11. ENERGY AND UTILITIES STATEMENT NORTH SPROWSTON AND OLD CATTON OUTLINE PLANNING APPLICATION OCTOBER 2012
Policy in Context
Passive and Active Demand Reduction
Predicted Energy Demand Assessment
Renewable and Low Carbon Energy Options
Conclusions and Next Steps
Appendices Appendix 1 Glossary and Abbreviations
Appendix 2 International and National Policy
Appendix 3 Passive and Active Energy Demand Reduction
Appendix 4 Predicated Energy Demand Model Data Report
Appendix 5 Renewable Energy Screening
Appendix 6 Utility and Physical Infrastructure Technical Report
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Peter Brett Associates LLP (PBA) has been commissioned by Beyond Green Developments Ltd to prepare an energy statement for the site known as North Sprowston and Old Catton (NS&OC). This report has been prepared to identify and assess approaches for the delivery of sustainable energy for NS&OC. It considers energy efficiency in building design, local utility capacity, opportunities for providing energy efficiently, and an initial feasibility review of the potential for renewable and low carbon energy generation. The report also provides a preliminary assessment of energy demand in order to understand supply and generation issues. In turn the site’s energy demand also enables an understanding of technology scale (size, impact, power capacity etc) and the likely impacts (environment, economic, social) on the wider development, the outline planning application and the development’s cost plan. A preferred energy strategy is described, which will enable a low carbon energy supply to the development to be delivered whilst leaving open the possibility of other options, including a co-ordinated approach across the wider Broadland ‘growth triangle’ area, to be considered at detailed design stage.
1.2 Site Location and Spatial Energy Context The site is bounded to the south by the established communities of Old Catton and Sprowston, to the east by Sprowston Manor Golf Club and to the west by Norwich Airport Industrial Estate. North of the site runs the proposed route of the Norwich Northern Distributor Road (NNDR), beyond which lies the village of Spixworth. Parts of the site fall within the four civil parishes of Sprowston, Old Catton, Beeston St Andrew, and Spixworth. The site benefits from its location on three radial routes to and from central Norwich: the A1151 Wroxham Road immediately east of the site; the B1150 North Walsham Road, which bisects it; and the unclassified Buxton/Spixworth Road to the west. Predominantly agricultural land, a significant part of the site comprises the historic Beeston Park, which, under the proposals, would become the centrepiece of a large green infrastructure network. To the south of the site are the areas of Old Catton and Sprowston which comprise of mainly residential land use. Both areas are supplied by grid gas and electricity but it is noted that there is a private gas network which partially supplies the Old Catton area. Typically residential areas such as these represent a large proportion of cumulative energy use as an area but low with demand intensity /m2. To the east of the development, at Rackheath, there are plans for an Ecotown type development with a potential of between 200 to over 4000 homes. Such a development will be characterised by a comparatively low cumulative energy demand and low energy demand intensity. There are severalhigh energy users and areas located around the site. The airport industrial estate to the South West of the sites contains a variety of B2 and B8 units with light manufacturing energy profiles. The adjoining Norwich Airport also has a unique energy demand profile which is currently met through National Grid infrastructure. Such industrial areas are characterised by a relatively high cumulative energy demand and high demand energy intensity/m2 (large energy use over a long period of time). In addition to these areas, there are single properties with high energy demands including the Sprowston Manor Hotel and Tesco Super Store to the East of the site. Typically such energy demands are characterised by comparatively low cumulative energy use but high energy demand intensity/m2. 1
1.3 Development Description The site is being promoted as a residential led mixed use development. The proposed development places a strong emphasis on the creation of a sustainable community. The development schedule of the scheme is shown in Table 1.1 below: Use Class A1
Gross Internal Area (sq m) Up to 8,800
B1 (a, b, c)
Up to 16,800
Up to 1,000
Up to 3,520 (units)
Up to 2,000
Up to 5,000
Table 1.1: Maximum floor space schedule
1.4 Report Structure In order to develop potential approaches to delivery of a low carbon sustainable community we have assessed a number of topic areas to set the context for the development and provide a framework for taking forward a preferred approach to the provision of infrastructure. As result, this report includes the following sections: • Section 2: Policy in Context – details the implications of international, national, regional and local policy on the proposed developments; • Section 3: Passive and Active Demand Reduction – explains the principals of reducing energy demand through design measures; the measures which are likely to be incorporated into both the building fabric and building services design; and the integration of infrastructure options to improve the energy efficiency of the buildings; • Section 4: Predicted Energy Demand Assessment – sets out a preliminary predicted energy demand for the scheme; • Section 5: Renewable and Low Carbon Energy Options – analyses a suite of renewable and low carbon technologies that are available for NS&OC; and • Section 6: Conclusions – summarises the options to low carbon energy supply at NS&OC. A glossary and list of abbreviations used in this report are supplied in Appendix 1.
2. POLICY IN CONTEXT 2.1 Introduction The UK Government’s international commitment to the climate change agenda has driven a series of national, regional and local planning policy that have sought to ensure that the carbon dioxide emissions associated with new buildings are reduced. Climate change has been recognised as one of the most immediate environmental challenges we face. Government legislation includes numerous provisions to minimise climate change and mitigate the anticipated effects. These provisions include a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases (including CO2) by 80% from 1990 levels by the year 2050. A number of interim targets have also been set. The legislation around this issue is set out below. The March 2011 Budget also added an interim carbon emission reduction target of 50% by 2030. The recent introduction of the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) places the Governments aspirations for low carbon generation into a sustainable development framework. Of particular note section 95 requires local planning authorities to: • plan for new development in locations and ways which reduce greenhouse gas emissions; • actively support energy efficiency improvements to existing buildings; and • when setting any local requirement for a building’s sustainability, do so in a way consistent with the Government’s zero carbon buildings policy and adopt nationally described standards The purposes of aligning all local policy to the nationally described standards (i.e. Building Regulations) is to create a single platform for all development nationwide to work together in parallel to achieving the overarching goals of zero carbon developments.
2.2 Building Regulations The UK Government’s international commitment is translated into national, regional and local planning policy to ensure that the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with new buildings are reduced through energy demand reduction and the incorporation of low and zero carbon (LZC) technologies to deliver electricity and heat. The need to reduce energy usage within new dwellings will be enforced through mandatory step changes in the Building Regulations Part L from the current 2010 standards through to 2016. Building Regulations should not be confused with the Code for Sustainable Homes (CfSH), as there is no current legislation which requires high levels of the Code to be achieved by new private dwellings, except where there are local authority requirements (as set out in Section 2). However, since the 1st May 2008, amendments to the Building Regulations require mandatory assessments to be carried out for private dwellings against the CfSH, even though there are no specific levels need to be achieved. In addition the Homes and Communities Agency (HCA) has adopted the former Housing Corporation’s “Design and Quality Standards” April 2007 which sets out a minimum requirement for CfSH Level 3 for houses funded under the National Affordable Housing Programme. The CfSH has no national binding role in policy. The implications of current policies and targets are that any new buildings must meet more challenging targets in terms of energy efficiency and CO2 emission reductions as the UK moves towards zero carbon standards for new developments.
The changes to Part L of the Building Regulations for both domestic and non-domestic properties have been subject to a series of public consultations123, although the final targets and definitions have not been produced. The most recent consultations are presented in Table 2.1 below. Development type
Building Regulations Part L compliance
Building Regulations Part L 2013 compliance (potential
introduce minimum fabric energy efficiency standards) Private Housing
Building Regulation Part L 2016 “zero carbon” compliance
(currently unknown reduction in CO2) All non-domestic buildings
Building Regulation Part L 2016 “aggregated zero carbon”
compliance (a currently “unknown” reduction in CO2 emissions measured against current Building Regulations based on building typology) All publicly funded non
Building Regulation Part L 2016 “zero carbon” compliance (a
further reduction in CO2 emissions measured against 2016
Building Regulations) All remaining buildings
Building Regulation Part L 2016 “zero carbon” compliance (a
further reduction in CO2 emissions measured against 2016 Building Regulations) Table 2.1: Summary of Anticipated Changes to the Building Regulation Part L and the Code for Sustainable Homes.
It is important to note that the changes are being “worked towards” therefore any energy strategy needs to be cognitive of the fact that the policy landscape is not definitive. Currently it is not known whether the Government will continue to commit to this timetable. The Government set up the Zero Carbon Hub to review and formulate recommendations for the definition of “zero carbon”. The Zero Carbon Hub has generated a number of reports looking at the viability of applying percentage reductions in carbon emissions against Building Regulations 2010 for individual housing units and the likely cost and risk associated with this approach. Their preliminary recommendation is for the Government to adopt an aggregated approach to carbon emission reduction against fixed targets rather than percentage reductions applied to individual housing units. Currently this fixed target would be in the region of 10 to 16kgCO2/m2/year depending on the property mix of a site. It is not known whether the Government will accept this approach. The Zero Carbon Hub has also recommended interim fabric energy efficiency (FEE) design standards for adoption as part of the potential changes in the Building Regulations Part L. The consultation process is considering options between meeting the interim FEE standards for 2013 and full FEE standards for implementation in 2016 presented below.
Definition of Zero Carbon Homes and Non Domestic Dwellings December 2008
Zero Carbon for New Non Domestic Buildings
2012 Consultation on the Building Regulations Part L, January 2012
Full FEE kWh/m2/yr
Apartment blocks, Mid-terrace End-terrace, Semi-detached Detached
Table 2.2: FEE rates for Consultation in Building Regulations 2013.
In order to achieve the higher percentage reductions the consultation presented greater flexibility in allowing off-site solutions, to be called “allowable solutions”. Allowable solutions would mitigate residual regulated CO2 emissions following the implementation of energy efficiency measures. A range of potential allowable solutions are currently being considered including off site retro fitting of energy efficiency measures to old housing stock through to investment in offsite renewable energy plant. The delivery of allowable solutions aligns to potential local planning authorities securing carbon investment funds for local projects. National policy is explored further in Appendix 2. In addition to substantive National policies the Greater Norwich Development Partnership’s (GNDP) Local Development Framework has also set policies to cut carbon emissions from the built environment. The GNDP Joint Core Strategy has been based on spatial energy planning research within the Norfolk area. The evidence base suggests that there is a viable wind and biomass resource in the Norfolk area to stimulate low carbon development. This has informed the targets set by the GNDP for renewable energy generation within new developments. The full list of national, regional and local planning policy relating to energy use and CO2 emission reduction targets which are pertinent to this development is provided in Appendix 2. A summary of targets and standards based on the policies that directly relate to NS&OC is provided in Section 2.2 below.
2.2 Targets and Standards Energy performance standards for buildings are set out by planning policy requirements, the Building Regulations and/or funding bodies. For this development the relevant local and regional planning policy is the GNDP Joint Core Strategy and the East of England Plan. The following carbon emission reduction targets currently apply to the site based on current national, regional and local policy: • 10% of energy is to come from decentralised and renewable energy or a low-carbon energy source (East of England Plan and GNDP Core Strategy Policy 3); and • Building Regulations 2010 Part L. The following carbon emission reduction targets have been considered for the site based on emerging national policy (all measured against 2010 Building Regulations): • Building Regulation 2013 compliance potentially requiring Interim FEE (table 2.2); • Building Regulation “Zero Carbon” 2016 compliance for domestic units potentially requiring full FEE (table 2.2); and • Building Regulation “Zero Carbon” 2016 compliance for non-domestic units potentially “aggregated zero carbon” reduction in CO2 emissions.
The above targets are appropriate to be applied to NS&OC based on anunderstanding of current and emerging policy. However, any emerging policy is subject to change; the development will therefore need to be resilient to change, making it important that these targets are reviewed and adjusted at key stages of the planning and development process.
3. PASSIVE AND ACTIVE DEMAND REDUCTION 3.1 Introduction National and regional policy and guidance dictates that any new development should follow the simple energy hierarchy of: reduce demand; use energy more efficiently; and only then supply clean, renewable energy where possible. To meet the first principles of the hierarchy (i.e. reducing demand) it is important to consider passive design principles through; spatial planning, green infrastructure provision to reduce unwanted heating/cooling effects and promote positive impacts and development context, including the impacts of climate change on a building. Passive design does not contribute to carbon emissions reduction calculations under relevant Government policies but can nonetheless play an extremely large part in reducing the energy demands of a property. The methodology for assessing carbon emissions through the Building Regulations is undertaken by the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) for residential properties and Simplified Building Energy Model (SBEM) for non-domestic dwellings. Both these models consider a limited number of criteria to address carbon emissions reduction. When planning for carbon mitigation via building design the critical design issues focus on the buildings themselves, rather than the environment or setting they are placed into. In order to develop a predicted energy demand for the site it is important to understand the capacity to reduce energy in the first place through good building design. The following section provides the basic principles in energy efficiency of a building in line with Part L of the Building Regulations 2010.
3.2 Principles of the Masterplan to reduce energy demand Design principles associated with the top end of the hierarchy (i.e. passive demand reduction) have been developed for NS&OC, which will be taken forward through the development process. These are as outlined in Figure 3.1 below. To meet the first principle of the hierarchy – reducing demand – it is important to consider passive design principles through spatial planning, green infrastructure provision and development context, including the impacts of climate change on a building. Although difficult to quantify in relation to specific projects, passive design can deliver significant energy and carbon savings: recent work by the Zero Carbon Hub “Fabric Energy Efficiency Specification” 2009 shows that energy demand can be reduced by up to 11% through good spatial orientation alone. However, it is important to acknowledge that maximising the benefits of passive design from an energy perspective can conflict with other objectives, such as coherent urban design. The perimeter block layout of NS&OC means that many, but not all, buildings will have an optimal solar orientation considered from a purely energy demand reduction perspective.
Figure 3.1 Energy Hierarchy in Urban Design
In the following sections we have addressed the key design principles in developing the “notional house” for the purposes of predicted energy demand modelling in Section 4.
3.3 Spatial and Plot Design Energy demand reductions can be achieved in the first instance through design measures that can be incorporated into the layout, either at outline or detailed design stage. The following design measures will be incorporated into NS&OC: • consistent with good urban design, plot layout and building design will be selected to facilitate air movement and enhance natural ventilation and address issues with uncontrolled shading from overshadowing buildings and green infrastructure; • green infrastructure will be carefully allocated such that it supports energy demand reduction through providing summer shading or winter wind breaks (see Green Infrastructure Statement); and • provision for green open spaces and other urban greenery such as street trees and green walls has been incorporated into the Masterplan to provide shading during the day and evaporative cooling at night, reducing heat island effects. Possible spatial and plot design measures are surveyed further in Appendix 3.
