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Bernard van Leer Foundation Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey Naomi Podber, Devin Heyward, Eleanor Luken, Selma Djokovic Brett G. Stoudt, PhD Department of Critical Psychology The Graduate Center, City University of New York

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Special thanks to all of the students who helped with this project and were involved in the 2013 Statistical Institute for Early Childhood Development and Children's Rights funded by The Bernard van Leer Foundation:

Laila Alsabahi Briana Baxter Todd Brown Selma Djokovic Deshonay Dozier Ashley Duffee Cory Greene Kristen Hackett Prakriti Hassan Devin Heyward Whitley Jackson Kasie Kelley Eleanor Luken Maryam Mazhar Alfredo Daniel Novoa Karyna Pryiomka Tellisia Williams

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Table of contents ......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................. ......................................................................................................... ......................................... ............................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................. ..................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................. ..................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ....................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................ ............................................................................... .............................................................................................................. .......................................................... . .........................................................................................

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Executive summary Demographics The Bernard van Leer Foundation Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey was administered in 4 districts in Uganda to 1,728 households in 40 different villages from January to June 2011. The respondents are mostly female (81.3%), have an average age of 33 years, and live in households with an average of 6.8 members. The households are almost all in rural areas (93.4%) and 92.0% of the households grow crops as their main livelihood activity. A majority of respondents (74.2%) have either no education or have not completed primary school. Poverty and resources

The respondents are overwhelmingly poor. The median monthly income was 25,000 Ugandan shillings, which corresponds to $10.21 US using the December 2011 exchange rate. This is far below the international poverty line of $1.25 US a day. Using this standard, 82.8% of the respondents are below the poverty line, and another 9.4 are at risk of falling below it. Many households do own land (88.4), livestock (77.6%), and/or a bicycle (62.1%), though less than half own communication devices such as a phone (32.6%) or a radio (45.3%). Very few households owned a television or motor vehicle. There were large gender differences in resource ownership. While it is the norm for households to have to sell assets for emergency needs (59.4% have had to do this in the past 6 months), 32.2% of respondents reported that they currently have no assets that they could sell in an emergency. Most of the respondents (77.1%) reported that their household has had inadequate food in the past 6 months. In addition, almost one fourth of the respondents (22.8%) reported spending most of ’ / school-related expenses. While attempts to find patterns in the data based on income were inconclusive, due to the overwhelming poverty in the sample, certain resources did seem to be related to health and food access. The construction of the house (the material of the roof and walls), ownership of livestock and land, asset ownership, emergency sale of assets, and main source of food were related to not only whether a household had adequate ’ .

5

Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s health MUAC The interviewers measured the Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC), height, and weights of the children in the household who were at home during the interview process. These measurements were moved into another dataset containing 3,037 children, and averages for MUAC and weight are reported by age. The height measurements were inconsistent (different units of measurement were clearly used, but not specified) and so height was not analyzed. 12.7% of the individual children between the ages of 6 and 71 months were either malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, using a standard of MUAC<13.5 cm. In addition, 17.2% of households had at least one child between the ages of 6 and 71 months who was either malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. This statistic varied by subcounty, with Asuret standing out as having the fewest households with children at risk for malnutrition (4.4%). Risk of malnutrition in children was related to resource variables such as dietary diversity, household assets, livestock, garden, main source of food, and house construction materials. Illness The majority of respondents (82.5%) have had a child who became ill within the past month. The most commonly reported illness was malaria, present among the children in 61.2% of the households. 11.8% of households reported losing a child aged 1-8 in the past year, and 14.8% reported losing an infant within one week after birth. The illness statistics varied by subcounty. While 92.7% of households in Ongino reported having a sick child in the past month, only 55.9% of households in Lorengedwat reported this. Child illness was related to resource variables such as inadequate food, house construction materials, and emergency sale of household assets, as well as violence against respondents and manner of refuse disposal. Incidence of child malaria within a household was related to possession of mosquito nets and subcounty, and also to the type of containers used for water storage in the household.


Executive summary

6

Child mistreatment A majority of participants (52%) reported that they are aware of children between the ages of 0 and 8 in their communities who are mistreated. Out of these participants, 81.4% believed that orphans and/or children staying with stepparents are the most mistreated children in the community. The most common mistreatment, reported by 35.4% of participants, was beating or physical assault. Awareness of mistreated children in a community was related to subcounty, as well as resource variables such as inadequate food and house construction materials. In addition, female respondents who had experienced violence were more likely to report being aware of mistreated children in the community, as were respondents who had a child fall ill within the past month. In a separate item in the child discipline section, 86.2% of participants reported that they do or sometimes do believe in beating a child who has done something wrong. Respondents were more likely to believe in beating a child if they had had inadequate food in the past 6 months, but were less likely to believe in beating a child if the household had at least one child who was malnourished or at risk for malnutrition. This variable was also related to subcounty and the number of children in the household. Violence Most respondents (79.3%) reported that violence against women happens in their community. The most commonly reported form of violence was wife beating or battering, which 65.7% of respondents reported as happening in their community. Respondents were more likely to believe that violence against women happens in their community if they had inadequate food in the past 6 months or if they had had to sell assets for emergency needs in the past 6 months, and perceptions also differed with dietary diversity and whether the respondents had experienced violence personally. The majority of respondents (60.3%) reported personally experiencing some form of violence in the past year. 37.6% of female respondents reported experiencing beating or battering, which was the most commonly reported form of violence.

22.9% of those respondents reported that the violence they experienced resulted in serious injuries such as deep wounds, broken bones, or broken teeth, and 29.8% reported that it resulted in eye injuries, sprains, dislocations or burns. 86.8% of female respondents who experienced violence reported that their husbands were responsible for the violence, and 33.6% of female respondents who experienced violence took no action in response to the violence Women were more likely to experience violence if they lived in households with depleted resources, such as inadequate food, a lack of dietary diversity, or the need to sell resources for emergency needs in the past 6 months. Women were less likely to experience violence if they owned land or lived in a household that was securely above the poverty line or with a female head of household. Violence was also related to other resource variables such as house construction materials and whether the household has a separate dwelling place for animals. Finally, women who believe in beating children who have misbehaved were more likely to have experienced violence themselves. Quotes There are quotes interspersed throughout the analysis. The quotes are from respondents and were written in by the interviewer at the end of the questionnaire, in â&#x20AC;&#x153; ?â&#x20AC;? ( Appendix B for the full survey). Many of the quotes that were recorded express themes of severe need and some respondents asked for specific programs, materials, and resources that would personally help them and their communities. Many respondents also talked about their hopes for the future or the hopelessness they feel about their current situation. Finally, a number of the quotes express curiosity and/or a lack of understanding about both the purpose of the research and who the researchers were working for. See Appendix A for a list of all recorded quotes. A Note on Descriptive Analyses All of the analyses in this report are descriptive, and none should be interpreted as indicating a causal relationship.


Executive summary

7

Next steps - putting the data in context

On item F9, which is about children in the household, interviewers listed only the children who happened to be We offer this statistical analysis as the beginning of a collaborative conversation about the data. While it was home at the time of the interview (one of the quotes at the end of one of the surveys asks whether the carried out by researchers who considered all of the collected data carefully, we were removed from both the interviewer would come back when the children were home from school). As a result, the surveys contain only survey construction and data collection processes. We partial information about families and the ages of their are not familiar with the specific context of rural Uganda, and though we made every effort to analyze the children and the resulting sample of children whose data in a way that is meaningful and knowledgeable (by measurements were recorded is not random. ’ Interviewers sometimes recorded results in different ’ ) measurements, without specifying this difference. For we had many questions about how to interpret the ’ analyses due to our lack of contextual understanding. recorded in both inches and centimeters, despite the specification of centimeters on the questionnaire, but the The data, however, were rich and informative and researchers did not record their unit of measurement. deserve deeper exploration. We would like to Some interviewers specified that land ownership was respectfully recommend a series of data-driven recorded in hectares, even though the item asks for acres, workshops with Ugandans from the regions where the putting all of the units of measurement for this item in surveys were administered. We believe that presenting question. this information to them and facilitating a set of collaborative analyses (what we call community analyses) will help the writers of the final report to understand the data better as well as provide the possibility for generating additional analyses and interpretations. Concerns about the survey instrument and administration Many items on the questionnaire were inconsistent, unclear, or did not leave room for respondents to record consistent and meaningful answers. For instance, item C5 asks how many people contribute to the income of the household, but does not specify whether the respondent should include themselves, leaving inconsistency in the responses. Other items, such as item D24 and E25, included categorical choices that were not mutually exclusive and/or not exhaustive, leaving respondents with no clear answer choice. Item E12 asks about distance, travel time, and mode of transport to different health facilities, but leaves no room for respondents to record that a specific type of health facility is not accessible from their home. The G (“ experience the following forms of violence in this ?”) G (“ ?”) more difficult.

Finally, the survey is written in English and responses were . “ ” item A18, which asks respondents for the main language of communication used in their home. No respondent chose this first option, meaning that English was not the primary language for any respondent. Either the interviews were conducted in English or the interviewers translated the items as they administered the ’ before writing them on the questionnaire. There is no way of knowing whether the translation was consistent across interviewers and across respondents. Responses to certain items raise concerns about how well the survey was understood by respondents and/or interviewers. For example, of the male respondents who reported experiencing violence, 71.5% reported that this violence was committed by their husband. Other respondents reported having children who sleep under treated mosquito nets, after reporting that they have no treated mosquito nets. As a result of these and many other concerns and inconsistencies that call the validity of this survey into question, we were very cautious in our analyses. We found some items impossible to analyze, and we analyzed others with caution, using strategies that maximize the possibility for trustworthy results. At other times we presented our concerns in the results.


Map of respondent locations

What is your research going to do for us? We have registered. Thank you.

hopes in you for our problems that you have

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The people were requesting for more help from the NGOs since the

governments have failed.

Districts Subcounties


Respondent locations 4 Districts 8 Subcounties 16 Parishes 40 Villages

Counts by village

Apac Chegere Kidilani Abedi B Adir Kwoyo A Kwoyo B Ongica Abwal A Abwal B Amwka Ongica Nambieso Bung Ajengi Ayomlwor Bar Bung Odwong Okik Aornga Aburu Amok Awaldek Okwor Teoryang Kumi Kumi Agule Agule Okomion Okouba Adacar Okouba Ongino Aakum Aakum Morio Akide Aguya Akide

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Percent of 1,728 respondents*

42.7% 18.4% 10.2% 41 45 52 38 8.2% 40 25 39 38 24.3% 13.1% 40 72 63 41 10 11.2% 12 33 68 51 29 21.4% 9.4% 5.0% 49 37 4.5%

Soroti Asuret Adacar Adacar Otatai Otaitai Orimai Otatai Central Otatai Village Kamuda Agora Akere Dokolo Aminit Kakita Osudo Nakpiripirit Lorengedwat Narisae Lokwamoru Naweet Nathinyonit Moruita Katabok Lemusui Moruita Karinga Karinga B

27.4% 14.7% 7.8% 80 54 6.9% 65

44 11 12.7% 4.2% 37 35 8.5% 92 55 8.6% 6.4% 4.9% 85 1.5% 26 2.1% 0.7% 12 1.4% 15 10

40 37 11.9% 6.1% 49 56 5.8% 48 53

*All blue district percentages add up to 100, all red subcounty percentages add up to 100, and all green parish percentages add up to 100.


Demographics

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Number of residents in household (N=1740) 14.0%

14.9% 14.2%

Min: 1, Max: 25, Mean: 6.8, Std: 2.9 12.6% 12.0% 8.4%

7.7%

5.9% 3.2% 2.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.2% 0.9%

0.1% 0.8% 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Marital status (N=1703)

In 69.5% of households the wife is responsible for childcare.

Married Monogamous

61.3%

Married Polygamous Widowed/widower

An adult male serves as the head of household in 81% of cases; 14.3% report an adult female.

20.0% 7.0%

Separated

3.5%

Never Married

2.7%

Cohabiting

2.5%

Divorced

1.5%

Of the 1,728 respondents 81.3% are

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

How are we going to help the children of parents who separated since the burdens rest on mothers?

Age of Respondent Min: 15, Max: 80, Mean: 33.0, Std: 10.7

(N=1684) 20.1% 20.8%

18.0% 14.4% 8.9% 6.2%

2.8%

3.9%

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

female

1.9%

1.5%

0.8%

0.7%

15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-80


Demographics

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Highest education completed (N=1725) None Primary Not Completed

50.8%

Primary Completed

(N=1244)

Yes 27%

14.20%

Secondary Not Completed

6%

Secondary Completed

3%

Secondary Higher Level

0.60%

Post Secondary Training

0.60%

Junior

0.70%

Other

0.60%

No 73%

Religion

Language (N=1715)

Can you read and write?

23.4%

(N=1720) Luo

42.3%

Ateso

30.4%

Kumam Swahili Ngakarimojong

Anglican/Protestant

45.1%

Catholic

41.2%

18.2% 10.0% 6.9%

Other

1.3%

Pokot

1.10%

93.4% of respondents live in a rural area. 6.6% of respondents live in a trading centre.

Pentecostal Other

10.2% 3.0%


Livelihood

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What is your main livelihood activity?

What assets could you sell in an emergency?

(N=1728)

(N=1713) Crop Growing

Other* 7.4%

92.0%

Petty Trade

5.8%

Agricultural: Non-Crop-Growing

5.2%

Selling Labour

5.0%

Fishing

4.6%

Mining and Quarry

4.2%

Brick making and Others

2.1%

Tobacco and Food Processing

2.1%

Transportation

1.7%

Artisanal

1.3%

None 32.2%

Agriculture products 30.0%

Livestock 30.5% * Other includes land rights and household assets (options on the survey), multiple assets, and other.

… 0.8%

In the last 6 months, 59.4% of households have had to sell some of their assets for

Out of the 1,728 survey respondents, 18.4% indicated that members of their household participated in more than one main livelihood activity.

emergency needs

(N=1684).

What did you spend most of your total household income on last month? (N=1564) Food

38.9%

Multiple Expenditures

28.6%

Medical Bills

11.2%

School Fees and/or Materials

10.4%

22.8%*

of respondents spent most of their

household income last month on medical

and/or school-related expenses. Others Clothing Hired Labour

7.5% 2.5% 0.8%

*This number includes the 1.2% of respondents in “ ” spent most of their total household income last month solely on school expenses and medical bills.

bills


Income

(N=1650)

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

Why is it that programs in our community are always directed to the rich?

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

Estimated income last month (UGX)

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Amounts listed are in Ugandan shillings (UGX) The three most extreme outliers are not visually represented on the overall boxplot (incomes of 1,100,000, 2,000,000 and 25,000,000 shillings, respectively). The percentile statistics include these outliers (N=1650). The expanded view boxplot omits the 164 households that appear as outliers on the overall graph (thus excludes reported incomes between 140,000 and 25,000,000 shillings for the previous month).

Detail: income last month (UGX) (N=1486)

Percentiles 75th 60,000

50th

25,000

25th 10,000


Income in context

14

The average monthly income for participants was 70,663.09 UGX ($27.44 USD). This average does not give an accurate assessment of how many people are living above or below an established poverty line. Using the international standard of living on or making $1.25 USD per day, we established a base poverty line for the sample.[i],[ii] As of December 31, 2011, the US to UGX currency exchange rate was $1 USD to 2,449.08 UGX.[iii] Accounting for a standard 30 day month, the poverty line stands at 91,840.50 UGX.[iv] According to the Uganda Bureau of Statistics, the risk of falling below the poverty line is not ameliorated until a family makes twice the poverty line (183,681 UGX).iii Using these standards, the majority of participants in this study are below the poverty line (82.8%). 9.4% of participants were still at risk for falling below the poverty line and only 7.8% of participants would be “ ” .

78.9% 84.2%

At Risk for Falling Below the Poverty Line 10.3% 10.4%

81.9%

11.1%

6.9%

88.5%

6.6%

5.0%

At or below the Poverty Line

District

Apac Kumi Nakapiripirit Soroti

Securely above the poverty line 10.8% 5.4%

References [i]

Ravallion, M., Chen S., and Sangraula, P. (2009). Dollar a day. The World Bank Economic Review, 23, 163-184. [ii] Uganda Bureau of Statistics and International Livestock Research Institute (2008). 2005 Poverty GIS Database. Kampala, Uganda: UBOS. [iii] Currency Converter (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.oanda.com/currency/converter/ [iv] $1.25USD would be equivalent to 3,061.35 UGX. [v] World Resources Institute. (2010). Mapping a better future: Spatial analysis and Pro-poor livestock strategies in Uganda. Kampala, Uganda and Washington, DC, US: World Resources Institute.

