymag.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Arch-Rendering.jpeg \ https://media-cdn. tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/09/f7/26/1f/john-heinz-national-wildlife.jpg \ https:// upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Garter_snakes_at_John_Heinz_National_ Wildlife_Refuge_in_Philadelphia,_Pennsylvania._(5277663243).jpg \ http://1.bp.blogspot. com/-Btq9N-8rKqI/Unbz1cEviYI/AAAAAAAAGL0/tol0aTCfV4c/s1600/Eel.jpg \ https:// c2.staticflickr.com/4/3402/3251062858_f26b268c79_z.jpg?zz=1 \ https://s-media-cacheak0.pinimg.com/originals/67/f9/55/67f9555149fd81ada442d24593e822ec.jpg \ http://3. bp.blogspot.com/-V75cUGoh18c/TzGioxvtr_I/AAAAAAAAAAo/9fe0EM3UfN0/s1600/5.jpg \ https://www.parisianist.com/assets/img/articles/promenade-plantee/en/promenade-planteewalkway.jpg \ http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-46MQRV2Y-cg/TeilP8cZERI/AAAAAAAAAu0/ vJ08E6BJzb8/s1600/PromenadePlantee4.jpg \ https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg. com/564x/71/0c/08/710c08bfecdc3e06d63a77c196bceef6.jpg \ http://static.panoramio.com/ photos/large/14553249.jpg \ http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/42863366.jpg http://europeantrips.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Promenade-Plant%C3%A9eGarden.jpg \ https://s3.amazonaws.com/production.files.thehighline.org/page_panels/ page_panels_template_d/right_image_1436827714.jpg \ https://www.nycgovparks. org/photo_gallery/full_size/14432.jpg \ http://www.thehighline.org/visit \ http:// www.thehighline.org/media/ \ https://static.dezeen.com/uploads/2014/09/TheHigh-Line-at-the-Rail-Yards_dezeen_SQ011.jpg \ http://www.thehighline.org/media/ W1siZiIsIjIwMTUvMTAvMjMvMjAvMzgvMTgvNzY2L3RpbV9zY2hlbmNrLmpwZyJdXQ/tim-schenck. jpg \ http://i.yochicago.com/images/hpmain/504/284504.jpg \ http://thebiggestnews.com/ wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Chelsea-Thicket-on-the-High-Line-2-section.jpg \ http://images. adsttc.com/media/images/5421/a81c/c07a/800d/e500/00f9/large_jpg/The_Tenth_Avenue_ Square.jpg?1411491816 \ https://c2.staticflickr.com/6/5781/30265063190_bca6c2b1f1_b.jpg \ http://www.globalmanagementservices.com/new-york-gallery/ \ http://www.fieldoperations. net/uploads/tx_txfo/HIGH_LINE_S1_IWAN_BAAN_SUNDECK.jpg \ http://www.greenroofs.com/ blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/HighLine12.jpg \ http://www.appliedeco.com/wp-content/ uploads/2016/04/WA-Ave-Pier-53-Rendering-without-labels.jpg \ https://www.google.com/se arch?q=nkcec+new+office&oq=nkcec+new+office+&aqs=chrome..69i57.2975j0j9&sourceid=chro me&ie=UTF-8#q=nkcdc+new+office&* 142


https://a.spirited.media/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2016/12/1612_drwc_springgarden-2209. jpg \ https://www.asla.org/2014awards/img/PA-601-03_mini.jpg \ https://www. andropogon.com/assets/Projects/Academic/UPENN-Shoemaker-Green/Shoemaker10. jpg \ http://www.chicagonow.com/show-me-chicago/files/2016/09/Learningcampus16. jpg \ https://www.nyrp.org/uploads/gallery/21_Gil_Gallery1_BANNER_OPT_1_CREDIT_ Rob_Stephenson.jpg \ http://drwcsite.s3.amazonaws.com/files/4240276724219212251612-drwc-springgarden-2198.full.jpg \ http://offshootsinc.com/wpress/wp-content/ uploads/PHYTOREMEDIATION-BOOK-Final-Cover-Kate-Kennen-small.jpg \ http://www. colemanmoorecompany.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/veg-log-project-example.jpg \ https://i2.wp.com/www.conservewildlifenj.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/ospreyplatform.jpg \ http://s3.amazonaws.com/media.wbur.org/wordpress/1/files/2015/08/0805_ falcons08.jpg \ https://i0.wp.com/www.conservewildlifenj.org/blog/wp-content/ uploads/2013/01/Osprey-pair-in-repaired-nest-by-Brian-Kushner.jpg \ https://www.wildflower. org/gallery/ \ http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/ \ http://www.greenroofs.com/ content/articles/127-A-Comparison-of-the-3-Phases-of-the-High-Line-NYC-Part-8.htm \ http:// www.archdaily.com/24362/the-new-york-high-line-officially-open \ http://www.thehighline. org/blog/2014/01/13/plant-of-the-week-gray-birch