3.4 Building Design Measures can also be adopted in building design to reduce energy demand requirements from the building use. These measures can be split into two categories: passive and active. The passive measures are design features from architectural and building fabric selection that inherently reduce the building energy requirement. The active measures are design features from building services perspective (i.e. how the building will actually be used) that will increase the efficiency of the energy used. At this stage of the planning process it is not prudent to provide physical building design parameters beyond the layout and scaling of blocks (i.e groups of plots) of development. The following passive design measures can be incorporated and/or enhanced in the design of the buildings to reduce energy requirements in the future: • reducing the air permeability and thermal bridging coefficient of the building envelope; • optimising the U-Values of the external fabric to enable a reduction in energy loss, e.g. through providing additional insulation; • incorporating thermal mass to support “free cooling” during summer months; • enlarging window areas and installing skylights where appropriate to maximise the use of natural daylight; • locating plant rooms away from the southern elevation to avoid excessive heat gain and to allow maximum plant efficiency; and • providing passive shading to avoid overheating. These measures will be considered as a routine part of the detailed design process. The following active design measures could also be considered for incorporation into the mechanical and electrical elements of the buildings: • • • • • • • • •
high efficiency boilers; controls to optimise and compensate for heating variations; zonal control of heating to supply different parts of a building via a building management system; time and thermostat control of hot water; variable speed drives fitted to all pumps and fans that will benefit from speed control; high efficiency lighting; installation of electricity check meters; smart meterering & smart grids; inclusion of daylight and passive infra-red motion detection systems to lighting to common areas in order to ensure they are only operated when required; and • ensuring white goods, where supplied, are suitably rated. Alternatively information could be provided on selecting energy rated appliances. The above list of measures is not exhaustive and a full range of installations will need to be considered in more detail based on the latest available technology as design of the development progresses. The implications of using the above elements are reflected in the NS&OC Energy Demand Model in Section 6.
3.5 Efficient Utility Supply and a ‘Smart Grid’ Historically the UK National Grid was developed to provide connection from large power generation facilities to distribute energy in a unidirectional flow from locations at significant distances from users. At a national level, power generation capacity is significantly greater than required in order to allow for
losses in the distribution network, meeting peak demand without having to manage the grid infrastructure more efficiently. â€œSmart gridâ€? is an umbrella term that describes a more modern method of dealing with the national high voltage transmission and local low voltage distribution of energy. Its application at a national level has evolved out of the need to: enable generation from intermitted energy sources (wind, sun etc) often at the periphery of the network; establish automation and by monitoring of bulk transmission, use spinning reserves effectively; and allow competition in the market place and ultimately drive energy efficiency through the system. In essence, a smart grid allows peaks and troughs of demand to be smoothed through efficient management of demand. Generating and supplying energy to a balanced constant energy demand is significantly easier than to a variable demand that would require additional infrastructure to generate and supply energy to peaks demand. Typically this additional infrastructure remains redundant for the majority of the time. At the local level a smart grid works through better communication between the demand side and generation. This communication is provided through telecommunications such as fibre optics or mobile GPRS to provide an instantaneous supply that is responsive to demands. An example is the capacity to turn on and off non-critical demand to match available supply (for example household white goods). This is now possible as currently GPRS offers a cheap way of transmitting data instantaneously and by working alongside mobile network providers, the necessary infrastructure can be put in place to cope with this communication process. For NS&OC an electrical distribution network that has the capacity to manage generation and distribution against demand more effectively, as described above, will not only be more efficient in its use of energy but also inherently more sustainable by offering value to the end user through rewarding responsible patters of energy use with lower bills and reducing the need for additional generating capacity. Power demand, supply and generation are rarely harmoniously linked. There are, though, elements of smart grid that can be designed into the utility infrastructure from the outset to ensure that the NS&OC infrastructure is both ahead of its time in realising the benefits that a local smart grid can bring and resilient to future changes in technology. A smarter grid at NS&OC will also allow more efficient distribution and management of intermittent renewable energy during peak generation periods across the site to where there is a demand. For example at peak demand, energy can be directed from the sites internal supply, retrieved from storage devices (such as electric vehicle batteries), imported from the National Grid (which would act as the spinning reserve for the site) or, where technology allows, the demand can be actively managed downwards to balance available supply. The result is the optimal use of the generation capacity on the site, an approach which will also yield the best economic return.
4. PREDICTED ENERGY DEMAND ASSESSMENT 4.1 Introduction An energy model has been developed for the NS&OC site based on an estimated development quantum and an assumed “notional house” design (Section 3) for a 3,520 home mixed use development. The model applies the energy demand of properties built to Building Regulations 2010 standards and then presents the likely energy demand of the site after energy efficiency measures presented in Section 3 have been taken into consideration. Based on Beyond Green Development Ltd’s aspiration for developing a low carbon community the “full FEE” standards (Table 2.2) have been applied with a hot water demand of 26litres/person/day. Actual energy demand of the final development will be assessed through the National Calculation Methodology for Building Regulations. The energy demand calculation methodology and results are presented in Appendix 4. The model has split energy usage between regulated and unregulated energy usage where: • regulated energy is heat or power that relates to hot water, space heating, lighting, and associated fans and pumps. Regulated energy demand is regulated through the Building Regulations; and • unregulated energy is all other energy such as appliances, IT, and cookers. There is currently no policy or regulation that controls unregulated energy demand. The methodology and results of the predicted energy demand assessment are provided in Appendix 4.
4.2 Baseline Energy Demand The energy model shows that the baseline for the site (i.e. building the site to the 2010 Building Regulation requirements) would require approximately 19GWh of electricity (regulated and unregulated) and 31GWh of gas. The total annual carbon emissions associated with the baseline is in the region of 16,000 tonnes of CO2 of which 9,000 tonnes are associated with regulated energy use.
4.3 Predicted Energy Demand Following the implementation of energy efficiency measures associated with the phasing of the development against changes in Building Regulations (as noted in Section 3.0), the energy demand for the site will reduce to 18GWh of electricity and 23GWh of gas. As a result of these improvements the annual total carbon emissions associated with the predicted energy demand is in the region of 13,000 tonnes of CO2 of which 7,000 tonnes are associated with regulated emissions, a reduction of 24% over the baseline.
5. RENEWABLE AND LOW CARBON ENERGY OPTIONS 5.1 Introduction There is a wide range of large and small scale low or zero carbon technologies that can be considered to meet part or all of the development’s energy requirements. The delivery of decentralised energy needs to consider the current energy infrastructure and provision within the area to ensure the most financially sustainable approach is adopted. Within this section an assessment of current utility capacity has been provided. Following this an assessment of spatial capacity for decentralised energy generation technology has been undertaken to see whether each technology is effective for the development in the first instance. The large (macro) and small (micro) scale generation technology options that have been considered for the NS&OC site include: 5.1.1 Macro • Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) • Gas Electrical Engine • Fuel Cells • Biomass Boilers • Wind Turbines • Anaerobic Digestion (AD) • Gasification • Pyrolysis 5.1.2 Micro • Solar Photovoltaics (PV) • Solar Thermal Collectors • Biomass boilers • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) • Air Source Heat Pumps (ASHP) • Micro CHP • Micro Fuel Cells A detailed review of these technologies is provided in Appendix 5. The review covers the likely availability of each of the above technologies, the capacity of the technology to power the site, potential capital costs and a view as to the effectiveness of the technologies at NS&OC.
5.2 Current Energy Infrastructure A preliminary energy utility (and ICT) assessment has been undertaken for NS&OC which is presented in Appendix 6 of this report. In terms of electrical infrastructure, UK Power Networks (UKPN) has noted that there is currently 3MVA capacity within the local Sprowston Primary Substation that may be available to the initial growth of NS&OC. Further capacity would be made available in the strategic primary substation expansion planned at Hurricane Way, Norwich with connection to the NS&OC site coming from new 11kV electrical cables.
National Grid Gas (NGG) has noted that there is an existing Intermediate Pressure gas main running from north west of the site to the south east. NGG have advised that there is sufficient supply in the intermediate pressure gas main to supply the development. BT has confirmed that there is capacity in their Openreach network to supply the site. From these initial enquiries there appears to be appropriate infrastructure in place or planned for to supply energy (and communication technology) from the local grid infrastructure.
5.3 Approaches to Delivering Low Carbon Energy Infrastructure Delivery of low carbon infrastructure can be achieved through using the current utility infrastructure (i.e. the National Grid) supplemented by onsite generation (most likely micro generation), or through establishing a strategic energy asset for local power and heat supply. These two approaches are discussed further below. 5.3.1 On Site Generation Approach The development could follow a micro generation and/or community energy approach. This would implement technologies that would service each property or group of properties. Generally this is a preferred approach for house builders as it is simple and can be delivered in volume without phasing issues associated with building out an energy network. There also is limited commercial risk for the house builders in becoming power generation originators. This approach would require an electrical infrastructure that can accept and balance peak power generation from across the development as well as meeting maximum demand as the two events will rarely match. In order to manage this issue Beyond Green Developments are exploring the potential for using Smart Grid technology to balance and manage energy demand (Section 3.5). The application of micro generation would need to meet the requirement for 10% renewable energy generation between 2012 and 2016 in line with Policy 3 of the GNDP Core Strategy. Based on the site’s location and the details of the outline Masterplan it is possible to assign a suite of “effective solutions” to the site from the range of technologies currently available. In each case, either community or bespoke application of these technologies or wide spread inclusion may be appropriate at NS&OC. • Grid electricity has a far higher carbon density per kWh than natural gas used for heating. Despite its relatively high costs it is considered that photovoltaic (PV) technologies offer benefits in limited applications due to their effectiveness in reducing CO2 because it displaces electricity as opposed to heat. It is worth noting that investment into PV technologies has increased greatly over the last 5 years and efforts are being made to develop low cost technological solutions to solar power. It is therefore suggested that any energy infrastructure purchase should be mindful of and flexible to such technological innovation and cost reduction. • Ground source and air source heat pumps could make a useful contribution to reducing carbon emissions even though they have to make a far higher contribution to meeting demand on a kWh basis compared to electricity displacing technologies. Their use, like PV, may be considered in low density housing areas. Their use may be complementary to other technologies as they tend to be dedicated to space heating rather than water heating and do not provide electricity generation. In addition ground source heating is not dependent on building orientation (compared to solar technologies) and therefore may present a preferable option for some buildings. • Air source heating, in particular air to hot water technologies, also present an opportunity for the development especially with properties that are not dependent on building orientation. It should
be noted that all heat pump technologies add an additional electricity demand to a development ranging from 1.5kW to 2kW per unit to the peak demand. Solar water heating is viable for the majority of housing, with the exception of flats/apartment blocks, where roof space is limited compared to demand requirements. On an individual basis solar thermal is a relatively cost effective method of reducing carbon emissions. Further financial savings are likely to occur if there are bulk purchases of solar thermal products and installation. Micro gas CHP systems are now available in the market. These systems can replace conventional gas combi boilers in residential developments. Where a combi boiler would just burn gas to generate heat, micro gas CHP generates electricity as well as heat. Each house benefits from generating their own electricity and would receive income from energy suppliers for such generation for generating the electricity (albeit from a fossil fuel source). It is possible to apply domestic biomass boilers to some or all of the properties with links to a local biomass fuel supply network. It is likely that such technology would be delivered at the request of the property purchaser/tenant, and therefore its inclusion in the development mix would not be known until a very late point in the planning process. Community CHP applications are also potentially viable for areas of high density (typically above 50units/ha or associated with particular building use class with higher heat demands (leisure centres, hotels etc). Bespoke applications of CHP (>1MW) will be considered at the site following further detailed design. It is important that such facilities are design based on end user requirements hence the need to assess at reserved matters or detailed design stage. It is also possible to locate gas reciprocating engines on NS&OC to generate low carbon electricity from natural gas. Such an approach would align to developing smart grid infrastructure to balance generation, supply and demand more efficiently. Where possible low grade waste heat associated with the reciprocating engines will be utilised locally for commercial purposes.
5.3.2 Strategic Energy Asset Approach There is an opportunity for delivering a strategic energy asset to the north of Norwich to support the growth plans of the GNDP and/or Broadland and the expansion of grid infrastructure of the area. This would serve multiple development sites – i.e. not just NS&OC – and could potentially be located either within the Broadland ‘growth triangle’ or associated with UK Power Networks’ preferred infrastructure expansion at the Airport Industrial Estate. One of the largest costs associated with the provision of large scale decentralised energy is the distribution of heat. The provision of district heating is only commercially viable if there is a significant heat demand to service in relation to the cost of carbon abatement. The return on investment for installing the heat centre(s) and heat infrastructure needs to come from selling heat or in a connection cost. For the NS&OC the cost of carbon abatement needs to be considered against the carbon targets that are set within the Building Regulations. As there will be a limited heat demand the cost of heat provision per customer is escalated dramatically and is far greater than the cost of traditional gas supplemented by micro generation at this level. As such the purpose of a strategic energy asset is to locate the power generation plant near areas of large heat demand (such as hospitals, municipal buildings, data centres etc). To do this a partnership would need to be established with relevant stakeholders (such as NCC and BDC) to establish a viable heat network approach. If such an energy asset could be established it could supply either (or both) low carbon electricity or heat to NS&OC. Details of such an approach will need to be developed once there is a level of market certainty on NS&OC being developed (i.e. post outline application). The market opportunity for delivering a
strategic energy asset either within NS&OC or a strategic location to the north of Norwich will need to be considered post outline consent. It is recognised that a strategic energy asset would support the East of England Plan ENG1 to provide opportunities for a Local Authority led energy service company.
5.4 Decentralised Energy Strategy Beyond Green Developments Ltd are dedicated to developing a scheme with a significantly lower energy demand than standard land development projects. This will be achieved through the design of the scheme, plot layout and the fabric energy efficiency of each building. With the current available grid infrastructure in place meeting the changes in Building Regulations over the decade could be achieved through â€˜on plotâ€™ technologies. Beyond Green Developments Ltd are, however, looking at establishing opportunities around district energy supply by connecting on site electrical generation plant to users through smarter infrastructure. The delivery of a district energy supply network is predicated on the financial viability of energy generation, supply and demand. Currently Beyond Green Developments Ltd is exploring the use of strategic use of gas reciprocating electrical engines to supply low carbon electricity though the scheme. As the scheme is likely to have a very low heat demand, the use of electrical led heat technology such as heat pumps or advanced electrical heating is also being considered. It is estimated that this strategy would enable a site-wide reduction in direct carbon emissions of up to 60% for the entire development. Addition of technologies such a PV will further reduce carbon emissions across the scheme. Beyond Green Developments will continue to evaluate alternative approaches, including an area-wide strategy at greater scale, where these could deliver similar or better outcomes at efficient cost. This assessment will also include the establishment of a potential onsite energy management company that may take the form of an Energy Services Company (ESco) or purely an onsite estate management group. Further details on the final preferred approach to decentralised energy systems will emerge alongside the detailed and reserved matters application. Any solution will require to meet Building Regulations which is likely to be the regulatory process to assess carbon emission reduction from energy at NS&OC.