It is important to note that as of 2005, 40 – 60% of residents living in Apac, Soroti, and Kumi were below the poverty line. In Nakapiripirit, greater than 60% of residents were below the poverty line.[v] Within the given sample, 75 – 90% of participants in each district are below the established poverty line. This could be in part due to the sharp decline in the value of the Ugandan shilling or sampling biases during the course of data collection.

Incomes of respondents by roof material* *Some outliers do not appear on these boxplots – see main income section on previous page for a full income boxplot including outliers Percentiles (Ugandan shillings)

Percentiles (Ugandan shillings) 75th 50th 25th

50,000 UGX

50th

50,000 UGX

20,000 UGX 10,000 UGX

25th

20,000 UGX

We are really badly off. Are you trying to rescue

us?

75th 100,000 UGX


Assets and ownership

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Assets owned by any member of household (N=1727) Kitchen/water supplies*

97.0%

Bed and/or mattress

88.4%

Land

88.4%

Livestock

77.6%

Bicycle

62.1%

Blanket

49.4%

Radio

45.3%

Phone

32.6%

Motorcycle

2.0%

Boat without a motor

1.7%

TV

1.5%

*Kitchen/water supplies include plates, cups, cooking utensils, and/or jerry cans Only 1 household reported owning a car or truck, and only 4 households reported owning a boat with a motor

Ownership of household assets Out of the households that own each asset, the percentage in which at least one adult male and/or female owns the asset.

73.3%

75.5%

73.2%

72.3%

39.6% 38.3% 19.9%

18.1%

13.7%

8.0% Both male Male and female only

Female only

13.9%

13.0%

Both male Male and female only

Female only

Both male Male and female only

Female only

Both male Male and female only

9.8%

Female only

15.1%

11.2%

Both male Male and female only

Kitchen/water supplies*

Land*

Livestock*

Bicycle*

Radio*

(N=1676)

(N=1526)

(N=1340)

(N=1072)

(N=783)

*In 0.7% of households that own these supplies, children are the sole owners of the supplies

*In 0.1% of households that own land, children are the sole owners of land

*In 2.2% of households that own land, children are the sole owners of livestock

*In 0.8% of households that own a bicycle, children are the sole owners of the bicycle(s)

Female only

*In 1.4% of households that own a radio, children are the sole owners of the radio(s)


Land ownership and access

16

94.3%

of respondents own they are living in (N=1721).

the house

If your household doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t own land, how do you access land? N=163 Free use

50.3%

Renting/hiring Borrowing Multiple means of access

201 respondents reported

35.0%

that they do not own land.

11.7% 3.1%

How do you utilize land? (N=1727) Cultivation

97.7%

Livestock Other

15.9% 3.2%


Housing characteristics Number of rooms in the home

17

Tabooda is the main source of lighting for 82.2% of respondents (N=1724).

(N=1727) 50.7%

84.5%

have a separate kitchen from the dwelling place (N=1725). 16.5% 14.7%

1

2

11.1%

3

7.1%

32.2% have a kitchen with smoke escape ventilation (N=1629).

5+ 5& Above

4

56%

of respondents DO NOT have enough ventilation in all rooms N=1707).

Number of rooms used for sleeping (N=1723)

18.9%

of respondents live in a household with at least one person who

smokes on a regular basis (N=1665).

52.6% 27.2% 12.5%

1

2

There was no

3

4.9%

2.7%

4

5 5+ &Above

difference

Estimate of crowding Number of people in household divided by number of rooms in home used for sleeping

in crowding between:

•Households that had and had not lost a child in the past year •Households that had and had not had a baby die after birth •Households that have or do not have at least one child with a MUAC less than 13.5 cm • Female respondents who did and did not experience any forms of violence

Percentiles (people per room) 75th 6 people 50th 4 people 25th 3 people


Housing characteristics

18

Where do children play? (N=1728) Home Compound

87.6%

School Compound

26.1%

Community Field

5.7%

Other

4.6%

Inside the house

4.3%

Church/Mosque Compound

2.3%

Sub-County Compound

2.0%

90.8%

of respondents reported that their outdoor space/compound has enough space to allow children to play (N=1596).

Where does the household dispose of refuse? (N=1721) Throwing in the bush

36.1%

Rubbish Pit

32.5%

Disposing in garden

25.6%

of households dispose of

25.6%

Burning

2.6%

Others

1.7%

Garbage bins

1.2%

Multiple

0.5%

refuse in the garden. 87.6%

of respondents report that children play in the home

compound area.

Main material of the exterior walls

Main material of roof

(N=1721)

(N=1724)

Un-Burnt Bricks

50.1%

Mud Poles Thatched Iron Sheets Mutiple Materials

88.7% 10.6% 0.8%

22.4%

Unburnt Bricks with Plaster

11.6%

Burnt Bricks with Cement

6.5%

Thatched/Straw

5.5%

Burnt Bricks with Mud

2.9%

Multiple Materials

0.9%

Other

0.1%

Cement Blocks

0.1%


Sanitation

19

59.4% of respondents have a latrine (N=1706). Latrine types (N=1003)

Of those 1,013 households that have a latrine, 39.1% share it with another household.

Covered Pit Latrine no slab Uncovered Pit Latrine no slab

Although 59.4% (N=1706) of respondents have a latrine, only 11.1% have a facility for washing hands after latrine use (N=1013).

2.7%

VIP Latrine

1.2%

Composting toilet (ecosan)

0.7%

Other

0.4%

People are willing to have latrines but they do not have slabs.

Methods of maintaining latrine cleanliness

(N=1726)

(Limited to those who own a latrine, N=693)

Latrine

46.1%

Cat Method

24.6%

Open Yard

Potty

12.6%

Uncovered Pit Latrine with slab

facility use it regularly (N=109), but only 50.9% of those facilities have soap, detergent or a locally used cleaning agent (N=108).

Other

24.7%

Covered Pit Latrine with slab

84.4% of those who have a hand washing

Methods of disposing of children’s feces

57.7%

19.3% 5.6% 0.6%

Sweeping

67.3%

Smearing

29.4%

Smoking

25.2%

Use Ash Washing Other

18.1% 6.5% 3.6%


Livestock

20

41%

of respondents reported that domestic animals do NOT have a separate dwelling place from people (N=1277).

Why donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t livestock have a separate dwelling place? Goats (N=300)

Other

33.3%

Lack of Building Materials

901 respondents own goats.

33.0%

805 of those answered whether goats have a

No Problem Sharing Avoid Thefts

7.6%

Wild Animals

2.0%

Multiple Reasons

1.3%

Poultry

separate dwelling place, and 38.9% reported that they do not.

22.7%

(N=362) Avoid Thefts No Problem Sharing

Wild Animals Multiple Reasons

913 of those answered whether poultry have

26.2%

Other Lack of Building Materials

1025 respondents own poultry.

42.5%

a separate dwelling place, and 41.3% reported that they do not.

16.6% 8.8% 5.2% 0.6%

Pigs (N=66) Lack of Building Materials

48.5%

259 respondents own pigs. 213 of those answered whether pigs have a

Other Wild Animals Avoid Thefts

43.9%

separate dwelling place, and 32.4% reported that they do not.

6.1% 1.5%

Calves (N=128) Lack of Building Materials

40.6%

Other

32.0%

No Problem Sharing Avoid Thefts

18.0% 6.3%

Wild Animals

2.3%

Multiple Reasons

0.8%

634 respondents own calves. 452 of those answered whether calves have a separate dwelling place, and 30.8% reported that they do not.


Food production and consumption

21

Types of food produced on land (N=1727)

Cassava

83.1%

33.8%

Beans

49.4%

13.9%

Sorghum

48.0%

18.8%

Maize

30.9%

Potatoes

41.5%

14.3%

Groundnuts

45.2%

23.7%

40.8%

30.3% 24.1%

Millet

21.3%

Green vegetables

21.6%

3.4%

17.1% 10.7%

Green grams Peas

3.7%

Fruits

3.6%

What is your main source of food?

28.8%

Simsim

(N=1683) Own Garden/Reserves

71.7%

Sale Buying from Local Market

13.4%

24.3%

Multiple Sources Home consumption

1.5%

Wild Food

0.9%

Other

0.6%

10.6%

Gift From Relatives

0.5%

11.4%

Food Aid

0.5%

12.3%

Other

5.4% 5.7%

Cow beans

5.3% 1.2%

Sun flower

3.8%

Soya beans

3.2%

Sale Consumption

77.1% of respondents reported having inadequate food in their household in the last 6 months (N=1715). What did you do to overcome inadequate food provisions? (N= 1727) Buying from Local Market

59.8%

Other

6.3%

Borrowed from Relatives/Friends

6.1%

Food Aid

5.4%

Wild Food

5.1%

Donations from Relatives

3.2%

Sold Family Assets

2.8%


Food production and consumption Yesterday, did anyone in the house consume any of the following? Roots/tubers

How often do your children consume the following foods? Beans (N = 1670)

84.7%

Legumes

59.7%

Cereal

90.1%

Vegetables (N = 1653)

9.9%

83.3%

16.7%

50.2% Oil (N = 1631)

Vegetables

76.3%

23.7%

41.3% Fish (N = 1633)

Oil/fat

31.0%

Fruits

30.6%

Sugar/honey

28.0%

Fish/seafood

27.0%

Milk/milk products Meat/offal

22

61.7%

Fruit (N = 1585)

38.3%

53.6%

46.4%

Millet (N = 1615)

40.9%

59.1%

Milk (N = 1578)

40.2%

59.8%

19.6% Meat (N = 1672)

26.9%

73.1%

9.1%

Other

4.6%

Eggs

3.2%

Eggs (N = 1599) 13.8%

(N=1728)

86.2%

Rice (N = 1590) 5.7%

94.3%

Matooke (N = 1611) 5.0%

95.0% Once a week + Rarely or never

There were 2.63 meals on average eaten throughout the day in the household during the 24-hour period before the survey was taken (N=1728).

Firewood is the main source of energy for cooking for 98.1% (N=1724).

31.2%

of respondents have a drying rack in their household compound (N=1690).

84.7%

of respondents store cooked food in a covered saucepan.


Beliefs about food and health

23

Are there foods that pregnant women are advised not to eat? (N=200) Others * Crops

18.5%

Internal Organs

12.0%

Animal by products Poisoned or Dead Meat

Ongino 5.1%

13.5%

Wild Animals Akiliton

Asuret 1.0%

34.5%

Chegere 13.2%

Kumi 4.1%

10.5%

Nambieso 3.6%

Moruita 14.7%

6.0% 5.0% Lorenged wat 57.9%

Are there foods that lactating mothers are advised not to eat? (N=55) Others * Crops

21.4%

Internal Organs

12.5%

Wild Animals

Poisoned or Dead Meat

Chegere 27%

10.7%

Animal by products Akiliton

Asuret 4%

42.9%

Moruita 13%

8.9% 5.4% 1.8% Ongino 27%

Kumi 29%

Are there foods that children are advised not to eat? (N=31) Others*

35.5%

Crops

29.0%

Internal Organs

12.9%

Wild Animals Animal by products

Kamuda 4%

Kumi 10%

9.7% 6.5%

Akiliton

3.2%

Poisoned or Dead Meat

3.2%

Lorengedwat 3%

Chegere 45% Ongino 38%

*Others included food such as alcohol and white ants.

Kamuda 0.5%


Beliefs about food and health

24

Do you believe that diarrhoea among breast feeding children is caused by the following:

Dirty Water N=1673

Malaria N=1677

4.9% 3.2%

91.9%

Cold Food Kept Overnight N=1671

87.5%

Dirty Breasts N=1675

7.2% 5.3%

85.1%

False Teeth N=1650

Witchcraft N=1626

1.9% 3.0%

95.1%

7.7% 7.2%

75.6%

15.0%

44.5% Agree

33.4% Disagree

Don't Know

22.1%

9.4%


Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s average MUAC and weight Average Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) for children 6 to 71 months

Average weight for all children

Sex & Age

N

Mean

Std

Min

Max

Male 6-11 months

91

14.54

1.45

10.20

17.60

Female 6-11 months

85

Male 1 year old

216

14.09

14.30

1.40

8.00

18.50

Male 2 years old

229

14.97

1.35

10.30

18.60

Female 2 years old

245

14.81

1.33

11.00

20.00

Female 3 years old

263

15.46

15.31

1.47

8.00

19.20

Female 4 years old

236

15.62

1.34

10.00

20.20

Male 5 years old

218

16.04

1.29

12.00

19.00

15.95

1.35

9.20

12.00

N

Mean

Std

Min

Max

Male 0-5 months

74

6.51

1.93

3.00

12.50

Female 0-5 months

64

6.21

1.82

2.00

10.10

Male 6-11 months

93

7.76

1.89

3.00

17.20

Female 6-11 months

87

7.56

1.80

3.70

14.20

Male 1 year old

219

9.55

1.89

4.50

17.10

Female 1 year old

191

9.27

1.91

4.70

18.60

Male 2 years old

230

11.81

2.47

7.00

23.00

Female 2 years old

248

11.53

2.40

6.40

22.00

Male 3 years old

254

13.58

2.35

5.90

23.00

Female 3 years old

264

13.27

2.53

4.20

21.30

Male 4 years old

276

15.28

2.71

8.50

27.00

Female 4 years old

233

15.56

2.96

9.00

Male 5 years old

219

17.09

3.08

5.80

27.00

Female 5 years old

206

17.23

3.00

8.50

27.00

Male 6 years old

57

18.19

4.76

8.90

40.40

Female 6 years old

38

19.01

2.74

Male 7 years old

18

21.36

4.64

Female 7 years old

30

21.24

Male 8 years old

37

23.84

Female 8 years old

37

24.67

21.80

272

202

1.56

10.00

18.50

Male 4 years old

Female 5 years old

15.59

1.40

7.80

Sex & Age

19.00

192

251

1.36

10.20

Female 1 year old

Male 3 years old

14.35

1.49

25

19.00

15.20

29.30

26.60

19.00

All averages come from a data set containing N=3037 individual children whose MUAC and weight were measured by the interviewers.

8.50

29.10

6.90

28.10

4.11

16.20

37.60

3.40

17.90

32.70

4.18


Children and malnourishment

26

MUAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Children at risk for malnourishment or currently malnourished* 13.9%

11.6%

At risk or currently malnourished

12.7%

Not at risk for malnourishment

*12.7% of all individual children between the ages of 6 and 71 months measured by the interviewers were at risk for malnourishment or currently malnourished (N=2505).

86.1%

88.4%

87.3%

Girls (N=1223)

Boys (N=1278)

Total (N=2505**)

**No gender reported for 4 children

*17.2% of households have at least one child between the ages of 6 and 71 months who is malnourished or at risk of becoming malnourished (N=1477). Percentage of households with at least one child who is currently malnourished or at risk of becoming malnourished, by sub-county* Moruita county N=28 Lorengedwat N=75 Ongino N=177 Kumi county N=123 Chegere N=275 Nambieso N=387 Kamuda N=205 Asuret N=206

46.4% 26.7% 26.0% 21.1% 20.0% 16.3% 10.7% 4.4%

*Only children between the ages of 6 and 71 months were included, and risk was assessed using the standard of MUAC<13.5 cm.


Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) Bivariate analyses

27

Yes No

Are any of the children in the household aged 6 to 71 months malnourished or at risk for malnutrition? Results organized by dietary diversity 88.3% 76.7%

23.3% 11.7%

While 11.7% of respondents who reported consuming four or more different types of food the day before they took the survey have at least one child who is malnourished or at risk, respondents who consumed three or fewer different types of food are twice as likely (23.3%) to have a child who is malnourished or at risk.

Three or less foods (N=701) Four or more foods (N=771)

Are any of the children in the household aged 6 to 71 months malnourished or at risk for malnutrition? Results organized by main material of the exterior walls 92.5% 84.3%

82.9% 73.1%

26.9% 17.1%

15.7% 7.5%

Mud and poles (N=309)

Are any of the children in the household aged 6 to 71 months malnourished or at risk for malnutrition? Results organized by whether households treat water 89.0%

11.0%

Household treats water (N=182)

81.7%

18.3%

Household doesn't treat water (N=1274)

Other (N=228)

Unburnt bricks (N=759)

Unburnt bricks with plaster (N=174)


Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) Bivariate analyses

28

Yes No

Are any of the children in the household aged 6 to 71 months malnourished or at risk for malnutrition? Results organized by whether household has assets that could be sold in an emergency 85.9% 75.8%

Are any of the children in the household aged 6 to 71 months malnourished or at risk for malnutrition?

