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E-published in 2014 by the Global Network of UNESCO Chairs on Gender (Buenos Aires), and by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Paris) The ideas and opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of and do not commit UNESCO, the Global Network of UNESCO Chairs on Gender, the UNESCO/UNITWIN Network on Gender, Culture & Development, or the Editor. The foregoing parties make no representations as to the accuracy, completeness, suitability, originality or validity of the information presented in the articles and will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information or any losses, injuries or damages arising from its display or use.

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7


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8


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10


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! ! 12


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13


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14


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15


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16


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22


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42


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43


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! 44


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45


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48


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53


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54


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The story of Burkina Faso over four decades Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Roles and Rights from 1975, the First UN International Year of Women, to Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Histor y Month-March 2014

Background

T

and Context

he story of Burkina Fasoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s women is complex, including both immense progress over the past several decades and remaining societal and economic obstacles to equality and quality of life. A landlocked country in Sub-Saharan Africa, Burkina Faso is particularly economically disadvantaged, consistently ranking towards the bottom of global indexes. Women have historically shouldered a disproportionate burden under these circumstances, taking on the majority of child-care and home-based responsibilities in addition to income-earning activities. Compounding the problem is a lack of literacy among the female adult population as compared to men. Given that literacy can be key to success in small business and other economic ventures, improving this situation is an important factor in the empowerment of BurkinabĂŠ women. To address this disparity, UNESCO/The United Nations Development Programme in partnership with the Government of Burkina (then Upper Volta) launched the Project for Equal Access of Women and Girls to Education in

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1972. This project aimed to improve female access to education by lightening workloads, thus freeing up enough time for women to attend               within the household. The project has shown marked success â&#x20AC;&#x201C; currently, the adult female literacy rate is 22%, as compared to 8% from 1985-94. Furthermore, girls have made strides towards closing the educational gap between the genders. Perhaps as a

           education and resulting voice within their communities, females have also made gains in the political arena â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in 2013, they held 15.7% of the seats in national parliament. These encouraging facts point towards a brighter future for BurkinabĂŠ women, as domestic and international forces push for the education and representation of women, and thus the betterment of whole communities. (Data courtesy of UNESCO, BBC, the UNDP, and The Guardian)

Story based on the Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Education Project research and work of Brenda Gael McSweeney and Scholastique KompaorĂŠ, assisted by Cassandra Fox Photos by/ŠBrenda Gael McSweeney Photo above, left: First UN International Year of Women (1975), a griot chants in praise of the contributions of the Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Education Project. Map from Nationsonline.org.


West African Women’s Empowerment: Burkina Faso over Four Decades

Our surveys in Burkina in the 70s showed that girls worked an average of 8 hours a day, as compared to 4 hours for boys – thus, few girls attended school.

Even older women were expected to play an important role in household tasks. These pottery jugs contain millet beer.

Women and girls undertook half the agricultural production back in the 70s…

…And over half the incomegenerating and household workloads combined.

Only unsafe water was available in the 70s, and even for that, women and their daughters trudged for kilometers, for several hours a day.

The introduction of wells brought amazing relief to the women, and lightened waterborne diseases in their families.

The intense manual labor of pounding and grinding millet and other cereals fell solely on the women.

The introduction in the 90s of a Multi-Functional Platform, operated and managed by the women themselves, freed up their time and energy.

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A story in photographs based on action-research by Brenda Gael McSweeney and Scholastique KompaorĂŠ

The workload lightening technologies enabled women to allow their daughters to study instead of helping with agricultural and household tasks.

Women too could attend functional literacy classes, thanks to simple technologies that reduced their non-stop workloads. The woman here practices calculations.

A rural womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s group leader expresses her views during an interview in the 1970s.

Women celebrate a profitable dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work, thanks to their workload lightening technologies, which allowed them to use their time more productively.

Scholastique KompaorĂŠ, National Coordinator of the UNESCO Project for Equal Access of Women and Girls to Education, contributes to the preservation of cultural heritage through this traditional Kassena dance.