6. CONCLUSIONS AND NEXT STEPS 6.1 Conclusions This report provides an overarching Energy Statement in support of the outline planning application for a mixed use development comprising residential and non-residential land uses at NS&OC. A review has been undertaken of the existing and emerging planning and energy policy context including legislation and policy guidance. National policy prescribed a changing energy targets towards a zero carbon standard. Regional policy promoted the use of renewable energy and for the inclusion of 10% renewable energy in new developments and local policy supports low carbon growth. Current development plan policies focus on promoting energy conservation measures through policies guiding the design, layout and construction techniques for new development. In addition, leading utility design measures will be explored such as Smart Grid. The spatial layout, plot design and building design will account for the majority of carbon emission reduction to meet the Building Regulation standards. The addition of micro generation technology will allow further carbon emission reductions over these figures where required or specified by the end user. However, it is recognised that there are a number of strategic energy opportunities in the north Norwich area, which NS&OC is in a position to support. Beyond Green Developments Ltd are therefore exploring these opportunities further. These include onsite power generation or potential off site strategic power generation as part of a wider North of Norwich municipal energy strategy. At this point there are a number of effective technologies that could be applied on site from micro generation including heat pumps, PV, solar thermal, micro fuel cells and domestic biomass meeting through to larger installations of CHP, fuels cells and biomass power. Currently Beyond Green Developments Ltd is also exploring electrical generation technology to supply low carbon electricity across the scheme. Based on the need for further scheme detail in delivering low carbon utilities further Energy Statements will be provided with each reserved matters application to provide clarity on the approach to delving low carbon utilities.
APPENDIX 1 â€“ GLOSSARY AND ABBREVIATIONS AD Allowable solutions
Anaerobic Digestion Forms of carbon abatement delivered off-site which mitigate any residual carbon emissions from a building once onsite requirements have been met. Specific details have not yet been announced.
Air Source Heat Pumps
Building Research Establishment
Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method
Building Management Systems (BMS) Carbon Compliance:
A software based control system that operates heat and power use within a building to maintain internal temperatures and energy usage.
Setting an appropriate limit for zero carbon new homes
Climate Change agreement
Combined Cooling Heating and Power
A system under which the heat generated in the process of electricity generation is used to
heat and power.
heat dwellings and other buildings through the circulation of hot water or steam
Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineering
CIL Community Infrastructure Levy. CO2 CO2(eq) /m2/year Community energy
A levy which local authorities in England and Wales may choose to charge on new developments in their area Carbon dioxide. A greenhouse gas. Carbon dioxide (and other greenhouse gases expressed as equivalents) per square metre per year. A measure of emissions. Distribution of locally generated energy within a development
Coefficient of Performance
Department for Communities and Local Government
Department of Energy & Climate Change
Large scale distribution of locally generated energy to new and / or existing buildings across multiple developments i.e. town scale
Energy from Waste
Emissions Trading Scheme Fabric Energy Efficiency Standard. Defined in a report by the Zero Carbon Hub, Defining a
Fabric Energy Efficiency Standard for Zero Carbon Homes, published in November 2009 Fuel Factors In current (2010) compliance methodology, Fuel Factors are applied to the calculation of Target CO2 Emission Rate (TER) depending on the fuel used to provide heat
to the dwelling. The effect is that, for example, electrically heated dwellings are allowed to emit more CO2 than an equivalent gas heated dwelling FIT
Feed in Tariff The Energy Bill introduced to Parliament on 8 December 2010 includes provision for a new
â€œGreen Deal,â€? under which a framework would be established to enable private firms to offer consumers energy efficiency improvements to their homes and recover the costs through a charge on the energy bill levied over an extended period of time
Ground Source Heat Pump
Gigawatt hours (Giga=1,000,000,000)
Key Performance Indicator
Kilowatt hours (1,000)
Low & Zero Carbon
Megawatt hours (1,000,000) An imagined dwelling used in the assessment of carbon intensity; it uses data about the size
and shape of the real dwelling, and standardised data for the carbon performance of its components
Office of Gas and Electricity Regulator
Part L (Conservation of Fuel and Power) of the Building Regulations A specific construction standard for low energy buildings which are designed to have
excellent comfort conditions in both winter and summer. Originally developed by the PassivHaus Institute in Germany
Peter Brett Associates LLP
Predicted Energy Demand
Planning Policy Statement
Photovoltaics. PV panels convert sunlight to electricity
Renewable Heat Incentive
Renewables Obligation Certificates
Regional Spatial Strategy
An energy assessment tool currently used to determine whether new dwellings comply with
Part L (Conservation of Heat and Power) of the Building Regulations. The tool consists of a
core computer algorithm which is applied to data about the new dwelling
Simplified Building Energy Model
The spinning reserve is the extra generating capacity that is available by increasing the power output of generators that are already connected to the power system
APPENDIX 2 – POLICY International and national policy The Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which set targets for reductions in carbon emissions for several industrialised nations. It was negotiated in 1997 and came into force in 2005. The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding agreement, which requires the UK to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 12.5% below 1990 levels by 2008 - 2012.
The 2007 Energy White Paper This contains the UK government’s then intention to reduce CO2 emissions by 60 % by 2050, based on a report produced by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. It contains interim targets, including a target to generate 10 % of UK electricity from renewable energy by 2010, doubling by 2020.
The European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) This requires that the ‘technical, environmental and economic feasibility of alternative energy supply systems should be considered’ for all new buildings with a useful floor area greater than 1000m2. Article 5 of the EPBD is addressed in England and Wales by revisions to Part L of the Building Regulations, which address the conservation of fuel and power. These came into effect in 2006 and contain limits for overall carbon emissions associated with energy use. Further changes are now in effect, whereby the current 2010 regulations require a further 25 % average reduction in overall carbon emissions over the 2006 regulations.
The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) In section 95 requires local planning authorities to: plan for new development in locations and ways which reduce greenhouse gas emissions; actively support energy efficiency improvements to existing buildings; and, when setting any local requirement for a building’s sustainability, do so in a way consistent with the Government’s zero carbon buildings policy and adopt nationally described standards. The purpose of aligning all local policy to the nationally described standards (i.e. Building Regulations) is to create a single platform for all development nationwide to work together in parallel in achieving the overarching goals of zero carbon developments.
The Climate Change Act 2008 The Climate Change Act puts into statute the UK’s targets to reduce CO2 emissions through domestic and international action by at least 80% by 2050 and at least 26% by 2020 (against a 1990 baseline). The 26% was superseded by April 2009 Budget to a level of 34% by 2020.
The Renewables Obligation Order 2009 In order to meet its Kyoto and domestic targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the UK Government has introduced a range of policy measures to promote electricity generation from non-
polluting, renewable sources and encourage energy efficiency. The Renewables Obligation4, which came into effect in April 2002, requires licensed electricity suppliers to obtain a certain proportion of their electricity from renewable sources, pay others to do so on their behalf, or pay a ‘buy-out’ price, which may be regarded as a penalty for non-compliance. The scheme operates through OFGEM who award Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs) to certain renewable electricity generators for units of electricity sold to a licensed electricity supplier. Electricity suppliers collect ROCs in proportion to their total electricity sales each year. The ‘buy-out’ price for electricity suppliers gives ROCs a commercial value, thereby increasing the price of renewable electricity paid to generators. The buy-out ‘pot’ that accumulates is re-distributed (known as a recycled benefit) to suppliers that meet the Renewables Obligation in ways other than buying-out thus improving the economics of developing renewable energy schemes. The nature of sales on the open market means that ROC prices are not fixed (although there is supposedly a lower limit, due to the buy-out price). Like the underlying electricity, electricity generators (ROC sellers) must negotiate an acceptable price with suppliers (ROC buyers). In devising a ROC purchase agreement, one must consider the future value of ROCs in the market, which, due to the buy-out ‘recycle’, is partly influenced by the extent to which the Obligation is met overall. Thus, there is a ‘ROC price-risk’. Rates are:
The Government’s Sustainable Development Agenda – Securing the Future The UK Government has identified four priority areas for sustainable development. These are: sustainable consumption and production; climate change and energy; natural resource protection and environmental enhancement; and sustainable communities. The Government recognises that encouraging a change in behaviour is key to promoting its sustainability priorities. The principles and approaches are covered in Securing the Future - the UK Government's Sustainable Development Strategy (2005).
And the equivalent Renewables Obligation (Scotland).
Building a Greener Future – Policy Statement In July 2007, the Government published a policy statement entitled “Building A Greener Future – Policy Statement” which announced that all new homes will be zero carbon from 2016. This policy statement drew on the definitions for the various levels given in the code for Sustainable Homes and a trajectory was established for the implementation of these levels for both private and public sector new housing. This policy statement also detailed the changes required to Part L of the Building Regulations – Conservation of Fuel and Power which will be implemented in 2013 in respect of reductions in CO2 emissions compared with current (2010) Building Regulations for all new non-domestic buildings. In addition, in the Budget 2008, the UK Government announced its’ ambition that all new nondomestic buildings should be zero carbon from 2019. The UK renewable energy strategy 2009 This document sets out the path to achieve a legally binding target to ensure 15% of UK energy comes from renewable sources by 2020. This target is equivalent to a seven-fold increase in UK renewable energy consumption from 2008 levels: the most challenging of any EU Member State. This is to be achieved by generating 30% of UK electricity from renewables up from 5.5% at current levels, including wind power, bio mass, wave and tidal sources. This includes a target of 12% of our heat generated expected to come from sources including biogas, bio mass, solar and heat pump sources. This strategy refers to set out the framework for clean energy cash back for households and communities to use renewable heat and small scale clean electricity generation by introducing new guaranteed payments through ‘Feed in Tariffs’ from 2010 and a ‘Renewable Heat Incentive’ from 2011. This marks an important extension of UK Government policy with efforts to support non-centralised (or distributed) renewable energy generation. (Note: noted from the Coalition Government policy document: The Coalition – Our Programme for Government – May 2010) which confirms support for feed in tariffs). The Energy Act 2008 and 2010 The Energy Act 2008 implements the legislative aspects of the 2007 Energy White Paper: “meeting the energy challenge”. It provides the basis of regulatory change to meet the needs for energy generation, energy infrastructure and promotion of low carbon technologies. Notable provisions within the Act allow for banding of the Renewable Obligation, the introduction of a feed-in-tariff for low carbon electricity generation, introduction of a Renewables Heat Incentive, changes to the licensing requirements for offshore energy developments and offshore carbon storage, and licensing requirements relating to the cost of processing waste at new nuclear sites. The Energy Act 2010 forms part of the first wave of instruments to take the UK into a low carbon and resource efficient economy. The main focus of the Act is to apply British Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) theoretical capabilities into deliverable and demonstrated projects. To pay for this, the Act has introduced the potential for the Government to apply an electrical levy to electricity suppliers, the levy will be managed by Ofgem. How this electrical levy will be enacted is yet to be decided, but the resulting funds raised are intended to support CCS projects. It is understood that the sum which will need to be raised is in the region of £9 billion over the next 10 years. Inevitably, the electricity suppliers will pass this cost onto consumers, adding what could be in excess of 3% to electricity bills. If the Government decides to increase the capital sums and shorten the time scales, the impact on our 21
electricity bills will be greater still. From the Energy Act 2010, Ofgem obtains great regulatory powers to tackle market exploitation and drive the low carbon transition. In addition, the Act provides a mandatory social price support mechanism to help alleviate social fuel poverty. Building Regulations Approved Document L: Conservation of Fuel and Power 2010 New measures to make buildings more energy efficient were announced by ODPM and Defra on 13 September 2005. These much awaited changes are having a significant effect on design and construction practices and are intended to improve energy efficiency standards by 40%. Approved Document L, (ADLs): Conservation of Fuel and Power, which came into force on 6 April 2006, sets out to save one million tonnes of carbon per year. The document has been published in four parts: • • • •
L1A: Conservation of Fuel and Power in New Dwellings; L1B: Conservation of Fuel and Power in Existing Dwellings; L2A: Conservation of Fuel and Power in New Buildings other than Dwellings; and L2B: Conservation of Fuel and Power in Existing Buildings other than Dwellings.
The new ADLs have been tightened up to help Government hit their Energy White Paper and 'Action Plan For Energy Efficiency' targets and aim to bring down carbon emissions – the principle measure adopted throughout – by some 25% for new buildings. In brief, the ADLs set performance targets for the whole building rather than for construction or elements. Thus, in Part L1A, the Target Carbon Emission Rating (TER) for a dwelling, or the average taken over a block of apartments, must be shown to be higher than the proposed Dwelling Carbon Emission Rate (DER). This is the only calculation method allowable for schemes that are being assessed by the Building Control Body. In Part L1A, for example, the TER is a minimum guidance value and is measured in kg/m2/year (the mass of CO2/floor area over time) and takes account of heating, lighting and ventilation. Code for Sustainable Homes 2010 The Code for Sustainable Homes is a national standard for sustainable design and construction of new homes. The Code measures the sustainability of a new home against nine categories of sustainable design and construction, rating the ‘whole home’ as a complete package. The Code uses a one to six star rating system to communicate the overall sustainability performance. It sets minimum standards for energy and water use at each level. Local Planning Authorities are introducing within their emerging development plan policies requiring new development to achieve certain minimum code standards. GNDP’s Core Strategy (proposed submission version), contains draft policy for achieving the following Code Levels: Year* 2010/11 – 2012/13 2013/14 – 2015/16 2016/17 onwards
Code Level Level 3 Level 4 Level 6
*Year of the development’s full plans Building Regulations submissions.
Homes built to one of the six Code Levels should have lower running costs and help reduce your environmental footprint. A home that achieves Code Level 3 should be more energy and water efficient than one built to 2010 Building Regulations standards.
The Feed-in-Tariff Order 2010 (amended 2011) The rates that customers receive under the Feed-in-Tariff scheme have been set by DECC and are listed in the table below. Once registered for FITs, the generation tariff received will last for the tariff lifetime and be adjusted annually for inflation. The table shows that some of the tariffs reduce in Year 3 onwards, this would only apply to new installation registered during that year. The FITS are about to change in July 2011 based on a recent consultation associated with PV rates.