24.2% 14.1%

Results organized by main source of food for household Has assets that could be sold in an emergency (N=1016)

85.6%

Does not have assets that could be sold in an emergency (N=450)

75.6%

24.4%

73.2%

26.8%

14.4%

Own garden/reserves (N=1043)

Are any of the children in the household aged 6 to 71 months malnourished or at risk for malnutrition? Results organized by whether any member of the household owns livestock 85.2%

73.8%

26.2% 14.8%

Households that do not own any livestock (N=313)

Households that own livestock (N=1163)

Buying from local market (N=340)

Others (N=56)


Inadequate food Bivariate analyses

29

While 14.8% of respondents who did not have an inadequate food supply use the local market as their main source of food, 27% of respondents who did have an inadequate food supply used the local market as their main source of food.

What is your main source of food? Results organized by whether anyone in the household had inadequate food in the past 6 months

Own garden Buying from local market

83.9%

Others

68.2%

27.0% 14.8% 4.8%

1.3%

Had Inadequate Food (N=1288) Did Not Have Inadequate Food (N=384)

Did you have to sell assets to meet emergency needs?

Did you receive a free mosquito net? Results organized by whether anyone in the household had inadequate food in the past 6 months

Results organized by whether anyone in the household had inadequate food in the past 6 months

68.0%

62.4% 50.1% 49.9%

52.0%

Yes

37.6%

32.0%

No

Had Inadequate Food (N=1292)

Did Not Have Inadequate Food (N=381)

Had Inadequate Food (N=1157)

Did Not Have Inadequate Food (N=325)

From where did you receive a free mosquito net? Results organized by whether anyone in the household had inadequate food in the past 6 months Government

56.6% 47.5%

44.4% 31.6% 11.8%

Others Did Not Receive Free Net

8.1%

Had Inadequate Food (N=1288) Did Not Have Inadequate Food (N=384)

48.0%


Inadequate food Bivariate analyses

30

In the last 6 months, did you or any household member have inadequate food?

In the last 6 months, did you or any household member have inadequate food? Results organized by main material of exterior wall

Results organized by roof material

89.9% 78.3% 66.7%

70.9%

Yes 33.3%

69.6%

No 30.4%

29.1%

21.7%

Thatched (N=1518)

79.3%

20.7%

Ironsheets (N=180)

10.1%

Mud and Poles Unburnt Bricks Unburnt Bricks Other (N=273) (N=382) (N=855) with Plaster (N=198)

In the last 6 months, did you or any household member have inadequate food? Results organized by whether households retrieve water from a borehole

In the last 6 months, did you or any household member have inadequate food? Results organized by whether households retrieve water from the river 84.0%

80.5%

74.1% 65.2% Yes 34.8%

25.9%

19.5%

Use Borehole (N=1330)

No 16.0%

Don't Use Borehole(N=382)

Use River (N=519)

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

(N=

)


Inadequate food Bivariate analyses

31

In the last 6 months, did you or any household member have inadequate food?

In the last 6 months, did you or any household member have inadequate food?

Results organized by whether anyone in the household owns land

Results organized by whether households have a separate dwelling place for animals 88.9%

78.2%

Yes

68.7%

66.3%

No 33.7% 31.3%

11.1%

21.8%

Own Land (N=1516)

Yes (N=709) Do have a separate dwelling place for animals (N=709)

Don't Own Land (N=198)

In the last 6 months, did you or any household member have inadequate food? Results organized by poverty status* 78.0%

69.0%

Yes No

31.0%

Securely Above the Poverty Line (N=129)

22.0%

At, Near to, or Below the Poverty Line (N=1510)

* â&#x20AC;&#x153; â&#x20AC;? an explanation of poverty status

DoNo not(N=423) have a separate dwelling place for animals (N=423)


Water supply

32

13.2% of people treat drinking water (N=1705) using the following methods:

What are your main sources for water use at home?

Methods of treating drinking water (N=225)

(N= 1728) Communal Borehole

77.5%

River, lake, pond, swamp

Let stand/settle

52.4%

30.4%

Unprotected Spring

7.2%

Shallow well

6.7%

Rainwater Harvesting

6.0%

Protected Spring

2.0%

Private Borehole

1.8%

Public Tap

1.6%

Other

1.4%

Dam

0.2%

Strain with cloth

14.7%

Other

13.3%

Add bleach/chlorine

12.4%

Boil

11.1%

Filter

Components are greater than 100% because many respondents reported using more than one source of water.

2.7%

Components are greater than 100% because 6.2% of respondents who treat water use multiple methods

90.1%

of respondents store drinking water in pots (N=1718).

There was not a significant difference in water source use between the wet and dry seasons.

92.2%

of respondents use jerry cans to store water for domestic purposes other than drinking (N=1726).

Average Water ratings (1-goodâ&#x20AC;Ś5-very bad) Taste Dam

Smell Dam

3.25

River, lake, pond, swamp

2.86

Shallow Well

2.45

River, lake, pond, swamp

Color 3.75

2.82

Dam

3.75

River, lake, pond, swamp

2.87

Shallow Well

2.46

Shallow Well

2.42

2.17

Unpprotected Spring

2.19

Rainwater Harvesting

1.92

Unprotected Spring

Unprotected Spring

1.92

Rainwater Harvesting

1.82

Protected Spring

1.83

Protected Spring

1.71

Protected Spring

1.63

Rainwater Harvesting

1.77

Communal Borehole

1.42

Other

1.60

Other

1.46

Private Borehole

1.39

Communal Borehole

1.36

Communal Borehole

1.41

Other

1.13

Private Borehole

1.35

Public Tap

1.31

Public Tap

1.07

Public Tap

1.18

Private Borehole

1.26

1 (Good)

2 (Fair)

3 (Poor)

4 (Bad)

5 (Very bad)


Water supply

33

Round-trip travel time to water source (minutes) Wet season

Percentiles

Dry season

Percentiles

75th 95 min.

75th 95 min.

50th

50th

60 min.

60 min.

25th 37.5 min 25th 30 min

Wait time at water source (minutes) Wet season

Dry season

Percentiles 75th 160 min. Percentiles

75th 60 min.

50th 60 min.

50th 20 min. 25th 10 min

25th 30 min.


Hygiene

34

Frequency of children’s baths (per day)*

Hygiene practices*

(N=1624)

(N=1726)

Wash clothes

twice 48.6%

90.8%

Cut nails

41.9%

Clean beddings

three times 4.9%

37.9%

Comb hair

34.2%

Brush teeth

29.8%

Other

once 46.1% * . %

7.4% * Respondents were permitted to record multiple responses

(Responses for “other” primarily listed smearing and washing) ”

Water supply: Quotes about lack of access to clean water

94.5% of respondents reported that all their children bathed the previous day (N=1554).

64.9% of families reported performing two or more

We need a borehole for our children to drink clean

hygiene practices with their children, 2.5% reported performing no hygiene practices (N=1726).

water. We need a borehole. Please tell your bosses to help us at least with one.

water we drink has worms.

We are suffering from typhoid because of drinking dirty water.

We in Akere village have got a problem of clean water. It is possible for your project to

assist us with water?

We need a borehole because the


Antenatal care

35

Antenatal clinic visits (N=1726)

49.4%

94.2%

36.9% 3.6% Once

of respondents sought antenatal care the last time they, or their spouse, were pregnant (N=1658)

10.1% Twice

Three Times Four or More Times

Reasons for not seeking antenatal care (N=83)

Health Facility Far

26.5%

Not Important

83 respondents (5.0%) reported not seeking antenatal care (N=1658).

24.1%

No Money to Pay for Service

14.5%

No Good Service at Health Facility

4.8%

Nurses Rude

3.6%

Antenatal drugs for preventing malaria (N=1296)

SP/Fansidar

56.1%

Don't know

29.9%

Others

8.0%

Multiple

3.2%

Choloroquine

1.5%

Atemiciline

1.3%

81.7%

of respondents reported taking a drug for

protection against malaria during their last pregnancy, 14.4% did not, and the remaining 3.9% were unsure (N=1612).

63.2% of respondents reported taking a drug for intestinal worms during their last pregnancy, 30.6% did not, and the remaining 6.2% were unsure (N=1608).

Reasons for not delivering in a healthcare facility (N=619, participants were allowed to record multiple responses) Delivery was abrupt

68.7%

Health facility far

12.0%

I trust local birth attendant N

10.8% â&#x20AC;Ś

Others Nurses rude My culture does not allow

6.6% 5.7% 2.6% 0.3%

634 respondents (38.4%) reported that their last child was not delivered in a health facility (N=1649).


Child Illness

36

Has any child fallen ill in the last month?

If yes, what was the illness? (N=1726)

(N=1723)

42.7% 36.8%

Malaria

No 17.5%

Boys Girls

Yes 82.5%

12.2% 9.4%

Diarrhoea Other Illness

6.1% 6.1%

Respiratory infections/illness, other than pneumonia, asthma, or TB

5.5% 4.8%

96.7%

of respondents reported that all their children aged 0-8 years are immunized (N=1708).

Skin infections

3.0% 3.1%

Measles

2.6% 2.3%

Intestinal worms

2.4% 1.7%

Pneumonia

1.7% 1.4%

Jiggers

1.1% 0.8%

2.7%

of respondents have at least one child between the ages of 0-8 with HIV/AIDS living in their home (N=1728).

*Fewer than 1% of households reported that any boys or any girls were afflicted with dysentery, typhoid, scabies, ring worms, eye diseases, asthma, TB, lice, or a physical injury.

87.5%

have a card where vaccinations are written (N=1675).

Percent of households with at least one child who has fallen sick in the last month, organized by sub-county

62.4%

of interviewers were shown this card (N=1647).

92.7%

91.3%

90.0% 82.3%

81.1%

78.4%

75.7% 55.9%

Have all your children taken any drug for intestinal worms in the last 6 months? (N=1609)

All kids

50.3%

None

35.7%

11.8% Some kids

Don't know

11.6%

2.4%

of respondents reported losing a child aged 1-8 years in the past year (N=195).

14.8% of respondents reported giving birth to a child who died immediately (up to one week) after birth (N=248).


Child illness Bivariate analyses

37

Yes

Has any child fallen ill in the last month?

No

Results organized by whether anyone in the household had inadequate food in the past 6 months

While 85.1% of respondents who had inadequate food in the last 6 months had a child fall ill the last month, only 73.6% of respondents who did not have inadequate food had a child fall ill in the last month.

85.1% 73.6%

26.4% 14.9%

Had Inadequate Food (N=1320)

Did Not Have Inadequate Food (N=390)

Has any child fallen ill in the last month?*

Has any child fallen ill in the last month?

Results organized by whether respondents experienced any form of violence in the last month

Results organized by main material of exterior wall 86.9%

86.9% 75.7%

25.3%

24.3%

13.1%

13.1%

Reported Experiencing Did Not Report Violence in the Past Experiencing Violence in Year (N=789) the Past Year (N=535)

81.1%

80.5%

74.7%

19.5%

18.9%

Mud and Poles Unburnt Bricks Unburnt Bricks Other (N=275) (N=384) (N=857) with Plaster (N=200)

*Female respondents only

Has any child fallen ill in the last month?

Has any child fallen ill in the last month?

Results organized by whether households had to sell assets for emergency needs 89.8%

Results organized by where households dispose of refuse 88.7%

72.6%

84.3%

77.1%

27.4% 22.9% 11.3% Garden (N=389)

Bush (N=541)

10.2% 15.7%

Other (N=575)

Had to Sell Assets (N=998) Did Not have to Sell Assets (N=682)


Medical care

38

What action did you take last time a child fell ill? (N=1611) Took to Health Center

50.3%

Took to Clinic

24.8%

Took to Hospital

8.1%

Bought Drugs from Local Pharmacy

5.6%

Home Remedy

5.0%

T

â&#x20AC;Ś

1.8%

13.5% of respondents

Gave Local Herbs

1.6%

did not seek help from a medical facility.

Other, Multiple Actions

1.5%

Nothing

1.2%

Took to Local Healer

0.1%

67.7%

of people incurred medical bills as a â&#x20AC;&#x2122; .

Where did the household get money for medical treatment? (N=1726) Household Income

24.4%

Sold Household Item

17.4%

Borrowed from Individual

13.4%

Household Savings Others Borrowed from Savings & Loans Assoc.

50.2%* of respondents used an internal funding source

8.4% 4.6% 2.2%

* This percentage represents respondents who obtained the money from household income, selling a household item, or household savings


Mosquito nets

39

How many mosquito nets does this household have? (N=1709) 33.9% 18.6% 11.5%

Two

Three

One

Zero Zero

10.7%

Four

5.9% 5 & Above

â&#x20AC;&#x153; How many treated mosquito nets does this household have? (N=1703) 29.9% 24.5% 16.4%

16.1% 8.9% 4.1%

Two

Zero Zero

One

Three

Four

5& Above

How many children aged 0-8 sleep under nets? (N=1675) 27.7%

24.1%

20.1% 15.9% 8.2% 4.1%

Two

One

Three

Zero Zero

Four

Five & Above

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

19.5%

There is problem of mosquitos so we need nets, health centre, and drugs.


Child cases of malaria

(looking more closely at households with children who have had malaria in the past month):

The last time you child fell ill what action did you take?

1,057 households (61.2%) have at least one child who has fallen ill with malaria in the past month (N=1726).

(N=1055) Took to Health Center

49.7%

Took to Clinic

27.3%

Took to Hospital

8.0%

Bought Drugs from Local Pharmacy

5.2%

Home Remedy

4.1%

Took to Health Center and Bought Drugs

2.5%

Other, Multiple Actions

2.1%

Nothing

0.7%

Gave Local Herbs

0.6%

40

10.6%*

of households that have at least one child with malaria did not seek help from a medical facility. *This percentage represents respondents who bought drugs from a local pharmacy, used a home remedy, did nothing, or gave their child local herbs.

How many mosquito nets does this household have? (N=1046) 32.3%

70.4%

of people incurred medical bills as a result of their â&#x20AC;&#x2122; .

20.0% 18.4%

13.2%

10.4%

5.8%

84.0%

of respondents reported taking a drug for protection against malaria during their last pregnancy (N=981).

Two

One Three Zero Zero Four Five & Above

How many treated mosquito nets does this household have?

How many children ages 0-8 years sleep under nets?

(N=1044)

(N=1026)

29.5% 27.2%

26.5%

23.5%

20.7%

16.8% 14.7% 7.9%

Zero Zero

Two

18.0% 6.8%

5.1%

One Three Four Five & Above

Two

One

Three

Zero Zero

4.5%

Four Five & Above


Child cases of malaria Bivariate analyses

41

At least one child with malaria No children with malaria

Have you received any free mosquito nets?

While 55.7% of respondents who received mosquito nets had at least one child sick with malaria, 65.6% of those who did not receive mosquito nets had at least one child sick with malaria.

55.7%

Received Mosquito Net (N=963)

44.3%

65.6%

Did Not Receive Mosquito Net (N=529)

34.4%

Do you have treated mosquito nets? 72.6%

Do Not Have Treated Nets (N=410)

27.4%

57.4%

Have Treated Nets (N=1283)

42.6%

Percentage of households who have had at least one child sick with malaria in the past month, broken down by sub-county Ongino (N=206)

81.6%

Kumi (N=163)

76.7%

Kamuda (N=219)

69.4%

Asuret (N=254)

67.3%

Nambieso (N=419)

54.7%

Moruita (N=37)

54.1%

Chegere (N=316) Lorengedwat (N=111)

52.2% 23.4%


Child cases of malaria Bivariate analyses

42

Yes No

Have you had at least one child who has had malaria in the past month?

Have you had at least one child who has had malaria in the past month?

Results organized by where households store drinking water

Results organized by material of exterior walls

68.6% 58.3%

52.3% 47.7%

65.3%

63.7%

56.9%

50.5% 49.5% 41.7% 31.4%

Mud and Poles Unburnt Bricks Unburnt Bricks Other (N=276) (N=384) (N=859) with Plaster (N=200)

43.1% 36.3%

Pot (N=1546)

34.7%

Plastic Container (N=98)

Other (N=72)

Have you had at least one child who has had malaria in the past month?

Have you had at least one child who has had malaria in the past month?

Results organized by whether households store domestic water â&#x20AC;&#x201C;not including drinking waterin a pot

Results organized by whether households store domestic water-not including drinking water- in a water drum 62.0%

53.4%

67.1%

46.6%

58.1%

38.0% 41.9%

32.9%

In (N=602) a pot Yes (N=602)

No Other (N=1122) (N=1122)

In Yes a water drum (N=148) (N=148)

Other No (N=1576) (N=1576)


Hospital access Distance to nearest hospital (km) (N=374*)

43

Travel plus wait time (minutes) (N=355)

Percentiles

Percentiles

75th 360 min

75th 20 km 50th

12 km

25th

6 km

50th

300 min

25th

120 min

*Only 21.6% of respondents answered this item. This may mean that a large percentage of respondents have no access to a hospital.

