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T Y P E A

G U I D E

T O

BY BIANCA HINRICKS


T Y P E A

G U I D E

T O


T Y P E A

G U I D E

T O

How to turn your type from totally bad to totally rad

d e s i g n e d by Bianca Hinricks


A Guide to Typography Published by Blurb Australia Pty Ltd www.blurb.com.au Copyright Š Bianca Hinricks 2016 All rights reserved. This book is intended for education purposes only. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher. Additionally, no part of this book may be reproduced without reference to not only the contributors of the book, but the book itself. Designed by Bianca Hinricks Published June 2016 Content sourced, modified or copied from thinkingwithtype.com


A special thanks to my Mum and Dad for hands down being the best humans out there. It is with your full support I am able to pursue a career that I love. Also, an honourable mention to caffeine. You’re always there for me baby.


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A Guide to Type has been created with the intention to educate and guide people into the practise of typography. Through this introductory book, you will not only learn the basics, but techniques and tips that will ultimately help you learn and develop skills you can’t help but want to Instagram.

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contents text: 01

02

03

HISTORY

KERNING

TRACKING

PAGE 12

PAGE 16

PAGE 20

04

05

06

LINE SPACING

ALIGNMENT

VERTICAL TEXT

PAGE 24

PAGE 28

PAGE 32

07

08

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PARAGRAPHS

ENLARGED CAPS

HIERARCHY

PAGE 36

PAGE 40

PAGE 44

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BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGE 48

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text: history

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01 13


Typography A brief history Typography is the art of creating the letters we use everyday. It’s designing them and creating them and making them real. A font is a collection or set of letters. They’re the mechanism you use to get your message across to your reader. Every letter and dash and semi colon would be considered part of a specific font. A typeface is the design you see. it’s the style and look of a specific font. Throughout history, typefaces have been influenced by technological advances, culture shifts, and just general boredom with the state of typography. Here’s how it all went down: 1400’s: Guttenberg invented movable typefaces, giving the world a cheaper way to obtain the written word. Up until this point, all written materials were done by hand, and were very costly to purchase. Guttenburg also created the first typeface, blackletter – it was dark, fairly practical, and intense, but not very legible. Present: With the internet, we have such a vast variety of old and new typefaces available for us to peruse and use. All these typefaces give us an abundance of options and looks for our designs today, and we’re not limited by just one or two typefaces like we would have been a few hundred years ago.


typography

noun [tahy-pog-ruh-fee] The art or process of printing with type, the work of setting and arranging types and of printing from them and/or the general character or appearance of printed matter.


text: kerning

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02 17


Without kerning

WAVE

With kerning

WAVE

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Kerning What is it? Kerning is an adjustment of the space between two letters. The characters of the Latin alphabet emerged over time; they were never designed with mechanical or automated spacing in mind. Thus some letter combinations look awkward without special spacing considerations. Gaps occur, for example, around letters whose forms angle outward or frame an open space (W, Y, V, T). In metal type, a kerned letter extends past the lead slug that supports it, allowing two letters to fit more closely together. In digital fonts, the space between letter pairs is controlled by a kerning table created by the type designer, which specifies spaces between problematic letter combinations. Working in a page layout program, a designer can choose to use metric kerning or optical kerning as well as adjusting the space between letters manually where desired. A well-designed typeface requires little or no additional kerning, especially at text sizes.

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text: tracking

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03 21


Tracking Normal, positive and negative Adjusting the overall spacing of a group of letters is called tracking or letterspacing. By expanding the tracking across a word, line, or entire block of text, the designer can create a more airy, open field. In blocks of text, tracking is usually applied in small increments, creating a subtle effect not noticeable to the casual reader. Occasionally, a single word or phrase is tracked for emphasis, especially when CAPS or small caps are used within a line. Negative tracking, rarely desirable in text sizes, can be used sparingly to help bring up a short line of text. White type on a black background is considered more legible when it is tracked.

Type crime Tightly tracked text: Don’t track text too close for comfort

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normal tracking

Letters do love one another. However, due to their anatomical differences, some letters have a hard time achieving intimacy. Consider the letter V, for example, whose seductive valley makes her limbs stretch out above her base. In contrast L solidly holds his ground yet harbours a certain emptiness above the waist. Capital letters, being square and conservative, prefer to keep a little distance from their neighbours. (+20) Letters do love one another. However, due to their anatomical differences, some letters have a hard time achieving intimacy. Consider the letter V, for example, whose seductive valley makes her limbs stretch out above her base. In contrast L solidly holds his ground yet harbours a certain emptiness above the waist. Capital letters, being square and conservative, prefer to keep a little distance from their neighbours. positive tracking

(-20) Letters do love one another. However, due to their anatomical differences, some letters have a hard time achieving intimacy. Consider the letter V, for example, whose seductive valley makes her limbs stretch out above her base. In contrast L solidly holds his ground yet harbours a certain emptiness above the waist. Capital letters, being square and conservative, prefer to keep a little distance from their neighbours. negative tracking

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text: line spacing

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04 25


different folks different strokes

different folks different strokes

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Line Spacing What is it? leading

The distance from the baseline of one line of type to another is called line spacing. It is also called leading, in reference to the strips of lead used to separate lines of metal type. The default setting in most layout and imaging software is 120 percent of the type size. Thus 10-pt type is set with 12 pts of line spacing. typographic arrangements

Designers play with line spacing in order to create distinctive typographic arrangements. Reducing the standard distance creates a denser typographic color, while risking collisions between ascenders and descenders. Expanding the line spacing creates a lighter, more open text block. As leading increases, lines of type become independent graphic elements rather than parts of an overall visual shape and texture.