Another result of the new technologiesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a woman proudly and jokingly shows off her smooth hands, as she no longer grinds her grain with a stone.

A member of the womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s group, which managed the MultiFunctional Platform, was insistent to show off some of their earnings!

   

   this modern-day woman has shattered traditional stereotypes by taking on the role of motorbike mechanic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; once an all-male domain.

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Burkina’s Women: Breaking barriers and inspiring change...

Another example of modern-day success, this nowrenowned painter overcame harsh gender-based adversity. She currently conducts courses to help along young aspiring female artists.

In the early days, this woman leader expressed her views to Mrs. Kompaoré – but only in the privacy of her courtyard.

Brenda Gael McSweeney Brenda managed United Nations development programs in Burkina for seven years. She focused on female education and livelihoods — while living in a traditional courtyard in the capital, Ouagadougou — and conducted research in the villages.

Scholastique Kompaoré Scholastique was National Coordinator of the Burkina Faso (then Upper Volta) pilot Project for Equal Access of Women and Girls to Education. She is a pioneer of advocacy and action for female education and advancement.

Cassandra Fox Cassandra is a graduate of Boston University, where she works as a Research Assistant with Dr. McSweeney. She has studied and worked in Niger, France and Haiti, focusing on international development, women’s rights, and healthcare education.

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This female Interim Mogho Naaba (Emperor) of the Mossi Kingdom today maintains many traditional powers and also hosts a solidarity group for women in her village.

The next rare enthronement of a woman as village chief occurred only in this century. The above woman proudly carries this title of Traditional Female Chief, and speaks to visitors about the role of women in her region.


Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;HISTOIRE DU BURKINA FASO EN QUATRE DĂ&#x2030;CENNIES RĂ´les et droits des femmes de 1975 première AnnĂŠe Internationale de la Femme au mois historique des Femmes â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mars 2014

Historique et contexte

L

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;histoire des femmes du Burkina Faso est complexe: dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;immenses progrès ont ĂŠtĂŠ obtenus en plusieurs dĂŠcennies, mais pour atteindre lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠgalitĂŠ et une meilleure qualitĂŠ de vie, des obstacles sociaux et ĂŠconomiques demeurent. Pays enclavĂŠ en Afrique sub-saharienne, le Burkina Faso est particulièrement ĂŠconomiquement dĂŠfavorisĂŠ, et rĂŠgulièrement classĂŠ vers le bas de lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠchelle mondiale des indices du dĂŠveloppement dans leur globalitĂŠ. Dans ces circonstances, les femmes ont historiquement endossĂŠ une part disproportionnĂŠe du fardeau dans la lutte pour le dĂŠveloppement, prenant grandement en charge non seulement la responsabilitĂŠ des soins aux enfants et des travaux domestiques mais entreprenant en plus, des activitĂŠs gĂŠnĂŠratrices de revenus. Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;analphabĂŠtisme aggrave le problème dans la population fĂŠminine comparĂŠ Ă la situation chez les hommes. Ă&#x2030;tant donnĂŠ que lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;alphabĂŠtisation peut ĂŞtre la clĂŠ de la rĂŠussite des petites entreprises et dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;autres projets ĂŠconomiques, amĂŠliorer cette situation chez les femmes burkinabe est un facteur important dans leur autonomisation. Pour remĂŠdier Ă  la disparitĂŠ hommes/ femmes, UNESCO / Le Programme des Nations Unies pour le DĂŠveloppement (PNUD), en partenariat avec le gouvernement du Burkina Faso (alors Haute-Volta) a lancĂŠ le Projet dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Ă&#x2030;galitĂŠ dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Accès des Femmes et des Jeunes Filles Ă  lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Ă&#x2030;ducation en 1972. Ce projet