Mode of transport to hospital

Cost of transport (UGX)

(N=358)

(N=174*)

Bicycle

44.4%

Foot

33.2%

Percentiles 75th 15,000

Vehicle Other Multiple modes

11.7% 8.7% 2.0%

50th

6,000

25th

4,000

*Results include the 174 people who reported a cost greater than zero for traveling to the hospital.


Health centre access

44

Distance to nearest centre (km)

Travel plus wait time (minutes)

(N=1245)

(N=1169)

Percentiles Percentiles 75th

4 km

50th

3 km

25th

2 km

75th 300 min 50th 180 min 25th

High death rate as there is no

health center.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

There is water problem there is no clean water.

Mode of transport to centre

Cost of transport (UGX)

(N=1201)

(N=87*)

Bicycle

36.3%

Foot Vehicle

60 min

60.0% 0.4% Percentiles

Other Multiple modes

0.3%

75th

3,000

50th

1,000

25th

500

2.9%

*Results include the 87 people who reported a cost greater than zero for traveling to the health centre.


Medical clinic access

45

Distance to nearest clinic (km)

Travel plus wait time (minutes)

(N=561)

(N=516)

Percentiles

Percentiles

75th 2.5 km

75th 80 min

50th

1.3 km

50th 45 min

25th

0.8 km

25th 30 min

This box plot excludes two extreme outliers, who reported their distance from a clinic as 200 and 800. They are included in the quartile statistics and N.

Mode of transport to clinic

Cost of transport (UGX)

(N=532)

(N=58*)

Bicycle

22.0%

Foot

76.9%

Vehicle

0.2%

Other

0.0%

Multiple modes

0.9%

Percentiles This box plot excludes one extreme outlier, who reported the cost of traveling to a local clinic as 20,000. This case is included in the quartile statistics and N.

75th

1,000

50th

400

25th

200

*Results include the 58 people who reported a cost greater than zero for traveling to the clinic.


Other health facility access

46

Distance to facility (km) (N=43)

Percentiles

75th 2 km 1 km

25th

1 km

When is the program startup? If possible there is great need for a health

unit.

What is government doing to prevent the frequent drug

shortages

What will be done to improve the immunisation programmes in their community since they go far for immunisation.

in Kidilani HCII?

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

50th


Education

47

Does your community have these early learning centres?

47.8% of households report having some type of early learning center in their

(N=1707)

community (N=1659). Sunday School

12.3%

Child Development Center ABEK Centre Others

40.4% of households report having a nursery school in their community

8.8%

(N=1596).

4.2% 0.6%

If your children are not attending nursery school, why not? (N=1396) Cannot afford

40.0%

Too far

The average age

23.6%

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

youngest child in nursery school is 4.40 Other Not Necessary

19.4%*

years (N=219, Std = 0.991)

6.6%

*Of the 19.4% respondents who indicated other reasons for not attending nursery school, a large proportion of the sample reported that their children were too young to attend nursery school. Please interpret with caution.

83.2%

of respondents reported that their

children receive no

meals

at their school.

In Lorengedwat and Moruita (both within Nakapiripirit district),

97.1%

and 96.7% of respondents, respectively, reported that their children received some

meals

or all of their

at schools.


Education Will this questionnaire develop a programme that may offer scholarships for

Of the households with school aged children, 36.6% have between 1 and 6 children currently not

attending school.

girl children’s education because in

Of the households with school aged children:

our experience girls drop out of school due to

have between 1 and 5 girls currently not attending school.

25.5% 22.1%

48

early/forced marriage.

have between 1 and 5 boys and

What expenses did you incur to keep a child in primary school? (N=1707)

74.5%

74.4%

26.7%

5.6% Uniform

Books and pens

Others

Packed food

2.1% Transport

Were you able to meet all school expenses last term? (N=1360)

95.2%

of those who reported not being able to afford school expenses last term

No 41.5% Yes 58.5%

reported that they did not have enough

money.


Distance to school

49

What is the distance to the nearest primary school from your home? (km)* Asuret

Chegere

Kamuda

Kumi

Lorengedwat

Moruita

Nambieso

Ongino

*Not all outliers are shown on the box plots. See Max statistics for the greatest distance reported in each subcounty.

25th Percentile

Median (50th Percentile)

75th Percentile

Interquartile Range*

Asuret (N=246)

1.0

1.5

2.5

1.5

.05

19.0

18.95

Chegere (N=292)

0.5

1.0

2.0

1.5

0.0

15.0

15.0

Kamuda (N=196)

0.5

1.0

2.0

1.5

.25

15.0

14.75

Kumi (N=160)

1.0

1.0

2.0

1.0

0.0

6.0

6.0

Lorengedwat (N=104)

0.2

1.0

1.5

1.3

0.1

4.0

3.9

Moruita (N=34)

1.0

2.0

3.0

2.0

0.1

5.0

4.9

Nambieso (N=397)

1.0

2.0

2.5

1.5

0.0

8.0

8.0

Ongino (N= 188)

1.3

2.0

4.0

2.7

0.0

30.0

30.0

Subcounty Name

*The interquartile range represents the middle 50% of the data in the sample.

Min

Max

Range


Travel time to school

50

What is the travel time to and from school? Walking (in minutes)* Asuret

Chegere

Kamuda

Kumi

Lorengedwat

Moruita

Nambieso

Ongino

*Not all outliers are shown on the box plots. See Max statistics for the greatest travel time reported in each subcounty.

Subcounty Name

25th Percentile

Median 75th Percentile (50th Percentile)

Interquartile Range

Min

Max

Range

Asuret (N=172)

35

60

120

85

0

390

390

Chegere (N=220)

20

30

60

40

3

240

237

Kamuda (N=147)

30

40

60

30

1

280

279

Kumi (N=116)

30

35

60

30

3

360

357

Lorengedwat (N=86)

10

30

40

30

5

120

115

Moruita (N=25)

20

30

60

40

4

120

116

Nambieso (N=292)

60

80

120

60

5

240

235

36.3

60

120

85

2

380

378

Ongino (N=135)

-The reported sample sizes differ between the distances traveled and time spent travelling due to the fact that some participants did not answer the follow-up question regarding time spent travelling.


Travel time to school

51

What is the travel time to and from school? Because of the relatively small sample sizes for travel time by bicycle (n=39) and motorcycle (n=21), the data was not divided by subcounty. Instead, the data is reported in aggregate.

Bike (in minutes)

Motorcycle (in minutes)

*Not all outliers are shown on the box plots. See Max statistics for the greatest travel time reported for each mode of transport.

Travel Mode

25th Percentile

Median (50th Percentile)

75th Percentile

Bike (N=40)

25

35

60

Travel Mode Motorcycle (N=22)

25th Percentile 30

Median (50th Percentile) 60

75th Percentile 75

Interquartile Range 35

Interquartile Range 45

Min

Max

Range

0

300

300

Min

Max

Range

0

240

240


Donations

52

Relative/friend

Community

NGO

Government

None

Others

Multiple Sources

In the last 12 months, has your household received any material support for which you did not have to pay? Clothing

2.7%

0.1%

1.6%

.7%

91.0%

3.8%

.2%

Beddings

0.5%

0%

0.6%

0.3%

98.4%

0.1%

0.1%

Food

6.7%

.2%

4.2%

2.1%

86.0%

.1%

.6%

Financial support

4.1%

0.1%

0.5%

1.5%

93.0%

.8%

0.1%

Mosquito net

0.5%

0.1%

6.8%

46.5%

44.2%

0.2%

1.8%

Others specify 0.3% 0% 0.7% 4.1% 94.6% 0.2% In the last 12 months, has your household received any social support for which you did not have to pay?

0.2%

Household work

7.4%

0.8%

0.1%

0.2%

91.0%

0.2%

0.3%

Training of caregivers

.2%

.1%

.7%

1.2%

97.6%

.1%

.1%

Legal services

1.0%

0.4%

0%

1.8%

96.4%

0.2%

0.2%

Others 0.1% 0% 0.3% 0.5% 98.9% 0.2% 0% In the last 12 months, has your household received any emotional or psychosocial support which you received at home and for which you did not have to pay? Companionship

9.5%

2.3%

0.1%

0.2%

86.2%

Counseling

10.2%

2.3%

1.0%

1.4%

83.3%

Spiritual support

6.9%

4.2%

.6%

.1%

84.5%

0.2% 0.4% 2.8%

1.4% 1.3% .9%

Others specify 0.7% 0% 0% 0.1% 99.0% 0.2% 0% In the last 12 months, has your household received any support for children in school for which you did not have to pay? Books and pens

2.0%

0.1%

2.1%

1.6%

93.3%

0.2%

0.6%

School uniform

1.3%

0.1%

1.7%

0.3%

96.1%

0.1%

0.5%

Sponsorship

.3%

0%

1.0%

3.9%

94.5%

.1%

.2%

School bags

0.5%

0%

1.0%

0.3%

98.1%

0.1%

0.1%

Others specify .1% 0% 0% .1% 99.5% .3% (N= 1728) - Of the participants who received mosquito nets from multiple sources (n=31), 16 received them from the government and another source; 10 from the government and an NGO; 3 from an NGO and another source; and 2 from the government, an NGO and another source. - Each row in this table represents one variable and should sum to 100%, plus or minus rounding error.

0%


Division of labor

53

Category Care for children 0-8

Responsible person Children Children Grand Boys Girls parents 4.4% 21.0% 7.0%

Mother

Father

House help

Other relative

Baby sitting

90.5%

5.3%

0.6%

1.9%

Preparing food

94.2%

1.8%

1.6%

14.3%

5.6%

0.6%

1.7%

Feeding

93.9%

5.0%

0.8%

8.7%

5.3%

0.5%

0.9%

Bathing

93.8%

3.4%

1.8%

12.9%

5.8%

0.5%

1.6%

Washing childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s clothes

93.8%

2.9%

1.8%

11.9%

5.2%

0.4%

1.5%

Taking children for medical care

90.7%

26.2%

0.7%

2.9%

5.2%

0.3%

1.5%

Care for the sick/elderly?

Mother

Father

Feeding

92.6%

8.9%

Children Boys 1.0%

Children Girls 5.3%

Grand parents 6.4%

Washing clothes

90.5%

5.4%

1.5%

10.0%

Drug administration

86.6%

22.6%

1.0%

Taking the sick for treatment

72.7%

44.3%

Mother

Father

Preparing the garden

63.8%

Planting

0.8%

Other relative 2.0%

6.4%

0.7%

2.4%

2.7%

6.4%

0.6%

2.0%

1.6%

2.3%

5.9%

0.6%

3.2%

71.6%

Children Boys 13.1%

Children Girls 10.6%

Grand parents 6.6%

75.2%

62.0%

16.7%

14.1%

Weeding

91.1%

44.7%

15.3%

Pruning

66.4%

59.1%

Harvesting

89.6%

Selling produce

House help

1.6%

Other relative 3.9%

7.5%

2.0%

4.7%

14.4%

7.7%

1.8%

5.1%

11.6%

8.9%

6.7%

1.5%

3.2%

48.8%

15.9%

13.9%

8.0%

1.9%

5.5%

52.3%

64.4%

2.3%

1.7%

5.9%

0.4%

1.4%

Mother

Father 76.4%

Grand parents 6.9%

Other relative

59.3%

Children Girls 11.6%

House help

Preparing the garden

Children Boys 14.0%

2.4%

5.2%

Weeding

84.8%

50.4%

15.0%

14.3%

8.6%

3.0%

6.7%

Pruning

66.0%

60.2%

12.3%

9.6%

7.2%

2.5%

4.1%

Harvesting

85.1%

52.5%

16.5%

14.4%

8.6%

2.9%

7.4%

Selling produce

42.7%

72.5%

2.5%

1.4%

5.4%

0.3%

1.1%

Mother

Father

Milking

24.0%

5.2%

Children Boys 28.5%

Children Girls 4.6%

Grand parents 5.6%

Tethering animals

38.4%

59.7%

32.6%

6.1%

Grazing

21.0%

68.9%

34.2%

Churning

56.1%

33.1%

Selling cattle products

29.8%

66.0%

Mother

Father

57.7%

Clothes Collecting firewood

Food production

Cash crop production

Care for livestock

Household consumption purchases Food

House help

1.4%

Other relative 3.6%

5.8%

1.0%

2.7%

2.4%

5.6%

1.8%

3.0%

12.5%

6.1%

6.7%

1.1%

2.4%

10.8%

2.9%

6.0%

0.9%

2.1%

58.0%

Children Boys 1.0%

Children Girls 0.9%

Grand parents 6.0%

59.5%

58.5%

1.1%

0.9%

91.9%

5.7%

2.1%

14.8%

House help

0.1%

Other relative 0.8%

5.3%

0.1%

1.1%

5.1%

0.6%

2.2%

House help

Respondents were able to report that more than one member of the household is responsible for each task.


Discipline

54

How do you enforce discipline in your children? (N=1725) 67.4% 67.3%

Spanking/caning 57.9%

59.7% 61.0% 57.6%

Talking to them

Stating family rules

Using religious rules

Denying them food

7.9% 6.2% 4.2%

(N=1396)

5.7% 4.2% 3.4%

Child age

3.1% 2.9% 1.7%

Giving them hard domestic work

3.0% 1.6% 0.5%

No 13.8%

6-8

4.5% 2.6% 1.7%

Denying them play time

If a child does something wrong, do you believe in beating him or her?

4-5 2-3

Yes 56.8%

Sometimes 29.4%

Who is involved in disciplining children in the home? (N=1725)

The last time your child did something wrong, what disciplinary measure did you take? (N=1689)

67.3% 74.2% 76.9%

Mother

55.0% 47.7%

Father 31.2%

Spanking/caning

47.7%

Talking to them

26.5%

Both spanking/caning and talking to them

Grandparent

15.6% Sibling

None

5.2%

Others/multiple measures

4.1%

Relative

Caregiver

8.2% 7.5% 7.0% 7.1% 7.1% 5.9% 3.5% 2.6% 2.2% 1.1% 1.2% 0.9%

Child age 6-8 4-5 2-3

While the mother's role in disciplining children decreases as they become older, the father's role increases.


Discipline Bivariate analyses

55

Do you believe in beating a child if they have done something wrong? Results organized by households with one child 0-8 years old and households with two or more children 0-8 years old

Do you believe in beating a child if they have done something wrong?

Sometimes

47.0%

Results organized by whether anyone in the household had inadequate food in the past 6 months

32.2%

Yes 60.8%

28.7%

12.2%

No 31.4% 24.2%

One Child 0-8years old (N=270)

10.5%

Had Inadequate Food (N=1065)

No

28.5% 20.7%

Sometimes 44.4%

Yes

59.2%

Two or More Children 0-8 years old (N=1104)

Do you believe in beating a child if they have done something wrong?

Did Not Have Inadequate Food (N=322)

Results broken up by whether there is at least one malnourished child in the household Yes

While 60.8% of respondents who had inadequate food in the past 6 months believe in beating a child if they have done something wrong, only 44.4% of respondents who did not have inadequate food believe in beating a child if they have done something wrong.

No

42.2%

34.4% 27.3%

23.4% 11.4%

Do you believe in beating a child if they have done something wrong? Results organized by sub-county

Sometimes

61.3%

No malnourished, or at risk, children (N=974)

At least one malnourished, or at risk, child (N=218)

Yes

75.8% 70.9%

Sometimes

67.5%

61.8%

No 50.0% 42.6% 28.8% 20.6%

16.5% 12.6%

29.5%

42.2%

44.4% 38.1%

34.4% 29.3%

27.9%

26.3% 19.6%

15.6%

9.4% 5.2%

3.6%

Nambieso (N=388)

27.3%

Asuret (N=230) Kamuda (N=170) Ongino (N=129) Chegere (N=270) Moruita (N=32)

Kumi (N=99)

Lorengedwat (N=77)


Child mistreatment

56

52% of participants reported that they are aware of children between the ages of 0-8 in their community who are mistreated (N=1687). How are children mistreated (N=1725) Beating/physical assault

35.4%

Denial of food

19.2%

Child labour

14.1%

Denial of education

11.8%

Heavy punishments

10.3%

Mistreatment by step parents

9.7%

Not providing clothing/beddings

8.6%

Denying children to play

4.9% 3.7%

Lack of shelter/accommodation

2.7%

Others*

2.3%

Failure to take children for Immunisation

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

0.9%

What steps are you going to take to

stop violence against children?