Renewable Heat Incentive 2011 (Energy Act 2008 Amendment Section 100) Like its sister subsidy mechanism the Feed in Tariff (FiT), the purpose of the RHI is to stimulate the market for renewable heat. The RHI will be rolled out in two phases. The first is focused on the nondomestic market with payments made against metered consumption (which includes decentralised energy plant supplying heat to multiple domestic dwellings). For the domestic market a mechanism known as Renewable Heat Payment Premiums (paid quarterly) will be enacted. This payment will be made against the peak generation capacity of single systems supplying individual properties. The detailed technology registry and information on payment mechanisms are expected in May 2011.
The second phase, commencing 2013, will include further arrangements to support the domestic market. It is expected that the second phase will also include more technologies (for example, air source heating) for the wider scheme. The number of renewable heat technologies included within the RHI for the non-domestic market is currently limited due to ongoing considerations of technical viability. This means the technology range isnâ€™t as large as it could be â€“ although, interestingly, a tariff for the injection of biomethane direct into the national gas grid is included.
Regional Policy The Regional Spatial Strategy (RSS) for the East of England is the East of England Plan. This document was published in May 2008 and sets out the strategy for planning and development in the region. Policies within the East of England Plan that would be relevant to a development on the NS&OC site include:
Local Policy The site is located within Broadland District Council (BDC) and is also governed by planning policies set out by Norfolk County Council (NCC).
Local Plan The Broadland District Local Plan (Replacement) was adopted in May 2006 and a number of its policies have been ‘saved’ by the Secretary of State. However, due to changes in planning legislation, the Local Plan is gradually being replaced with documents that form the Council’s Local Development Framework (LDF). The saved policies include: • GS4 New development will be permitted only where utilities, service and social infrastructure are or can be made adequate, or where agreement is reached to ensure that suitable improvements will be made at an appropriate stage in the implementation of the development; • ENV 2 For all development proposals a high standard of layout and design will be required, with regard given to the scale, form, height, mass, density, layout, water and energy efficiency, provision for the storage of waste including recyclable material, landscape, access and crime prevention and the use of appropriate materials, including the use of native species for landscaping. This will include the consideration of the appearance and treatment of spaces between and around buildings, and the wider setting of the development taking into account the existing character of the surroundings;
• CS7 Proposals for renewable energy projects will be permitted, unless they would five rise to a significant adverse environmental impact. In some instances, a temporary planning permission may be granted, for example where the source or power is temporary or the enable a trial run of a project, the impacts of which are particularly uncertain. Similarly, if the long term viability of the project is uncertain a condition will be imposed requiring the dismantling of the development and restoration of the land should operation cease. Norfolk Climate Change Strategy Norfolk County Council are looking to work with developers and the construction industry to improve implementation of part L of the Building Regulations and set out a road map for achieving zero carbon development by 2016, with clear low carbon targets applying to development due before 2016. This includes the effective use of the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) and the development of special purpose vehicles to own energy generation and distributions (such as energy service companies). Local Development Framework The Core Strategy is a primary and strategic document in the LDF and sets out a long term spatial vision and strategic objectives for future development in the area over the next 20 years. Broadland District Council is a member of the Greater Norwich Development Partnership (GNDP), in addition to Norwich City Council and South Norfolk Council. The GNDP have developed a Joint Core Strategy in order to develop a plan and policies for growth across Broadland, Norwich and South Norfolk to ensure that future development is sustainable and well managed. The Joint Core Strategy was adopted on the 24th March. The Core Strategy has a strong emphasis on resource efficiency which is reflected in the following policies: • Policy 1: Addressing climate change and protecting environmental assets. To address climate change and promote sustainability, all development will be located and designed to use resources efficiently, minimise greenhouse gas emissions and be adapted to a changing climate and more extreme weather. • Policy 3: Energy and water. Development in the area will, where possible, aim to minimise reliance on non-renewable high-carbon energy sources and maximise the use of decentralised and renewable or low carbon energy sources and sustainable construction technologies. To help achieve this: o all development proposals of a minimum of 10 dwellings or 1,000sqm of non residential floorspace will be required (a) to include sources of ‘decentralised and renewable or low carbon energy’ (as defined in the glossary) providing at least 10% of the scheme’s expected energy requirements and (b) to demonstrate through the Design and Access Statement for the scheme whether or not there is viable and practicable scope for exceeding that minimum percentage provision; o in addition to the above requirement, detailed proposals for major developments (minimum of 500 dwellings or 50,000sqm of non residential floorspace) will be required to demonstrate through the Design and Access Statement that the scheme has seized opportunities to make the most of any available local economies of scale to maximise provision of energy from sources of ‘decentralised and renewable or low carbon energy sources’; o all development proposals of a minimum of 10 dwellings or 1,000sqm of non residential floorspace will be required to demonstrate, through the Design and Access Statement, that all viable and practicable steps have been taken to maximise opportunities for sustainable construction;
o provision will be made for strategic enhancement of the electricity and gas supply networks to support housing and employment growth. This will include major investment in existing electricity substations in central Norwich and to the east of Norwich. It is noted in the monitoring framework of the Core Strategy under spatial objects 2 that there is still a monitoring requirement for CfSH Level 6 in 2015 for affordable housing units. The Sustainable Energy Study for the Joint Core Strategy for Broadlands, Norwich, and South Norfolk (2009) formed the evidence base for the above Core Strategy policy. The findings of this report suggests that all new large urban extensions can achieve high renewable energy generation targets through the implementation of wind energy and biomass either from biomass crop or coppicing sourced locally.
APPENDIX 3 – PASSIVE AND ACTIVE ENERGY DEMAND REDUCTION Spatial and Plot Design for Energy Reduction The principles of reducing energy consumption at the NS&OC has been considered within the spatial design and the place making of the development. The following design features have been considered where possible at NS&OC and taken forward at further design detail.
Solar Management through Orientation Passive solar energy gains of properties can be enhanced through careful orientation. The main glazed axis (and preferably the primary façade) should be oriented within a 300 of the south to obtain maximum daylight. Solar orientation of the buildings on a site wide basis will also allow roof pitches to accommodate solar powered renewable energy technologies. In order to allow buildings within the development to have a preferential solar orientation final road alignments should be on an east to west axis where possible. This though needs to be managed in line with, for example the place making agenda for NS&OC. Where road alignment does not allow a building to have a preferential solar orientation, alternative roof pitches could be considered to allow access to the south.
Ambient Summer Cooling The predominant summer wind flow at NS&OC is from the south west. The design of the main thoroughfare running to the district centre from the south west to north east of the site will allow a clear flow of air movement into the heart of the development. This “wind artery” will be utilised to draw the natural summer breeze through the streets of the development. Plots design should consider vehicles to be parked on the north side of properties where possible. This will allow natural shading from properties over the car parking facilities or spaces reducing the impact of heat within cars in summer. In turn this reduces the requirements of energy intensive air conditioning of vehicles.
Undercroft and multi-storey car parking within high density housing areas can also provide car shading promoting reduced need for summer air conditioning in the cars. Water allows natural cooling of the urban environment. The use of water features within the development will help reduce the urban heat island affect. Opportunities to tie in surface water and urban drainage infrastructure will be considered across the development. Minimising Uncontrolled Shading Overshadowing from buildings reduces natural daylight from entering properties within the shaded path, whilst this can be used to a developmentâ€™s advantage, careful planning will be needed to stop uncontrolled access to sunlight for properties. The detailed design of NS&OC will consider the height and form of buildings to use shading in a positive manner and provide good access to daylight for buildings. The same issue of uncontrolled shading can also occur through poor landscaping and insufficient maintenance where large evergreen trees are allowed to grow to a height that causes overshadowing of properties. It may be possible future landscaping issues with deeds and covenants where possible.
Landscaping When designing plots consideration will be given to placing garden space to the south of properties. This will allow good access to sunlight within the gardens and promote internal orientation of â€œliving areasâ€? with homes towards the garden space. In locations where the south aspect of a dwelling is facing a road, provision of evergreen shrubs and trees should be consider to provided privacy of potential garden space.
The use of green infrastructure can support energy demand reduction through solar shading. Planting of deciduous trees above the shadow line will allow summer shading where necessary and allow buildings access to winter sunlight.
Evergreen planting will provide shelterbelts if planted on a north west to south east axis. These shelterbelts will reduce heat lost from south westerly winter winds. They should be planted a distance of 3-4 times their mature height from south facing elevations to as not to obstruct sunlight. In addition they can be cut during summer months to allow summer south westerly winds to reach properties. Green spaces within the masterplan have been designed to provide positive micro climates within the urban form. During the daytime these green spaces will provide shading whilst at night, space for evaporative cooling. This process will moderate potential urban heat island effects. Green spaces and appropriate planting of grass species as part of a designed flood alleviation scheme also reduces storm water runoff reducing the risk of urban flooding.
Building Design - Passive Demand Reduction Measures Building design has an obvious impact on energy usage. There are various passive design measures that can be incorporated into either or both residential and commercial properties. Some of these design measures are not considered with basic modelling programmes for assessing Building Regulation Part L compliance. Although through utilising a more complex buildings assessment model it is possible to show the carbon emission reduction capacity of such features within each building. This would support impacts of climate change and the predicted warmer conditions in the Norfolk area.
Internal Orientation At the detailed design stage consideration should given to the internal layout of the residential properties to orientate â€œliveable roomsâ€? such as living room, kitchen and bedrooms to the south of the footprint to allow maximum natural daylight to be utilised more efficiently. The northern rooms should be utilised for rooms that are not in continuous occupation such as utility rooms and bathrooms. Rooms without good access to natural daylight can be supported by innovative natural lighting mechanisms such as roof lights, roof lanterns and solar tubes. For commercial buildings heat emitting plant can be placed on the northern side away from solar heating gain. Most plant runs more efficiently if kept at a constant temperature. Heat can either be extracted from server rooms as utilised within the buildings heating systems (naturally or actively) or naturally ventilated externally. The internal layout of commercial buildings should consider the final occupants requirements, therefore internal layouts should ideally only be decided once the final occupant is known. Basements Consideration will be given to providing basements within both commercial and residential buildings. Basements provide a natural controlled environment through the stable ambient ground temperatures. These stable temperatures will support the energy efficiency of a a variety of building uses as described below. Boilers and heating plant are more efficient if run at in a stable environment. The stable basement temperatures can be utilised to run plant more efficiently. By placing heating plant within a basement the use of natural heat will rise through a building. For properties with a high level of insulation natural ventilation becomes an issue if cold air is drawn into the property through vents to provide appropriate natural air flow. In essence this means a heat demand is needed to heat the cold air in the habitable space. By placing heating plant within a basement fresh air can be drawn into the non habitable space without impact on comfort levels and then distributed naturally upwards. 31
The controlled temperature of a basement can also be used for storage of perishable items such as some types of food. For residential purposes having larder storage space for some types of perishable food reduces the need for large â€œlarder fridgesâ€? reducing the electrical energy demand on a property. For commercial buildings basements can be used for server space where preferred running temperatures are more easily maintained and heat from the servers can be extracted and utilised in the heating systems. . Natural Day Lighting Day lighting is a corner stone to green design and a major contributor to good energy performance as well as occupants comfort, productivity and health. In order to make the best use of day light the majority of glazed elements should be placed on the south face of the buildings. On the north side of the property small window openings should be provided reduce heat loss through window areas. During summer months the use of brise soliel will reduce excessive summer heating through the glazed areas. For residential properties window shutters can be provided on south facing glazed elements to provide sun block into the house. Brise soliel and shutters should be mounted on the external side of the buildings and used in preference to internal blinds. Sun will inevitability heat the shading equipment. For brise soliel and external shutters heat can be lost externally. For internal blinds the warming of the blinds are held inside the building increasing the ambient temperature.
Window size and shape should make the best use of winter and summer sun light. Windows should be at least 15% of the floor area and placed high on the wall. The south facing windows should have the long axis vertical to allow light to enter from natural light incidence. The aspect ratio of each window on the south facing window should allow for taller windows to allow maximum use of winter light incidence. Consideration will be given to internal finishes within all properties including having reveals including curved arris to allow better light shaping within rooms alongside light reflective paints. In commercial buildings interior space could be planned for access to daylight. For comfort, designs should minimise direct sunlight in the vicinity of critical visual tasks e.g monitor and therefore space should be designed to minimise glare. Consideration within these buildings will be given to light-shelves to maximise distribution of natural daylight. Internal finishes can also aid reflection of natural daylight through office space. The use of daylight can be used for controlling artificial luminance in all buildings but importantly throughout the street lighting and shared space lighting.
Thermal Mass The use of building materials that absorb sun during the winter, spring and autumn can be used to warm a building. Typically concrete has been used due to its excellent thermal properties but new solutions are currently emerging using liquids and waxes to manage heat distribution. During summer months the thermal mass capacity of building materials can be d to absorb and dissipate heat from a building. In commercial buildings there will be consideration should be given to using double skin facades to allow air and heat to flow around the walls of the building.
Passive Ventilation The specific approach and design of natural ventilation and cooling systems will vary based on building type and local climate. However, the amount of ventilation depends critically on the careful design of internal spaces, and the size and placement of openings in the building. Natural ventilation is critical to allowing heat and stale air to be drawn out of a building such as cross ventilation or stack methods. During the summer months, night time ventilation is used to provide heat loss where a building has accumulated heat during the day. Within a building, natural ventilation systems rely on pressure differences to move fresh air through buildings, for example caused by wind or buoyancy effects from differences in temperature or humidity. The amount of ventilation will depend critically on the size and placement of openings in the building, e.g. transom windows between rooms. Consideration should be given to incorporating these and other such features in new buildings to maximise natural ventilation and reduce energy demand and increase environmental comfort.
Material Specifications Measures can also be adopted in building design to reduce energy demand requirements from the building use. These measures can be split into two categories: passive and active measures. The passive measures are design features from architectural and building fabric selection that inherently reduce the building energy requirement. The active measures are design features from building services design that will increase the efficiency of the energy used, hence reducing the building energy requirements.
The following passive design measures can be incorporated into the design of the buildings to reduce energy requirements: • reducing the air permeability and thermal bridging coefficient of the building envelope; • optimising the U-Values of the external fabric to enable a reduction in energy loss, e.g. through providing additional insulation; • incorporating thermal mass to support “free cooling” during summer months; • enlarging window areas to maximise the use of natural daylight; • locating plant rooms away from the southern elevation to avoid excessive heat gain and to allow maximum plant efficiency; and • providing passive shading to avoid overheating. The following active design measures could also be considered for incorporation into the mechanical and electrical elements of the buildings: • • • • • • • •
high efficiency boilers; controls to optimise and compensate for heating variations; zonal control of heating to supply different parts of a building via a building management system; time and thermostat control of hot water; variable speed drives fitted to all pumps and fans that will benefit from speed control; high efficiency lighting; installation of electricity check meters; include daylight and passive infra-red motion detection systems to lighting to common areas in order to ensure they are only operated when required; and • ensuring white goods, where supplied, are suitably rated. Alternatively information could be provided on selecting energy rated appliances. The above list of measures is not exhaustive and will need to be considered in more detail as design of the development progresses.
