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special issue

01 May 2011

on the spot 06 focus 10 global view 14 prospects 16 interviews 18 what do you think ? 22 missionary 24 for sale 29 shared architecture 33 case file : Brussels 41 housing 55 terraced houses 58 renovation 64 listed building 68 shared details 78 phpp 86 Elisabeth's diary 88 in detail 92 it's moving in... 96 our students 100

bureau de d茅p么t 2099 Antwerpen X P 910294

be.passive quaterly magazine of the passive standard > www.bepassive.eu

2015 : Brussels goes passive !

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editorial

Bernard Deprez chief redactor

ACT ! ACT ! ACT !

Spring has arrived and to celebrate the great weather, be.passive proudly presents its special edition piece on Brussels – in English! The change in season seems to have prompted some student architects to post a big "Act!" on our "be passive!" posters. We couldn't put it better, in spite of the paradox: "ACT = be passive!" This represents a desire to lead from the front, as demonstrated in the Brussels region over recent years. That is why we are dedicating this special edition - which contains an anthology of articles previously published in earlier editions - to projects in Brussels. We thought it would be great to salute this amazing city and its commitment to the be-passive message. In 2010 it was announced that all construction projects should be built inline with the passive standard. From 2015 all new public projects undertaken in the Brussels region must now meet the same energy standard.. A passified Brussels now has almost 1000 passive homes either completed, under construction or in the planning stages, amounting to over 100,000m² of office space, nurseries and schools, plus passive renovations that will truly achieve 15 kWh/m² per year.. be.passive is aiming to create dynamic communication that no only encourages change but stimulates the creativity needed to get things done. This cultural work is necessary to build bridges between designers, builders and residents that encourages environmentally responsible architecture. Yes, be.passive is seeking to motivate creators of all stripes (rather than merely postulating for "energy constraints"), creating a vision of what is possible when we talk about energy, materials and regional planning. Sustainability is key, and we want this to be upheld throughout the architectural, artistic and social planning aspects of our work. be.passive claims the right to exercise free speech: it does not act as a mouthpiece for any political authority in any industry, any professional organisation or even any member of passive platforms. be.passive first and foremost serves society in the broadest sense. It works towards the welfare of all, through promoting the idea of energy in the public interest, towards the wider dissemination of knowledge and best practices. It puts the good of all ahead of any special interests. Finally, be.passive aims to share knowledge and experience in design as freely and as transparently as possible, including the implementation and promotion of passive architecture. It sees this open source ethos as a prerequisite for the exchange of knowledge and practices, the establishment of a network of stakeholders and a measure of influence touching everybody. Please do not hesitate to consult our online editions at www.bepassive.be. If you agree with our editorial line, please do not hesitate to share your experiences or suggest a topic or an article by contacting the editor. "Do something : Be Passive!", and so here is the plan! edito

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pictures speak

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Olivier Marquet

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for sale

shared architecture

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global view

there's water in the gas!

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case file

uniformity exclusive promotions Aeropolis II 2015 : Burssels goes passive!

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passive renovation

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renovation

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rue des archives in loi 42 in Brussels city download it free ! Watermael (BRU)

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stone, paper, scissors


"walking the park" #01

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prospects

how much should we leave in the ground ?

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interviews

Design and constructed by: Jacob JeBailey Asher DeGroot Kevin James David Gallaugher Photo: Andre Forget

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what do you think ?

missionary

Evelyne Huytebroeck living in a passive house a finger and the moon Olivier Bastin

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14 terraced houses

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renovation

house in Asse (BRU) rue fin in Molenbeek (BRU) house in Oudenaarde (BRU)

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Elisabeth's diary the polar station day by day

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in detail

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platform-frame or Japan balloon-frame

summary

listed building renovation offices in Forest (BRU)

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our students

passive offices : cooling demand

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photo Filip Dujardin

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on the spot


on the spot

Dubrucq 222

Social or passive? Both, of course! 8 social housing projects along with neighbourhood facilities are being carried out by B-architecten as part of the Escaut-Meuse 'sustainable neighbourhood' contract in Molenbeek. To keep tenants readily informed, a screen located in the lobby will display the building's energy consumption. â–  > arch: www.b-architecten.be > contractor: www.gillion.be

on the spot

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01 Nursery - rue de l’Hectolitre (BE)

Success at the first attempt for this nursery catering for 48 children in rue de l'Hectolitre in Brussels. The recessed architecture enables a vertical nursery on 4 levels. Architect : www.r2d2architecture.be

02 Back to the Canal (BE)

A hotel and training centre for the town of MolenbeekSaint-Jean. The Old Malthouse will be renovated to the low energy standard and it will host a Hotelier Training Centre and CASCO areas, while a new passive construction with a hotel training centre will round off the complex, similar to a watchtower. Surface area 6.100 m². Architects : www.escaut.org, www.ms-a.be and www.grontmij.be

03 Victor Hugo School in Roubaix (FR)

2200m² for a new Victor Hugo school to be built as part of the urban renewal of the town of Roubaix and its Agenda 21. Architect : www.dealzua.com

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"Centre for Jobs and Early Childhood." A single counter and its styling will bring together the joint regional and federal infrastructure relating to jobs, as well as a crèche, to be built on the ground floor. This is a flagship project for the Saint-Denis quarter contract in Forest. Architect : www.A2M.be Stability : www.tpf.be Service engineer : www.jzh.be Contractor : www.mmsitty.be

05 XXXL (AT)

With 470 passive homes, these buildings in Innsbruck form the largest residential passive complex in Europe. Tenants will soon occupy these apartments, with an energy consumption as low as just 7kWh/m² per year! Architect : www.din-a4.at

06 The biggest (CH)

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The figures tell the whole story - over 64,000m² of passive and "eco" offices. Would you believe it? The extension of the Credit Suisse headquarters in Zurich reflects a comprehensive approach. It was designed as a polymorphous city structure. The architectural superimposition is expressed using the different scales of project. The complex as a whole brings to mind a body with life flowing through its cells. The result is a building made up of free "zoning", as opposed to a rigid frame, which can accommodate over 8000 employees. Work on the project is coming to an end. Architect : www.stuecheli.ch Constractor : www.hrs.ch

07 "E la nave va" in UK

The Brussels-Capital region has already bestowed an award on a passive floating hotel project (Exemplary Building winner 2009). In the United Kingdom, the construction of a boathouse has just begun for the Royal School of Worcester. More info: newsroom.ecocustomhomes.com/?p=31613 Architect : Associated Architects www.associated-architects.co.uk/

08 Peronne goes passive (FR)

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A refurbishment of a listed industrial water mill in Peronne, north of France. It will be renovated into 40 appartments, offices and a ecomuseum. Architect: www.a2m.be

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text

Caroline Chapeaux

photo

BĂŠnĂŠdicte Maindiaux

With twenty years of experience in conventional financial institutions, Olivier Marquet opted to take over as head of Triodos Belgium in 2003. This is a sustainable bank that makes a direct link between the economy, human beings and their environment.

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With twenty years of experience in conventional financial institutions, Olivier Marquet opted to take over as head of Triodos Belgium in 2003. This is a sustainable bank that makes a direct link between the economy, human beings and their environment. What prompted Olivier Marquet to switch to ethical finance after all those years? Having worked for twenty years in various management positions at Anhyp and subsequently ING, he became head of Triodos Belgium. This is a bank that invests its customers' deposits in sustainable development projects. "My way of thinking and a great deal of reading led me to this position. I was convinced there were two ways to change the world: the transfer of knowledge and the transfer of money", he says. He applied to a new management position at Triodos having heard about the vacancy from a close friend. "I wanted to work for what I believe in. Since then, not a day has gone by where I have been unhappy going to work in a bank. Knowing that what I do adds value is an exciting thought. My employees are right behind me. We are all passionate about the bank's ethos. " Triodos was founded thirty years ago by a handful of university professors and bankers in the Netherlands. At the cornerstone of their way of thinking lay a simple question: How can we make the economy work for people, instead of having people work for it? The first sustainable bank in Europe answers this question with a simple model - linking its customers with entrepreneurs developing promising sustainable projects (renewable energy, green construction, nursing homes, social economy enterprise, etc). The objective is to fund community projects that are environmentally-friendly and to develop innovative and responsible companies. Triodos means "three ways" in Greek: People, Planet, Profit. Profitability is certainly among the bank's objectives, however this is balanced by other objectives that are valued just as highly... Looking beyond the bottom line to focus on the bank’s social vocation is what makes it a truly unique model- something which has now caught on throughout Europe.. The bank has grown to include the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany and Belgium. Despite the global financial crisis the group has managed to keep its head held high. It continues to grow by 20-30% per year and funds over fifteen thousand projects across Europe. The Belgian branch has a lot to be proud of, with a 24% increase in deposits in one year1 and around one thousand three hundred projects funded, the bank has seen unprecedented success, all of which underscores the suitability of the model. The crisis has even had a positive impact for Triodos, attracting a large number

of new customers2, disappointed by their experiences elsewhere. The number of savings accounts opened, investments into the bank's mutual funds and share certificates continues to grow. Their commitment to transparency has provided many customers with the confidence needed to invest their funds., particularly after the events of 2008.

You know where your money goes

Far from supporting the opacity of the financial markets, Triodos publishes commercial loans granted on its website3 and in its quarterly magazine. "We only fund the real economy. By that, I mean that we personally know the recipients of our funds," says Olivier Marquet. Our customers know where their money is going and what it is being used for". Projects are funded following a deep-seated analysis of the cases brought before the bank. Experts work together for the true ecological, societal and cultural gain of an initiative before giving it the go-ahead. "We are part of the financial system, but we always act according to strict ethical and environmental criteria," emphasises the banker. We consider the social, cultural and environmental impact of all the products and services we offer. Finally, like any other bank, we only accept projects that pose a reasonable level of risk". The small Dutch bank has, however, revealed itself to be bold. Oxfam, Exki, the Zinneke Parade and Lawyers without Borders are among the beneficiaries of loans granted by the Belgian subsidiary. With a visionary outlook, it has enabled a number of sustainable companies to emerge and, for example, was the first bank to raise enough investment to finance wind power in Belgium. By joining the leadership of Triodos, Olivier Marquet has placed a bet on a model close to his convictions; where money promotes positive and sustainable social change, and transparency in banking and humanity take centre stage... ■

1. Triodos Belgium achieved 709 million euros of savings by late 2009. Source: Triodos Bank Annual Report 2009, available at www. triodos.be 2. In Belgium, the threshold of forty thousand customers has been exceeded, and the team has grown at exceptional speed to grow from fifty to eighty people within the space of two years. 3. A new Google Maps application shows the projects supported by the Triodos Group and their details on a location map. It is available at: www.suivezvotreepargnealatrace.be For more information : www.triodos.be

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Olivier Marquet, Triodos the ethical banker text Caroline Chapeaux

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drawing

Pierre Kroll

S... I'm visiting my brother. Central heating is costing me a fortune and i'm using up all the planet's resources

Come with me! Let's take a look at "passive". Your houses could be a laboratory of widgets used to produce green energy.

It doesn't look very complicated.

triple glazing

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humour

There's even a TV?!

This is my only heating!