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text: alignment

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Alignment Centered, justified, right and left Choosing to align text in justified, centered, or ragged columns is a fundamental typographic act. Each mode of alignment carries unique formal qualities, cultural associations, and aesthetic risks.

Flush Left/Ragged Right

left edge is hard; right edge is soft

Flush left in text respects the organic flow of language and avoids the uneven spacing that plagues justified type. A bad rag can ruin the relaxed, organic appearance of a flush left column. Designers must strive vigilantly to create the illusion of a random, natural edge without resorting to excessive hyphenation.

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Justified

left and right edges are both even

Justified text makes a clean shape on the page. Its efficient use of space makes it the norm for newspapers and books. Ugly gaps can occur, however, as text is forced into lines of even measure. Avoid this by using a line length that is long enough in relation to the size of type. As type gets smaller, more words will fill each line.

Centered

lines of uneven length on a central axis

Centered test is formal and classical. It invites the designer to break a text for sense and create elegant, organic shapes. Centring is often the simplest and most intuitive way to place a typographic element. Used without care, centered text can look staid and mournful, like a tombstone.

Flush Right/Ragged Left

right edge is hard; left edge is soft

Flush right text can be a welcome departure from the familiar. Used for captions, side bars, and other marginalia, it can suggest affinities among elements. Because flush right text is unusual, it can annoy cautious readers. Bad rags threaten flush right text just as the afflict flush left, and punctuation can weaken the hard right edge.

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text: vertical text

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v e r t i c a l 34

v e r t i c a l

V E R T I C A L


Vertical Text Stacked lowercase and uppercase Roman letters are designed to sit side by side, not on top of one another. Stacks of lowercase letters are especially awkward because the ascenders and descenders make the vertical spacing appear uneven, and the varied width of the characters makes the stacks look precarious. (The letter I is a perennial problem.) Capital letters form more stable stacks than lowercase letters.

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Capital letters form more stable stacks than lowercase letters

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Centering the column helps to even out the differences in width. Many Asian writing systems, including Chinese, are traditionally written vertically; the square shape of the characters supports this orientation. The simplest way to make a line of Latin text vertical is to rotate the text from horizontal to vertical. This preserves the natural affinity among letters sitting on a line while creating a vertical axis.

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text:

marking paragraphs 36


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Marking Paragraphs Proportions and spacing Paragraphs do not occur in nature. Whereas sentences are grammatical units intrinsic to the spoken language, paragraphs are a literary convention designed to divide masses of content into appetizing portions

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Paragraphs are a literary convention designed to divide content into appetizing portions.

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Indents have been common since the seventeenth century. Adding space between paragraphs (paragraph spacing) is another standard device. Alternatively, you can use the tab key to create an indent of any depth. A designer might use this technique in order to align the indents with a vertical grid line or other page element. Avoid indenting the very first line of a body of text. An indent signals a break or separation; there is no need to make a break when the text has just begun. Despite the ubiquity of indents and paragraph spacing, designers have developed numerous alternatives that allow them to shape content in distinctive ways.

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Type crime Too many signals: Using paragraph spacing and indents together squanders space and gives the text block a flabby indefinite shape

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text: enlarged capitals

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Enlarged Capitals Beginning of text t the beginning of a text,

the reader needs an invitation to come inside. Enlarged capitals, also called versals, commonly mark the entrance a a chapter in a book or an article in a magazine. Many medieval manuscripts are illuminated with elaborately painted rubrics. This tradition continued with the rise of the printing press. At first, initials were hand-painted onto printed pages, making mass-produced books resemble manuscripts, which were more valuable than printed books.

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At first, initials were hand-painted onto printed pages

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Initials soon became part of typography. A printer could set them together with the main text in wood blocks or cast lead characters, or add them with a separate process such as engraving. Today, enlarged caps are easily styled as part of a publication’s typographic system.

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text: hierarchy

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09 45


KNOW WHERE TO LOOK FIRST

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Hierarchy What is it? A typographic hierarchy expresses the organization of content, emphasizing some elements and subordinating others. A visual hierarchy helps readers scan a text, knowing where to enter and exit and how to pick and choose among its offerings. Each level of the hierarchy should be signaled by one or more cues, applied consistently across a body of text. A cue can be spatial (indent, line spacing, placement) or graphic (size, style, color). Infinite variations are possible. Emphasizing a word or phrase within a body of text usually requires only one signal. Italic is the standard form of emphasis. There are many alternatives, however, including boldface, small caps, or a change in color. A full-range type family such as Scala has many weight and style variations designed to work together. You can also create emphasis with a different font. If you want to mix font families, such as Scala and Helvetica, adjust the sizes so that the x-heights align.

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bibliography Definition:

Dictionary.com, “Typography,” Dictionary, accessed 11 May 2016, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/ typography.

History:

Sarah Skrilloff, “A Brief History of Typography & Typefaces,” Ashworth Creative, accessed 11 May 2016, http://www.ashworthcreative.com/ blog/2014/07/brief-typography-typefaces/.

Everything Else:

Ellen Lupton, “Text,” Thinking With Type, accessed 11 May 2016, http://www.thinkingwithtype.com/ contents/text/.

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A GUIDE TO TYPE  

// Final

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