APPENDIX 4 – PREDICTED ENERGY DEMAND MODEL DATA REPORT
APPENDIX 5 – RENEWABLE ENERGY SCREENING Introduction This report appendix presents a review of the suitability and the potential of various energy generation technologies. Each low or zero carbon energy technology is constrained by a number of geospatial issues which will dictate whether they can or could be deployed on the NS&OC site. These geospatial constraints include: • environmental constraints – for example the presence of suitable geology for ground source heat pumps or presence of protected species that may be affected by the new energy technology; • resource constraints – such as the levels of availability of local biomass fuels or wind; • social constraints – such as visual or health impacts of building energy technology near housing; • infrastructure constraints – Including impacts on aviation from chimneys or turbines, transport infrastructure constraints, etc; • additional constraints – in the case of NS&OC these are associated with the requirement for the energy infrastructure to be “invisible” or unobtrusive; The above constraints have been considered within the specific assessment of the NS&OC site as part of the process to identify what low or zero carbon energy generation could be deployed on it. To assess the spatial viability of each renewable energy technology the environmental, resource, social and infrastructure constraints were plotted for the NS&OC site and the surrounding area of East Anglia using a Geographical Information System (GIS). To be valid, it is pertinent to consider all viable technology options when developing a sustainable energy strategy. It is also important to develop the energy strategy in partnership with the utility strategy for the site as the national grid capacity to supply gas and electricity will inform the requirement for on site generation and vice versa. This is the approach that we have taken. The following information therefore provides a spatial assessment of each renewable technology. From this we have then considered whether each technology is a potentially effective solution. However, it must be understood that the actual energy solutions built on the NS&OC site may change from those being proposed due to the impacts of regulatory change, market forces, or technological advances. Changes to the final energy solution will be reflected in final cost/revenue which ultimately has a strong influence on deciding the preferred solution.
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) A CHP plant could provide both electricity and heat for the development and could also provide cooling (CCHP). In these systems heat from the CHP combustion process is utilised rather than vented to the atmosphere as in conventional power stations. As such CHP systems can provide a particularly efficient energy supply. This efficiency however is only realized where there is a sufficient continuous demand for both electrical and thermal energy. For any CHP system therefore it is vital to quantify the energy demand profile of the development and assess the energy balance in terms of thermal and electrical requirements. There are three possible basic modes of operation for a CHP scheme, these are base load, power led and heat led operation. In practice it is the thermal demand profile which dictates the economic viability of the scheme, not the electrical generation. The three CHP operation scenarios are described in more detail below:
• Base Load. In base load operation the CHP unit is sized to match the lesser of the base load electrical or heat demand of the development. The CHP system therefore operates at its continuous maximum output, there by achieving maximum efficiency. Shortfalls in heating demand are supplemented by conventional or renewable sourced boiler plant. Shortfalls in power demand are supplemented by power from the grid. • Power Led. In power led operation the electrical output of the CHP system is modulated to match the power demand of the development. Excess heat output is then rejected to atmosphere, stored in the ground/water body or used for cooling and shortfalls in heating demand are supplemented by conventional or renewable sourced boiler plant or through storage; and • Heat Led. In heat led operation the heat output of the CHP unit is modulated to match the heating demand of the development. Excess power output is exported and shortfalls in power demand are supplemented by power from the grid. Traditionally on larger scale developments such as NS&OC, the base load mode is usually employed to ensure the system is operating for the maximum possible period and at maximum efficiency. This usually requires some form of heat buffer system to control short term fluctuations in heat demand and often leads to shortfalls in electricity supply to the site requiring grid derived electricity support. Heat buffer systems include geothermal storage or large hot water storage tanks or individual water tanks in each property. CHP systems may be fuelled with natural gas or bio-fuels including wood, bio-diesel, or bio-gas. This allows the CHP to provide an efficient energy supply whilst also supplying renewable energy with carbon neutral credentials. This flexibility can be used to enable early benefits to be realised in installing a low carbon, gas, CHP solution at the initial stages of a development whilst a carbon neutral or zero carbon emissions solution is adopted over time. This approach does not require any change to the heat and or cooling distribution infrastructure required within the site but can contribute to maintain security of energy supply for a development from the project start up. CHP could be a viable solution, either on a large or small scale, on the NS&OC development. A gas fired CHP would roughly cost £1 million/MW(e) to install. If run to maximise heat and power output to qualify for good quality CHP approximate 2MW(th) would be generated. The gas boiler equivalent to achieve 2MW(th) would be in the region £154,000. Anaerobic Digestion AD is a biological process in which the carbon in organic waste is biochemically reduced by bacteria to methane (CH4) that can be used as a source of renewable energy. It can accept a wide range of wet feedstocks and the biogas produced can be used to drive CHP, to displace grid gas for heating and potentially has application as a transport fuel. The attractiveness of each option is dictated by scale, the degree of gas cleaning required, government support mechanisms and the availability of competing fossil fuels. As biogas is storable, this makes AD capable of dispatchable electricity supply to balance the intermittency of wind and solar technologies which is essential in a holistic energy model, especially if a resilient private wire network is envisaged. The flexibility of AD to feedstock supply creates opportunity to solve a range of local issues and to increase sustainability. For instance, by installing under-sink waste disposal units in each building in the development, organic waste can be macerated and delivered to the AD plant, maximising the return on investment in the sewage infrastructure asset. This approach also negates the need for doorstep collection of organic waste creating the opportunity for extended collection periods for inert wastes, possibly from neighbourhood compactor systems. Other feedstocks can also include garden waste, non recyclable paper and card and wastes from local sources including farms. However in the
latter case the AD plant may best be sited at the point of waste production and the gas grid used to deliver the gas to the point of use. Whatever the source, there is considerable opportunity for local ownership of elements of the fuel supply infrastructure. AD is a scalable technology. While larger size facilities will always deliver economies of scale, strategically placed small AD units can remove the need for major investment in infrastructure. This is especially the case where topography, physical distance or lack of treatment capacity is adding significantly to the cost of connection to the existing sewage network and where gas or electrical grid upgrade is required to supply a development. There are also non-energy benefits from AD. The requirement to collect and re-use grey water is adding to the cost of development, especially for residential units. An added problem is the health risk associated with the potential misuse of grey water. In our experience, it is possible to cost effectively clean up the liquid fraction from AD to a safe level and to pump this back through a grey water network for re-use in dwellings. The other by-product from traditional AD is a fibre material. The nature and amount of this material is dictated by the feedstock, but makes an ideal material for use as soil improver creating a market opportunity and one that can be owned by local people. Correct feedstock management is key to the successful operation of an AD plant. While AD is amenable to digest a wide range of organic wastes, it cannot handle rapid change in feedstock as the bacterial population needs time to re-attenuate to the feedstock. The rate of the process of gas production is also dictated in large part by the accessibility of the organic feedstock to the bacteria digesting it. For this reason the feedstock must be broken down to increase the surface area to volume ratio requiring some kind of maceration, ‘hydropulping’ or other mechanical process prior to digestion. Another potential issue is that the NS&OC site alone is unlikely to generate enough waste to fuel a significant AD project unless a food processing plant or other major producer of organic waste is included within the development. This will therefore dictate that additional waste feedstock will need to be brought onto the site. While this might create major opportunities, it also has the potential to increase the complexity and risk of the project, put more pressure on road infrastructure and possibly to detract from the attractiveness of the site to potential house buyers. As a biological process, AD can be instantly ‘killed’ by low or high pH and poisons. It is also the case that the presence of contaminants like plastic film, grit and other un-digestible material can physically block the process. For these reasons, waste entering an AD plant must be blended to ensure some degree of consistency, physically degraded to increase surface area, screened to remove physical contaminants and then assessed for ‘digestibility’ prior to entering the AD process. This is especially important if high levels of ‘off site’ waste from unknown sources are being used. This increases the physical footprint and cost of the plant, introduces the potential for noise from mechanical processes and makes the avoidance of smell more difficult to achieve. While local impacts can be overcome by physically separating the ‘fuel’ preparation from the digestion process, this increases land take, cost and introduces transport costs. The sustainability benefits from this approach are also reduced. The methane content of biogas produced from an AD is in the range 50 - 70%, with the balance almost all CO2. The gas is typically very wet and can contain quite high levels of sulphur compounds depending on feedstock. This means that the gas must be cleaned and dried prior to use, with the level of cleanliness required dictated by the market. For instance, injection into the gas grid requires highly purified gas to avoid issues of corrosion in the pipeline or (more usually) at the point of use. Similarly, automotive engines are not designed for use with corrosive gas. Static gas engines however can be more tolerant, especially those designed for ‘sour’ gas use.
Another major issue with AD is the slow rate of digestion of some feedstocks. While the volatile organic compounds in waste (which also produce the smell) are instantly accessible to the bacteria in the AD system and thus metabolised to methane rapidly, fibrous organic materials can take over 20 days. This creates the need for large AD tanks and large process footprints that can take all of the waste volume produced within the 20 day retention period. These factors combined mean that AD is a high capital cost process requiring a potentially large land take and investment in large holding and digestion tanks, feedstock processing, gas storage, energy generation equipment, etc. It is also the case that the energy yield from the biogas generated by AD is low. For example, to generate 1MW of electricity will require in the order of 30,000t/y of waste. However, it remains the case that the level of support from government for AD still makes it an attractive option, but only if capital is available within the project to support the initial investment. Approximately 150,000 tonnes of municipal waste is available in NS&OC area for passing through a waste facility housing an AD plant. It is likely that this will generate approximately 4MW of electricity. Capital costs for AD plant are in the region of £7,300 per kW. A plant sized to meet 150,000 tonnes of waste would cost in the region of £30,000,000. It is noted that AD is a technology design to deal with a waste stream rather than supplying energy. Therefore the commissioning and phasing of such a plant is based on throughput rather than output. As such AD technology would definitely support the resource efficient concept of the site but not underpin.
Gasification Gasification involves the partial combustion of a feedstock, in conditions of restricted air or oxygen and in the presence of steam to produce a fuel gas rich in methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Oxygen-blown gasifiers have been used as part of coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle demonstration projects, and produce a medium calorific value gas (a mixture mostly of methane, CO, hydrogen and CO2). Most waste or biomass gasification technologies use air and steam as the gasification atmosphere, and produce a very low calorific value gas (typically 4 to 5 MJ/Nm3) due to the addition of nitrogen (a dilutant from the feed air) to the fuel gas mixture. The gasification process produces a gas consisting of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and a range of other non-combustible gases such as nitrogen. The gas has a low CV (typically around 4MJ/kg), a higher CV can be achieved by injecting oxygen (reducing inert N2 present in air). Injecting steam increases the H2 content by secondary reactions in the gasifier, known as the water gas shift reaction; this also increases the CV. Where the fuel gas is to be used in an engine or gas turbine power equipment, it requires extensive cleanup, as with pyrolysis gas. The technology for this cleaning still requires long-term demonstration to prove reliability. There are a number of gasification technologies that have been developed and these can be grouped into four types based on the configuration of the process equipment as follows: • • • •
up-draught – fixed bed; down-draught – fixed bed; entrained-flow, or ‘transport’ reactors; and fluidised bed (i) atmospheric, or (b) pressurized.
Currently there are a number of gasification demonstrator projects in the UK. Costs associated with developing gasification plants are therefore difficult to ascertain. Studies suggest a woodchip based gasification plant would cost in the region of £4,300/kw.
Pyrolysis Pyrolysis is the heating of a material in the complete absence of air (or oxygen) that results in a gas, liquid and solid, all of which are combustible and can be used for energy generation. The proportions of gas and liquid, in particular depend on the temperature and chemical conditions within the pyrolyser. The reactions that occur within the material on heating will not then produce any heat output, so heating has to be applied externally. Provision of this heating will usually be by taking a significant side-stream of the combustible products produced, or of the electrical output of downstream generation. ‘Fast pyrolysis’, usually in small reactors, produces mainly pyrolysis oil from waste or biomass feedstocks. The minority pyrolysis gas produced can often be used to heat the process. Pyrolysis oil can be refined for other uses, notably as a substitute for diesel oil in transport applications but it would not usually be used for electrical power generation. The pyrolysis process produces a gas with a similar CV to oxygen gasification (12 -27MJ/m3), but also produces a solid component (char) and a liquid (bio-oil). The proportions of each phase depend on the conditions within the pyrolyser and the residence time. The higher CV is due to the lack of nitrogen as no air is used in the process. However, the gas has very high levels of tar which condense on cooling. As a result if the gas produced is intended to be combusted directly, then gasification is typically employed as it produces a cleaner gas. Pyrolysis char contains a large part (>20%) of the input chemical energy of the feedstock. It is therefore important to find a beneficial use for this material. Possibilities include the use as ‘activated carbon’; use as a fuel in a solid fuel process (including power generation plants); or carbon sequestration as ‘biochar’ for soil improvement. One possible future technological development might be adjustment of the pyrolysis conditions and atmosphere, and/or the addition of catalysts, to minimise or eliminate the char production. Experiments of this sort are currently at laboratory scale only, so even if successful would take many years to influence the commercial technology. Pyrolysis is known as an ‘advanced combustion technology’, where the heating and combustion phases of normal incineration are separated. It is a relatively complex process that is sensitive to the fuel input and the process design. As operational experience grows then it is likely that design improvements will lead to better reliability, which has caused the slow uptake of pyrolysis generation. Waste and biomass pyrolysis (excluding fast pyrolysis) generally requires pre-treatment of material to remove metals and other inert material that may otherwise upset the pyrolysis equipment. Fuels are also generally mascerated and dried to give a homogeneous high-CV feedstock. Like gasification demonstrator projects have shown a wide variation in costs and studies suggest costs of between £3,000 to £4,500/kw.
Biomass Boilers Energy from biomass, used for space and water heating, is an alternative to using conventional high carbon fuels such as gas and oil. Biomass fuel itself is considered to be carbon neutral; however there will be carbon emissions associated with the transportation of the fuel. These emission levels are related to the type of vehicle used, the volume and density of the fuel being transported and the distance of transportation.