143

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


APPENDIX AP PENDIX 1 .VEGE TATION SU R VE Y F I E L D DATA North of Lehigh-Kensington Vegetation Field Data Sheets

Page 1 of 3

Plot Number ________________________________

Date__________________________________

Time - Start_____________ End _______________

Weather_____________________________________

Names of Participants and Initials

Plot Size ____________feet (meters) by ______________feet (meters) Coordinates N: ______________________________ W: ____________________________________________ Datum method (i.e. GPS, other) __________________ Corners (i.e. flagged, staked, other) _________________ Plot orientation (horizontal/vertical to a feature) ______________________ Exposure (N-S-E-W) ___________ Slope from end to end of plot: ______________________Elevation range ___________________feet (meters) Elevation source (USGS Quadrangle, site plan, other): _______________________________________________ VEGETATION SURVEY DIRECTION I.

Plot

Participant Initials: _________________

A = Canopy Area – (use 50 X 100 feet plot) • ID, Tally all the trees in the overstory and record on Table 1. • Measure diameter and height of trees and record on Table 2. II. Use sub-plots to evaluate remaining species per sub-plot (B,C,D,E,F) B = Sub-canopy and Understory – (use a 40 X 80 feet sub-plot) Participant Initials: Tally all the sub-canopy and understory species and record on Table 1. • Measure height, spread, # of stems (trunks) and record on Table 2. C = Shrubs (Large) – (use a 30 X 60 feet sub-plot) Participant Initials: _________________ (C&D) • ID, Tally and Measure height, spread and record on Table 1. • Measure height, spread, # of stems (trunks) and record on Table 2. 144


North of Lehigh-Kensington Vegetation Field Data Sheets

Page 2 of 3

D = Shrubs/Clones or uniform stands of shrubs – (use a 20 X 40 feet sub-plot) • ID, Tally and Measure height, spread and record on Table 1. • Measure height, spread, # of stems (trunks) and record on Table 2. E = Herbaceous Ground Cover – (use a 10 X 20 feet sub-plot) • ID, Tally all the ground cover and record on Table 3. • Estimate the percent cover and record it on Table 4.

Participant Initials:

(E & F)

F = Lichens and Mosses – (use a 2 x 2 feet area sub-plot) • ID, Tally all the ground cover and record on Table 3. • Estimate the percent cover and record it on Table 4. III. Sketch the planar view of the plot on graph paper: Use graph paper to plot the location of each species in A and B. Show the approximate location of the plot for C through F. Participant Initials: ________________ IV. Sketch the vertical structure (cross-sectional view) of the forest layers or strata: Use plain paper or graph paper to sketch the vertical structure of the 50x100 foot plot. Participant Initials: ________________ V. Estimate Canopy Cover Percentage (with photo)

Participant Initials: ________________

Estimate canopy percent ___________________ VI. Site and Vegetation Notes Participant Initials: ________________ • On a separate sheet, list the following and submit it as Attachment 5: -

Species noted in surrounding areas that are not on the plot

-

Species that you would expect to see in this forest that are not present

-

Aggressive or non-native species

Forest health (poor, fair good) ______________________

Number of fallen trees_________________ Describe decay status, moss covering ______________

VII. Wildlife and Fauna

145

Participant Initials: ________________

________ Mammals

__________Insects

________ Herptofauna

_________ Crustacean

________ Birds

________ Invertebrates

Comments:

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement


North of Lehigh-Kensington Vegetation Field Data Sheets

Page 3 of 3

Supporting Documentation for the Final Report on the Project Reference Site Attachment 1: Photo and photo descriptions

Participant Initials: ________________

Check which ones are included: ________ Panoramic

__________Aerial (optional)

_________ Oblique

________ Canopy

_________ Detail

_________ Other

________ Stereo (optional)

________ Elevation

Attachment 2: Tables 1 Tally of Woody Vegetation

Participant Initials: _______________________

Table 2 Woody Plant Measurements

Participant Initials: _______________________

Table 3 Tally of Herbaceous Vegetation, Lichens and Mosses

Participant Initials: _______________________

Table 4 Percent Cover of Herbaceous Vegetation

Participant Initials: _______________________

Attachment 3: Sketch of planar view and sketch of vertical structure of 50x100 plot Participant Initials: ___ Attachment 4: Participant Initials: _____ • List species noted in surrounding areas that are not on the plot • List of species that you would expect to see in this forest that are missing • List of aggressive or non-native species