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

Denial of medical care (treatment)

* 4 respondents, all from Bung parish, reported in the "Others" category that children are victims of rape/forced sex in their community (this was not an option on the survey). Their responses were written in by the interviewer and included "force sex on girls" and "raped my daughter."

Which category of children is most mistreated in your community? (N=975)

Orphans

48.7%

Children staying with step parents Both orphans and children staying with step parents Boys

23.9% 8.8% 7.2%

Chose other combinations of listed categories

4.1%

Girls

3.8%

Other Disabled children

2.4% 1.1%

81.4% of respondents believe that orphans and/or step-children are the most mistreated children in the community


Child mistreatment Bivariate analyses

57

Yes No

Are you aware of any children aged 0-8 years in this community who are mistreated?* Results organized by whether respondents experienced violence in the last year 65.4%

While 65.4% of women who experienced violence in the last year were aware of mistreated children in their community, only 38.6% of women who did not experience violence in the last year were aware of mistreated children in their community.

61.4%

38.6%

34.6%

Has experienced violence in the past year (N=955)

Has not experienced violence in the past year (N=635)

*Female respondents only

Are you aware of any children aged 0-8 years in this community who are mistreated? Results organized by main material of exterior walls 60.6%

56.1% 39.4%

Unburnt bricks with plaster (N=198)

43.9%

Other (N=269)

51.1% 48.9%

47.9%

52.1%

Unburnt bricks (N= Mud and poles 835) (N=378)


Child mistreatment Bivariate analyses

58

Are you aware of any children aged 0-8 years in this community who are mistreated?

Are you aware of any children aged 0-8 years in this community who are mistreated?

Results organized by whether anyone in the household had inadequate food in the past 6 months

(Results organized by whether the household has had a child fall sick within the past month)

54.5%

54.3% 45.7%

62.8% 55.7%

45.5%

Yes

44.3% 37.2%

No

Had inadequate food in the Did not have inadequate food past 6 months (N=1286) in the past 6 months (N=389)

Has had a child fall sick within the past month (N=1386)

Has not had a child fall sick within the past month (N=296)

Are you aware of any children aged 0-8 years in this community who are mistreated? Results organized by sub-county Yes 74.1%

No 62.8%

69.8%

62.3% 53.5% 46.5%45.4% 37.2%

61.1%

58.7% 54.6% 41.3%

37.7%

38.9% 30.2%

25.9%

Kamuda (N=216)

Ongino (N=199)

Nambieso Kumi county Lorengedwat (N=419) (N=142) (N=108)

Asuret (N=252)

Moruita county (N=36)

Chegere (N=315)


Community perceptions of domestic violence

59

Percentage of respondents who report violence against women, broken down by estimated total household income for the previous month*

Does violence against women happen in this community? (N=1714) Don't know 5.1%

140,000 and above N=164

79.9%

60,001-139,999 N=200

No 15.6%

89.5%

25,001-60,000 N=431

82.6%

10,001-25,000 N=326

78.5%

0-10,000 N=515

Yes 79.3%

74.2%

*Monthly income brackets were constructed based on the 25th percentile (10,000 Ugandan shillings), 50th percentile (25,000 Ugandan shillings), 75th percentile (60,000 Ugandan shillings) , and then statistical outliers, which were households with incomes at or above 140,000 Ugandan shillings.

Percentage of respondents who believe that women experience these forms of violence in their community (N=1721) Wife beating/ battering

65.7%

Use of abusive language

43.5%

Denial of material, social, and political rights* Forced labour Sexual violence**

27.5% 9.2% 7.8%

Forced marriage

6.0%

Other

5.1%

*Includes denial of inheritance of property, ownership of property, education, political rights, and upkeep, each of which were listed as options on the survey **Includes rape and defilement, which were options on the survey, as well as "forced sex," which was not an option but was written in by participants

and ruling

me, so what are you going to do for us?

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

Thanks for the registration but my problem is the man beating

me


Community perceptions of domestic violence Bivariate Analyses

60

Yes No No

â&#x20AC;&#x2122; K

Does violence against women happen in this community?* Results organized by whether respondents experienced violence in the past year 95.5%

65.4%

24.3% 10.3%

While 95.5% of women who experienced violence believe violence against women happens in their communities, only 65.4% of women who did not experience violence believe violence against women happens in their communities.

2.5% 2.0% Experienced violence in the past year (N=786)

Did not experience violence in the past year (N=535)

*Female respondents only.

Does violence against women happen in this community? Results organized by whether households had inadequate food in the last 6 months. 83.2% 65.7%

Does violence against women happen in this community? Results organized by whether households had to sell assets for emergency needs in the last 6 months.

24.2% 13.1%

10.1%

3.7%

83.0% 74.1%

Had inadequate food (N=1314)

Does violence against women happen in this community?

19.9% 12.3% 4.6%

Did not have inadequate food (N=388)

6.0%

Results organized by dietary diversity 84.8% 73.4%

Had to sell assets (N=991)

Did not have to sell assets (N=679) 21.3% 5.3% Three or less foods (N=823)

10.3%

4.9%

Four or more foods (N=884)


Reported violence

61

60.3% of respondents report having experienced violence in the past year (N=1626)

59.5%

of female participants report having experienced violence in the past year (N=1327)

63.1%

of male participants report having experienced violence in the past year (N=274)

Percentage of female respondents reporting that they have experienced these forms of violence in the past year (N=1327) Wife beating/ battering

37.6%

Use of abusive language

31.5%

Denial of material, social, and political rights*

12.5%

Other

10.3%

Sexual violence** Forced labour Forced marriage

5.3% 4.2% 1.6%

*Includes denial of inheritance of property, ownership of property, education, and political rights, all of which were options on the survey, as well as denial of upkeep, which was not an option but was written in by participants (so may be underreported) **Includes rape, defilement, and forced sex, all of which were options on the survey

Percentage of male respondents reporting that they have experienced these forms of violence in the past year*** (N=274) Wife beating/ battering

29.9%

Use of abusive language Denial of material, social, and political rights*

36.9% 2.2%

Other Sexual violence** Forced labour Forced marriage

5.1% 3.3% 2.2% 1.5%

***All of the options were phrased on the survey as if they would be answered by women, but male participants completed this portion of the survey as well


Reported violence

62

When this violence took place, did any of the following happen (female respondents only): Cuts, bruises, injuries or aches* N=281

56.9%

Eye injuries, sprains, dislocations or burns N=658

29.8%

Deep wounds, broken bones, broken teeth or other injury N=650

22.9%

*This item was skipped on many surveys, possibly because it may have appeared to be a table heading and not a separate item, due the survey design (see original survey in Appendix B)

Who was responsible for this violence? (female respondents only):

Who was responsible for this violence? (male respondents only*):

(N= 785)

(N=172)

My husband Other

8.3%

71.5%

My wife

18.6%

My wife

2.0%

Brother

4.7%

Multiple

1.5%

Other

4.1%

Brother

1.4%

Multiple

1.2%

*Results appear as reported – see the Executive Summary for a discussion of concerns about inconsistent data

No mosquito net in household. No child sleeps under mosquito net. She is PLWHA. She is pregnant. The husband is polygamous and often violent

groups

in their village.

She is in need of women’s

test.

Men do not allow us women to go for HIV Is government going to help?

“ “

My husband

86.8%


Reported violence

63

If you experienced violence, what action did you take (female respondents only)?

If you have experienced violence how has it affected your children? Psychological Increased Poverty

20.0%

Failure to Continue School

16.1%

Physical Harm

11.6%

Other

11.5%

Death

(N=786)

59.9%

(N=767) 21.1%

12.4%

Other

12.1%

Death

Reported to In Laws

15.6%

Went back to my parents

15.4% 6.5%

Went for counselling

4.7%

Separated with spouse

3.8%

0.3%

19.1%

Often

18.3%

If you have experienced violence how has it affected your children? (male respondents only)

72.6%

Not at all

15.5%

Physical Harm

32.7%

(N=815) Sometimes

57.6%

Failure to Continue School

Reported to the LC

In the last one year, how often did the violence you talk about happen (female respondents only)?

If you have experienced violence how has it affected your children? (female respondents only)

Increased Poverty

33.6%

Other

0.3%

Psychological

Did nothing

Now that me the mother, I meet all ’ . particular things are you going to assist me with because now it is like

(N=948)

I’m the wife and husband

(N=163) Psychological

70.6%

Failure to Continue School

19.6%

Increased Poverty

15.3%

Other

8.6%

Physical Harm

7.4%

Death

0.6%

at the same time.


Violence against women Bivariate analyses Yes

64

The following cross tabulations explore how female respondents answered questions.

No

In the last year, have you experienced any form of violence? Results organized by whether households had inadequate food in the past 6 months

While 63.6% of women whose households had inadequate food in the past 6 months reported experiencing violence, only 41.8% of women whose households did not have inadequate food reported experiencing violence.

In the last year, have you experienced any form of violence?* Results organized by whether respondents own land

In the last year have you experienced any form of violence? Results organized by whether households had to sell their assets for emergency needs 63.6% 53.5% 46.5% 36.4%

* Female respondents only

Had to sell assets (N=762)

Did not have to sell assets (N=540)


Violence against women Bivariate analyses

65

The following cross tabulations explore how female respondents answered questions.

Yes No

In the last year, have you experienced any form of violence? z â&#x20AC;&#x153;If a child does something wrong, do you believe in beating / ?â&#x20AC;?

In the last year, have you experienced any form of violence? Results organized by dietary diversity 65.7%

66.9%

62.0%

54.3%

57.6% 34.3%

42.4%

38.0%

Yes (N=658)

45.7%

33.10%

Sometimes (N=314)

Less than 3 foods (N=597)

No (N=118)

More than 4 foods (N=726)

In the last year, have you experienced any form of violence? Results organized by head of household 72.2%

66.7%

62.7% 48.2%

51.8%

37.3%

33.3%

Adult male (N=1039)

Adult female (N=224)

Of the 6 female respondents who reported that their households are headed by a child, 5 reported having experienced violence.

27.8%

Grandparent male (N=15)

Grandparent female (N=36)

In the last year, have you experienced any form of violence? Results organized by sub-county 58.7%

59.3% 53.1% 46.9%

41.3%

72.8%

69.7%

40.7%

63.1%

60.2%

54.8% 39.8%

45.2% 30.3%

Asuret (N=223)

Chegere (N=209)

Kamuda (N=167)

Kumi (N=93)

Lorengedwat (N=93)

Moruita (N=33)

36.9% 27.2%

Nambieso (N=368)

Ongino (N=141)


Violence against women Bivariate analyses

66

The following cross tabulations explore how female respondents answered questions.

Yes No

In the last year, have you experienced any form of violence? Results organized by main material of exterior walls 63.7% 52.2%

61.3%

59.5%

47.8% 36.3%

Mud and poles (N=335)

Unburnt bricks (N=827)

40.5%

38.7%

Unburnt bricks with plaster (N=194)

Other (N=264)

In the last year, have you experienced any form of violence? Results organized by whether animals have a separate dwelling place 70.2% 50.5%

49.5% 29.8%

In the last year, have you experienced wife battering? Do have a separate dwelling place for animals (N=663)

Do not have a separate dwelling place for animals (N=410)

Results organized by poverty status* 76.0% 62.8%

37.2% 24.0%

* â&#x20AC;&#x153; â&#x20AC;? an explanation of poverty status

Securely above the poverty line At, near to, or below the poverty (N=96) line (N=1237)


Information dissemination

67

Percentage of respondents who are not aware of existing state/community laws Violence Prevention-Community (N=1691)

29.8%

Children's Rights- Community (N=1700)

23.0%

Hygiene and Sanitation- Community (N=1675)

18.5%

Violence Prevention-State (N=1684)

18.1%

Children's Rights- State (N=1687)

13.2%

Hygiene and Sanitation- State (N=1664)

10.8%

Sources of information for laws concerning the promotion of hygiene and sanitation (N=1726) Radio

63.0%

LCs

50.0%

Community Workers

32.6%

Health Centre

28.1%

Church Leaders Other Newspapers

18.6%

9.6%

of respondents reported that they were visited by

a health worker who spoke with them about nutrition (N=1567).

7.3% 3.4%

Sources of Information for laws concerning the protection of childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rights (N= 1726) Radio

67.7%

LCs

52.3%

Church Leaders

20.6%

Other

9.6%

Health Centre

9.3%

of respondents reported that they were visited by a health/community worker who spoke with them

Community Workers

8.6%

about child

Newspapers

3.1%

22.7%

health issues

(N=1688).


Information dissemination

68

Sources of information for laws concerning violence prevention (N=1726) Radio

64.6%

LCs

50.8%

Church Leaders 9.2%

Health Centre

6.6%

Community Workers

6.5%

Newspapers

2.9%

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

Can the project buy radios so we can learn more?

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

Other

25.7%

for women


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

69

There was a final, openâ&#x20AC;&#x153;Now, we have come to the end of the discussion. Do you have any question concerning what we have been talking ?â&#x20AC;? T this prompt. In many cases, the written-in responses were difficult to read, and the data enterers typed them in as precisely as possible: She is a widow suffering from AIDS so she needs support for the orphans My pot does not have a cup on top of cover because children are many, there is. no way you can maintain a covered pot with cups on top each picks its cups. issues of householder (she was how can they be solved) - no any mosquito net in household - no child sleeps in mosquito net - She is PLWHA's - She is pregnant - the husband often violent and polygamous Men does not allow us women to go for HIV test is government going to help. Government should come and help us women test for HIV He requesyed for some support for children suffering from AIDS Has a young child of 8 months does not breastfeed because PLWHA. The household head is polygamous and the respondent wanted to know whether there could be any future benefits. What about HIV/AIDs do you have any program for that? Is there any assistance towards our problems? Is there any way that we the Northerners will be helped by providing us with a permanent cash crop like in Buganda eg Coffee? Shall we be able to get more clean water in regards to our problem? We also have only one Health Centre in the whole parish, shall we be given more Health Centre? (shortage of drugs). We need loans for small businesses Can the project help us with loans for ..... our income? The respondent comments that she does not have money to take her child to a nursery school because she is single and was given a small piece of land where cultivates barely 2 crops, she relies on selling "ajoner" local brew The household has been given their own land in just two years, that's why they have bot yet built a bathroom and toilet. Some children not yeet at school and no animals. Income still low She needs support to build for her house Men who are educated worker business who have money tend to ... a lot of women right-does government know that? What assistance do you have for education and health --- water sources. Is there any program to assist in fighting poverty. When will this project come so that my children also benefit because those in projects are for the rich people yet us the poor nobody looks at you. Poverty is scorching I cannot afford food for the children. We need help because we are poor Please are you going to help us come out of poverty Some projects tend to segregate other people. I hope yours will not do the same please. Why is it that all progrmas in our communities always are directed to the rich? To eliminate poverty For us in our community projects target at rich people only. How are we going to help children of parents who separated since the burden rests on mothers? Since she has less support for the children are you ready to help in raising the children?


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

70

How soon will this project be implemented so that my grand children benefit coz now am sickly and have no money even their father who is my son is not seen Is there any support which will come for these children since their father has deserted them The respondent is cohabitating with another man, she has children with him but she also has orphaned children of her late husband, she is solely the head of the household. What will be done to help children's who are not being cared for by their father. We are getting tired every year. They register our children but we do not see any interventions. The government keeps researching using us, why? Yet they don't come to our rescue we are tired and we need attention now! how soon is the project coming? I'm a widow and most researcher have always taken information from me (?) have not benefited at any time. I hope you people have not come to lie us like other organizations do, give us empty promises? Where will this project be based because many projects have come registered our children and we have seen nothing so far. Very many times we have been interviewed but nothing have been done, what do you plan to do? The similar activity (survey) was carried out but no outcome is materialized. Similar survey was carried out but no outcome is realized. Only what --- waiting to see what happens. Only few people benefit support after hip collection of data. prior selection criteria Most cases research is made but we

â&#x20AC;&#x2122; see any outcomes, what goes wrong?

In August last year a similar survey was done about orphans. But nothing came out. How about this one. Collection of data have been done the previous years but there is no benefit. shall we benefit this one really? A number of research have been conducted in our area but we dont see any feedback and help inform of projects Since is a widow she looking for support for children. Are we going to benefit from the program as widows who are also keeping this orphans What plan do you have for widow like us. We are suffering especially us the widows so what are you going to do to us. is there a way the government can help us the widow how about people who are widows will they also be helped? Will this questionnaire develop to a programme that may offer scholarships for girl child education because have our experience girl school drop out's due to early/forced marriage Thanks! She is asking what steps are you going to take stop violence among children Can the project buy for women radios so that we can learn more? And how soon? Thanks for the registration but me my problem is the man over beating me and ruling me so what are you going to do for us Now that me the mother, I meet all the children's requirements, what particular things are you going to assist me with because now its like I am the wife and husband at the same time How are you intending to help us widows and the eldely? Will this project give us more... an our starts of women? And what we can do to be felt in society?