Based on "be stupid" campaign from Diesel

be passive

a quarterly magazine by bepassive asbl www.bepassive.eu

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Coming from the United States, the enthusiasm for shale gas is about to reach European shores, and from there on to the rest of the world. The rush for "shale" could shake up the geopolitics of energy. But at what cost? global view

there's water in the gas! text Gilles Toussaint

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When it quietly approved three energy companies to prospect French territory in the hope of finding new deposits of "grey gold", the government of Nicolas cannot have been thinking clearly. A total of some 15,000 km² were open to exploration, including part of the Parc des Cevennes, townships in the Ardeche region and the Larzac Plateau. Larzac! Such a beautiful rural landscape - host to the anti-globalisation movement and the birthplace of JosÊ BovÊ. This is provocationpure and simple. The objective of this search is shale gas. This is the new Holy Grail of fossil fuel prospection - the bugbear of environmental campaigners. To recover gas trapped in layers of shale, engineers use a technique known as "hydraulic fracturing". A horizontal well is created to reach the target area, located some 2000 to 3000 metres in depth. A huge quantity of water containing a cocktail of chemicals and sand is then injected at high pressure to break the rock. The gas can then escape through the fissures held open by grains of sand. Although a straightforward process on paper, in reality the principle is very difficult to implement. To understand the high emotions that this topic has aroused, we just need to look at the experience on the other side of the Atlantic. A marginal concern just a decade ago, the exploitation of shale gas skyrocketed in 2008, to the point that this "unconventional" resource now provides half the gas consumed in the United States. Dwindling reserves of conventional gas and the prospect of soaring prices in North America have boosted the interest of investors in this potentially lucrative niche. This development was facilitated by the preferential treatment granted by the former Bush administration, which has exempted the industry from a series of environmental measures set out in water protection laws. The fact that former Vice-President Dick Cheney was the head of the Halliburton energy company in a previous life is obviously just a coincidence. This "miracle" hides a dark side recently exposed by a shocking documentary. In "Gasland," director Josh Fox went out with his video camera to meet the unsuspecting victims of this energy frenzy, gathering a variety of accounts from residents


bemoaning the disastrous consequences of the extraction process employed. The image of a stream of tap water that ignites when a cigarette lighter is held near it has become a talking point. Criticism has mounted as the months have gone by. A study conducted by a professor from Cornell University concluded that the overall CO2 cost of shale gas would be worse than coal. And to add insult to injury, the industry is praising the cleanliness of this energy! Above all, water is at the heart of this new ecological battleground: 10 to 20 million litres are transported by tanker trucks for each well. And they are quickly depleted. Drilling has to be repeated a few hundred metres further away. Some people also point to the additional hurdle for shale gas which is the emergence of renewable energy. A few weeks ago, the New York Times entered its voice into the debate by posting more than 30,000 pages of secret reports from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the public authorities and the gas industry. These show that the environmental and health impacts are even more disastrous than was previously thought. Public health issues relating to water and air pollution have been observed in at least a dozen U.S. states, while in 2010 asthma was identified in 25% of small children in six Texas counties - more than three times the average level for people in that State. For the first time in its history, Wyoming was unable to meet the air quality standards due to toluene and benzene emissions (carcinogenic chemicals) released from the wells. It also appears that the gas has seeped into several water tables in Colorado, Ohio, Texas, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. And the rotten cherry on the cake is that a number of studies highlight concerns about the impact of fracture fluid on the quality of drinking water. Part of it is actually pumped during the gas extraction phase. Besides the soup of chemicals it contains (although this represents less than 1% of the total volume), this mixture is loaded with various salts and toxic impurities as it passes into the well, and also radioactive elements with rates that may lie well above legal standards. A number of reports show that this mixture regularly finishes up in unsuitable

treatment plants before being discharged into rivers, where water is pumped to feed into the drinking water system. With warning signs growing, Congress instructed the EPA to investigate. This body has been conducting work over several months and is expected to deliver its findings by the end of 2012. According to experts, global reserves of shale gas could represent one to two times the conventional natural gas reserves. These figures should, however, be taken with a pinch of salt, given the strong uncertainty about the quantities that are actually usable. Whatever happens, it is hardly surprising to see many countries won over by shale fever. This is especially true given that U.S. companies, with their technical expertise in extracting, seeking to position themselves in foreign markets. Canada has quickly followed the example of its more powerful neighbours. China hopes to find in this resource some relief from their current energy concerns. And Europe hasn't escaped this craze: exploratory projects are underway in several Member States, while a consortium of major energy companies has launched a study detailing European potential in this area. But coming back to JosĂŠ BovĂŠ: Denouncing the lack of transparency that surrounds this issue, the Green MEP called for mobilisation. Although his call for the establishment of a moratorium has not yet been heard by his EU colleagues, he has created a stir in France. In the face of rising protests in the regions concerned, the French government has temporarily suspended exploration work in order to conduct an impact study whose findings should be revealed in June. Meanwhile, resistance is being organised. Several opposing demonstrations have been held and 80 MPs and senators from all political persuasions have expressed their opposition to these projects. Given the stakes, the stand-off is far from won. The Energy Minister, Eric Besson, has said that France has not closed the door on this resource. The question is whether, as argued by its proponents, shale gas could be exploited under environmentally and socially acceptable conditions while remaining economically competitive, or whether this "gas bubble" is set to implode. "Drill Baby, Drill!" The risk is that the new Eldorado could end up as Waterloo. â– 

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prospects

how much should we leave in the ground? text George Monbiot

The two papers on carbon emissions published in Nature last week were ground-breaking: they show us how much carbon dioxide we can produce if we’re to have a reasonable chance of preventing two degrees of global warming. It’s a completely different approach from the UN’s and national governments’. They set targets for reductions by a certain date but have nothing to say about the total amount of carbon we can release. One of the papers, by Myles Allen and others1, suggests that we can burn, at most, another 400-500 billion tonnes of carbon at any time between now and the extinction of humanity if we want to avoid two degrees of warming. The other, by Malte Meinshausen and others2, suggests that producing 1000 billion tonnes of CO2 between 2000-2050 would give us a 25% chance of exceeding two degrees. That’s a lot less than Allen’s estimate, as one tonne of carbon produces 3.667 tonnes of CO2 when it’s burnt : 1000 billion tonnes of CO2 arises from 273 billion tonnes of carbon. But let’s err on the side of valour and use Allen’s figures. Moreover, let’s disregard all other greenhouse gases (which, he suggests, should reduce the total CO2 budget to under 400 billion tonnes). How does his maximum allowance of carbon compare with known reserves of fossil fuel? Let me make two things clear before I make this calculation. First, reserves are not the same as resources. A resource is the total amount of a mineral found in the earth’s crust. A reserve is the part of the resource which has been identified, quantified and is cost-effective to exploit. In most cases this is likely to be a small percentage of the total resource.

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Secondly, there is some controversy over the official figures for fossil fuel reserves. This is especially the case for oil, as the members of OPEC are extremely secretive about how much they possess. But for the sake of argument, let’s take them at face value. According to the World Energy Council: • global reserves of coal amount to 848 billion tonnes3 • global reserves of natural gas are 177,000 billion cubic metres 4 • global reserves of crude oil are 162 billion tonnes5 Because the calculations are much harder and the quantities involved less certain, I am ignoring unconventional sources of fossil fuel, such as tar sands, oil shales, bitumens and methane hydrates, as well as liquid natural gas resources. On average, one tonne of coal contains 746 kg carbon6 One cubic metre of natural gas contains 0.49 kg carbon7 The figure for oil is less certain, because not all of its refinery products are burnt. But the rough calculation here8 suggests that the use of a barrel of oil releases 317kg of CO2. Depending on the density of the oil, there are roughly 7 barrels to the tonne, giving an approximation of 2219kg CO2, or 605kg of carbon. So the carbon content of official known reserves of coal, gas and oil amounts to: + [ 848 x 0.746 = 633 ] + [ 177,000 x 0.00049 = 87 ] + [ 162 x 0.605 = 98 ] Total conventional fossil fuel reserves therefore contain 818 billion tonnes of carbon.


Even ignoring all unconventional sources and all other greenhouse gases and taking the most optimistic of the figures in the two Nature papers, we can afford to burn only 61% of known fossil fuel reserves between now and eternity. Or, using Meinshausen’s figure, we can burn only 33% between now and 2050. Sorry – 33% minus however much we have burnt between 2000 and today. So the question which arises is this : which fossil fuel reserves will we decide not to extract and burn? There is, as I have argued before9, no point in seeking to reduce our consumption of fossil fuels unless we also seek to reduce their production. Yet, apart from the members of OPEC (who do it only to shore up the price), no government is attempting to limit the amount of fuel extracted. Far from it; they all pursue the same strategy as the United Kingdom: to “maximise economic recovery”10. The test of all governments’ commitment to stopping climate breakdown is this: whether they are prepared to impose a limit on the use of the reserves already discovered, and a permanent moratorium on prospecting for new reserves. Otherwise it’s all hot air. ■ Note of B. Deprez : Yasuni Ecuador created the Yasuni National Park in 1979 - made a World Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1989, considering it one of the richest sites for biodiversity worldwide, with 2274 species of trees (644 per hectare), 1600 species of birds, 4000 orchids, 100,000 insect species, 150 amphibians, etc. spread over 982,000 hectares. "On a single hectare, the reserve has

more plant species than all of North America combined." Beneath this reserve, however, lies the biggest oilfield ever operated in the region, and extraction projects currently threaten the Yasuni park, and more broadly, Ecuador - a country with the highest rate of deforestation on the South American continent. In 2008, the government proposed to waive 20% of the oil gain - specifically halting exploitation on the Yasuni reserves, amounting to 850 million barrels of oil - provided the international community symbolically redeems the unpumped oil. In 2010, Ecuador established a fund to manage this scheme, an initiative for which the UN, Germany, Belgium, the European Union, Italy and Spain have pledged support support that is slow to materialize, putting the government of Ecuador in a more than uncomfortable position. Will it protect the forests and its indigenous population, or will it buckle under the combined pressure of the oil companies and the indifferent oil-guzzling nations? 1. www.nature.com/nature/journal/v458/n7242/full/nature08019.html 2. www.nature.com/nature/journal/v458/n7242/full/nature08017.html 3.www.worldenergy.org/publications/survey_of_energy_resources_2007/ coal/627.asp 4. www.worldenergy.org/publications/survey_of_energy_resources_2007/ natural_gas/664.asp 5. www.worldenergy.org/publications/survey_of_energy_resources_2007/ crude_oil_and_natural_gas_liquids/638.asp 6. http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/energy_conv.html 7. http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/energy_conv.html 8. http://numero57.net/?p=255 9. www.monbiot.com/archives/2007/12/11/rigged 10. www.berr.gov.uk/files/file39387.pdf * Published with permission of the author, www.monbiot.com. First published in The Guardian, 6 May 2009. . special be.passive 07 be.passive issue 01

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interview

interview: Evelyne Huytebroeck Government Minister for the Brussels-Capital Region in charge of the Environment, Energy and Urban Renewal.

On 3 March 2011, the Brussels-Capital Region passed an order amending the decree of 21 December 2007 establishing the requirements and methodology for energy performance in buildings. The content of this draft order aims at immediately setting the passive requirements for 2015 and modifying some of the shortcomings related to the method of calculating the PEB. Regarding passive, Article 5a provides that from 1 January 2015, individual PEB dwelling units will present: • a net heating requirement of less than 15 kWh/m² per year; • a primary energy consumption for heating, hot water and electrical accessories of less than 45 kWh/m² year; • an air-tightness under 50 Pa less than 0.6 renewal per hour; • an overheating percentage beyond 25°C less than or equal to 5% for the time of year. Furthermore, Article 6a provides that from 1 January 2015, PEB Offices and Services units and PEB Education units will

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present: • a net heating requirement of less than 15 kWh/m² per year; • a net cooling requirement of less than 15 kWh/m² per year; • a total primary energy consumption less than [90 2.5*C] kWh/m² per year. Definitions have been made of the compactness, i.e. the ratio between the protected volume and surface leakage [m³/m²]; • an air-tightness under 50 Pa less than 0.6 renewal per hour; • an overheating percentage beyond 25°C less than or equal to 5% of the time of occupation. The objective is already to give a clear signal to developers, architects and design firms for buildings whose application for planning permission will be submitted after 31 December 2014. Furthermore, the Brussels-Capital Region has launched its 4th Call for Exemplary Buildings. Applications must be submitted no later than Thursday, 30 June 2011 at 1pm, with the Brussels Environment Division, Sustainable City, Energy and Climate, Exemplary Buildings Department.


be.passive : Belgium has a reputation for lagging behind in terms of energy performance. Is it possible to say that Brussels is trying to catch up? Evelyne Huytebroek : "The last shall be first. This 2000 year-old sentence perfectly encapsulates the energy policy in the Brussels Region. Although we had the most poorly insulated homes in Europe in 2004, all new construction will have to comply with the passive standard by 2015 - which will enable people to consume ten times less energy than they would use for heating a "traditional" new home. Approved at the 2nd reading by the Government on 3 March 2011, this new requirement makes Brussels a world leader in terms of energy performance. The Recast Directive on energy performance approved in April 2010 states that all Member States should impose such a standard for new construction, but only from 2021. So Brussels is ahead of its time by six years!