Biomass is generally in the form of woodchip or pellets and it can be made from waste of by-products from industry or especially cultivated fuel crops on or off site. Biomass can be incorporated into residential dwellings with either a single room heater/stove or a boiler, where the biomass replaces the more traditional gas or oil. However this option will require more cleaning and space than conventional boilers, and they will need to be de-coked and de-ashed. Biomass boilers also have a greater space requirement for fuel storage compared to traditional gas fired boilers, where there is no storage requirement. There are several UK suppliers of biomass heating technology ranging in scale from individual dwelling to larger scale community systems. Biomass feed stocks can not be mixed. This is an important consideration when looking at supply. For example you cannot place mixed woodchip into a biomass boiler that is design for taking an energy crop such as miscanthus. Indeed a biomass boiler designed for a mixed fuel supply cannot take a single constant wood type. The burning temperature of boilers are designed based on the chemical composition of the fuel. High tar woods such as pine require burning at specific temperatures to ensure the boilers do not â€œtar upâ€? and eventually breakdown. Some woods such as ash on the other hand have less tar but in burnt at high temperature release their resigns. Fuel condition and blending therefore is extremely important. Contracting fuel supply should be based on thermal output rather than feed stock input to ensure that the supply chain are providing best quality supply. The easiest way of controlling the quality of feedstock is to own both the fuel supply and plant. The ensure parity between input and output. One of the major constraints associated with using biomass boilers is the availability of a reliable, local fuel supply chain. It has been ascertained that East Anglia as a region could deliver 10,000 tonnes of wood chip/pellet fuel every year for the foreseeable future using local supplies. If fuel demand is greater than 10,000 tonnes a year the supply chain would not be local and it would therefore no longer be a low carbon energy solution. If the fuel demand is forecasted to be greater than 10,000 tonnes a year another energy technology would have to be used in conjunction to deliver the energy demand. There is also a need to monitor the fuel storage so that deliveries can match the energy demands of the buildings. A management system would be recommended for communal systems to ensure that billing, maintenance, fuel delivery and storage are properly managed. Another constraint for biomass boilers is ensuring air quality meets any current legislation as emissions of particulates (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the combustion of biomass are higher than those of conventional gas boilers. Due consideration should therefore be given to the Clean Air Act 1993. The installation of an appropriate flue for the biomass boiler may suffice in meeting the relevant air quality legislation. As a result of the sizeable local fuel supply in the Norwich region, a biomass solution can be considered as an option for the development, providing legislation surrounding air quality is complied with. The security of supply of locally sourced wood chip and/or wood pellets to be used as fuel for a biomass boiler is crucial in maintaining the technology as a low carbon solution. To assess the East Anglia biomass supply chain companies were contacted to ascertain what quantities of locally sourced biomass fuel they could guarantee to supply year on year. It was ascertained that East Anglia as a region could deliver 10,000 tonnes of wood chip/pellet fuel every year for the foreseeable future using local supplies.. The 10,000 tonnes of available fuel would roughly equate to generation of 7.5MW of heat. To cultivate the equivalent bio-crop over 1430 hectares of land would be needed. This implies that demand above this and up to 20,000 tonnes could not be guaranteed locally
It is possible to procure significant volumes of wood from National and International supply chains. The additional carbon factor in supplying wood from further afield can be added into the carbon analysis. Even when transported internationally biomass offer better carbon benefit than the total carbon impact of gas and oil. The security of supply is a critical factor in maintaining a biomass boiler based CHP facility as a low carbon energy technology. If fuel demand is greater than 10,000 tonnes a year the supply chain would not be local. If the fuel demand is forecasted to be greater than 10,000 tonnes a year another energy technology would have to be used in conjunction to deliver the energy demand, although early consultation with the forestry commission and associated wood chip and pellet supplies could secure a larger local supply for the future to fit in with the phasing of a large development. Within the Waste Strategy for the site approximately 30,000 of biological waste resource is potentially available. This biological resource would need to be remediated, proceesed and blended to form a biomass solid fuel. Processes including autoclaving, composting and AD could be used to help formulate a NS&OC Solid Fuel blend for the purposes of powering the entire site and providing a legislatively compliant biomass fuel. This results in a sizeable local fuel supply that could offer a biomass solution and offer other benefits such as employment. Capital costs associated with developing 7.5MW(th) worth of biomass boiler plant would be in the region of ÂŁ3.3 million. Currently individual biomass boilers (commonly described as microgasification) cost in the region ÂŁ15,000 per household. It is expected that microgasification will be supported by the RHI in 2013.
Wind Turbines Electrical energy from a wind turbine is one of the most highly visible and recognisable renewable energy systems. This technology can be one of the most cost effective ways of generating large amounts of renewable energy provided that it is well sited in an area with a good wind regime. The electricity generated however is intermittent and dependant on wind patterns and usually only has an availability in the region of 20 to 30%. Any potential turbine site would require investigation including: wind monitoring to estimate the energy output, acoustic modelling, visual impact studies and possible ecological implications. It is unusual for turbines to be located within 300m of any residential dwelling and toppling distances must be considered to ensure no significant danger exists from highways, railways etc in the event of the mast becoming unstable. Significantly for NS&OC wind turbines cannot be located under flight paths of airports. It is with the above constraints in mind that leads us to conclude that large scale wind turbines are not available as an option for NS&OC. While the wind speed at the site is reported to be 7m/s at 45m height by the Governmentâ€™s NOABL database, the majority of the prevailing wind for the site will be from the south west. Due to the position of the site to the north of Norwich it is likely that the ground level wind regime is going to be weak from urban turbulence. Building mounted turbines are unlikely to add any significant value to the development. In fact poorly sited micro wind turbines will detract brand value from the development as their availability will be less than 10% projecting a poor visual image on renewables. The main social constraint is proximity of residential receptors to a potential wind turbine. A conservative 500m buffer zone has been identified surrounding all residential areas within a 5 mile radius of the sites centroid. 44
The results show that due to the social constraints associated with the proximity of wind turbines to residential receptors there is very limited potential for a wind farm located on site or within a five mile radius. The social constraints on a larger scale would have to be considered for the rest of East Anglia.
Solar Photovoltaics (PV) Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells transform the photons within sunlight into useful electrical energy. They can be integrated into the fabric of the building, as a roof covering or as glazing, or simply mounted on the building. To achieve optimum electrical generation throughout the year, the PV arrays should be approximately south facing and inclined at an angle of 35ยบ to the horizontal. Solar PV panels however will not supply constant electrical energy for a building and hence a back up electrical supply is usually required from the grid. The PV panels have a lifetime of approximately 25 years and require little maintenance, although regular inspection of the arrays for damage or dirt is required. The major consideration with PV systems is the longevity of the inverters to convert the asgenerated DC voltage into AC at useful voltage. These currently have a life which is considerably shorter than the panels themselves, making planned replacement a key part of the business model for any PV system. PV panels are an expensive initial investment but an income can be generated from their use through the Feed in Tariff that was introduced by government legislation in April 2010. The value of the FiT for PV is dependent on system size, and currently stands between 29.3 to 36.1 p/kWh at the time of writing, although it is noted that these figures are due for a dramatic cut. Figure A6.1 shows the yearly irradiation for the UK in kWh/m2. The East Anglia region has a yearly irradiation of approximately 1000 kWh/m2.
Figure A6.1: UK Solar Radiation Map
Based on the current Masterplan the widespread implementation of PV across the development is viable to reach zero carbon requirements if necessary. They may be considered for use on specific commercial buildings where a potential occupant requires the technology. Further possible use of PV should be incorporated into small stand alone operating systems such as car park/traffic operating systems/signage. The yearly irradiation of 1000 kWh/m2 in East Anglia would provide opportunity of PV to be employed on the NS&OC site. Furthermore, based on the current Masterplan, the widespread implementation of PV across the development could also enable zero carbon requirements to be met if necessary. Therefore PV should be considered for use on specific commercial buildings where a potential occupant requires the technology and for incorporation into small stand alone operating systems such as car park/traffic operating systems/signage. A critical issue to consider when looking at PV are the implications on generating power across the site both on immediate infrastructure such as the inverters and the local grid capacity. If 60% of the floor area of the NS&OC development allowed a southerly roof orientation and of this 50% was available for PV , there is an approximate potential for 37GWh of PV(e) on buildings with an indicative investment of ÂŁ175 million. In this instance the electrical grid network would need to be sized to cope with a peak of 45MW. Whilst this is an extreme example, clearly carful consideration needs to be given to the size of the peak power generation from large scale PV generation and how this will be managed. For instance the commercial guarantees associated with installing PV on domestic dwellings and the insurances offered must include the possibility of instantaneous oversupply of peak generation causing catastrophic failure of inverters and the potential damage that this might cause in houses etc. Clearly, Beyond Greenâ€™s approach to utilising PV across the development needs to be carefully considered within the wider context of the implications of generating power across the site both on immediate infrastructure such as the inverters, local grid capacity and the management of electrical supply.
Solar Thermal Collectors A solar thermal collector system provides hot water by using the energy present in sunlight to heat a collector. This energy is then transferred to a circulating fluid and used to heat hot water. These have also been called active solar heating (ASH) systems. Solar thermal collectors generate the highest volume of hot water in the summer months, due to the longer daylight hours and more intense solar irradiation. They can generate between 40% and 60% of annual domestic hot water needs when incorporated to a south facing inclined roof of a typical house. The inclusion of solar thermal collector systems to meet part of the hot water requirements does not obviate the need for another hot water generating system, since the winter hot water demand will only be partially met by the solar thermal collectors. It is with this in mind that technologies such as air to water heat pumps have been developed to boost or even replace solar thermal output. Indeed, these can now often offer a more preferential approach to carbon reduction compared with solar thermal systems especially if associated with PV. There are two main types of solar thermal collector. The lowest cost type, flat plate collectors, must be mounted at 35Â° to the horizontal, within 45 degrees of south and these are usually on roof mounted A frames. This type of collector produces around 300 kWh/m2/year in the UK. The second type is a vacuum tube system. These can be mounted on any surface with a south facing aspect, and are more efficient than the flat plate type. They typically produce up to 450 kWh/m2/year 46
from small systems and in excess of 600 kWh/m2/year from large scale systems orientated approximately south facing and inclined at an angle of 35° to the horizontal. Solar Heating’s application for the development is suitable as a support mechanism to a sustainable energy strategy. Capital expenditure on these systems could be reduced by multi bulk buys of standard systems for bulk installation in a large property development. To assess the viability of PV and solar water heating at this stage in the spatial energy assessment only the resource constraints have been considered. In practice these are the availability of suitable surfaces to mount the systems on and the solar resource which is likely to be available. . The annual availability of UV light on site has been assessed by consulting the UK solar radiation map. As with PV, the yearly irradiation will be in the order of 1000 kWh/m2 in this part of East Anglia, making solar thermal based energy supply suitable on the NS&OC site and thus . For this reason, solar heating is considered to be suitable to support a sustainable energy strategy for the development.
Ground Source Heat Pumps Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) capture the natural ground temperature (typically 10°C below 10m depth) and then upgrade this low value energy to useful temperatures. It does this through the use of an electrical pump to move fluid through the ground and applying this to a vapour compression refrigeration cycle. In this way the heat in the ground can be used to provide heating at 40 - 45°C in the winter months and cooling at 6 - 9°C in the summer months. There are two main configurations of ground source heat pump system, vertical and horizontal. In a vertical system, a water based solution is pumped through vertical U-loop pipes drilled approximately 110 m in the ground. Horizontal loop configurations are installed at shallow depths and hence their use is restricted to buildings with large open areas in close proximity. The output of GSHP systems is dependent on the hydrogeology of the ground in which they are sunk. Generally however, the efficiency or coefficient of performance (CoP) of a dedicated loop GSHP is approximately 350 – 400 %. Hence for every unit of electrical input there will be approximately 3.5 - 4 units of heat output. The solid and drift geology of the NS&OC site has been assessed by consulting a 1:50,000 geological survey map. The underlying geology at the development site is comprised of Norwich Brickearth, Norwich Crag and Upper Chalk, all of which are permeable. It is likely that the chalk may offer a potential opportunity for storing/extracting heating as long as there is no groundwater flow. This needs to be confirmed by the geo-environmental investigation. It is also critical that any ground investigation to look at the suitability of installing ground sourced heat pump systems considers geothermal capacity of each horizon to ensure that any geothermal design is correct. Current cost estimates for 1MWth sized district heat network would be in the region of £1,000,000 to £1,100,000 and we currently understand that the geothermal led district heating market suggest a cost of around £7000 per unit. To make geothermal led district heat work excess heat from buildings or above ground generation may need to be dumped into underground geology. Heat capacity analysis should be undertaken in the geo-environmental investigation for the site to confirm the suitability of the geological strata.
Air Source Heat Pumps
Air source heat pumps (ASHP) take heat from the ambient air and through a simple heat exchange plate, apply this to a vapour compression refrigeration cycle and then pass the heat either into a heat transfer medium such as water or hot air. As a technology it has been around for decades and can be considered as an extremely efficient “fan heater”. Their co-efficiency of power (CoP) are generally in the region of 2.0 to 2.5 of electricity to heat. With the cost of heat from gas at 4p/kw and electricity at 11p/kw the CoP needs to be over 3.0 to be cost efficient. This is the reason why the new Renewable Heat Incentive does not include ASHPs, but this may change as the technology improves and the COPs increase. In addition a typical air source heat pump requires approximately 2KW of power to operate. At peak periods, i.e. coldest months in winter, the combined peak demand of multiple application of heat pumps trying to heat dwellings of subzero temperatures will add significant costs to infrastructure supplying the site. Bespoke applications of air source heating though may enable certain dwellings to meet carbon emission reduction targets if integrated with other low carbon approaches. In particular air to hot water heating is fast becoming an attractive way of taking hot water elements away from standard gas based approaches. New air to water heating systems have now been developed specifically to take hot, warm moist air out of certain rooms (bathrooms/kitchens etc), remove heat through a small heat pump to directly heat the hot water tank. Because of the high temperature of the infeed air these systems can offer CoP of approximately 3.0 and above. If linked with a PV panel can offer low carbon heating solution to a development. These systems currently cost in the region of £1,700.
Fuel Cells Fuel cell technology is a rapidly evolving technology which has seen dramatic improvement since the push to developing a low carbon economy has progressed. Fuel cells are an electrochemical cell that converts chemical energy into electricity and low grade heat. Fuel cells typical generate 50% electricity and 50% heat from the fuel source as opposed to other small scale CHP systems such as sterling engines which have a electricity to heat ratio of 1:2 if run efficiently. In this respect fuels cells may offer a preferential solution to small scale power generation compared to large, centralised CHP, especially where heat demands are low such as in a high Code level home. Fuel cells can operate on hydrogen, biogas or fossil fuels. Hydrogen fuel cells have been discounted from further study at present, as they are not readily commercially available and it is unknown whether sufficient supplies of hydrogen could be secured. Fuel cells are currently expensive. Microfuel cells running off natural gas generating 2KW(e) and 2KW(th) of heat cost in the region of £35,000 each. Suppliers in this market expect volume generation to reduce these costs down to £8,000 each, which still is a significant investment compared to other technologies offering great carbon emission reduction potential. There is very little information on larger fuel cell systems cost. The TfL Palestra building energy centre which combines a 250KW(e) fuel cell and 700KW(e) sterling engine cost in the region of £2.4 million.