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

71

She need some women's associations She is need of women's groups in their village Really need help in protection. always dont help me. How can we know

’ rights and how will our men allow us to go for meetings?

For the rights of women and girl child is government going to help in a way to deal with the culprit? We need you to help our children with schoo; necessities and food for lunch Please we nneed you to help our children so that they can get good jobs in the future. I requesting for assistance for education and social welfare for children. We are suffering from typhoid becasue of drinking dirty water. so we need help! how about our children who are ready for school but because they are no nursery schools, how will they be helped? another problem is health centre Are you going to provide free education to our children and a nursery? I have a child with a disability, is there any help i can get? and gov't help pay for my children school fees? To help the children for items of education - some help for cultivation [can't read handwriting] T ’ have the following: schoolings, water problems share w/ animal, no health. I have orphans how will I support their education or in case 1 die? We have water problems. How are we going to be helped? For those who may not be in a position to pay their children in school, can they be helped? We are also requesting that our health center be improved Health and education facilities are poor, and safe water. Children's right is distorting learning? No drugs in the health centre. No clean drinking water. Please we need a clean drinking water. They need more schools, boreholes Are you going to drill for us a borehole and are you going to pay fees for or children? How can you we have the health worker visit us and how is this project going to help us with education Will this project pay school fees for children Will the orgs take over educating our children Will the organization pay fees for our children? Will Center for Basic Research provide scholastic materials for our children? Will center for **** Research help our children also in secondary schools? What will be done for my children because sometimes it cant meet all the scholastic materials yet the kids come demanding and ’ have the money? We want you people of centre to have research to help our children by educating them We have got land can your organization help us build for us a school for children to learn from? To pay school fees for children To increase children's enrollment in schools To encourage young children to go to school


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

72

There is need to follow up other issues like school. She can't afford to continue educating the children for further studies please will you help us on our children's education our main problem is school fees for our children to advance in education Need to help the children to acquire education Is there any NGO who would help some of the children whose parents are not able to pay (school) fees? I really need assistance for both home and children's education I have children who are meant to go to secondary, can you help me? I am --- --- and can not afford school feeds, could your assignments help me? How will government help us with education? How can you help us with the school going children How can they further the education of my children? How can I (can't read word) free education and household items for my family Help us with the children since their fathers and mothers can't afford materials for school. Help us with scholastic materials Government should help to pay for tuition for the children Are you going to give us schools? Action taken on parent not sending children to schools Why are they measuring our children? Are they going to get clothes? Since you have asked about my having animals, won't it stop my children from benefiting since I have one or two animals here being considered wall off? Why are you registering 9 children are you going to help What is the aim of this exercise. what results do you expect? are you going to help me solve my problems that exist in my home? My views have been taken am I going to benefit? if yes how? will they follow me to my village or i will be called elsewhere. Why carry out this kind of exercise in detail, is it that you going to introduce property tax? Are they going to tax our property? That is our fear. When is the program startup? If possible there is great need for health unit. Why is CBR Baseline Survey interested in children aged 0-8 years only? Why do you want all this information from me? Is gov't going to send assistance? Why collect this data? Why are you registering? Why are you registering only 0-8 children? Why are you people registering all this information? Why are you doing the survey only in Aornga and Bung Why are you asking these questions? who are those people responsible for this programme? May are they willing to help is in our problems? Why are they asking us details about our homes Why are they asking many questions?


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

Who gave you the authority to collect data, what happens after data collection? Which organization is this? Which NGO is this? Which activity are we going to do after this exercise? Where is the ORGN located? Where are you taking this data to? Where are you taking that information and for what? Where are taking a the questionnaires? When will the project start? When will the project start? When will the organization implement projects When is this project starting? What will be the outcome of the research? What will be the outcome of the research carried out? What next? when are you coming back with results of the project? What is this project all about, so that you've asked all these questions? What is this programme for What is this program and their aim? What is the time limit of setting up the project? What is the purpose of this exercise? What is the purpose of this exercise What is the project focus? What is the programme all about? What is the main objective of your project What is plan of asking them this questions What is going to happen after the questionnaire? What immediate thing do you hope to do? What happens next now that the data has been collected. What happens next now that data has been collected? What happens after data collection? What happens after data collection? What happen after data collection? What does your NGO wan to do with this information? What are they going to do to us after asking all of these questions What are the prospects of our questionnaire? What are the plans for this program? What are the plans after? What are the future prospects for this exercise? Need to know the year of intervention in Uganda I will want and see what happen since my views are taken. How soon will this project be implemented

73


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

74

How soon will the project take off? How soon will the project come into place How many years will this project take? How long will you take to give us feedback? How long will this project take to be put in place? Follow up to each household. Did the research pass through the central government? culiere is this organization? Are you really going to answer us after giving you our views Are you going to give us the feedback very soon? Are you going to come again fore the children who are at school. Are they going to tax our property Am sorry to ask this but really what is your research going to do for us and our children After your research what period of time will the projects be implemented in case it's approved. is the government not involved in this things? Why are you asking me issues concerning land. After you have collected this information, are you giving us any feedback. After the research how long will it take for the project to be implemented? Will our children benefit from this program? When is the help going to come. We also have big children that we are not able to look after what can you your project do about it? Tell those people to come and support us with children issues. Is there some thing good that will come out for our children? If there is something that is for our children let them bring it direct to us not through other people. She says is alone woman so she needs some help for the children like school fees, foods. She is broken, epilepsy how will help her raise the children? Is there a way the NGO is going to assist the disabled children and parents plus other problems? She was complaining of problems of drinking water, food, drugs in the health centers, and she needs help for children She needs some support for the children like medical care, food. To feed the children when they are at school Need to provide food for children at school Need to provide enough food to the children. Help for young children in terms of food We are aware of children weights but we don't know what their roles are? How can we know? The issue of twins like me I gave birth to twins but taking care of them is a big problem, I don't know if there could be something for us? She needs support like school fees She needs some support for children like beddings, food, school fees My home has got burnt, has will I manage to bring them up without any assistance Is there any assistance that will be given to their children after registration


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

As you have interviewed me and registered m children. What are you going to do for my children. Some help for the orphans She needs some support for the orphans Immediate help to children (orphan's) How are going to help my children since they are orphans? Will there be some project for the children in my community? We are also requesting them to see our water source. Please we are not safe with water and floods for our children Please we are not safe with water and floods for our children Now I have many children, can the project sponsor this young one at home. What action are you going to do about children in this village, building health center? Please help us with hospitals for our children's health Medical care for young children Help us bring up our children health wise He seeking some support for the children, medical care. Will there be support for the children whose data has been collected? Will there be some assistance that will be given to these children after collecting this information? Will there be any assistance for our children? When will you support the children When will the child be able to benefit When will our children get to benefit from this project? When are you coming back to support our children? When are you coming back for the unborn babies What your plan about children What support are you going to bring to help children? What support are you available for our children? What is your organization going to do for the health and nutrition of the children. What is good after this generation for the children What are your plans for children? What are you going to give our children? What are you going to do to help people because children are suffering? What are we going to get good for our children 0-8 years? What are things are you going to bring to the children. We need you people to come back as soon as possible to help our children We need the center for basic research to bring more assistance to the children of ours Some help four our children Some help for our children Should we get an opportunity for our children to be helped? She's looking for support for the children She needs support for children like beddings She needs some support for the children I only need some assistance to help me take care of my children Need to help the young children Is your research going to help us with our children? Is your project going to help our children and in which way? Is there some assistance that will be offered to children aged 0-8 yrs after this exercise/survey?

75


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

76

Is there help for our children? Is there anyway that they can help the poor people? Is there any way to help their children Is there any support for us parents on bringing up children? Is there a way they are going to help children? How long will the programme take for our children to benefit? How are you going to help these children? How are our children going to benefit? Do you have any assistance for these kids? Could there be some assistance for these children in the nearby feature? At the end of this survey shall we expect any assistance rendered to our children 0 to 8 years old? Are you going to help us who are hiut and our children Are you going to bring for our children something? Are we going to get some support from BVLF for our children? Are the children going to get any support from this research. Are our children going to benefit from your research Are our children going to benefit from the research? We are really badly off are you trying to rescue us Thanks for the registration but we are suffering a lot no enough food, no money for the hospital, no mosquito nets. Are going to help us? When is support coming (nets, food)? She needs some help like beddings, bore hole, **** houses, by school, and medical care. She is lacking ARUs, no money to buy ?60 sheet? needs some help She is crying for help like school fees. food and beddings You have registered me yes but what am I going to benefit from that What is your research going to do for us because we have hopes in you for our problems that you have registered. Thank you. Now that you have registered me, what are you going to do with that information or to us? Now for this children that you've registered what are you going to do for them? Is this registration or information going to solve our problems? After the registration, what type of support can you give us? What are we going to gain from this survey please what will your organization do for the orphans Yes, they need help and support? how will its services contribute or benefit the community? Will there be any support in future? Will there be any benefit in the future? Will there be a structure that will help me access services from this project? How soon? Will there be any good impact or bad impact? Will parents of these children also benefit Why they carry out such activity Why only the young children from 8-0 Who will mainly benefit from this program? Who will benefit from this project if it succeeds (individuals or community). When will they send support? When will support reach us? When will support come? When is the project coming to help us in our problems?


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

When are we getting this project What will the research do for us What type of a project are you going to implement for both us parents and the children? What land of support will you bring for us? What land of support shall you bring? What kind of help do you see I can get for my family (children) as a woman? What kind of help can you people give us? What is your research going to do for the people of Morio? What is your plan as rev such unsit, is there any support? What is your exercise going to do benefit me and my children What is the project going to offer our children? What help can we get from the organization? What do we expect from this What benefits are the children going to receive? individually, communally? What are you going to do with this information? What are you going to do for our village? What are the benefits for this research we are participating in? What are going to do with what you have asked? Let me hope your research will bring us something for our village. We shall want to see what will happen We request or ask for your help please We need help from you. Are you going to help us in our problems The people were requesting for more help from the NGO's since the governments has failed Thanks for your work but are you going to solve our problems Thanks for work but always remember us Thanks for the registration but what kind of support can you give us? Thanks for the registration but what is it going to benefit us? Thanks for the registration but what are going to bring in our village or to our children? Thanks for the registration but are we going to gain from that Thanks for registering us but we cry for your help. Thanks for coming but we expect much from you So when shall we benefit from the data collection She needs support She needs some support, like bedding She needs some support She needs some support She needs some support She needs some support She needs some help She needs some help She needs some help She needs some help Shall we benefit from this project Respondent wants to know what will happen in the future. Please, the project should be a reality Please try the best you can to save our situation

77


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

Please help us in any way possible? Now that you have known our problems, is there any help you are going to bring Now that you are gathering this information, will there be hope for help? Now since I have discuss the difficulties I have who will help me. Is there support? Is there support? Is there support for us mothers? Is there something that will happen in future after collecting? Is there hope for support? Is there help? Is there anything you are giving our children since you have measured them? Is there any way of support Is there any support please? Is there any other way we can protect our (...)? i.e. getting opportunities. Is there any help? Is there any help? Is there any help that will result from the research? Is there any help that will be given to us? Is there any form of support for children? Is there any benefit in the future? Is there any assistance/aid you are going to give? Is it possible to consider us who have been interviewed? Is government sending help? Is gov't sending help? Is a project going to be started our community I need help please I am a single caregiver how can this project help? How will you help (...) like us How will this help me and my people since I am now old? How shall we benefit from this? How long shall we wait in order to benefit from our ideals. How can the project help me? How are you going to help us after the research How are we going to benefit from this programme How are we going to be helped? How are they going to help these community we have health center. Government should come and help the communities Expected benefits after the survey Expected benefits after the survey Expected benefits Expected benefit after survey Does government intend to help us through this research. Benefits after the survey Asking if there will be any assistance to them in future Are you planning to give us a project?

78


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

79

Are you going to help us? Help help help. Please may your research help us. Are you going to give us some support? Are you going to bring all that we miss to us or not? Are they going to bring something After all this time what is your organization going to do for us poor people apart from children Advocate for us for some support Benefit after the survey People are willing to have latrines but they do not have slabs. The distance of hospitals are so far, so government can bring those services near the better ( not understandable) What is the main aim of this research is it to come and help our children or to use us as a laughing stalk? We should not be just interviewed and later the program disappears Motivation for time wasting at home Demanding for money (time wasted) Water problem, health unit problem, nursery school and food shortage There is water problem there is no clean water. High death rate as there is no health center. No nursery school We also need a nursery for our children and a borehole for clean water Water problem is the major one, nursery schools Since they are asking about children going to nursery will the sponsor them? We need a nursery in the community We need a nursery school near. Nursery No nursery schools. Need to build the nursery school for children Is it possible to construct for our children a nursery school in our community I want my child to also attend nursery, they say it's good, but I can't afford. Will this project help me? Can you build for us a nursery school? Build for us a nursery school for small children which is affordable. Are they going to put up a nursery? What special confederations do you have for men? We need government to also think about men also not only children and women Government should come up and also help men instead of women and children only. She's requesting some aid for food, plates, beddings, a borehole, health centre We are badly off both food, health, clothing and shelter No drugs in the health center, food problem Is there any medication for epilepsy? Is there any means solve the problem of food shortage? We need ...(illegible)...food security Need assistance of food and clothing Can you be able to teach us, how feed our children and our selves? We need nets, water filters. we have a big problem of floods during rain season There is problem of mosquitos so the need nets, health centre, drugs She needs some support ... give nets, medical care She needs some support for the children like nets Mosquito nets is what we need most When there are many children in the household, even if the house is swept, it gets dirty quickly, its difficult to control many children. Weakness in keeping the grand child Warring of not having toilet


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

80

The respondent asks whether they are going to be sued for not having most of the things like toilet, bathroom, drying rack. The answer was no. Issue of respondent - they stay in the furthest area of the village and water is far, so where you live seem to fetch water is like you we are going to town to take a child to hospital or to shop Since you have asked about household belongings, are they going to give us any household items? Now that we have a old woman who smokes and we have a two bedroomed house, can't be get affected? I don't have a bicycle and have no income generating activity â&#x20AC;&#x2122; the organization help me to acquire an ox-plough until I do have often? I am a grandmother very old with orphan grandchild how is government going to help me and this orphan Why is that the elders we denied services in our community, yet we have responsibilities Why is that interventions to help the elderly are not put in place and they are not questioned like women and children Is there a way they can also help the elderly Is government planning to help grandparents as well? Grandmother said that what can be done to her grandson because she is very sickly and has no strength to take care of him Will that registration bring us some support? What is the [reafor] with registering children? As she is taking care of the orphans she needs of a sponsor for the two children, a nearby borehole Will they construct a water source for them, and their orphans are a problem. Am staying with my sisters children who are orphans will they also get any sponsorship for this project? Shall be helped with this orphans Is there any assistance that will be given to orphans How are you going to help the orphans? Difficulties in caring orphans Difficulties in caring for orphans Will the project provide any drugs for treating water? We only have one water source in the community We need a borehole please tell your bosses to help us at least with one We need a borehole for our children to drink clean water We need a borehole because the water we drink has worms We need a borehole We in Akere village have got a problem of clean water. It is possible for your project to assist us with water? Water problem The borehole water in the mornings its water has a reddish colour. Dirty water Are you/project going to fill us a Borehole nearby? Will you have to come back and teach us about relevant laws? How can I know about the laws where from? Will they give sponsorship to our children When will our children be sponsored? If possible you could bring child sponsorship to our village Have hard you taking of education could it be that his NGO come and sponsor our children Are they going to help us get sponsorship for children since the main forget is children? Are our children going to be sponsored? Are children of this community going to get sponsorship?