This huge step was made possible by all the experience accumulated in Brussels since the previous legislature: the energy premium for passive buildings and the three editions of the Call for Exemplary Buildings are helping make more than 100,000m² of passive buildings - homes, offices, schools, nurseries, a funeral home and more. These firm achievements have demonstrated that it was possible, accessible and affordable. This is also why social and public landlords (Housing Corporations of the Brussels Region, the Development Corporation for the Brussels Region and the Housing Fund) have decided that all new housing projects will be passive in 2010 in Brussels. All these passive buildings place Brussels in the Top 5 European passive cities. Given the prospect of dwindling energy resources and the continued rise in energy prices, it is important to take the political steps necessary for the people of Brussels and Brussels itself to continue to live comfortably in "almost zero energy" homes.

be.passive : The passive standard in 2015 will only relate to new buildings. What do you see for the renovation sector? How can we introduce best practices in existing buildings? Evelyne Huytebroek : Although it is now fairly easy to reach the passive standard for new construction, we cannot say the same for major renovations. Resolving thermal bridges and ensuring good weatherproofing during renovation work are often insoluble puzzles. Imposing the passive standard for major renovation work is therefore not on the agenda. However, it is possible to reach a low energy level (consumption divided by 2.5) or even a very low level of energy (consumption divided by 5). The energy premiums that the Calls for Exemplary Buildings are helping to make it a reality that more than 200,000m² of buildings are low to very low

energy. Nevertheless, further study opportunities to achieve performance levels for different types of renovation will be launched. The results will help to find the optimum setting within the energy performance of buildings which undergo major renovations. There is still the field of simple renovations - the improvement of energy performance for buildings on an ad hoc basis, such as replacing the frame, roof insulation or replacing the boiler. Simple renovation has received a significant boost in Brussels thanks to prizes for renovation grants and green social loans for example. Not to mention social awareness and training - free support for anyone who asks, the Energy Challenge for households, the local action plan for energy management in townships, hospitals and schools. Existing buildings in Brussels actually represents the largest potential for improving energy efficiency. This is why this has been, and will remain, the focal point of attention of energy policy in Brussels.

be.passive : What has the impact been of all these measures on the cost of construction and renovation? Evelyne Huytebroek : The 100,000m² of passive buildings (built or under construction) in Brussels show that the overhead for passive construction is negligible (5 to 10%) and can be quickly recovered by reducing the heating bill (by

90 %). Furthermore, this additional cost, following the experience of the construction sector, is moving towards zero. So I will not be surprised if by 2015, with the emergence of new technologies and new products, a new passive building is no more expensive than a "traditional" building.

be.passive : What is the training situation in companies? Evelyne Huytebroek : Having boosted demand with all these initiatives, we then need to look to upgrade the provision of passive construction. The training of stakeholders in sustainable construction is the focus of the Employment-Environment Alliance, which was signed by the Brussels

government and 50 public and private partners at the Batibouw Fair on 25 February 2011. This Alliance includes 44 initiatives, the cost of which is estimated at €5.5 million, to be launched in 2011. Training in "passive design/ low energy" - to be held in May-June 2011 by Bruxelles Environnement will allow both designers and Project Owners to familiarise themselves with these concepts. ■

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Mr. Bastin, you were named as the first Master Architect ("Bouwmeester" in Dutch) of the Brussels-Capital Region last November and you have been appointed for five years. What does a Master Architect do and how is this function organised, specifically? The Master Architect is a function that ensures the architectural quality of institutional projects initiated by regional institutions, both in terms of procedures and results. It has nothing to do with either council works or private projects. I see there is already excellent work going on in Brussels: the district contracts, the work of the IBGE, the Beliris agreements, for example. . What can a Master Architect bring to the table? I see my role as a centrepoint and a catalyst for new projects. A general reading and coordination of all works will also strengthen the image of Brussels to the outside world. It is sometimes useful to describe a function by that which it is not: the Master Architect is neither a regulator nor someone who imposes his vision of architecture! In the Brussels-Capital Region, the Master Architect is a function created and funded by five ministers: Charles PiquĂŠ (Minister President), Brigitte Grouwels (Public Works), Christophe Doulkeridis (Housing), Emir Kir (Planning and Public Property) and Evelyne Huytebroeck (Environment, Energy and Urban Renewal). My main partner is the Minister President, but it is a sign of our success to also have such a commitment from other ministers. Initially, I can build a team of five people around me, mainly recruited from regional administrative bodies. We will spend the next six months reflecting on our vision and we will present a report on this subject at the end of the first half of 2010. Is it a purely symbolic position? It's more than that. The power comes from the legitimacy granted by the five ministers who fund this function from their own budget, in particularly difficult economic times. A Passive Brussels in 2015 ... What does this mean to you? The way that you phrase the question sounds something like a dream - Brussels has too much property to become passive in 2015! But dreams or motivational driving forces. What seems most important to me is to diversify the objectives within the parameters (climate, renovation versus new, etc).

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interview


"A lot of people will have to learn to work differently and work better..."

interview

meet Olivier Bastin Master Architect / Bouwmeester Brussels Region text

Edith Coune

In this case, I see the concept of passive as new information with which architects must learn to juggle. Architects must adapt to new challenges and it takes time. For now, most do their own thing and only a few have already mastered the technique. Before they play a symphony together, they will need plenty of time to practice. How can we speed up the process? Through training? The offer of training exists - we simply need to find our way through the plethora of information around this subject. I don't believe everyone needs to be trained, or at least not everyone needs the same level of training. I lean towards the contribution of support from specialists in each project, where necessary, for example in the physics of building. This help can be either private or organised in groups, as appropriate. Will the changing requirements for energy performance in buildings influence the beauty of architecture? I am not prepared to comment on beauty in architecture! Will changing requirements for energy performance in buildings influence the urban landscape? Yes, certainly. To my mind, the urban landscape is not a single photo image, but rather an image in perpetual motion. And it is my role as Master Architect to help to accept this idea of constant change - of the constant evolution of a city. Will sustainable development and the provision of multidisciplinary urban planners, architects, landscape for example,.stimulate the transformation of the city landscape. Allow me say that as Master Architect, one of my priorities for the sustainable city will relate to the quality of procedures and quality of work. Some existing procedures are very poorly designed and work needs to be done alleviate working circumstances. Many people will have to learn to work differently and to work better. â–  interview

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what do you think? text

Lili Julien

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photo

Christophe Urbain

what do you think ?


Alex De Broe & Barbara Oelbrandt Asse Detached passive house Architect : Blaf www.blaf.be You opted to build and live in a passive house... "We decided to take plenty of time to design the house of our dreams: that of an architect, a specialist in wind energy and their three children. Secondly, we consulted the passive house platform to see if it was possible to make it passive. Our main wish was to have a very transparent and very clear house. We designed large windows. From there, it was not difficult to make the house passive. We made the bay windows south-facing to make them a sun trap. Consequently, the essential triple glazing became the largest item on the budget for this project. Overheating is avoided using mobile textile screens which block 90% of the heat, without obscuring the view. Our future plans include installing a large solar panel system over our roof area to make us selfsufficient with regards to the whole family's energy consumption. We also have plans to be driving an electric car, which would also charge up on this system." â– 

what do you think ?

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a finger and the moon

missionary

text Bernard Deprez

A book whose author was speaking on the radio two weeks before the earthquake in Japan, will certainly end his career prematurely. It was entitled: "Fear is beyond our means: Finishing with the principle of precaution"1. A Professor of Economics, the author aggressively spoke against the "preachers of the Apocalypse" who exaggerate and hamper innovation. This kind of book will be really difficult to sell after Fukushima. For a number of years now, some enlightened folk - such as the PMP and the PHP - have been reiterating that everyone has to reduce their dependence on oil. This became obvious in 2008, when oil prices reached $145 per barrel - mere months after they had dropped to $65. Today standing at $107 ($117.36 for Brent), this still represents an increase of more than 65% over five years! This sounds like a massive increase to me, especially when conventional scenarios (to calculate the return time for a passive house, for example) are based on an evolution

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considered "pessimistic" of 5% per year. In summary: It seems increasingly clear that the cards we are dealt with do not cater well for our actual situation.. Our minds are still mired in what they think they know and claim to control. Our faith in technology is reiterated at every opportunity. "When the sage points to the moon, the fool looks at the finger." Today it seems that we don't even have to point so far. We don't need apocalyptic preaching when the reality goes beyond all fiction. And there is no need to scare everyone to show that the world is changing, day after day. We want this world to be more sustainable. What can that mean? Suppose first that it is possible to draft a response from different perspectives. Like any living organism, man is biologically preconfigured to preserve his own existence - his "information-structure" in the words of Henri Laborit. Like any living organism, he can only do this as part of an adapted ecosystem, in which he regularly draws nutrients and energy. From this point of view, what insiders call the "environmental pillar" or "Planet pillar" (in which humans logically recognise themselves as a living species), sustainability is to ensure the conditions necessary for the self-replication of living systems, from single-celled organisms to major ecosystems. It is the automatic aspect that is important: human society is unable to empty or fill the oceans - in short, to make it rain. These free environmental services are irreplaceable. Combined with their organic dimension, humans are social animals, capable of language. They live in the symbolic realm, which structures their representations, their means of action, their place in society and giving them an appreciation of ethics2. All this knowledge, these tools, these ethnic features and values buzz around like a running commentary on the "natural" world. The challenge here is to live alongside one another, in good company. This is, again to insiders, the "social pillar" or "People pillar": sustainability aims to guarantee conditions for a fair life for all. There are, of course, many different opposing views: Romain Felli3 contrasts the "ascending" vision of political ecology to a "descendant" vision of "sustainable development" which is an attempt at a productivist economy to maintain life through certain technical corrections. But conversely, conservative Americans have always treated Ms. Brundtland, the spokesperson for "sustainable development" as a "communist". Depending on whether you are rich or poor, it will always be a political issue - the social distribution of profits and costs, including environmental, climate change and economic insecurity creating tensions, leading to social and territorial divisions between nations and at the heart of a city. However, biological life is a constant flow of nutrients and energy. Humans, especially, draw the resources they socially consider necessary through knowledge and tools, and as required by their lifestyles and the desires that they allow themselves. This is the field of economics, in the original meaning of the word, of providing for daily needs. Prosperity,

or economic sustainability, therefore consists of ensuring the reproduction of means of action for society on its environment, through the development of working capacity, tools and respect for a third term: raw materials (resources, ecological processes, etc.) This is also known as the real economy. The economic pillar, therefore, does not directly relate to "corporate profit" (which is just a means of economic action) nor the "financial benefit" (which is only a means of the means), but rather prosperity in the broadest sense of the word. Good architecture is produced through social and environmental and social prosperity, even if it does not necessarily enrich its creator or its users. It is fundamentally an economic act. Environmental and social sustainability therefore makes sense through this economic cycle, which is clearly symbolic from any angle you look at it, with shared technical knowledge, values and social purpose. In my opinion, we need to challenge the famous "three pillars" that provide an equivalent position to the natural, the social and the economic, as if the economy were a substance in itself. This drift is due to the new weight of economic resources in the West - the large corporations which, by influencing the evolution of law5, have become true subjects, actors, and thus ends in themselves. More and more resources are devoted not to the living and future generations, but to enhance the tools and devices that regulate our private consumption ... and our desires. Material and energy flows are redirected to a monstrous aneurysm, which diverts all the riches of the world to itself in a form of unbridled enjoyment, perhaps a form of art - self-referential, an economic action, but which is deployed beyond the realms of its own rationality. I am convinced that it was an architect who, for the first time in 1485, unfolded the map of sustainability. He was called Alberti. He called "necessities" everything related to the given, to the natural, and he called "commodities" everything that was symbolic, of use, representation, functionality. His books speak almost entirely about how to settle one with another through knowledge and technology - economics. And he saw that the sustainability - symbolism relationship (or the necessitas and commoditas relationship, in fact) only produced architecture when producing enjoyment - voluptas. Claiming one's share of the control over material and energy flows, with regard to architecture, is therefore an inherently political and subversive act. Claiming one's share of architectural enjoyment is no less so. ■ 1. Jean de Kervasdoué 2. Jean Gagnepain, Leçons d’introduction à la théorie de la médiation, Peeters, Louvain-La-Neuve, 1994. 3. Romain Felli, Les deux âmes de l'écologie - Une critique du développement durable, L’Harmattan, 2008. 4. Peter Jacques; Riley Dunlap; Mark Freeman, 2008. The Organisation of Denial: Conservative Think Tanks and Environmental Scepticism. Environmental Politics, 17:3, 349-385. DOI: 10.1080/09644010802055576. 5. Thom Hartmann, Unequal Protection : The Rise of Corporate Dominance and the Theft of Human Rights, Mythical Research Inc., 2002.