_____________ __________

Attachment 5: Other supporting documents

146


Table 1. Tally of Species in 50x100 foot Plots. Plot Number: ___________ Date: ____________ (Page 1 of 2) Overstory Tree Species – Plot A Common

Understory Species (Seedlings, Saplings or Colonizing Species) -Plot B

Scientific

Common

T-1

U-1

T-2

U-2

T-3

U-3

Scientific

Table 1. Tally of Species in 50x100 foot Plots. Plot Number: ___________ Date: ____________ (Page 2 of 2) Large Shrubs - Plot C Common S-1

147

Shrub Clones or Uniform Shrub Stands - Plot D Scientific

Common C-1

S-2

C-2

S-3

C-3

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

Scientific


Table 2. Tree and Shrub Measurements. Plot: ___________ Date: ____________ (Page 1 of 2) Trees

Diameter Measurement DBH = Circumference * ฯ€ Circumference DBH

Height Measurement = H=(h*D)รทd height of distance to distance to person (h) mirror (d) tree (D)

height of tree (H)

Clinometer Ht (ft)

T-1

Understory U-1

Table 2. Tree and Shrub Measurements. Plot: ___________ Date: ____________ (Page 2 of 2) Shrubs

Spread width length

total

Diameter thickest stem

No of stems

Comments

Large Shrubs (Plot C) S-1

Shrub Clones (Plot D) C-1

Comments:

148


Table 3. Tally of Herbaceous, Lichens and Mosses in Plots. Plot Number: ___________ Date: ____________ (Page 1 of 1) Herbaceous Layer (Plot E – 10x20 feet) Common Scientific

Lichens and Mosses (Plot F – 2x2 feet) Common Scientific

H-1

L-1

H-2

L-2

H-3

L-3

M-1 M-2 M-3

Includes Club Mosses as the herbaceous cover

Table 4. Groundcovers in Plots. Plot Number: ___________ Date: ____________ (Page 1 of 1) Method I. Use this method to calculate a mix of sparse and dense groundcovers within the plot (this method accommodates replicate plots). Divide plot into four equal sized areas and estimate cover. Quadrat A

Quadrat B

Quadrat C

Quadrat D

Total

(Total÷4)

Plot E (10x20 feet) Replicate Plot E-1 Replicate Plot E-2 Replicate Plot E-3

Method II. Use this method to calculate a sparse and scattered ground cover. Measure the spread (length x width) of the scatted ground cover within the plot. Calculate the areas and add them together. Divide the total by the area of the plot. Length

x

Width

Area

Determine the Area within the Square Plot (Determine in Field or Lab)

GC Area a GC Area b GC Area c GC Area d GC Area e GC Area f GC Area g Total Area =

149

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

Percentage of Plot =


AP PENDIX 2 .BIRD PO INT CO U N T DATA SHE E T Bird Point Count Data Sheet Project name

Observer

Sample Point ID

X coordinate, Y coordinate

Date

Start Time

Wind Spd.

Wind Dir.

Sky

E

S Alpha Behavior Dire. from Code Code Point (m)

Temp. Wind 0 = none 1 = 1-3 mph 2 = 4-7 mph 3 = 8-12 mph 4 = >12 mph

N

W

Stop Time

Dist. from Point

Sky 0 = < 10% clouds 1 = partly cloudy 2 = mostly cloudy 3 = overcast 4 = rain 5 = frog

Behavior F = flying S = soaring P = perching or on the water Fo = foraging MD = mating display O = other

Height 0-3 3-5 (ft. or in) minutes minutes

5-10 10-15 Note minutes minutes

150


AP PENDIX 3 .LONG-TERM TA BL E Long-Term Table for Vegetation Survey Monitoring Plot Number Number of total Year 1 species Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Number of Year 1 native species Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Number of Year 1 invasive species Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Percent of Year 1 native species Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Percent of Year 1 survival new Year 2 plantings Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Simpsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Year 1 Biodiversity Year 2 Index Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Floristic Quality Year 1 Year 2 Assessments Year 3 (FQA) Native Year 4 Mean C Year 5 Number of bird Year 1 species Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Number of bird Year 1 individuals Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5

151

CPW 1

CPW 2

CPW 3

CPW 4

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Connection | Restoration | Engagement

CPW 5

CPW 6

CPW 7

FW 1

FW 2

FW 3


152

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Philadelphia  

This is my capstone restoration design project.

Lehigh Viaduct Greenway - Philadelphia  

This is my capstone restoration design project.

Advertisement