Appendix A

List of all recorded open-ended final responses

81

Will you bring us some drugs? Will the community be provided with drugs in future? Will it be possible to provide easy access to health facilities by communities? What will be done to improve the immunisation programmes in their community since they go far for immunisation What is government doing to ensure there no frequent drug stock out in Kidilani HCII Is afraid of loosing vaccination and for the child How will you help them to solve problem of weite and treatment long distance for health centers Are you going to provide treatment when my family falls sick? Understood Is there some help that will come for our children? I have nothing to ask you I am a Pentecostal here where I am staying. I am peaceful. There aren't cases of child abuse and domestic violence. Could not measure the child of age bracket 0-8 years, was at school, and its compassion that provides assistance for some children at the child development centre (CDC). Could funeral be help? Come back again next time so that you find the newborns. Certain questions were tricky


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

BERNARD VAN LEER FOUNDATION (BVLF) HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNARE FOR BASELINE SURVEY ID Number Good morning/afternoon. My name is _____________________________ I work for Centre of Basic Research that is conducting a study on behalf of Bernard van Leer Foundation (BvLF) based in Netherlands. BvLF is an NGO focusing on improving social and economic development opportunities for young children from 0 to age 8 years. BvFL believes that all children irrespective of their social, economic, physical conditions should be supported to get a good start in life, so as to be able to make a fuller contribution to tomorrow’s families, communities and societies. In this study, we are assessing the status of children aged 0-8 years in the rural population of the 4 districts of Kumi, Nakapiripirit, Soroti and Apac. The survey will provide BvLF with detailed information describing the socio-economic situation of the rural populace in the targeted districts prior to the planned interventions. Some of the questions I will be asking will be about your children, your self or the household that you live in. You have been randomly selected to participate in this survey and your views will remain confidential and used only for purposes of this study. You are free to ask me any questions now or at the end of the interview. I kindly request for your cooperation in answering the questions we shall ask. Note to interviewers Remember to ask all questions unless there is an instruction to skip. ALL ANSWERS FOR PRE-CODED QUESTIONS MUST BE CODED BY CIRCLING THE RESPONSE GIVEN. For open-ended questions, you are required to write in responses. Do not prompt unless the instructions say so. Remember to thank the participant at the end of the interview and to check the questionnaire for completeness before you leave the household. IDENTIFICATION PARTICULARS District: (Circle One Option) 1. Apac 2. Kumi 3. Nakapiripirit 4. Soroti Subcounty________________________________Parish____________________________LC1(Village)____________________ Name of respondent (ask at the end of the interview)……………………………………………………………………. Name of interviewer--------------------------------------------------------------Tel__________________ Date of interview--------------------------------------------------------------------------SUPERVISOR’S NAME AND CONTACTS:____________________________________________________. MAY I FIRST SPEAK WITH A MEMBER OF THE HOUSEHOLD WHO SPENDS THE MOST TIME TAKE CARE OF THE CHILDREN

SECTION A: SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS AND THEIR HOUSEHOLDS No A1

Questions Who is directly responsible for day- to- day care of children in this Household?

A2 A3

How old are you? (Years) Gender (Observe, do not ask)

A4

Residence

A5 (i)

What is your highest level of education

Coding categories 1. Head of Household 2. Wife 3. Husband 4. Child 5. Grandparent male 6. Grandparent female 7. Other (specify)__________________________ Age:_______________________________ 1. Female 2. Male 1. Rural 2. Trading Centre 1. None 2. Primary not completed 3. Primary completed 4. Secondary not completed 5. Secondary completed 6. Secondary Higher level 7. Post secondary training 8. Junior 9. Others (Specify)-------------------------

82


Appendix B A5(ii)

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

A6

If your education level is none or did not complete primary school, can you read and write If yes, observe the respondent writing at least two names? Can he/she write and read them? What is your marital status

A7

Who is the head of this household?

A8

What is your religion?

A9

How many people live in your household including yourself?

A10

How many are adults?- persons above 18 years

A11

How many are adults?- persons above 65 years

A12

How many are children between 9- 17 years

A13

How many of the children are aged 0- 8 years?

A14

Of the children aged 0-8 years, how many were registered with the sub county at birth? If registered ask to see birth certificate

A 5 (iii)

1. Yes 2. No 1.

Yes 2. No.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Never married Married monogamous Married polygamous Cohabiting Widowed/widower Divorced Separated Adult Male Adult Female Child male Child female Grandparent male Grandparent female Others specify Catholic Anglican/protestant Seventh Day Adventist Orthodox Pentecostal Muslim Bahai Traditional Other (specify) ………….................................

State no-------State no of children: Male________Female_________ State no: Male________Female____________ State no: Male________Female____________

A15

State no: Male________Female__________ 1. None 2. Don’t know State no: Male________Female__________

How many children aged 0-8 are children with disabilities State No: Male______Female________

A16

How many children aged 0-8 are orphans State No: Male-------------------Female-----------------------

A17

How many are PLWHAs State No: Male______Female______

83


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

A18

What is the MAIN language of communication you use in this home? Choose One

A19

The main language of communication is for...

A20

If with a spouse, what is your husband's/partner's occupation? That is, what kind of work does he/she mainly do?

A21

Aside from housework, do you do any other work where you earn in cash or in-kind? If no, skip to section B Do you do this work for a member of your family, for someone else, or are you self-employed?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

1.

A22

A23

Are you paid in cash or in-kind for this work or are you not paid at all?

1. 1.

English Swahili Ateso Kumam Pokot Ngakarimojong Luo Other (specify) ................................................... 1. Mother 2. Father 3. Both mother and father Other (specify) ............................................... 1. Civil servant 2. Teacher 3. Trader 4. Bodaboda 5. Carpenter 6. Fisher 7. Driver 8. Peasant farmer 9. Cattle keeper 10. Mechanic 11. Tailor Other (specify) ………………………….

Yes 2. No

1. For Family Member 2. Working For Government 3. For Someone Else 1. Self-Employed 1. Cash Only 2. Cash and in-kind 3. In-kind Only Not Paid

SECTION B: HOUSING STATUS AND ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS Item B1

Main material of the roof (For main house)

Coding category 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Thatched Iron Sheets Tiles Tin Tarpaulin Other (specify)........................................

84


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

B2

Main material of the exterior walls (for main house)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Thatched/Straw Mud and Poles Un-Burnt Bricks Un-Burnt Bricks with Plaster Burnt Bricks with Mud Burnt Bricks with Cement Cement blocks Stone Timber Other (Specify).................................................

B3

Do you own the house you are living in?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Own house Rented Living in it free of charge Care taker

B4

How many rooms does this house have?

B5

How many rooms in this household are used for sleeping?

B6(1)

Does the out door space/compound adequate to allow children to play? Where do children in this community play? (CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY)

State No.___________________________

B6(2)

B7

State No_________________ 1.

Yes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

School compound Sub-county compound Home Compound Church/Mosque Compound Inside the house Community field Other (specify).................................................

Do you have a separate kitchen from the dwelling place? (observe) Does the kitchen have smoke escape ventilation?

1. Yes

2. No

1. Yes

2. No

1. Yes

2. No

B10

Does the main dwelling place have enough ventilation in all rooms? (observe) Does any household member smoke on a regular basis?

1. Yes

2 No.

B11

What is the MAIN source of lighting (CIRCLE ONLY ONE)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

B8 B9

2. No

Electricity Gas Lantern Tadooba Solar Candle wax Others specify

85


Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

Appendix B B12

What is the MAIN source of energy for cooking (Circle only one)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Electricity Gas Charcoal Firewood Sawdust Crop residues Cow dung Paraffin/kerosene Biogas Solar Other (specify)....................................................

B13

How does the household MAINLY dispose the refuse? (Circle one option)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Rubbish pit Burning Disposing in garden Throwing in the bush Garbage bins Kaveera then to garbage hip Others specify

B14

Do domestic animals have a separate dwelling place from people?

1.

Yes

B15

Type Goats Poultry Calves Pigs

Yes (1) 1 1 1 1

No (2) 2 2 2 2

2. No

If none, why? Key: (1) avoid thefts (2) wild animals (3) lack of building materials (4) No problem sharing (5) other (specify) .

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4

5............ 5............ 5............ 5............

SECTION C: HOUSEHOLD SITUATION REGARDING FOOD AND INCOME SECURITY C1

What is your MAIN livelihood activity (Record only one) a) Agriculture related

Coding category 1. Live stock rearing 2. Crop growing 3. Fish farming 4. Horticulture 5. Bee keeping 6. Tree planting 7. Other (specify)..................................................

b)

Mining and quarry

1. 2. 3.

Sand Stone quarrying Other (specify)........................................

c)

Artisanship

1. 2. 3. 4.

Masons Carpentry Metal works Other (Specify)..........................................

d)

Retail trade and transport

1. 2. 3. 4.

Petty trade Canoes Bodaboda Others (specify).............................................

e)

Food processing

1. 2. 3. 4.

Simsim Fruit juice Tobacco Other (specify)........................................

86


Appendix B

C2

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

f) Others

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Fishing Selling labour Salary from regular employment brick making Other (specify)....................................

What is your MAIN source of income? (Record Only One

Coding category

Main Source)

Estimated Amount (per month)

1. Crop agriculture 2. Trade 3. Casual labour 4. Cattle and cattle products 5. Salary from regular employment 6. Charcoal / firewood selling 7. Bee keeping 8. Brick making 9. Support from relatives 10. Other (Specify) .................................. C3 C4

C5

What was your estimated total household income last month? (Ug shs) What did you spend most of this cash on last month?

In the last one month, how many people contributed to the income of this household?

UGX______________________ 1. Food 2. School fees 3. School scholastic materials 4. Clothing 5. Medical bills 6. Rent 7. Hire labour 8. Others State No:__________

C6 1: Does any member of this household own any of the following? (Read the list to the respondent and discuss who controls the asset or resource). (Tick All That Apply) Type of assets Ownership Control (Decision Making) C61(a)

Livestock Cattle Sheep Goats Chicken (and other birds) Donkeys Rabbits Oxen Pigs Others (Specify)

C6(1b)

Assets Land Bicycle A motorcycle? An animal-drawn cart

Male

Female

Male Children

Female children

Male

Female

Male children

Female children

87


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

A car or truck? A boat with a motor? A boat without a motor? Radio

C6(2) C6(3)

TV Bed (any type) Ordinary Mattress Sponge mattress Mobile phone Blankets Plates Cups Cooking utensils Jerry cans Others If the household owns land ask, what do you estimate is used on agriculture? (State in acres) If the household doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t own land, ask how do you access land

C6 (4)

How do you utilise this land (accept multiple responses)

C6(5)

What types of food crops do you produce in this land?(accept multiple responses) Millet Sorghum Maize Cassava Yams Simsim Groundnuts Green Vegetables Bananas Fruits Rice Potatoes Soya beans Cow beans Beans Peas Sugar Cane Green grams Sun Flower Others specify............................................................

State No:________________________acres 1. 2. 3.

Renting/hiring Borrowing Free use

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Cultivation Livestock Tree planting Sand mining Horticulture Other (specify)............................................ Sale

Home consumption

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20

88


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

C 6(6)

Do you have any assets that you can sell if you have an emergency in your household?

C6(7)

In the last 6months, have you had to sell any of your assets for emergency needs? What is the MAIN source of food for the household (CIRCLE ONLY ONE)

1.

In the last 6 months, did you or any household member have inadequate food If yes, what did you do to overcome the situation?

1.

C6(8)

C6(9) C6(10)

C 6(11) Which sources of credit are available to

people in your area? (CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY)

C6(13)

Have you ever accessed credit facilities from any of these sources If yes, which ones?

C6(14)

When was the last time you got a loan?

C6 (15)

How much was the loan?

C6(12)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

None Livestock Agriculture produce House Hold assets Land or land rights Other (Specify) ........................................................

Yes 2. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Own garden/reserves Buying from local market Food aid Gift from relatives Wild food/ Other (Specify) .........................................................

Yes

2. No

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Buying from local market Food aid Donations from relatives Borrowed from relatives/friends Sold family assets Wild food/ Other (Specify) .............................................

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

NGO credit programmes Micro Finance Institutions Commercial Banks Village Savings and Loans Associations SACCOS Individual money lenders Burial Groups None Others (specify)

1. Yes

2. No

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

NGO credit programmes Micro Finance Institutions Commercial Banks Savings and Loans Associations SACCOS Individual money lenders Others (specify)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Less than a month ago 1-6 months ago 7 -12 months ago Beyond one year Never

5. UGX________________

89


Appendix B C6(16)

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

How did you use the loan?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

C6 (17) Were you able to pay back the loan?

SECTION D:

Investment Food Education Medical Household items Social functions (burial, weddings) Other specify 1.

C6 (18) If No, why ?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

90

Yes

2.

No

Investing in unprofitable business Sickness Loss of money Spent on social needs(visitors, marriages ceremony, funerals) Spent on education Other specify........................................

WATER SUPPLY HYGIENE AND SANITATION PRACTICES

WATER SUPPLY D1. What are your main sources of water for use at home? (Circle code number for each source named from table below) and indicate how satisfied are you with the quality of water Source of water

Public tap Communal Borehole Private borehole Privately owned yard tap Vendor Rainwater harvesting Protected spring Unprotected spring Dam River, lake, pond, swamp Shallow well Other (Specify) ...................................

Wet season 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Dry season 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Level of satisfaction â&#x20AC;&#x201C; see codes below*

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Taste 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Colour 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4

Smell 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

*Good =1, fair =2, poor =3, Bad = 4, very bad = 5, no opinion =6 D2

How long does it usually take to travel to the source of water which you use at home?(record in minutes )

D3

After arriving at the water source, how long is the waiting time to get water?

D4

How long does it take to travel back home from the water source? Who MAINLY goes to this source to fetch water for your household? (Choose One Option)

D5

D6

How do you transport water in your household? (Accept Multiple Responses)

Wet season

Dry season

Mins:_________

Mins:_________

Mins:_________

Mins:_________

Mins:_________ Mins:_________ 1. Father 2. Mother 3. Boys 4. Girls 5. Not household member 6. Other (Specify).........................

1. 2. 3. 4.

On Foot Bicycle Push Cart Others specify

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

D7

What containers do you use for storage of water for other domestic purposes other than drinking? (check to see) (Accept Multiple Responses)

D8

Do you treat water for drinking? (If No, skip to question.... If yes, what methods do you use to treat water? (Accept

D9

Multiple Responses)

D10

D11

How many jerry cans of water do you use a day (20 litres jerry cans)?

What is the MAJOR challenge regarding water collection for the wet and dry seson ? (Choose One Option for each season)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1.

Yes

D13 D14

Do you share this latrine with another household? What is the condition of the latrine? (Check physically)

D15

How do you dispose children faeces 0-5 years

2. No

Coding categories 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Boil Add bleach/chlorine Strain through a cloth Use water filter (ceramic/sand/composite/etc. Solar disinfection Let it stand and settle Other specify

1. 2. 3. 4.

One Two Three Four and above

Wet season

Dry season

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Overcrowding Conflicts Inadequate water Difficult terrain Children playing at source Long waiting time Poor quality of water Other (specify)..........................

SANITATION D11 Does your household own a latrine? D12 If yes, what kind of latrine does your home own?

Jerrycans Pot Water drum Water tank Basins Others specify

1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Yes 2. No Flush toilet VIP latrine Covered pit latrine no slab Covered pit latrine with slab Uncovered pit latrine no slab Uncovered pit latrine with slab Composting toilet(ECOSAN) Bush Other (specify).........................

1.Yes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Clean Fairly clean Dirty Very Dirty Others specify

2.No

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Latrine Open yard Cat method Potty Others specify

91


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

D16

Do you have a bath shelter? (Check to see)

D17

What else is the bath shelter used for (check to observe)

D18

Where do children aged 4-8 years mainly bathe from?

Hygiene D19 If you have a latrine, how do you maintain its cleanliness?(ACCEPT MULTIPLE RESPONSES)

D20 D21 D22 D23

D24

Do you have a facility for washing hands after latrine use? Observe to see the facility) If yes, is it being used? Observe whether container has water, and the area around is wet Is there soap or detergent or locally used cleaning agent near hand washing facility? observe If you store drinking water, how do you store your drinking water?

How do you keep the hygiene of drinking water?

1. 2.

Not in place In place and provides adequate privacy 3. In place but does not provide adequate privacy 4. Incomplete but in use 5. In place but not in use 1. Only bathing 2. Urinal `3. Keeping domestic animals 4. Toilet for children 5. Others specify ................................. 1. Shared bath shelter 2. Separate bath shelter 3. In the compound 4. From the water source 5. Others specify 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1.Yes 1.Yes

2.No

1.Yes

2.No

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

D25 D26

Is there a drying rack in the HH compound? How is cooked food stored in your home (check to see whether it is hygienic)

D27

Hygiene of the floor of the main house (observe)

Smearing Sweeping Smoking Washing Use ash Others specify 2.No

1.Yes

Pot Plastic container Saucepan Water jar other specify ....................... Pot with cover and one cup Pot with no cover Pot with cover Separate cups for drinking and scooping Plastic container Other (specify) .......................... 2.No

1. 2. 3. 4.