missionary

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pictures speak


pictures speak Annie van Gemert "Uniformity"

www. annievangemert.com pictures speak

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text

Edith Coune

My dear niece, I have a story to tell you. It's not a very classy one, but I can still laugh at it. Yesterday, I had coffee with my neighbour while his son Jean was visiting. Maybe you remember him. You were at school together. He works in a construction company now, but the name escapes me. As you can imagine, we were talking about passive construction. I must say he seemed pretty impressed with my knowledge. His company is just embarking in the passive field, but of course that hasn't always been the case. He told me that some years ago, when they talked about passive design, they said something like: Ah yes, passive design! You do one fart and it stays hot for three months (I warned you: this is not a very refined story, but it's great, don't you think?)

I was wondering, though. Aren't people who live in passive houses too hot in July? It's well above 30째, and I couldn't keep cool at night. How does it work in a passive house? Is it worse or better? Tell me about it - I'm starting to be known as a specialist in passive living in the quarter and I'm banking on you to stay that way. Aunt Monica

Dear aunt, Your sense of humour is definitely not getting better with age! But basically, you asked an excellent question. The so-called limitation of overheating has been identified as a quality criteria in passive design, in addition to insulation and air-tightness. Because heat inputs are stored ion a passive house, we need to restrict them during heatwaves, like the one we experienced in July. This can be done through the building's thermal inertia, its orientation and the size of the windows, by setting up a sun visor ... and of course (everything often has to be at once) by the night-time ventilation, which has the attractive name of 'night cooling' (I'm telling you that so you can impress your friends). Anyway, we need to think about the project design. This is essential. Getting back to the incredible week of 3-10 July 2010, the Passive House Platform interviewed residents from a number of passive houses in Belgium on how they got through the heat wave. I will send you a summary if you want, but basically, there were no major problems! Nobody was as hot as you in your old traditional house, and the overwhelming majority considered themselves lucky to live in a passive house, with temperatures ranging between 24 and 27 degrees while the outside temperature didn't drop below 28 at night. The most extreme temperatures (29 째 -30 째) were found among people who were on holiday and were not there to ventilate at night, or indeed to suffer the heat. Another test for passive housing passed with flying colours! Yours faithfully, Your niece

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aunt monica


Now that we live in a passive house, we've had to throw out a lot of things that have become obsolete. We were tempted to keep them, just for their decorative or sentimental value, but hey, we must learn to let things go once they have outlived their usefulness. And it can make people happy and auction - there's no such thing as a small profit bringing in enough to pay the heating bill for several decades ...

for sale carte blanche

for sale text and photos GĂŠrard Bedoret

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> The draft excluder

Farewell little sausage thing, you did your job well. With you we felt less lonely, but the thing is: there are no longer any drafts, and your continued existence is happily at an end in a passive house.

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> Slippers

Another little companion to drop by the wayside: the hot water bottle. Icy sheets and feet that go with them are from another life, before the passive house. For those for whom it became like a soft toy or for people who like the gurgling of the warm water in the bed on a frozen morning, it's true that it might hurt to leave this one alone.

The ultimate sexy accessory, the furry slipper may join the list of endangered species in the passive age. OK: this is a sometimes torrid form of seduction in which many households find a constant source of inspiration, but we'll just have to find something else to keep the flames of passion burning*.

* be.passive suggestions available on request.

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> The hot water bottle

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> Fly traps

This hungry little dangling mobile that created an atmosphere of Provence in the house no longer looks the same without the delicate winged creatures who were dying for long hours, agitatedly buzzing in their comical convulsions. Now that the dual flow ventilation enables us (if we so desire) to keep the windows closed, the bugs will lay their eggs outside, well away from our food. Flyswatters could perhaps be kept to take pizzas out of the oven, for example.

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> Deodorizer

Okay, it had its charm - the fragrance of minty pine needles that filled the air in the home with the determination of a weapon of mass odour destruction. But now that's changed. In a house with double-flow ventilation, there aren't many odours left to destroy. So will chemical fragrances find some other way to wreak havoc on our bodies?

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> Earplugs

Aeroplanes, pneumatic drills, trams, dogs, students, drunks, mopeds, chainsaws, lawnmowers, no outside noises can get through the triple glazing of a passive house. No more need for earplugs! Unless, whoever you have replaced your hot water bottle with snores, of course!

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> Radiators

Yes, radiators - we'll have to get used to their absence. That's going to be weird. I know some people who find it a scary prospect. Radiators were considered part of the furniture - they brought such a...a... metallic touch. We can certainly fill the void they leave in a passive house by replacing them with other decorative objects such as anvils, suitcases, vacuum cleaners, lawnmowers, ... *.

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> Cooker hoods

True, a cooker hood, is beautiful. Beautiful like a truck. So do not hesitate to put one in a passive house, even if there's nothing to hook it up to. Do it just for the look, because a kitchen without a hood is a bit like a house without a radiator - it's just weird. So unless you tend to cook Brussel sprouts with grilled sardines for every meal, I think we can pass on hoods in the passive house, thanks to ventilation. For anyone who loves the sound of the hood because it covers over the sound of aircraft, please refer to "Earplugs" above. For those who like the sound of the hood because "it feels good when it stops," - well they'll have to find something else*.

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> Hoods (2)

True, a hood is beautiful like a truck. Obviously, a passive house has no chimney. This may pose a problem for children who have been good all year and are waiting for Santa to arrive. However, my recent contacts with Santa suggest that he has already found an alternative ... â– 

* be.passive suggestions available on request.

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text

Marta Di Vincenzo

photos

Julie Willem, Architectes AssociĂŠs

shared architecture

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Aeropolis II Avenue Urbain Britsiers 5 1030 Brussels Belgium Client Groep Arco - KWB - KAV - KAJ Architect Architectes Associés

www.architectesassocies.be

Energy consultant Cenergie www.cenergie.be

Service engineering Ingenieursbureau Stockman www.istockman.be

Contractors Jacques Delens

www.jacquesdelens.be

Stability Setesco

The trapezoid construction is built around a central courtyard - a true "heart of light" to ensure the best possible levels of light on office floors.

Vanderstraeten

www.setesco.be

www.vanderstraeten.be

Aeropolis II, the largest commercial passive building in Belgium to date, brushes aside a great many misconceptions people have about passive construction. No, "passive" does not necessarily mean wood or brick and it is not reserved for small buildings. The passive standard does not limit the architect's freedom of expression. But achieving convincing results requires hard work, flexibility and collaboration with technicians. Sabine Leribaux, from Architectes Associés, tells us about her work. Winner of a competition launched in 2006, an original project by Architectes Associés for the Aeropolis II offices in Schaerbeek was very different from what is in place today. Originally designed as a compact volume with a concrete structure with a brick outer layer, it includes sustainability criteria, although without achieving the passive standard. "When we won the competition for Aéropolis" recalls Leribaux, "we had just been experimenting with sustainable construction techniques on another project. Our experience with that made us want to tackle new projects with a generally green approach. We therefore decided to assess passive design costs to offer this choice to our client." According to the comparative energy analysis developed alongside Cenergie CVBA, the project's technical consultant, the passive standard would require a surcharge of 2% to 4%, which would pay for themselves over five years. Huis van de Arbeid ASBL, 70% of which is made up by the ARCO group (Dexia shareholder and investor in renewable

Ground floor 1 entry 2 courtyard 3 offices 4 bathrooms Upper floors 5 offices 6 bathrooms 7 under-atrium space 1

Ground floor

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N

General layout energy), is a project client and indeed the future occupant of the building. They took up the challenge. They expressed their willingness to replace the brick layer with glass. But is it possible to construct a passive building with glass? "The curtain wall is, by definition, the most airtight option," agree the architects, "and a glass office building probably falls more in line with my architectural culture," adds Leribaux. This was therefore the beginning of a whole new experience that brought the Belgometal consultancy into the fold - a member of the Kyotec group. The first technical proposal, a double skin Regli, would have risked creating a type of greenhouse around the building. We therefore turned to something more innovative, which provides a layer of white glass enamel superimposed on a plate and framed by an anodized aluminium glazing bead: an good-looking solution, interesting to consider but with dreadful thermal performance. Only by introducing the vents on the side of the glazing beads did we finally manage to achieve the desired result. By combining the thin outer layer of aluminium with a wooden support structure filled with insulation, Architectes Associés created a passive curtain wall with limited environmental impact. Inside, a perforated multiplex panel backed with 2cm of rock wool resolves the acoustic balance. Airtightness is further secured through the use of a membrane positioned between the rock wool insulation panels (Resol, 15cm), as well as plastic elements inserted in the grooves of the wooden frames. A fibre-cement plate, covered by 5cm of Resol, closes up the wooden structure. Sheet metal and glass is attached to this framework, with an element crossing through the last layer of insulation. This skin comes in three façade modules: an opaque 90cm element, a fixed 90cm window and a module made up of a partially opening window and an opaque 30cm element. "It was essential to find inexpensive methods to liven up the façade. We had a certain amount of freedom in this part of the job, while sticking with prefab", said Leribaux. Arranged according to a method that architect Marc Lacour defined ►

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Upper floors shared architecture

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Facade Avenue Urbain Britsiers

as "randomized control", these three modules completely cover the six-storey building. The mixed element, with its protruding profiles (to hold the window opening behind the blind), add a relief to the façades. The white enamel glass with full modules bound to the plate provides a certain depth to the surface of the building and adds a shimmering effect to the pearlescent grey skin: this compact and opaque 70% covering thereby becomes clear and bright. The module layout has been designed to ensure that a good level of natural daylight can enter offices, while allowing a flexible use of space. The office-type provides the combination of three different 90cm façade elements, for a total glazed surface area equal to just 22% of the floor surface area. The technical facilities required for air conditioning and lighting are designed in such a way that the open-plan area can be divided by a 270cm space partition without modifying the techniques used. The regularity of the trapezoid plan, built around a central courtyard, and the simplicity of the concrete structure provide great freedom for the the use and adaptation of space.

Facade details

The distribution of full and empty spaces on the façade and the organisation of the plan also meet thermal requirements. "In an office building, internal loads (lighting, office, occupation) are very high. [...] The cold strategy is more important given the usual electricity consumption for air conditioning", explains the consulting engineer Lionel Wauters, from Cenergie. The offices are mainly north-facing, where the façade is generally glazed, while the southern section, which is more exposed to the sun and therefore the most enclosed, is partially occupied services blocks and vertical openings. With an extremely effective thermal insulation and airtight curtain wall (n50 = 0.49 vol/h), the net energy requirement for heating is limited to 8 kWh/m² per year and the 7300m² building is heated only through sanitary ventilation. In winter, a Canadian well provides warm air, which is introduced into the premises through a floor radiant piping grid. A wheel ►

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Section

Lobby A subtle wrinkle of the "skin" allows access to the building. Sketch, 3D model and the finished product.