Renewable Opportunities Table A5.1 provides a summary of the results with a cross denoting where a constraint has been identified and a tick where no constraints have been identified within this assessment.
Constraint Technology Environmental
Wind Biomass Heat, Power and CHP Photovoltaics Solar Water Heating Ground Source Heat Pumps Anaerobic Digestion Gasification/Pyrolysis Hydrogen Fuel Cell
Discounted: Lack of Hydrogen
Discounted: Lack of Resource
Table A5.1: Summary of Results
APPENDIX 6 â€“ UTILITY AND PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNICAL REPORT Document Control Sheet Project Name:
North Sprowston and Old Catton
Utility & Physical Infrastructure Technical Report
For and on behalf of Peter Brett Associates LLP
Peter Brett Associates LLP disclaims any responsibility to the Client and others in respect of any matters outside the scope of this report. This report has been prepared with reasonable skill, care and diligence within the terms of the Contract with the Client and generally in accordance with the appropriate ACE Agreement and taking account of the manpower, resources, investigations and testing devoted to it by agreement with the Client. This report is confidential to the Client and Peter Brett Associates LLP accepts no responsibility of whatsoever nature to third parties to whom this report or any part thereof is made known. Any such party relies upon the report at their own risk. ÂŠ Peter Brett Associates LLP 2012
CONTENTS Executive Summary
Appendix Existing Services Layout and Constraints Drawing
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report sets out the issues with regard to new utility supplies (electricity, gas and telecoms) for North Sprowston and Old Catton (NSOC) from consultation held with the incumbent utility providers and highlights the potential requirement for offsite reinforcement and associated budget costs and timescales to deliver. The report also provides comment on existing utility (electricity, gas and telecommunications) apparatus within and adjacent to the site which may require diversion and/or protection to accommodate the proposed development. Options and opportunities relating to energy efficiency measures and provision for renewable energy are contained within the main body of the Energy Statement. Comments on existing Foul drainage and potable water are covered in the PBA LLP Water Strategy report. Consultation with the incumbent utility providers at this stage has been based on the assumption of direct connection for each dwelling to the electricity and gas infrastructure networks to gain a baseline understanding and worst case scenario for the new supply requirements for NSOC. As the development progresses further consultation will be required based on the potential for onsite power generation (back to Grid) and the potential displacement of gas through other forms of heating (heat networks, Air Source Heat pumps (ASHP) or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) etc.). No consideration has been given within this report to multi utility company or Energy Services Company (ESCo) offering and opportunities as part of the scope of work undertaken at this stage. In summary this appendix concludes:
Electricity UK Power Networks (UKPN) is the local network operator. There is an existing 33KV overhead line (OHL) running across the site from the Sprowston Park and Ride through to the Coopershole Plantation. There is also a high voltage (HV) underground cable (UGC) running adjacent to the Beeston Road and the Wroxham Road with a number of low voltage cables serving the existing residential properties on site. This infrastructure will either be diverted in negotiation with UKPN or accommodated within the detailed design of the scheme based on wider power distribution across the site. There are also two OHLs and an UGC at the site that have been identified as abandoned on UKPNâ€™s asset records. Initial discussions with UKPN have indicated that there is currently 3MVA capacity within the local Sprowston Primary Substation to support initial development equivalent to between 1500 to 2000 homes. Energy capacity for further development (potentially 12MVA in total) would be accommodated for within UKPNâ€™s strategic primary substation expansion planned at Hurricane Way, Norwich. Connection to this substation would come from new 11kV underground cables.
Gas National Grid Gas (NGG) records indicate that there is an existing Intermediate Pressure gas main running from north west of the site to the south east. Currently this intermediate pressure gas main is accommodated within the outline masterplan which will be taken forward into detail design. An easement width of 12m should be allowed for within the masterplan. NGG have advised that there is sufficient supply in the intermediate pressure gas main to supply the development. A point of connection has been suggested to the northwest boundary of the site preferably at the junction of Beeston Land and Buxton Road.
Telecommunications Two telephone exchanges have been identified in the vicinity of the site, which could supply the proposed development; Saint Faith, located to the north of Norwich Airport, and Norwich North, located off Mile Cross Lane to the south of the development. It is anticipated that both of these exchanges will be fibre enabled by the end of 2013. The exchanges will provide Fibre to the Cabinet (FTTC) to the local area, which will increase the local broadband speeds in the vicinity of the site. FTTC could also provide an opportunity to extend the fibre network to the development, providing super-fast broadband to the site. This would need to be evaluated with BT post planning.
1. INTRODUCTION Peter Brett Associates LLP has been engaged by Beyond Green Developments Ltd to prepare a utilities statement for new supplies and constraints to development in support of the planning application of up to 3,520 dwellings and a mixture of commercial, retail/service units, a hotel development, education and other community developments at land north of Norwich known as NSOC. A site location plan is included within Appendix A of the main energy statement, for information. Issues relating to surface water and foul drainage and potable water supply are addressed within the Water Statement supporting the application. Options and opportunities with regard to renewable energy and energy efficiency measures are contained within the main body of the Energy Statement.
1.1 Approach This technical report sets out proposals for providing new utility infrastructure (National Grid Gas and UKPN electricity) directly from the incumbent utility providers, to supply the proposed development quantum and highlights the options available. It also provides the potential requirements for diversion or accommodation within the scheme for existing and future infrastructure.
1.2 Background Information Information contained within this report has been obtained via formal applications to the incumbent utility providers, for information, leading to consultation and negotiations with their representatives to gain an understanding of new utility supply and management of existing infrastructure strategies and outline budget costs. This report only considers a direct connection for each new building to the incumbent utility network at this stage based on standard energy demands. Future discussions with the network operators will require consideration of reduced energy demand through building design, which in turn will reduce the peak requirements for the incumbent providersâ€™ network(s) and the potential impact of smarter electrical infrastructure at the scheme (as discussed in the main body of the energy statement). In addition, PBA LLP have reviewed the available information on the local telephone exchanges (SamKnows website resource) to evaluate the suitability of the local network to supply the development with next generation broadband.
2. CONTACTS DIRECTORY Title
Beyond Green Developments Client
1 Albemarle Way
Tel: 020 7549 2184
EC1V 4JB Peter Brett Associates 11 Prospect Court Utilities Project Team
Tel: 01604 878300
Fax: 01604 878333
Northampton NN7 3DG Utility Providers UK Power Networks Electricity Asset Protection
Easlea Road Morteton Hall Industrial Estate Bury St Edmunds Suffolk
Tel: 01284 726410 Fax:
UK Power Networks Electricity New Supply Peter Hunt
Tel: 08701 964599
Mobile: 07875 119714
Potters Bar Hertfordshire
National Grid Plant Protection Gas Asset Protection
National Grid, Block 1 Floor 2 Tel: 0800 688 588
Brick Kiln Street Hinckley Leicestershire
National Grid Gas plc East Anglia LDZ Gas
Block 4 Area 6
Tel: 0845 366 6758
New Supply POC
Brick Kiln Street
Fax: 0845 0700868
Hinckley Leicestershire Gas New Supply Sian Spencer
Fulcrum Europa View
Tel: 0845 641 3010
Sheffield Business Park
Mobile: 07773 341940
Geodesys for Anglian Water Services Spencer House Potable and Waste Water
Ermine Business Park
Tel: 0800 1 385 385
National Notice Handling Centre
PP 3EW45, Telecom House
Tel: 0800 800 865
Address Trinity Street Hanley Stoke on Trent ST1 5ND
Table 1 â€“ Contacts Directory
3. ELECTRICITY INFRASTRUCTURE 3.1 UK Power Networks The incumbent electricity provider is UK Power Networks. Existing electricity infrastructure records have been obtained from UK Power Networks and reviewed by PBA LLP and comments provided below. A copy of PBA LLP’s Utilities Constraints Plan Drawing No. 24109/008/002 is enclosed within this appendix. A summary of the infrastructure likely to be affected by the proposed development is outlined below: 3.1.1 Overhead Lines On-Site: • There is a 33kV HV OHL from the north east side of the Sprowston Park and Ride continuing north east parallel to Wroxham Road to Coopersholes Plantation, where it then turns and continues to the north. It is advised that the HV overhead line will need to be either retained to maintain the existing grid connectivity and accommodated within the masterplan or diverted below ground adjacent to the new road layouts or in open spaces with wayleave agreements and easements and agreed with UKPN. • There is an abandoned overhead line running from the east of Church Lane north west to the Norwich Rugby Football Club and then continuing west towards Buxton Road and finally turning north to cross Buxton Road and continuing north of Quaker Lane. There is another abandoned overhead line in the north east of the proposed site from Beeston Road crossing Park Farm and Shrubbery Plantation continuing west across North Walsham Road to Red Hall Farm. As the scheme progresses further consultation will be required with UKPN to confirm that both lines are indeed redundant and if so, the infrastructure can be dismantled, removed or indeed replaced by UKPN prior to construction. Off-Site: • There are abandoned overhead HV lines crossing Buxton Road in the north western corner and to the north east of the site in the vicinity of Beeston Park, these lines have already been mentioned above as they pass through the proposed site. 3.1.2 Buried Cables On-Site: • There is a HV underground cable adjacent to North Walsham Road running north from the existing developments in the north of Norwich, then turning west into Beeston Road, continuing on and turning north along Buxton Road. There are LV underground cables jointed from this HV cable feeding residential properties on North Walsham Road, the Pavilion at Redmayne Field and the Norwich Rugby Football Club. There are also LV cables feeding residential properties to the north of the proposed site on Buxton Road. • There is a HV underground cable in Wroxham Road which runs to the Sprowston Park and Ride, with a number of local LV cables. • There is an abandoned HV underground cable from the direction of Sprowston Manor running north across Wroxham Road to the north and then branching north east and north west at Beeston Park to Sprowston Lodge and Beeston St Andrews Hall. The abandoned cable then continues along Beeston Road to the west. Confirmation will be required from UKPN that these cables are
redundant and if so, the infrastructure can be removed or replaced by UKPN prior to construction, if required. Private supplies are not shown on UKPN records and therefore a ground radar and CAT scan are highly recommended before any excavation works are carried out. Off-Site: • There is a HV UGC in Wroxham Road feeding the Sprowston Park and Ride with a number of local LV connections. This infrastructure is currently within the road verge/carriageway and is expected to be retained. Consideration will therefore be necessary to potential diversions or protection for site access arrangement and /or road re-alignments associated with the development. • Cables within North Walsham Road, Beeston Lane, Buxton Road and Wroxham Road are mainly within the public highway (either verge or carriageway) and will need to be retained to maintain supplies to the existing customers. However, consideration will need to be given for any diversion and/or protection requirements due to proposed new access roads and /or road re-alignments for the proposed development. LV underground cables are situated to the south of the proposed development area in the existing residential areas. Any access arrangements proposed to the south of the scheme will also need to consider management during construction.
3.1.3 Substations On-Site and Off-Site: • There is an electricity HV/LV distribution substation to the north of the residential properties on Buxton Road, north of the development site boundary (referred to as the Sprowston Primary Substation). The substation supplies the local residential area and from a review of the UKPN’s asset records is supplied directly from the HV OHL. There are a number of small sub stations for the existing residential area to the south of the proposed development site. UKPN have also confirmed that there is 3MVA capacity currently available at Sprowston Primary Substation (PSS), which is sufficient to supply the equivalent of between 1500 to 2000 homes.
3.2 Constraints The existing 33kV, 11kV and LV underground cables will need to be diverted or accommodated within the road layout for the new development to maintain delivery to existing customers. Diversions and/or protection of the electricity infrastructure will be agreed with UKPN at detailed design stage and inform further progression area and plot design. All overhead cables will likely require either diverting underground and incorporating into the new network or decommissioning, if they only supply properties to be demolished as part of the development.
3.3 Legal Tenure 3.3.1 Wayleaves / Easements UK Power Networks will require suitable wayleaves/easements for all apparatus and infrastructure within the proposed development and 24 hour access will be required at all times in order to maintain and repair cabling and equipment when necessary. 58
It is recommended that the wayleaves and easement agreements currently in place for the existing 33kV, 11kV and LV overhead line, across the site are reviewed to fully assess the implications to the client with regard to diversions, decommissioning and removals. The new cabling infrastructure will predominantly be laid within the public highways throughout the proposed development. Where additional routes need to be agreed outside public highway (e.g. open space) then easement and legal agreements will need to be agreed with UKPN for future access; however, such requirements will be avoided where at all possible.
3.3.2 Leasehold / Freehold UKPN will seek freehold ownership on all new substation structures. The distribution substation footprint will be approximately 4m x 4m each and will need to be setback from the public footway by a minimum of 2m. It will require provision for 24-hour vehicular access directly from the public highway and maintenance access in a 2m clear space around the new substation structure.
3.4 Network Modifications 3.4.1 Diversions The existing 33kV, 11kV and LV overhead lines across the site are likely to require diversion and replacing with underground cables. PBA advises that the cables are diverted through the proposed new road layouts within the masterplan, which will also accommodate the connections and underground cables for the new electricity supplies for the proposed development. 3.4.2 Removals UKPN would be responsible for the removal and disconnections of cabling and poles at a charge to the developer, subject to the terms of the legal agreements currently in place for the electricity infrastructure.
3.5 New Infrastructure There is HV underground cabling adjacent to the site; however this is likely to have limited capacity for new development. An application for a new budget supply was made to UKPN based on a peak demand requirement of 12MVA for the full development. UKPN have confirmed that there is insufficient capacity within the existing network to meet the estimated peak demand. UKPN, as the distribution network operator (DNO) for the area, have confirmed that the most likely option to provide electricity to meet the estimated 12MVA demand currently assumed is a new Primary Sub Station. Currently UKPN have a strategic reserved site on Hurricane Way, approximately 1km west of the development. The budget quote received from UKPN for the improvements to the local electricity network to meet the anticipated development demand is ÂŁ5,400,000 plus VAT. The costs include for a new PSS and for the upstream reinforcement, which includes 2 new 33kV circuits from the Bulk Supply Point at Norwich Thorpe, which is approximately 6km to the south of the development on Hardy Road. UKPN will not provide any further information on the costs until a formal application for a connection is made. In addition to this the UKPN estimate an allowance of ÂŁ1750.00 per plot for the onsite infrastructure including the connection to the PSS. This will include 11kV cables from the PSS and all
distribution substations and cabling. It is anticipated that the timescales for delivery of a new PSS and associated network reinforcement would be between 2-3 years. UKPN have also confirmed that an interim development (up to 3MVA) for the site can be supplied from the Sprowston PSS, which is approximately 1km to the south of the proposed development. The indicative reinforcement costs will be in the region of £250,000 for the provision of the 3MVA. UKPN have allowed for a figure of £1,500 per dwelling for onsite works (UKPN confirmed that they had not included for offsite connections, approximately 1km) but it is suggested that an allowance of £1,750 per dwelling is made, in line with the previous UKPN connection costs. UKPN confirmed that there would be no cost benefit to the final scheme in providing only 9MVA from the new PSS and including the 3MVA from Sprowston as the reinforcement and transformers will still be required. This solution would reduce the initial capital costs and allow the initial development to commence prior to the order to install the new PSS. On site electricity distribution will be via a number of distribution substations (footprint of 4m x 4m) with HV/LV cabling distribution, throughout the development. The ability of the local network to accept any electrical generation exported from the site will also need to be determined with UKPN. Where possible the export connection will be onto the local grid (either new PSS or local HV/LV distribution substation on site), subject to agreement with UKPN.