Left in saucepan and covered Fridge Have special place Other (specify).............................

1. 2.

Clean Dirty

92


Appendix B D28

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

General cleanliness of the compound (Accept Multiple Response)

E: Health and wellbeing of children aged 0-8 years E1 How often do your children aged 6- 8 take a bath in a day?

E2 E3

E4

E5

E6

Did all the children in your household take a bath yesterday? Who in the household bathes them? (Accept Multiple Response)

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1.Yes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Once in the morning Once in the evening Twice Three times Other (specify)............................................ 2.No Father Mother Older sibling Self Non family members

Apart from bathing the children, how else do you maintain hygiene of your children aged 0-8 years (record only what is reported)? Brushing teeth

1

Washing their clothes

2

Cutting nails

3

Hair cleaning/combing

4

Cleaning beddings

5

Others specify Has any child (0-8 yrs)in your household fallen sick in the last one months?

6 (1) Yes (2) No

If yes, what was the sickness? (Write the number against the named disease.) Any other? Illness Boys

E7

Grass is kept short Bushy Has drainage to take water Other (specify)....................

Diarrhoea Measles Dysentery Typhoid Intestinal worms Scabies Ring worms Eye diseases Pneumonia Asthma TB Other Respiratory infection Lice Jiggers Malaria Skin infections Physical injury Others specify......................................................... Have all your children taken any drug for intestinal worms in the last six months?

Number of Children Girls

1.Yes all, 2. Yes some.

3 No

4. Dont know

93


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

E8

The last time your child fell ill, what action did you take? (Circle only one response)

E9

Were any medical bills incurred resulting from the illness of household member? If yes who paid for the service?

E10

E11

Where did the household get money for medical treatment for the sick person? (Circle all that apply)

E12

What is the distance from this community to the nearest health facilities?

Distance (KM)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1.

Took to health centre Took to hospital Took to clinic Home remedy including self medication Gave local herbs Took to local healer Bought drugs from local pharmacy Nothing Others specify Yes 2. No

1. 2. 3. 4.

Mother Father Both mother and father Relative (kin person living outside the household) Others specify---------Household income Borrowed from individual Borrowed from Savings & Loans Association Sold some household item Household savings Others (Specify)

5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Travel Time(including waiting time)

Hospital Health Centre

E13 E14(1) E14 (2) E15

E16

Local clinic Other (please state) Local clinic Other (please state) The last time you or your spouse was pregnant, did you seek antenatal care? If yes, how many times did you attend antenatal clinic (ANC)?(Circle only one) Did you or your spouse escort you for any of the ANC visits? If you did not attend ANC why?(Multiple response)

1. Yes

2. No

Mode of transport (1) Foot (2) Bicycle (3) Vehicle (4) Other

1 1 1

2 3 2 3 2 3

4 4 4

1

2 3

4

3. Don’t know

1. Once 2. Twice 3. Three times (4) four times or more 1. Yes 2. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Health facility far No good service at health facility No money to pay for service Nurses rude Not important

1.

Yes

2. No

3. Don’t know

2.

Yes

2. No

3. Don’t know

E18

During your last pregnancy, did you take any drug for intestinal worms? During your last pregnancy, did you take any drug to protect you against malaria? If yes, what were those drugs?

E19

Was your last child delivered in a health facility?

1.

E17

Travel Cost

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

SP/FANSIDAR CHLOROQUINE Atemiciline Cant know name of drugs given Others specify

Yes 2. No

94


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

E20

If no, what prevented you?

E21 E22 E23

Are all your children aged 0-8 years immunized? Do you have a card where (vaccinations are written)? May I see card for the last child please?

E24 (a)

How many times did you breastfeed last night between sunset and sunrise?

E24 (b)

How many times did you breastfeed yesterday during the day light hours? How long did you breast feed your youngest child?

E25

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Delivery was abrupt No money for fees and requirements Health facility far Nurses rude I trust local birth attendant My culture does not allow Others specify___________________

1. Yes 2. Yes 1. Yes seen

State no…………………………….. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3.

<3 months; 6 months; 7-9 mths; 10-12 mths; >one year Immediately at birth After three months after 6 months;

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Cow milk Goats milk Plain maize porridge Plain millet porridge Soup Eggs

At what age did you introduce your last child to complementary foods?

E28

Did your child aged 0-1 years take any of the following foods yesterday? (this should only apply if the respondent has a baby of that age group)(Accept Multiple Response)

E29

How many mosquito nets does your household have

Write no:

E30

Of the nets you have, how many are treated nets?

Write no:

E31 E32

How many children 0-8 years sleep under treated nets In the last 12 months, were you visited by a health/community worker who talked to you about child health issues? Have you ever given birth to a child that died immediately(up to one week) after birth? Now, If you will permit me, I would like to ask you a more personal question but which is important for this study: Have you lost a member of your household aged 1 – 8 years in the last one year?

Write no: 1. Yes

E34

2 .Not seen

State no-------------------

E27

E33

2. No 2. No

1.

Yes

1.

Yes

2. No 2. 2.

No No

95


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

SECTION F: ISSUES ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, BELIEFS, PRACTICES WITH REGARD TO CHILD HEALTH, EARLY LEARNING AND VIOLENCE F1 F2

F3 F4

F5 F7

F8

Are there some foods pregnant mothers are advised not to eat in this community? If yes which ones? (List all foods mentioned) any other?

1.

Yes

2. N0

Are there some foods lactating mothers are advised not to eat in this community? If yes which ones? (List all foods mentioned) any other?

1.

Yes

2. N0

Are there some foods children are discouraged from eating in this community? If yes, which are these foods?

1.

Yes

2. N0

Do you believe that diarrhoea among breast feeding children is caused by the following(Read out the list) Dirty breasts Cold food kept overnight False teeth Witchcraft Malaria Dirty water

Agree (1)

Disagree(2)

Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know(3)

As part of this survey, we also are asking people to allow us take measurement of their children aged between 0- to 5 years. The reason we are doing this is to try and find out whether our children are growing well as expected. We shall take the weight and height of the child and also ask you a few questions. The equipment we are using is clean and completely safe. No names will be attached but in case we identify that your child has severe malnutrition (a result of not feeding well), we shall advise you to seek help from your nearest health facility. F9 Data on each child below 5 years Childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s no. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Relation with household*1

Sex

Age

MUAC (G,O,R)*2

Weight (kgs)

Height (centimetres)

Comment

7 *1. Son; 2 daughter; 3 niece; 4 nephew; 4. Grandchild; 5. Other relative; 6; adopted child, 7 others specify * 2 A ribbon adopted by MoH for rapid assessment of the nutritional status of a child shall be used which shows: G= Green, O= orange; R= Red

96


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

Nutrition No. Question F10 How often do your children consume the following food items? Use the codes to the right. Food consumption Meat Fish Fruit Milk Vegetables Beans Rice Matooke Cooking oil Eggs Millet

97

Coding categories Key: 1. Daily, 2 twice a week, 3. three times a week, 4. 4-5 times a week, 5. Once a week, 6. Rarely. 7 never 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

F11: During the previous 24-hour period, did anyone in your household consume: (Circle code “1” for YES and “2” for NO) Yes No Eating Occasion 1

Any food before a morning meal A morning meal Any food between morning and midday meals A midday meal Any food between midday and evening meals An evening meal Any food after the evening meal

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1

Indicators for dietary diversity: Yesterday, did you or anyone in your household consume any of the following: (read the list

to the respondents?) F12: Foods Cereals (millet, maize, sorghum, rice,) Roots/tubers (cassava, potatoes, yams) Legumes (beans, peas, soya beans etc) Milk/milk products Eggs Meat/offal Fish/seafood Oil/fat Sugar/honey Fruits Vegetables Others specify ……………………………………………………… F13 In the last 12 months, were you visited by a health worker who talked to you about nutrition?

YES

NO

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1.Yes

2.No


Appendix B

F14

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

F14:i

In the last 12 months, has your household received any material support for which you did not have to pay? (Please tick whichever applies) Clothing

F14:ii

Beddings

14:iii

Food

F14:iv

Financial support

F14 v

Mosquito net

F14:vi

Others specify

F15

In the last 12 months, has your household received any social support for which you did not have to pay?

F15:i

Household work

F15:ii

Training of caregivers

F15:iii

Legal services

F15:iv

Others

F16

F16:i

In the last 12 months, has your household received any emotional or psychosocial support which you received at home and for which you did not have to pay? Companionship

F16:ii

Counseling

F16:iv

Spiritual; support

F16:v

Others specify

F17

F17:i

In the last 12 months, has your household received any support for children in school for which you did not have to pay? Books and pens

F17:ii

School uniform

F17:iii

Sponsorship

F17:iv F17:v

School bags Others specify

Relative/friend

Community

NGO

Government

None

98

Others


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

SECTION G: DISCIPLINE AND VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN AND WOMEN I am now going to ask you to share your personal experiences with issues of children’s discipline and violence against children in this community. Feel free to discuss these issues with me as I will not ask you to give names of people who may be involved. G1

G2

G3 G4

G5 G6

G7

How do you enforce discipline in your children? (Tick all that apply) 1. Spanking/caning 2. Talking to them 3. Stating family rules 4. Using religious rules 5. Denying them food 6. Denying them play time 7. Giving them hard domestic work 8. Others (specify) The last time a child did something wrong, what disciplinary measure did you or member of the household take on the child?

If a child does something wrong, do you believe in beating it?

Who is involved in disciplining children in the home? (Tick) Are you aware of any children aged 0-8 years in this community who are mistreated? If yes, how are they mistreated? - circle only those mentioned spontaneously

Which category of children is most mistreated in your community?(circle one)

Ages 2- 5

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1.

Ages 4-5

Ages 6 – 8

None Spanking/caning Talking to them Stating family rules Using religious rules Denying them food for sometime Denying them playing time Giving them hard domestic work Others specify

Yes

2.

Mother Father Sibling Relative Grand parent Care giver 1. Yes

Sometimes Ages 2- 3

3. No Ages 4 -5 6 – 8

2.No

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Beating /physical assault Denial of Education Denial of Medical care (treatment) Failure to take children for Immunisation Not Providing Clothing/beddings Denial of food Lack of Shelter/accommodation Heavy punishments Child labour Denying children to play Mistreatment by step parents Others specify

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

.Orphans Disabled Boys Girls Children staying with step parents Other specify

99


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

G8

In the last three years, how do you rate the level of violence against children 0-8 years

1. 2. 3. 4.

Increasing Decreasing Remained the same Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know

G9

If it is increasing, why do you think so? (Select one most important)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Poverty Parents have little time to attend to their children Children have become more indiscipline Breakdown of community values Break down of families Other specify

1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Ye s (2.) No (3) Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t kow Wife beating Rape Defilement Denial of sex Forced marriage Forced labour Use of abusive language

G10 G11

Does violence against women happen in this community? If yes, do women experience the following forms of violence in this community?

8. Denial of ownership of property 9. Denial to inheritance of property 10. Denial of education

11. Denial of political rights (voting, participation in meetings, 12. Denial of upkeep (food, clothing, education etc) 13. Others specify ............................................. G12

In the last one year , have you experienced any form of violence

1 Yes

G13

If yes, what form of violence did you experience

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

2.No

Wife battering Rape Defilement Denial of sex Forced sex Forced marriage Forced labour Use of abusive language

9. Denial of ownership of property 10. Denial to inheritance of property 11. Denial of education

12. Denial of political rights (voting, participation in meetings, 13. Others specify G14

When that violence took place, did any of the following happen?

Cuts, bruises, injuries or aches Eye injuries, sprains, dislocations or burns Deep wounds, broken bones, broken teeth or other injury

Yes

No

100


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

G15

Who was responsible for this violence

1. 2. 3. 4.

My husband My wife Brother Other specify

G16

If experienced violence, ask, how has this violence affected children in your household

G17

If you experienced violence, what action did you take?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Physical harm Failure to continue school Death Increased poverty Psychological Other specify Reported to the LC Went for counselling Did nothing Separated with spouse Went back to my parents Reported to In Laws Other (specify...............................................

G18

In the last one year, how often did the violence you talk about happen (Circle one that applies)

1. 2. 3.

Often Sometimes, Not at all

101

INFORMATION DISSEMINATION G19 (i) G19 (ii) G19 (iii) G19 (iv) G19 (i) G19 (ii)

G20

Are you aware of existing community laws around prevention of violence Are you aware of existing state laws around the prevention of violence Are you aware of existing community laws around protection of children’s rights Are you aware of existing state laws around protection of children’s rights Are you aware of existing community community laws on promotion of hygiene and sanitation Are you aware of state laws on promotion of hygiene and sanitation If yes, what was your source of information (Please tick what applies) FM Radio Community health workers Health centre LCs Church leaders News papers Other specify

1. Yes

2. No

1.

2. No

Yes

1. Yes

2. No

1. Yes

2. No

1. Yes

2. No

1.

2.

Yes

Hygiene and sanitation

No

Children’s rights

Violence Preventaion


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

102

H: HOUSEHOLD DIVISION OF LABOUR AND POWER Who in the household is mainly involved in performing the following? (CIRCLE THE ONE THAT APPLIES) Category Responsible person H(1)

H(2)

H (3)

H(4)

H(5)

H(6)

Childcare responsibility patterns (who is taking care of the child) 0-8 years

(1) Mother

(2) Father

(3) Children Boys

(4) Children Girls

(5) Grand parents

(6) House help

(7) Other relative

(a) Baby sitting

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(b) Preparing food

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(c) Feeding

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(d) Bathing

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(e) Washing childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s clothes

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(f) Taking children for medical care

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(3) Children Boys

(4) Children Girls

(5) Grand parents

Care for the sick/elderly?

(1) Mother

(2) Father

(6) House help

(7) Other relative

Feeding

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Washing clothes

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Drug administration

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Taking the sick for treatment

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(3) Children Boys

(4) Children Girls

(5) Grand parents

Food production

(1) Mother

(2) Father

(6) House help

(7) Other relative

Preparing the garden

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Planting

1

3

3

4

5

6

7

Weeding

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Pruning

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Harvesting

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Selling produce

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(3) Children Boys

(4) Children Girls

(5) Grand parents

Cash crop production

(1) Mother

Preparing the garden

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Weeding

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Pruning

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Harvesting

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Selling produce

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(3) Children Boys

(4) Children Girls

(5) Grand parents

Care for livestock

(1) Mother

(2) Father

(2) Father

(6) House help

(6) House help

(7) Other relative

(7) Other relative

Milking

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Tethering animals

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Grazing

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Churning

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Selling cattle products

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(3) Children Boys

(4) Children Girls

(5) Grand parents

Household consumption purchases

(1) Mother

(2) Father

(6) House help

(7) Other relative

Food

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Clothes

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Collecting firewood

1

2

3

4

5

6

7


Appendix B

Bernard Van Leer Foundation (BVFL) Uganda Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey

103

EDUCATION J(1) J(2) J(3) J(4)

How many school going children ATTENDING school are in your home? How many school aged children are in your home but are NOT in school? What is the distance to the nearest primary school from your home? How do your children travel to school?

Male :__________

Female:_______

Male :__________

Female:_______

Km_________________ Mode of Transport

Travel time (to and from) minutes

daily cost

1. Bodaboda (motor cycle) 2. Bicycle 3.Foot 1. J5 J6

Do your children get meals at school? Does your community have a nursery school?

J7

Does your community have early learning centres? If yes, which ones?

Others

1. Yes all, 1. Yes

J10

J10

J11 J12

3. No 2. No

1.

Yes

1.

Child Development centre Sunday School Nursery School ABEK centre Others (Specify……………..)

2. 3. 4. 5. J8 J9

2. Yes some; 2. No

Do you have children attending nursery school? If yes what is the age of the youngest child in nursery/ If children not attending nursery, why not? Too far

1. Yes Age in years_________

Cannot afford

2

Not necessary

3

Others specify----------------

4

What expenses do you incur to keep a child in primary school?(multiple responses) Uniform

1

Books and pens

2

Packed food

3

Transport

4

Others specify

5

Were you able to meet all these expenses last term? If no, Why?

1. Yes

2. No

1

1. 2. 3.

2. No Child neglect No Money Others (Specify………..

Now, we have come to the end of the discussion. Do you have any question concerning what we have been talking about? If yes, record the issues----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Then conclude by thanking the respondent for the information and time given to you.


Appendix C

List of unused survey items

We did not analyze these survey items due to concerns about their validity: C2 C5 D10 D11a D14 D16 D24 D27 D28 E24 E25 E27 E28

104

Uganda household questionnaire for baseline survey  

The Household Questionnaire for Baseline Survey was administered in four districts in Uganda to 1,728 households in 40 different villages fr...

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