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6 5 1

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Modular faรงade detail 1. anodized aluminium 2. shiny aluminium pressed and perforated sheet white translucent glass 3. rock wool 4. Resol 5. fire break 6. profiled wood 7. Multiplex perforated panel

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heat reclaimer keeps the heat from foul air sucked in through the ceiling grids. Given the very limited loss of heat, a 140 kW gas boiler is enough to ensure a comfortable 20°C in winter throughout the building. To ensure a similar level of thermal comfort during the summer months, an automatic sunlight control system is provided through the use of external blinds. During the summer, the Canadian well provides air cooling from 5 to 10°C, as well as a dehumidifier effect. In addition, a night-cooling system cools the premises and the concrete structure during the hours of darkness through the automatic opening of windows and forced extraction of air in the roof.

Sabine Leribaux , architect director of Architectes Associés "As architects, we are all in the habit of drawing techniques for our buildings in a certain way. But with passive design, that doesn't work. The issues today are more complex, and solutions have to be well thought out. And you can't design that in just one day."

"In 2007, Aeropolis was named an 'Exemplary Building' by the IBGE, not only because it is passive," says Sabine Leribaux, "but because it is passive and reproducible." Architectes Associés is currently looking into how to use the same construction model for a new project developed using the Breeam method. This façade specialist has also been solicited by other architects. The costs involved are certainly not the same as those of the Brussels tertiary building market. In spite of the extra construction costs, the client managed to build Aéropolis II for €1300/m². But examples of projects such as this, highly positive in terms of architectural quality, energy savings and comfort, mean that investors will probably focus on quality. Companies will look to invest in training, and designers will offer innovative architectural solutions to match these new technical challenges. ►

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Aéropolis II plays its own role in the 2010 heatwave

On 14 July 2010, right in the middle of a heat wave, Brussels Minister Evelyne Huytebroeck wanted to check with representatives of the DG Energy from the European Commission whether a large passive office building without an active air-conditioning system ("cold unit") could provide a comfortable working temperature for employees. And the result came as a surprise. It was a cool 24°C inside the Aéropolis II building, while outside temperatures rose to 31°C. This feat was made possible through an ingenious passive cooling system: advanced insulation that prevents the transfer of heat into the wall from the outside to the inside, a sunscreen that prevents direct sunlight from entering through windows, a night-cooling system that promotes the inertia of the building (visible concrete ceiling) to cool the building during the hours of darkness, and a Canadian well which cools the building by a few degrees during the daytime. This achievement translates into substantial savings in electricity for cooling. Instead of using around 27 kWh of electricity to cool 1m² over the course of a year through the use of a "traditional" air conditioning system, Aéropolis II consumes scarcely 2 kWh of electricity for ventilation (night-cooling and Canadian well) - 13 times less! A five-year monitoring plan is underway for this building, the 2008 winning "Exemplary Building". Confirmation of the initial results will be available in a few months.■ Triple glazing Air tighness Insulation

High-performance lighting + control by interior sensors

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ventilation parking heat exchanger wheel

canadian well

Thermal mass Radiating surface Blinds and openings control (separate)

Slat blinds adjusted automatically

ventilation parking

Slab cooling

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Optimisation of solar gain

summer day passive air conditioning

Floor surface area 7 388 m² Net heating energy requirement (phpp): 8 kWh/m².year K level 14 EPB level 50 Compactness 3.76m Air tightness n50 = 0.49 h-1 U of walls and windows wall: 0.09 à 0.14 W/m².K floor: 0.15 W/m².K roof: 0.15 W/m².K Uf : 1.5 W/m²K Ug: 0.6 W/m²K Systems Dbl ventilation flow Canadian well: 4 x 40m (tube diameter 70cm) Costs €11,500,000 excl. VAT, excluding fees Or €1315/m² (basement at 50%) Architects: Architectes Associés : Amaury Adam, Laura Claeys, Mattias D'Hooghe, Muriel Desmedt, Jérôme Elleboudt, Amina Hammani, Marc Lacour, Elodie Léonard, Sabine Leribaux, Karim Megally, Denis Van Cauwenberghe, Sophie Vantieghem, Sébastien Zigrand Contractor : Jacques Delens et Vanderstraeten Facade : Kyotec - Belgo Metal

vapour open and acoustic interior wood façade

Natural air supply

Automatic night opening

Eric Spiessens, Lid Directiecomité ARCO Groep "We are currently adjusting the technical parameters for developing the operation of the building. It still has to go through its first winter, so it is too early to have a real indication. But we know that all the rules for the proper passive operation were applied and we are very satisfied."

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case file

2015 : Brussels goes passive ! texts

Bernard Deprez, Bram De Meester, Marny Di Pietrantonio, Bruno Busch, Hilde Breesch, Alexis Versele, Stefan Van Loon.

Between Expo 58 and Zineke Parade, Brussels is a floating island - extraordinarily captivating. A quaint royal capital, the administrative centre of the Flemish provinces, a city inhabited by French speakers - and a melting pot of dozens of cultures in search of asylum, whole areas taken up by the European project and gentrified by its legions of bureaucrats, cut up into 19 fiefdoms firmly held by as many mayors, a region dependent on others for its funding, property often monopolised by non-residents, no single group can lay claim to Brussels, saturated by a disparate set of demands and desires. â–ş

case file

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At its own expense: Brussels is so vaunted in the eyes of others, so much moreso than in its own. It seems to have tread a course in much the same way as an eel through the course of history, spending most of its time shying away from the limelight. "Or perhaps not!" What would stand as the city's signature? A liberal patronage countering and a bar-room socialism? An unceasing trade-off between private parties, households and public authorities, between principles and practice, accommodating the most radical ideas by steering everyone to their returning each their cottages and their neighbourhood committees? A well-tempered anarchist's paradise. Floating between two sides, Brussels struggles to commit itself to either. Whereas other cities gather around visionary and ambitious politicians (this is in no way relating to the football stadia, stations museums) for their commitment to alternative mobility, for urban lifestyles which are not only more environmentally friendly but also more democratic, Brussels has long remained on the sidelines. Leaving others to take care of the teething problems of the future, Brussels has left it up to its entrepreneurs to fill it up (there are currently almost 2 million square metres of empty office space, in comparison to a deficit of several thousand homes), to run it through with urban motorways and drill it through with expensive tunnels. As the capital of Belgium, Brussels is one of the largest consumers of energy and CO2 in Europe and its buildings are among the least efficient. This is why the positive signs that have been flickering into view over recent years are so important for the city. There is greater awareness of the negative

impact of traffic congestion and that alternatives need to be developed. There is a growing interest in the redevelopment of public spaces, the implementation of quality procedures, including the appointment of a "Master Architect", for example.. In particular, passive construction naturally count among these encouraging signs, with work performed by Bruxelles Environnement around the recent encouragement of energy-efficient architectural design (through the introduction of lowenergy and passive energy subsidies) and especially the Call for Exemplary Buildings. Thanks to a typically Brussels makeshift arrangement, mobilizing public money through the encouragement of multifaceted PPP partnerships (Public/Private Partnership or Public/Private Individual Partnership, and also Public/Public partnerships, etc.), these Requests (266,789m² worth of winners from 2007 to 2009) have made eco-design and energy targets more popular, especially with passive design for both new construction and renovations (80,981m² and 339 dwellings over 3 years). This ambition, with which the new Government proudly proclaims its desire to make Brussels "the capital of passive design in Europe", has resulted in an agreement across the political spectrum through specific resolutions, all new public buildings will now have to comply with passive standards. This will also apply to all private new construction from 2015 onwards, as part of a scheduled framework plan for regional CO2 emissions, making an overall reduction of 30% by 2025. Scientists would like to go further but the "Brussels knows best" crowd seems to be in full voice. This case study shows you some of the most representative aspects. ►

Like many cities, Brussels is facing two significant environmental challenges over the coming years: to reduce its CO2 emissions and also its dependence on fossil fuels. Passive design represents a cornerstone for an over-arching vision of a city that does not want to find itself with no way out of its problems in the future. The resistance and scepticism shown in the modern press about environmental issues is very revealing. The challenges seem to be becoming increasingly clear and significant as we approach the front line in the battle over the climate. To reduce the risk of going beyond 1.5 to 2°C average warming and into an area of unpredictable climate disruption, the first challenge is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There are two ways to do this. The "absolute" approach is to set a hard cap that cannot be breached. For climatologist J. Hansen (NASA), we need to get back to CO2 levels of around 350 parts per million (we are currently at 385 ppm). For others, it must "go as far as" limiting the amount of CO2 released into

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the atmosphere, which naturally involves, for example, immediately shutting down certain deposits, as these would unavoidably exceed this limit.

the passive standard in Brussels

The other approach is "relative". This is the one chosen by the European plan for a 20% reduction by the year 2020, compared to 1990 levels, by IPCC scientists who are seeking to reduce such emissions by 85-90% by 2050. This is also the approach taken by Brussels in Chapter 3 of the cross-party agreement, which sets out the rapid implementation of a new plan, Cobrace (Code of Brussels for Air, the Climate and Energy) which will provide the legal framework needed to achieve a greenhouse gas reduction of 30% by 2025 (compared to 1990 levels) in Brussels. The other challenge is the impending sharp drop in the production of crude oil. This could happen in the short term in one or two decades at most. Oil is crucial to the economy, because it is the energy provider par excellence, and is therefore fundamental to trade. However, in its World Energy Outlook


500 passive houses in North Brussels

This public-private partnership chose the passive standard for those 500 news dwellings. arch : www.ms-a.be

brussels regional parliament extension Headquater of the French speaking part of the Brussels Region parliament. arch : www.cooparch.be

Office and industry Development of the urban site (53 000m²) headquarters of Sibelga. arch : www.cerau.be & www.mdw-architecture.com

published in 20081, the International Energy Agency expressed concerns about the current decline in production. This is the first time since its creation that it has conducted a thorough analysis of 800 deposits currently in operation. The IEA raised the idea of "peak oil", and concludes that decline will accelerate across the globe, moving from the current 6.7% to 8.6% in 20302. This means that in fifteen years time, current production will drop by half! And yet the British daily, The Guardian3 reveals that according to inside sources, the IEA has deliberately overstated oil reserves in order not to panic the markets. Swedish analysts estimate this overstatement to be in the order of ± 25%, so we are well and truly entering a post-oil world4. To avoid finding itself with nowhere else to go in a few years time, Brussels has clearly come down on the side of reducing its energy dependence.

A naturally immobile sector Brussels has a relatively atypical profile: it is 96%5 dependent on polluting fossil fuels, 72% of its C02 emissions come from the building usage (as opposed to the EU average of 40%), with 41% residential (35 million square metres) and 31% for the tertiary sector (29 million square metres). Industry is virtually non-

existent (4%), as transportation is responsible for the remainder (23%). Steadily increasing since 1990, consumption began to level off in 2006. Brussels has nearly 490,000 dwellings, of which 28% are houses and 72% apartments. Dwellings are poorly insulated in Brussels and other parts of the country, and renovation is slower to arrive. The housing stock is also relatively old, as only 16% of dwellings were built after the first oil crisis. Residential dwellings devote 85% of their energy consumption to heating and hot water (or 250 kWh/m² final energy). Conversely, in the tertiary sector it is electricity consumption, up 50% since 1990, as the heaviest contribution. The property sector is famously unable to adapt very quickly. Only a few percent of the existing stock is renewed (renovation and new construction) each year. It is generally very slow to change. On the other hand, a building built today will not be renovated for 15 to 20 years, therefore a huge waste of time if it is designed without any vision for the future. Finally, if a building is only moderately efficient today, its renovation will also be less profitable tomorrow. ►

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Office building in Brussels Passive retrofitting of a modernist building, in Anderlecht. arch : www.Lahon-Partners.com

Plume In brussels's center the construction of 8 passive dwellings project is demonstrative of the careful integration into the urban fabric. arch : www.b612associates.com

Cities now have to join forces to move as quickly and as far as possible. This is even truer for Brussels, given that energy consumption will change according to the level of gadgets purchased in Brussels and its population growth. However, for many years now the population is increasing and the Planning Bureau is promising some 170,000 additional inhabitants by 2020. They will need somewhere to live, will require more transportation and consumables.