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visait Ă amĂŠliorer lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;accès des femmes Ă  lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Ă&#x2030;ducation par lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;allègement de leurs tâches, libĂŠrant ainsi du temps permettant alors aux femmes de participer Ă  des formations tout en assumant leur travail au sein du mĂŠnage. Cette approche, endossĂŠ depuis lors par le gouvernement, est toujours dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;actualitĂŠ. Le projet a portĂŠ des fruits â&#x20AC;&#x201C; actuellement, le taux dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;alphabĂŠtisation des femmes adultes est de 22%, comparativement Ă  8 % de 1985 Ă  !   pas, fait des progrès pour combler le   ! en matière dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠducation.  "  leurs niveaux croissants en ĂŠducation et sa rĂŠsultante, leur voix au chapitre dans leurs communautĂŠs, les femmes ont aussi rĂŠalisĂŠ des gains dans lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;arène politique â&#x20AC;&#x201C; en 2013, elles dĂŠtiennent 15,7% des sièges Ă  lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;AssemblĂŠe Nationale. Ces faits encourageants montrent que lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;on va vers un avenir brillant pour les femmes burkinabe, compte tenu du fait que les forces nationales aussi bien quâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;internationales poussent pour lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠducation et une meilleure reprĂŠsentation des femmes, et donc pour le mieux ĂŞtre des communautĂŠs toutes entières. des femmes, et donc pour le mieux ĂŞtre des communautĂŠs toutes entières. (Courtoisie de lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;UNESCO, la BBC, le PNUD, et The Guardian) Histoire basĂŠe sur les recherches sur le projet dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠducation des femmes et le travail de Brenda Gael McSweeney et Scholastique KompaorĂŠ, assistĂŠ par Cassandra Fox Photos par / Š Brenda Gael McSweeney Photo ci-dessus, Ă  gauche: Première AnnĂŠe Internationale des Femmes (1975), une griotte chante les louanges des contributions du Projet dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠducation des femmes. Plan de Nationsonline.org.


Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;AUTONOMISATION DES FEMMES EN AFRIQUE DE Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;OUEST: LE CAS DU BURKINA FASO EN QUATRE DĂ&#x2030;CENNIES

Nos enquĂŞtes au Burkina Faso dans les annĂŠes 70 ont

    laient en moyenne 8 heures par jour, comparativement aux 4 heures pour les garçons â&#x20AC;&#x201C; en consĂŠquence,       

On attendait des femmes, mĂŞme âgĂŠes, quâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;elles jouent un rĂ´le important dans les tâches mĂŠnagères. Ces poteries contiennent de la bière de mil.

 

   saient la moitiĂŠ de la production agricole dans les annĂŠes 70 ...

â&#x20AC;Ś Et plus de la moitiĂŠ des activitĂŠs gĂŠnĂŠratrices de revenus combinĂŠes aux tâches mĂŠnagères.

Seulement lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;eau non potable ĂŠtait disponible au village dans les annĂŠes 70, et mĂŞme pour cette eau, les femmes     courir des kilomètres, plusieurs heures par jour.

Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;introduction des puits busĂŠs a apportĂŠ un soulagement ĂŠtonnant aux femmes, et rĂŠduit les maladies dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;origine hydrique dans leurs familles.

Le laborieux travail manuel de piler et dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠcraser les mils et autres cĂŠrĂŠales incombait uniquement aux femmes.

Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;introduction dans les annĂŠes 90 de la Plate-forme Multifonctionnelle, exploitĂŠe et gĂŠrĂŠe par les femmes elles- mĂŞmes, a libĂŠrĂŠ du temps et de lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠnergie.

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Une histoire en photos basĂŠe sur la recherche action par Brenda Gael McSweeney et Scholastique KompaorĂŠ

Les technologies allĂŠgeant le travail des femmes, leur a    

 Ă ĂŠtudier plutĂ´t que dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;aider tout le temps dans les activitĂŠs agricoles et les tâches mĂŠnagères.

Les femmes pouvaient aussi participer aux cours dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;alphabĂŠtisation fonctionnelle, grâce Ă des technologies simples qui ont rĂŠduit leur charge de travail non-stop. La femme ici pratique le calcul.