3.6 Financial Considerations 3.6.1 Procurement Options The estimated electricity peak demand for the proposed development may be of sufficient scale to encourage an “out of area” licensed Distribution Network Operator (DNO) to establish an embedded system within the incumbent’s licensed area. However, this will need to be considered at the detailed design stage and in line with the energy efficiencies measures to be built into the new dwellings, commercial, and retail areas. 3.6.2 Contestable / Non Contestable Work All new electricity infrastructure from the substation to the point of metered supply will generally fall under the definition of “contestable” works allowing “self-lay” as an optional procurement route. All modifications and diversions of existing apparatus generally fall under the definition the “noncontestable” works, which must remain under the direct control of the incumbent provider. Generally, builder / civil works in association with new developments are considered to be a contestable element of both new and diversionary work.
4. GAS INFRASTRUCTURE 4.1 National Grid Gas The incumbent gas provider for this area is National Grid Gas (NGG). However, GTC also have gas infrastructure within the residential area to the south of the proposed development, operating as an Independent Gas Network Operator. Existing gas infrastructure records have been obtained from National Grid Gas and reviewed by PBA LLP and comments provided below. A copy of PBA LLP’s Utilities Constraints Plan Drawing No. 24109/008/002 is available within Appendix A. A summary of the infrastructure likely to be affected by the proposed development is outlined below:
4.1.1 Buried Pipework On-Site: • There is a 6” diameter steel gas main operating at Intermediate pressure (IP) crossing through the site from just north of the Sprowston Park and Ride, running north west to the junction of North Walsham Road and Beeston Road. The IP main then continues across the site adjacent to Beeston Road and then turning north up Buxton Road. • The existing 6" diameter IP gas main is a constraint to the development and will either require diversion or accommodating within the masterplan. The gas main is likely to have an easement of approximately 6m; however this will need to be confirmed from a review of the legal easement document with the landowner and NGG. This will also determine the arrangements of the installation and any relevant "lift and shift" clauses, potentially reducing the cost to the client. At this stage, PBA advise that the IP gas main is considered to be strategic infrastructure and a transporter of gas supplies, therefore NGG will be reluctant to consider diversion, due to the potential operational issues, interruption of supplies during commissioning and decommissioning which will make diversions expensive to carry out. Any new development may need to be located 10m either side of the gas main (including the existing easement width for access arrangements for safety reasons. Currently the scheme has allowed for the gas main to be retained in its current position under both road layout and within public open space. Consideration will also need to be given to avoiding shallower depth of cover or greater depth across the main which again will be the subject of consultation and negotiation with NGG. The gas mains records do not show cathodic protection (CP) systems, however, PBA experience suggests that CP beds are very likely to be associated with steel gas mains. NGG’s records indicate that the existing IP gas main is currently operating at between 2 and 7 bar. Private supplies are not shown on National Grid Gas records and therefore a ground radar and CAT scan are highly recommended before any excavation works are carried out on site. Off-Site: • The 6” diameter IP gas main continues to Wroxham Road where it branches into two directions, north and south in Wroxham Road and to the south through the golf course. There is also a low pressure (LP) gas main within Wroxham Road. Some local gas main diversions and/or protection may be required for any new access roads in Wroxham Road. • GTC are the gas suppliers for the residential areas of Mountbatten Drive and Windsor Park Gardens to the south of the site boundary, this area is shaded on the PBA drawing number
24109/008/002. , However, as this is outside of the site boundary they will not be affected by the proposed development.
4.1.2 Pressure Reducing Stations (PRS)/Gas Governors On-Site and Off-Site • There is a PRS off-site at the junction of Quaker Road and Buxton Lane and there is a PRS off-site at the entrance to the works off St Faiths Road. There are no PRSs within the site boundary.
4.2 Constraints The 6” diameter Steel Intermediate Pressure gas main which crosses the middle of the site from Wroxham Road in the east to Beeston Lane along the northern boundary will need to be accommodated with the masterplan. Diversion and/or protection of the gas infrastructure will be agreed with National Grid Gas at detailed design stage and as the masterplan develops.
4.3 Legal Tenure 4.3.1 Easements National Grid Gas or other Gas Transporters will seek new easements for any gas distribution on-site that is not in the public highway.
4.3.2 Leasehold / Freehold National Grid Gas or other Gas Transporters will require freehold ownership on all new gas governor structures or Pressure Reducing Stations. A land requirement footprint will be approximately 6m x 4m and 24hr access will be required directly from the public highway.
4.4 Network Modifications 4.4.1 Diversions It is unlikely that National Grid Gas would consider diverting the 6” diameter Steel Intermediate pressure gas main which runs through the east side of the proposed development. The 180mm diameter Low Pressure gas main within Wroxham Road, the 6” diameter steel Intermediate Pressure gas main in Beeston Lane, and the 6” diameter Intermediate Pressure gas main within St Faith’s Road will need to be lowered and/or protected to accommodate any proposed access points into the new development.
4.4.2 Removals National Grid Gas would be responsible for the removal and disconnections of gas mains at a charge to the developer, subject to the terms of the legal agreements currently in place for the electricity infrastructure.
4.5 New Infrastructure 62
National Grid Gas have confirmed in their letter dated 23 February 2012, the point of connection on to their infrastructure will be at the junction of Buxton Road and Beeston Lane on the 6” diameter Intermediate Pressure gas main, which is 20m from the site boundary. As the scheme progresses NGG are likely to request a Detailed Network Appraisal (DNA) to be completed (estimate of up to £50,000) at detailed design stage to fully assess the impact of their network and funding arrangement/client contribution. The new gas supply from the IP main will require a Gas Governor on the connection point to reduce pressure from IP to medium pressure (MP) and a footprint of approximately 6m x 4m will be required. Further gas governors will be required to further reduce the pressure to from MP to Low Pressure (LP) for supply to individual properties as the gas supplies are distributed throughout the phased build out. Gas connection across the scheme will be dependent on the final energy strategy. For example if a district heat network or electrical lead scheme is brought forward then site wide gas infrastructure is significantly reduced. These issues are discussed in the main section of the energy statement.
4.6 Financial Considerations 4.6.1 Procurement Options The Gas industry is now fully deregulated and alternative Public Gas Transporters offer competition to the incumbent supplier. Alternative quotations from various Public Gas Transporters to service the site can be sought potentially offering financial benefits to the Developer. There is a financial benefit opportunity for the Developer to self-lay and obtain adoption by a Public Gas Transporter. At detailed design stage (post planning) there is the opportunity to obtain indicative offers and budget costs for the onsite gas infrastructure (if direct gas connections are applicable) from Independent Gas Transporters (IGT’s), for example; GTC, Connect, Fulcrum and SSE to determine an indication of budget costs or possible financial contributions for the installation of the onsite infrastructure. Enquiries and offers will be based on “traditional” gas supplies to the homes.
4.6.2 Contestable / Non Contestable Work All new gas infrastructures from the governor to the point of metered supply will generally fall under the definition of “contestable” works allowing “self-lay” as an optional procurement route. All modifications and diversions of existing apparatus generally fall under the definition of “noncontestable” works, which must remain under the direct control of the incumbent provider.
4.7 Other Public Gas Transporters There are no other Public Gas Transporters identified having plant within the vicinity of the proposed development.
5. TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE 5.1 BT Openreach (BT) The telecommunication provider for the area is BT Openreach. Existing BT telecommunication infrastructure records have been obtained and reviewed by PBA LLP and comments provided below. A copy of PBA LLP’s Existing Services Layout and Constraints Drawing No. 24109/008/002 is available within Appendix A. A summary of the infrastructure likely to be affected by the proposed development is outlined below.
5.1.1 Overhead Lines and Buried Cables On-Site: • There is an overhead line running along the length of Buxton Road through the proposed development. There are underground cables running along the length of North Walsham Road on both sides of the road, through the proposed development. There is an overhead line running along Beeston Road from the north east to Red Hall Farm on North Walsham Road, this line branches out to feed Park Farm, North Park Cottage and Beeston St Andrew Hall. Off-Site: • There is an underground cable running along the length of Wroxham Road on the east boundary of the development. Existing underground cable and overhead lines are present in the housing the south of the development. Where cables and lines are supplying existing properties, these will need to be retained and accommodated within the masterplan.
5.2 Constraints BT record drawings indicate there are a number of BT cables and lines within the boundary of the proposed development, and consideration will need to be given at the proposed new access roads.
5.3 Legal Tenure None currently identified.
5.4 Network Modifications
5.4.1 Diversions Any cables and lines affected by the new development will need to be diverted in agreement with BT Openreach. All overhead cables will likely require either diverting underground and incorporating into the new network or decommissioning, if they only supply properties to be demolished as part of the development.
BT record drawings indicate there are existing BT cables feeding the former mills to the north of the residential development site. These cables will require decommissioning and removal to accommodate the proposed development. It is anticipated that the demolition contractor will contact BT to confirm their disconnection requirements; however, it is unlikely that BT will recover any of the cables.
5.4.3 New Infrastructure On site distribution will follow the proposed road infrastructure. It is currently assumed that the new internal road network will be subject to a Highways Act Section 38 adoption, which will provide for a services corridor. Service routings remaining through private land will require a wayleaves agreement. BT Openreach currently allow up to £3,400 per new residential home for the provision of offsite reinforcement and improvement to their network infrastructure to cater for new development. A financial contribution from the developer may be necessary if the costs of offsite reinforcement exceed this level. At this stage, PBA LLP consider a contribution toward the telecommunication infrastructure via BT Openreach is unlikely to be required, however full engagement with them will be required once the masterplan is defined and at post planning stage. The on-site infrastructure would traditionally be installed by the developer and BT would then make a Service On Demand payment of £140 per plot to developer following the installation of ducts and chambers on site by developer. The information and communication technologies (ICT) market is moving fast in terms of new technologies and systems becoming available. It is recommended that the aspirations of both the client and the Local Authority are further discussed and agreed with PBA LLP and further opportunities explored for the proposed development as the masterplan process develops. BT will offer a proposal to extend their existing telecommunications infrastructure into the proposed development offering a range of technologies including high speed broadband and cable TV. There are two local exchanges that could serve the site. The Saint Faith exchange, located to the north of Norwich Airport, is due to be upgraded to supply Fibre to the Cabinet (FTTC) by the end of 2012 and the North Norwich exchange, just off Mile Cross Lane, will be upgraded on 2013. This will provide an opportunity to provide Fibre to the Premises (FTTP), which would allow the development of a superfast broadband supply to the site. The opportunity to investigate this further would need to be development in the post planning stage.
5.5 Financial Considerations See section 5.4.3 within this report.
5.6 Other Telecommunication Companies PBA LLP have consulted with the following telecommunication companies who have confirmed in writing that they do not have existing infrastructure within the area likely to be affected by the proposed development: • Abovenet • Atkins for Energis and Cable & Wireless • Easynet 65
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Fibrespan Fujitsu for Orange PCS Gamma Telecom H2O Fibre Networks Instalcom Ltd (Fibernet/Tanet/Global Crossing) Kingston Communications (Affiniti) Level 3 Communications (Allcom) McNicholas for Colt, KPN and TATA Reach Active (Interoute and 51 Degree) Redstone Communications Spectrum Interactive Telenttelia Trafficmaster Verizon (MCI World Com) Virgin Media including NTL and Telewest Vitesse Networks Sitefinder for O2/Vodafone/3/T-mobile Linesearch – BT Geo, GPSS and Serco Gulf
6. CONCLUSION Consultation and information obtained by PBA LLP from the incumbent utility providers (based on direct connection to the dwellings) has identified the current energy and ICT infrastructure in place around the NSOC site. A summary of this infrastructure is provided below.
Electricity Following consultation with UK Power Networks it has been confirmed that there is currently sufficient capacity within the existing network to supply 3MVA to the site by extending the electricity network from the existing PSS at Sprowston. This could supply initial development at the NSOC site of between 1500 and 2000 homes. Electricity capacity for further development (potentially 12MVA in total) would be accommodated for within UKPN’s strategic primary substation expansion planned at Hurricane Way, Norwich. There is an existing 33kV OHL that currently crosses the NSOC site. This could be either accommodated within the masterplan or be diverted underground within the highway network or in open spaces, subject to agreement with UKPN. There is also a HV UGC running adjacent to the Beeston Road and the Wroxham Road with a number of low voltage cables serving the existing residential properties on site. This infrastructure will either be diverted in negotiation with UKPN or accommodated within the detailed design of the scheme based on a wider power distribution network across the site.
Gas The IP gas main that runs from the north of the site to the south east will need to be retained and is to be accommodated within the masterplan for the new development and taken forward into detailed design. National Grid Gas have confirmed that the existing IP gas main has sufficient capacity to supply the site based on direct “traditional” gas connections, with a point of connection to the north west of the site at the junction of Beeston Lane and Buxton Road. The heating requirements for the development will need to be reviewed as the masterplan develops, to include any proposals for Low and Zero Carbon technologies, which may reduce the heating load from the gas network. Telecommunications The proposed development also appears to be well placed for future telecommunications provision as the NSOC site is situated close to BT’s Saint Faith exchange, which is due to be Fibre to the Cabinet (FTTC) enabled from December 2012. The Norwich North exchange, located to the south of the development, is anticipated to be FTTC enabled in 2013. FTTC could enable local fibre connections to the site and potentially enable a pure fibre network to the development providing super-fast broadband. Any existing telecommunications cables or lines will need to be diverted if supplying existing customers, or decommissioned if no longer required through the demolition of properties within the site boundary.
APPENDIX A – UTILITY CONSTRAINTS PLAN
Published on Oct 14, 2012