Setting goals and the means to act It is within this overall context that energy policy in favour of a passive Brussels makes perfect sense. According to S. Moreno-Vacca, of the PMP, "the Brussels strategy is to promote projects that serve as driving forces - especially passive design, or even more strongly projects that go even further. The Walloon region has a different approach. Its objectives do not go as far in terms of performance (they are restricted to K45 for example), but they affect a larger number of projects. In my opinion, the policy in Brussels is much more effective. It even has repercussions for the Walloon region and Flanders, who envy our level of subsidies.6". Indeed, beyond the conventional initial incentivising measures (cavity wall insulation subsidies), Brussels has gradually built up a real system to encourage the quality of energy, thanks to "facilitators" who bring special energy expertise to the tertiary sector, public housing, with cogeneration and large-scale systems7. Since 2006, this multifaceted vision has bee articulated within a more over-arching approach for environmental efficiency in buildings, with the development of a tool for environmental rating - Green Building Brussels. These efforts led to the creation of an environmental construction facilitator in 2007 and the introduction of subsidies encourages integrated energy design, with passive design to be included in new-builds and low-energy in renovations. The Passive House Platform monitors these schemes. 2007 also saw the launch of the first Call for Exemplary Buildings, from which came the Sustainable Neighbourhoods facilitators (URBs).

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Passive design all the way Performed in parallel with the introduction of the PEB, considerable efforts have been made to put Brussels at the forefront of European energy practices. With subsidies defining both a very clear energy objective and a verification procedure suited to high-performance buildings (the PHPP worksheet published by the German Passivhaus Institute), Brussels has decided to support a standard with full expansion into Europe, extending it to issues relating to renovation. By "facilitating" the development of passive design, the region is dragging the new construction market upwards while providing adequate responses to its main concern, renovation. Passive design is also established in the tertiary sector. The first passive offices in Brussels date back to 2007. Since then, several projects have been delivered or are underway. The region has developed a tertiary sector subsidy to encourage industry to adopt passive design. It has entrusted PMP to determine appropriate passive criteria for offices. This study, conducted alongside UCL, has led to the development of a tertiary handbook8 which, on top of the relatively simple PHPP requirements, adds other specific criteria relating to cooling, the dynamic verification of comfort, and introduces a "committee of experts" to oversee these issues. This initiative therefore proposes a general framework for Brussels, which is responding to the turmoil currently facing the sector, with the development of genuinely environmentally efficient tertiary concepts. Whether we are talking about the passive offices of Aeropolis II in Brussels (8000m², Architectes associés), the Energon offices in Ulm (8000m²) or Lu-Teco in Ludwigshafen (9900m²), the Elithis tower in Dijon (5000m², a passive project which almost achieves energy neutrality9), or the Pearl River Tower in Guangzhou, constructed by SOM (214,100m²), a 71-floor tower wrapped in triple glazing and equipped with two large air turbines capable of making the building self-sufficient in energy. It is therefore hardly surprising that Bruxelles Environnement has also decided to build its own headquarters based on the passive standard on the Tour & Taxis site!


Passive school the 3 floors primary school will host 280 children. arch : www.nvtarchitekten.de

Passive school, houses and offices This complex urban district of more than 12 000m², a design and built collaboration (architect and contractor), will open its doors by 2013. arch : www.a2m.be contractor : www.democo.be

Households and companies: a shared goal Finally, rapid changes to regulations are expected in the years to come. MEPs have already declared themselves in favour of minimum performance requirements for new and renovated buildings. They asked the Commission to "propose a binding requirement that all new buildings needing to be heated and/or cooled, be constructed to passive house or equivalent non-residential standards from 2011" 10. As part of the reformulated Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings, the Parliament also voted in favour of buildings with a net energy consumption of zero. In particular, Member States must ensure that "all new buildings are at least net zero energy buildings by 31 December 2018 at the latest11." Our French neighbours are developing a standard for low-energy buildings (bâtiments à basse consommation - BBC), which will become mandatory from 2010 for new public and tertiary buildings, and from 2013 for all new dwellings in accordance with the objectives of the Grenelle 2 law12 . It is therefore natural that the Brussels executive, in its cross-party agreement, stated in 2009 that all new public buildings should be designed to the passive standard by 2010. This comes in addition to resolutions already passed in four municipalities of Brussels. And, after the PEB move from E90 to E70 in 2011, the requirement should then be extended to introducing passive design for all new construction from 2015. Brussels will then be ready to meet the "zero energy" level, to be imposed by Europe from 2018. This development very clearly aims to set a shared goal for households and businesses alike: the important thing is to bring the security and predictability that economic stakeholders need to invest in a changing world, rather than artificially prolong current unsustainable practices by furious, but ultimately superficial efforts. This is a matter of common sense, as summarised by Eric Gobert, project manager for the Aéropolis II passive offices. We don't want to "construct a building today that is already outdated!"13 The results of this conversion to passive design and eco-

construction are already being felt today. Environmental and energy efficiency quality in buildings winning the Requests for Proposals far exceed the levels certified by reputable international labels such as LEED or BREEAM, which no longer bring real added value while the Brussels level has risen so much14. The reason is simple: while these labels operate on the principle of "best practice" (just do a little better than the others to earn points), the Region has invested in an objective-based approach, like that the passive standard: simple, accurate and ambitious targets far more effective than a cumbersome and exhaustive assessment system. We should congratulate ourselves for setting the bar so high! ►

1. www.iea.org/weo/2008.asp ; www.worldenergyoutlook.org/docs/ weo2009/WEO2009_es_french.pdf 2. see interview with Mr. Fatih Birol, chief economist of the IEA, by G. Monbiot, www.guardian.co.uk/environment/video/2008/dec/15/fatih-birolgeorge-monbiot 3. www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/nov/09/peak-oil-internationalenergy-agency 4. www.monbiot.com/archives/2009/11/16/if-nothing-else-save-farming/ 5. The remainder is contributed by the incineration of household waste transformed into electricity. 6. Bernard Deprez et al., Vert Bruxelles, Architectures à suivre, Racines Editions, 2009. 7. www.bruxellesenvironnement.be > professionnels > les facilitateurs 8. www.maisonpassive.be/?Les-criteres-pour-le-TERTIAIRE 9. La tour Elithis, une signature " écoresponsable ", in Systèmes Solaires, Le journal des énergies renouvelables, n°193, November 2009. 10. INI/2007/2106: 19/12/2007 - EP: decision of the committee responsible, 1st reading/single reading. www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/resume.jsp?id=54 84562&eventId=996810&backToCaller=NO&language=en 11. Position of the European Parliament 23/4/09 (EP-PE_TC1COD(2008)0223 12. Le marché des bâtiments à basse consommation d’énergie décolle, Le Monde, 28 October 2009. 13. Vert Bruxelles, op.cit, p.17. 14. Bâtiments durables. Vers une certification adaptée au marché de Bruxelles-Capitale, 20 November 2009 (www.brusselsgreentech.be)

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Neuf new Rénovation renovation

new nonresidential Tertiaire Equipement equipment Logement housing

renovation Tertiaire nonresidential Equipement equipment Logement housing

extending the scope of passive

map of all the exemplary buildings of the 3 first calls (2007- 2008- 2009 )

To stimulate the property market, Bruxelles Environnement has gradually built up a fairly comprehensive set of subsidies and assistance for individuals and public authorities alike. It has entrusted the PMP, alongside the PHP, with the task of investigating cases relating to passive design and low energy renovation. As part of its activities, the PMP is also helping to train the sector (491 architects have been trained in the use of PHPP, management of thermal bridges, etc.) In the residential sector, the region has been encouraging all renovation work demonstrating a net heating requirement of less than below 60 kWh/m² per year, and all new construction work meeting the passive standard since 2007, through a regional subsidy of €100/m². A subsidy designed for the tertiary sector was added to these measures in 2009. Since 2007, the PMP has opened 190 cases of residential subsidies. 61 cases deal with renovation work, and 129 deal with new-builds. Among these renovations, there are 3 passive design cases, which bumps the current number of passive cases up to 132 (sometimes for more than one dwelling per case). From 6 cases in 2007, passive design rose to 58 in 2008 and stands at a current total of 119 in 2009 (late November). It is interesting to note that although low-energy renovation stood at 66% in 2007, the proportion went down to 55% in 2008 and dropped to 13% in 2009. It is therefore passive construction, with 87% of the cases in 2009, which is now a real driving force! While introducing its new system of subsidies, and deciding to go into overdrive, the region also launched a first Call for Exemplary Buildings in 2007. But among the "exemplary" projects, many do not share the same political significance. Between a "hip and trendy" promotion in the style of Malmö, the city-expo in the style of Hanover, the big moneymaker in the

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style of Bilbao, Brussels does not want to follow a ‘copy'n'paste’ approach. It is looking for something original: a mix of enlightened top-down and committed bottom-up? This is the Brussels way: trusting people to ask a great deal of them, move away from their practical needs, bet on their skills and support their ideal of a more environmentally friendly way of urban living. The Brussels approach is actually based on a Request for Proposals initiated by the Government in Franche-Comté to encourage energy efficient design based on the Swiss Minergie standard.® 1. Curious to see what the Brussels market was capable of, the region sought to promote simple and efficient architecture in terms of energy efficiency and green building. It was about encouraging accessible, reproducible solutions, not technological prowess. "In 2007, we did not really know what to expect, so we do not impose minimum performance. We just set a cap, targets and objectives", explains Grégoire Clerfayt, Chief of Staff to Minister Huytebroek (see interview p.48-49). The selection criteria for the Request for Proposals therefore cover the topics of energy management (passive design in new construction, low energy in renovation) and those of the green construction.2 Therefore, on 3 May 2007, the Brussels government launched the first competition to identify and support the most environmentally exemplary projects in the Brussels-Capital Region in the tertiary sector, collective housing, private housing and public facilities. The response far exceeded expectations, with a large number of participants and winners. "The Request was a tremendous boost for Brussels", says Grégoire Clerfayt. The operation was repeated on 9 April 2008 and 10 September 2009. To date, all three operations culminated in some 117 winners and more than 266,000m² of exemplary green construction! Why did it succeed so well? Mainly because many architects launched themselves into the concept and decided to go even further than the Region was hoping for. As she had originally


Passive, ZERO energy, and 0 charges : is it a dream ? No ! This exemplary building will host two lucky families, its passive design and complements make it the first social charges-free building in belgium. arch : www.a2m.be

Passive single family house in Brussels. This strange suspended house, also one of the Exemplary Buildings, is under construction now. architect's : Bart Van Leeuw en Heidi Van Eetvelde designed a low-energy project, the architect Ines Camacho was excited about the competition and decided to revise her design: "I realised that my project was close to passive criteria, even though I had never thought about it in those terms. I dropped what I was doing and spent six months converting my final entry. It was through a combination of naivety and innocence that I threw myself into the adventure. But today I think I couldn't do anything other than design low energy or passive buildings, because I no longer wish to use old techniques. The old stuff stinks - I'm not interested in it anymore! "3 For Grégoire Clerfayt, it was the creativity and skill of design teams, architects and engineers that made the difference: "In Belgium, we have architects and engineers who are extremely well trained ... but they don't know it! From zero passive building in 2007 to over 40,000m² in 2009, not to mention the renovated buildings that have also come very far, just with our existing know-how, and with people coming from nothing without having undergone huge training campaigns, that demonstrates the market's ability to do extraordinary things! " The Call for Exemplary Buildings over the past three years have shown that a net requirement of less than 30 kWh/m² per year is possible in renovations, but the real costs between the different performance levels are not the same. The range of subsidies in Brussels needs to change to be broken down into amounts suited for different performance levels, depending on whether we are talking about a new passive construction or low, very low or passive renovation (60, 30 or 15 kWh/m² per year). The range of subsidies will therefore change in 2010 to better match the reality on the ground. Additional subsidies will also be available to encourage the use of environmentally-friendly materials and solar power. 1. www.effinergie.org/site/Effinergie/Liste_AppelsAProjets 2. Pour plus de détails, voir Bernard Deprez et al., Vert Bruxelles : Architectures à suivre…, Editions Racine, 2009. 3. Vert Bruxelles, op. cit.