La cheffe dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;un groupe de femmes rurales exprime son point de vue lors dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;une interview dans les annĂŠes 1970.

Des femmes cĂŠlèbrent ici lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;argent rapportĂŠ en une journĂŠe de travail par la technologie qui allège leur travail et leur permet dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;utiliser leur temps de manière plus productive.

Scholastique KompaorĂŠ, Coordonnatrice Nationale du projet UNESCO dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Ă&#x2030;galitĂŠ dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;accès des femmes et 

  tribue Ă la prĂŠservation du patrimoine culturel Ă  travers cette danse traditionnelle Kassena.

Un autre rĂŠsultat des nouvelles technologies â&#x20AC;&#x201C; une     et en plaisantant ses mains lisses, puisquâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;elle ne moud plus son grain entre deux pierres.

Un membre du groupe des femmes, qui gère la plateforme multifonctionnelle, a insistÊ pour nous montrer une partie de leurs gains.

 tinu, cette femme des temps modernes a brisĂŠ les stĂŠrĂŠotypes traditionnels en devenant mĂŠcanicienne moto â&#x20AC;&#x201C; domaine autrefois exclusivement masculin.

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!


! Les femmes du Burkina Faso:

!

Brisent les barrières et inspirent le changement

!

! ! ! ! ! Un autre exemple de succès des temps modernes â&#x20AC;&#x201C; cette artiste peintre dĂŠsormais cĂŠlèbre a surmontĂŠ lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;adversitĂŠ fondĂŠe sur le sexe. Elle donne actuellement des cours pour aider des jeunes femmes aspirantes artistes.

Dans les premiers temps du projet UNESCO, cette femme leader a exprimĂŠ ses points de vue Ă Mme KompaorĂŠ â&#x20AC;&#x201C; mais seulement dans lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;intimitĂŠ de sa case.

Cette femme, intĂŠrimaire du Moogho Naaba (empereur) des Mossi dĂŠtient aujourdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;hui beaucoup de pouvoir traditionnel et est leader dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;un groupe de solidaritĂŠ pour les femmes dans son village.

Brenda Gael McSweeney Brenda a gĂŠrĂŠ des programmes de dĂŠveloppement des Nations Unies au Burkina Faso pendant sept ans. Elle sâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;est concentrĂŠe sur lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠducation des femmes et leurs moyens de subsistance â&#x20AC;&#x201C; tout en vivant dans une cour traditionnelle dans la capitale, Ouagadougou â&#x20AC;&#x201C; et menĂŠ des recherches dans les villages.

Scholastique KompaorĂŠ Scholastique ĂŠtait Coordonnatrice Nationale au Burkina Faso (alors Haute-Volta) du Projet pilote dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠgalitĂŠ dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;accès     

  

   nière en matière de plaidoyer et dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;action pour lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠducation et lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;avancement des femmes, dans son pays et avec le PNUD, en Afrique Sub-saharienne.

Cassandra Fox Cassandra est diplĂ´mĂŠe de lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;UniversitĂŠ de Boston, oĂš elle travaille comme assistante de recherche avec le Dr McSweeney. Elle a ĂŠtudiĂŠ et a travaillĂŠ au Niger, en France et Ă HaĂŻti, en se concentrant sur le dĂŠveloppement international, les droits des femmes, lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠducation Ă  la santĂŠ.

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La photo qui suit, montre, chose rare, une femme intronisĂŠe comme cheffe de village, ce qui nâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;a eu lieu que dans ce siècle. La femme       titre de chef traditionnel, et parle aux visiteurs du rĂ´le des femmes de sa rĂŠgion.

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Profile for BGMcS

Gender Perspectives in Case Studies Across Continents, 2014-2015: Volume II  

Editor: Brenda Gael McSweeney Foreword by Saniye Gülser Corat Afterword by Gloria Bonder

Gender Perspectives in Case Studies Across Continents, 2014-2015: Volume II  

Editor: Brenda Gael McSweeney Foreword by Saniye Gülser Corat Afterword by Gloria Bonder

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