Exemplary Buildings [ m² ] 140000

130122

120000 100000

75770

80000

60897

60000 40000 20000 0 07

Passive Projects [ m² ] 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0

09 38231

27086 15664

07

Passive Housing [ m² ] 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0

08

08

09 38231

12481

07

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like a cat in the sun

The passive headquarters of Bruxelles Environnement at the Tour & Taxi site. After having successfully organised three environmentally efficient Calls for Exemplary Buildings since 2007, the Environmental Authorities in Brussels were eager to translate all these ideas into a design for offices they intend to lease to get their own headquarters. The site currently occupied by Bruxelles Environnement in Woluwe (outlying and almost inaccessible by public transport, with soul-less, very energy-inefficient sales offices), isn't ideal, given that it would be better to be in the city centre, within easy reach of everyone in Brussels in a neighbourhood undergoing reconstruction which would certainly make good use of such a "driving force". As well as being its headquarters, the Bruxelles Environnement offices also have to be environmentally exemplary. Firstly, of course, through its central location and the availability of public transport (reducing the number of parking spaces for a building accommodating over 1000 people to just 150). Built for the rental market by the private sector (a T & T project), the building sticks within the tertiary idiom, i.e..not always very green (curtain wall, metal structures, etc). But the structural design saves on material and implementation. The principle of having an enclosure provides a great simplicity in the distribution of glass and opaque parts (the main façade, facing east and west, is glazed up to 50%). Verdun roofing and rainwater recovery add to this green approach, but it is mainly the energy management aspects that will make this project exemplary, since it will be "passive". Although offices in Brussels consume an average of between 89 and 107 kWh/m² per year, the net heating requirements of the future headquarters should not exceed 15 kWh/m² year. But the project also presents an excellent energy performance for cooling, lighting and other electrical consumption and, if it complies with the requirements developed specifically for tertiary passive design in the Brussels region, its overall consumption of primary energy will be reduced by 75-80% in relation to sector average, amounting to estimated primary energy consumption of between 78 and 82 kWh/m² year, against 350 to 450 kWh/ m² per year according to annual ICEDD surveys. This drastic reduction in energy consumption is a measure of the climate and logistical challenges that lie ahead. Located alongside the canal and a city park, the future seat of the administration the Tour & Taxis site is developing a concept based on the "box within a box" principle. While

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maintaining a simple, compact volume, CEPEZED architects have broken open the office floors in the middle to create a long wide fault through which a generous amount of natural light shines through a large glass south-facing roof. This ‘box of light box’ envelopes the east-facing offices alongside the canal, which overlap across a series of interior terraces bordered by a wide stairwell. This atrium, open on ground floor, lies at the heart of the project: its still, quiet mechanics create a microclimate conducive to meetings, fresh perspectives and day-to-day work. It will also serve as the face of the building, opening out to the outdoors opposite the Royal Stores built by architect Ernest Van Humbeek in 1907. By providing an enclosed space, the building rounds off an urban landscape reinterpreting the entrance to the Tour & Taxis site. Architecturally, the concept offers a simple and effective space. Its’ refined, curving mass, lying like a cat in the sun, suggests an almost friendly presence. Aside from ensuring very good working conditions, its transparency provides a welcome counterpoint to the huge bulk of the Royal Store. Specialists in passive platforms have been able to check with the architects and their design department that the project, originally planned to meet an E60 performance, could be slightly revised and brought up to passive standard at no extra cost and with no loss of comfort, mainly thanks to its very compact nature. Overheating control is provided by external sunscreens, or internal sunscreens in the atrium, and will be complemented by a passive night cooling strategy or by a "colloidal concrete" slab system. This will not be the first passive office building constructed in Brussels. The first operation was delivered in 2007 and others have been made in Anderlecht or are underway in Schaerbeek, Forest and Brussels. But at over 15,000m², this represents the largest passive office complex in Belgium and second largest operation in Europe to date. This "claim to fame" is doubtless temporary, but the important thing is surely to take the lead? Brussels therefore once again shows its determination to make the region a benchmark capital for environmental construction, especially the passive construction. It is true that previous Calls for Exemplary Buildings already positioned the city among the most dynamic regions of Europe, quickly putting it alongside countries such as Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The region certainly didn't seek any less for the headquarters of its own environmental administration. In a region where many offices are left vacant and where, owing to a lack of industry, buildings and particularly offices are responsible for 72% of CO2 emissions, no new tertiary scheme should be allowed to be ecologically inefficient. ►


Architect: www.cepezed.nl

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interview

be.passive: Mr. Clerfayt, you are embarking on a second term as chief of staff at the Energy, Air, Climate, Sustainable Construction and Green Economy Unit with Ms. Huytebroeck in Brussels. How was the energy issue upon arrival in 2004? In 2004, Brussels was relatively prehistoric in this area, with a policy that received very little investment in energy, human and budgetary resources and no vision. There was no interest in energy at a regional level. Everything we put in place in 2004 and 2005 was derived from our experience in the Walloon region, where experts told us it was possible to build better, with "best practice" amounting to a 30% improvement. It was already perfectly satisfactory with regard to meeting the Kyoto criteria. What happened next? Then we really found out about the passive standard, which promised an improvement of 90%! We knew this from experience abroad, but it still seemed unattainable for us, very technologyoriented and a long way from the realities of Brussels. It is a succession of happy accidents that brought us to the passive standard: the work of some architectural firms (including the housing corporation office in Mons, with cheap passive housing and very low energy renovations), and the choice of Blaton in 2007 of making its headquarters according to the passive standard. In 2006, I made a trip to Freiburg and I discovered the passive standard in action. It is actually much

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simpler, technically speaking, than we thought - really just buildings like all others. We can see these buildings. People live in them. This is not an experimental laboratory! I came away with the conviction that we were perhaps not so far from reaching our goal. We could do it by putting ourselves in a situation of emulation, or competition. I also took part in a European think tank, organised by Energie-Cités. That's where I met a representative of the Franche Comté region, who organised a Request for Proposals using the Swiss Minergie Standard. ®. I found the principle of such a Request for Proposals very interesting: an open framework, the idea of competition…. And so the Call for Exemplary Buildings was born? In 2007 we decided to launch the idea. On the one hand, a system of subsidies for passive construction and low energy renovation, and on the other,the idea of a competition. But we did not really know what the market was able to do. So we drafted the competition regulations in March in order to set energy objectives, and we added the potential of doing environmentally-friendly construction. Our approach was to keep things simple, efficient and affordable: not conceptual experimental architecture, and nothing unaffordable! We have not imposed any minimum performance level. We just set a cap, targets and indicative targets. We had no requirements, but rather we made invitations. The competition was there to see what people were capable of doing and to compare the results.


What was the response? It was a wonderful surprise. The quantity and quality of the projects we received were quite unexpected! We have gained a very high energy efficiency and very good environmentallyaware construction in all the urban forms used in Brussels. The Request for Proposals proved to be a tremendous boost for Brussels. This paved the way for an equally ambitious draft Government declaration in 2009. The Call for Exemplary Buildings showed that passive design is feasible at a very reasonable cost. What better example to show that passive design is accessible than the 3% extra cost for the Aéropolis II offices? The reality is not that claimed by the property sector three years ago. We have not had to conduct any scientific study to prove it, but rather the market itself demonstrates this principle right here and now. Does Bruxelles Environnement also set the example? We are going even further with our project for the Bruxelles Environnement headquarters. This is an ambitious project, but not according to the passive standard. The cross-party agreement allowed us to upgrade and conform to the passive standard, in the knowledge that the tertiary debate remained rather delicate. We have a parametric study that has allowed us to draw certain conclusions, but still don't have a largescale test on major tertiary commercial. The transition from small to large scale was for us, and the promoter, something of a risk. Studies performed to date on this project confirm the idea that there is no reason why we cannot move on to even bigger buildings. The conclusion we draw from a seminar on this subject given by Laurence de Hemptinne [see below - ed] is that the property sector has got the message, investors want assurances to ensure that their buildings do not depreciate. Basically, they want to "go green". So is the movement well and truly launched? For the time being in Brussels, we still need strong examples and good prospects, for example by working with powerful agencies such as the European Commission as part of the "Urbain-Loi" project, for which the master plan provides for new large buildings. We believe there is a great opportunity to put some consistency between what the Commission proposes and what it could actually do. This is all the moreso since if anything ground-breaking could arise, it will happen when passive design is already being applied. It would be inconsistent to construct a building that does not meet the standards of the time, while the climate debate will be even "hotter" than it already is now. Where do we stand with the decision to build all new public buildings according to passive standards? For passive design and its application in the Brussels Region, decisions are in the process of being made. Three examples of this are: the SDRB has decided to incorporate passive requirements in new construction and low-energy

requirements for housing renovations in its benchmark specifications, based on the known criteria from the PHPP calculation. Christophe Doulkeridis, Secretary of State for Housing in the Brussels-Capital has announced that all new social housing will be passive. Finally, in future neighbourhood contract schemes to be launched in 2010, the intention is also to refer to the passive standard. Won't there be any resistance to this from some quarters? When we negotiated this measure, we thought our partners would consider it rather extreme. It has certainly been the subject of negotiations, but the partners have agreed in principle because, ultimately, in their towns, passive is already in place. The passive standard is already well implanted in towns in Brussels and in the Walloon region, where it is possible to find inexpensive social housing. This is another good example that we are not talking about something that is merely "hip and trendy". We can see that even in social housing, it is possible to do wonderful things that are still affordable. Will there be any further Calls for Exemplary Buildings? We will be continuing with our Calls for Exemplary Buildings next year, because we always carry on with something if it works well. Exemplary buildings are helping to create a critical mass, which serves as an example for the market, for architects, business, project owners, and other interested parties. They are also used to developing various renovation practices. We would also like to get some showpiece passive housing, and I really believe we will try to do just that if the opportunity arises. Are Brussels-based companies ready? In Brussels, our challenge for the future also encompasses jobs, the environment and sustainable construction. We need to make every effort to train the construction industry to ensure that the whole sector do work according to passive design principles in the future, from design to financing and implementation, in the form of business clusters, to fully achieve very low energy renovations for houses and apartment buildings.. This is the direction policy will take for the next five years." ► 1. Société de Développement Régional Bruxellois - Brussels Regional Development Association.

case file

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Office building in Brussels Passive retrofitting of 3 173 m², in the prestigious avenue Louise. arch : www.A2M.be and www.Moreno.lu

Š A Rocca

First passive houses in Brussels This 2 duplex were the first one built in the capital in... 2008 ! arch : www.inescamacho.com

political reasons for certification

be.passive interviews Ismail Daoud, Adviser on Sustainable Construction in the office of Brussels Minister Evelyne Huytebroeck, responsible for the Environment, Energy and Urban Renewal. Why do the authorities want to establish certification for environmental quality in construction? With a strong policy for encouraging excellence in the environment and energy for buildings as practised in Brussels, we require a reliable and incontestable tool for assessing the sustainability of high-performance buildings. This simplifies the comparison of real buildings and counteracts the tendency for greenwashing that we sometimes see in property development. A number of labels and certifications are competing in the market. Doesn't this risk some level of confusion? With Belgium's experience and expertise of the 117 buildings that won the Calls for Exemplary Buildings 2007-2009, we have an unparalleled source of information that has enabled us to test methods such as BREEAM and Valideo. The result of these tests brings us to conclude that there is value in each method, but they need to evolve to better reflect the quality of high performance buildings as they emerge today in the Brussels region and all over Belgium. We decided to develop a "Green Building" certification and labelling procedure which combines

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the qualities of the "Exemplary Buildings" system and the Valideo system, while at the same time being compatible with Breeam. We therefore have a system corresponding to our own culture of building and renovating, while offering Breeam compatibility for owners who need this type of international recognition for their investors. We are continuing to move in this direction in Brussels, but this work, based on accumulated experience and expertise, is also open to Flanders and the Walloon region, as well as the relevant professional federations. Labels (excluding passive) often measure a wide variety of parameters - the internal weightings make the end result sometimes difficult to read. Isn't this counterproductive with regards to the visibility of buildings that want to see themselves as exemplary? The "green building" certification and labelling system that


79 passive houses in N-O-H On the Bruyn street, the houses commanded by the brussels's CPAS are rising. arch : www.pblondel.be

8 appartments, day nursery and facilities in Molenbeek 2 150 m² for a sustainable neighbourhood arch : www.b-architecten.be

Day nursery for 48 children This 815m² nursery also is a winner of the Call for Exemplary Building. arch : www.mdw-architecture.com

we are implementing has to meet several requirements. It is based on three elements: the list of criteria evaluated, the determination of methods for assessing each criterion, and the weighting to be given to each criterion. The expression of the result may translate into an overall index and thematic indices. It will therefore be possible to assess a building from different points of view. It seems to me that it is the weighting that is crucial, and this will mean political choices moreso than technical ones, the aim being to establish a value system that pulls the whole market up on both energy criteria and other sustainability criteria. This type of information on environmental performance can be used precisely in the case of competitions or tenders by setting minimum standards in each area covered, as well as the overall requirement minimum. We often hear that certification is driven by industry and that is why its level of excellence is not very high. What do you think of the part played by the construction sector in the development of labels and targets to reach? In the system we propose, even if the private sector is involved, it is the authorities that have the responsibility to define the sustainability of a building and therefore the weighting given to any particular criterion. What we propose is to develop an initial set of references as requested by the authorities. Secondly, once operational and managed by an external structure responsible for maintaining it, the authorities should ensure its development

and have a blocking minority to prevent any drift away from the original intentions. Do you think that the label should spread wider across society or should it become the preserve of new professionals? Insofar as energy and environmental policies have to achieve firm results and figures, it is becoming essential to have systems for evaluating actual performance, as opposed to assumed performance, when constructing or renovating a building. This is a question of policy credibility and above all a mechanism of transparency with regards to the occupier buyer or tenant. It is true that we need to calibrate the certification and labelling system in such a way that bears reasonable costs in proportion to the size of the building. The system to be set up in Brussels will be able to be used widely while remaining specific to the needs of the construction sector. "Green building" certification will target large buildings (tertiary sector, or collective housing). The "Green Building" label will be a lighter version of the certification, and therefore less costly, and be used more in the private housing sector. There will also be a free self-assessment tool, but whose accuracy will merely be an indication. This tool will be used rather than giving applicants for labelling or certification a broad estimate of the score that could be reached. With these elements, applicants will be better able to decide whether to enter a process of paid labelling or certification. â– 

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the impact of the "green wave" on property

At a recent p r o p e r t y seminar1, Evelyne Huytebroeck, the text Laurence de Hemptinne Brussels Minister for the Environment and Energy, pointed out that in the Brussels cross-party agreement, the Region set a goal to reduce greenhouse gases emissions by 30% by 2025. "But", the Minister emphasised, "in Brussels, 70% of gas emissions are caused by buildings, and specifically to heating and cooling these buildings!". Conclusion: there have to be serious changes made in buildings. Before an audience of nearly 350 property professionals, the Minister provided an update on major reforms planned in this area. The most spectacular measure is clearly the passive standard becoming binding on all new buildings from 2015! In Brussels, where the coefficient E is used to quantify the energy performance of buildings, a building has a passive factor E45 to E35. But office buildings which are currently the most energyefficient have a coefficient of E75. This shows the tremendous amount of work needed on the part of architects, and especially the changes that need to be made within the minds of future building occupants.

this ambitious regional policy and that, technically, anything was possible - even though the challenge is huge. In contrast, said a promoter, "we must avoid imposing stricter conditions on Brussels than in other regions, as has been done, for example, by creating tax offices only in the Brussels region, which has driven many companies away ... ". This will require coordination between the regions, which is what Evelyne Huytebroeck wants. Another suggestion from professionals: why not create tax incentives for occupants of office buildings who opt for low CO2 emitters, such as a property tax reduction, as happens with cars. Is green building cost-effective? Another important theme: is making buildings "green", or energy-efficient cost-efficient now? So to the question "is a green building rented out more easily?". Pierre Collette, partner at Cushman & Wakefield, said without hesitation that "in a market in crisis as it is now, nobody will pay more money to rent a green building. However, buildings which are not energyefficient will suffer a low rating." Are green buildings more attractive to investors? The answer is even clearer. Investors have confirmed that, to their minds, the energy performance of buildings - most are certified by a green label (BREEAM, Valideo, HQE, etc.) - has become a crucial consideration for purchase. In other words, a low-scoring building has virtually no chance of pleasing investors! Within a matter of months, the market has completely changed. Not only are green buildings cost-efficient, but they are becoming essential. This is a conclusion that is sure to worry all building owners with no green credentials. ■ 1. L’impact de la vague verte sur l’immobilier organisé le 7 octobre dernier par Editions & Séminaires Laurence de Hemptinne SA (www. editionsetseminaires.be).

Reactions During the round table discussion following the presentation by Evelyn Huytebroeck, several property industry representatives emphasised that they were not opposed to

View of the room: Almost 350 people from the property sector came to learn about the regulations being prepared in order to reduce the environmental impact of buildings which emit large amounts of CO 2 .

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View of the round table: Right to left: Louis de Halleux, Fidentia; Pierre Collette, Cushman & Wakefield; Yves Pianet, Bureau Seco; Didrik van Caloen, UPSI and Banimmo; Laurence de Hemptinne, seminar organiser and leader; Evelyne Huytebroeck, Brussels Minister for the Environment; Steven Beckers, architect at Art & Build; Nicolas Lutgé, CBRE Investors; Sophie Le Clercq, JCX and CIT Blaton.


be.passive presents

housing text

Julie Willem

photo

Stijn Bollaert

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A house in Asse Client Alex De Broe et Barbara Oelbrandt Architect BLAF architecten www.blaf.be

Stability Frank Haentjens, Waasmunster Contractor CDS bouwbedrijf, Waasmunster

Playing in the city Situated on sloping land on the outskirts of Brussels, the home of Barbara Oelbrandt is an intriguing space with a very special aspect to it. Constructed by BLAF Architecten, this project derives its inspiration from purists who want a "A home with four walls in the countryside!", and adopts a decidedly urban attitude in a housing estate setting, typical of the sixties, where the idea of compactness is thrown out of consideration. What is immediately striking is how the building is integrated in the social and urban fabric. The choice of this particular field comes as a result of a family survey across professional and social networks, the closeness of activity centres (school, work, leisure) and the quality of public transport and bicycle paths. A good example of this flexible interaction with public space is embodied in the inclusion of a 'playground', both urban and social at the same time. The architects want it to extend alongside the pavement as a space acting as a blur between the public and the private, rather than having the separation

General layout

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of high hedges. But their creativity doesn't stop there. The project flexibly adapts to the main conditions of the land. The street is nearby and sunny, the house opens onto the slope, but for privacy, living rooms are moved upstairs. On the ground floor, the building that appears solid, slots into the slope to accommodate the entranceway, the master bedroom, bathroom and offices. On the upper floor, touching the upper section of the land, we have the living room and two small children's bedrooms. On the ground floor, insulation envelopes this solid base like a sock, with a thick layer of extruded polystyrene 24cm thick. The BLAF architects have proposed an original alternative to a brick frontage - the source of many thermal bridges: here, it is a black rubber EPDM membrane, which covers the insulation and also serves as a backdrop to the temporary courtyard decorations. For BLAF architecten, it isn't just children who have the right to play. Textures and techniques are also used in


a fun way both for the structure and the finishes, always with essential energy needs in mind. Also, the upper façade of the building is made of Padouk wood frames forming caissons filled with cellulose. The wood fibre panels closing off the caissons are covered with a dark glass fibre textile identical to that used for sunscreens, adding to the special character of the house. This original blend of materials reduces the siding thickness usually used in passive houses. And yet the house is not particularly big! Given its size, the Raumplan principle developed by Adolf Loos will help to visually increase space by creating a set of openings and functional

continuities were appropriate. Barbara Oelbrandt insists on a comfortable, constant temperature throughout the building, which enables the the interior walls to be omitted and spaces can flow into one other without the fear of any loss in temperature. The central staircase is lined with glass walls, maintaining the visual openness of the floor. Solar panels will round off the technical facilities used in this original creation. This bold house recently received attention and accolades with a well-deserved Belgian Energy Prize in 2009. To be continued ...■

7

6

2

Upper floors

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1

1 staircase 2 living room 3 kitchen 4 games room 5 bathroom 6 bedrooms 7 terrace

5 3

4

5

Ground floor 1

2

Net heating energy requirement (phpp) 14 kWh/m².yr K level19

EPB level 13

Airtighness n50 = ... vol/h (to be done) U value of walls and windows walls: 0.10 W/m².K floor: 0.15 W/m ².K roof: 0.12 W/m².K U g: 0.60W/m².K Uf: 0.78W/m².K

3

4

Floor surface area 249 m²

1 hallway 2 office 3 laundry room 4 bedroom 5 bathroom

Systems ground/water exchanger compact unit (ventilation, hot water, WC, heating) solar panels Costs 290 280 € means 1 165 €/m²

EPDM membrane PIR insulation 20cm Pirotherm screeding concrete Concrete slab 22cm Padouk frame Textile fibreglass Celite 3D 0.7 cm Cellulose 38cm EPDM membrane PIR insulation 8cm XPS insulation 32cm Concrete 30cm Plaster 1cm Black PU coating 0.5 cm Screed 8cm Sprayed PUR 10cm Concrete 30cm XPS insulation 16 cm Stabilised sand housing

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be.passive presents

14 terraced houses text

Bernard Deprez

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photos

Bernard Deprez, Fonds du Logement

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Construction of 14 terraced houses Rue Fin in Molenbeek-Saint-Jean Brussels, Belgium Client Fonds du Logement Brussels Region

www.fondsdulogement.be

Architect Damien Carnoy Architect www.carnoy-crayon.be

Service engineer MK engineering

www.mkengineering.eu

Contractor Degraeve

www.degraeve.be

14 fam. immig. seek p. archi. eco-passive housing On 17 September last year, some very special passive homes were unveiled in Molenbeek. Their occupants - 14 low-income families - were part of the kind of story you don't hear everyday. It all started with a fairly common situation. Families in difficult situations forced to pay through the nose for poor quality accommodation due to a lack of social housing. At the initiative of ASBL Bonnevie and CIRE (Coordination and Initiatives for and with Refugees and Foreigners), the families came together in 2004 to found the Espoir1 (Hope) association and launch a bold project: to acquire their own homes. In collaboration with the Municipality of Molenbeek (which provided a plot of land) and the Housing Fund for the Brussels-Capital Region (which will provide project management before selling the homes to members of

the association), the families set up workshops to define their needs, train themselves up regarding energy issues, meet professionals and organise an architectural competition and a "design and implementation" tender. This tender was won by architect Damien Carnoy and Entrebois-De Graeve companies in 2008. The 14 duplex apartments, ranging from 2 to 5 bedrooms and 100 to 150m² were delivered to their owners in March 2010 and were won the "Exemplary Buildings" scheme in 2008. The project almost precisely meets the hopes expressed by the association - simple, liveable "houses" (whose varied colours brighten up the street - a desperately needed improvement). Resting on a concrete mass used as a local parking facility, the duplexes form a compact body built wholly out of wood on 4 levels. The architecture received careful input from association members, who opted to minimise the shared areas as far as was possible. This results in a proliferation of gateways on the ground floor - which is► housing

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3rd floor

2nd floor

Cross section

Floor surface area 1 833 m² 1st floor

Net heating energy requirement (phpp) 15 kWh/m² yr Airtighness 0.60 vol/h Average walls U value 0.26 W/m².K Systems Heat exchanger Extensive green roofs and rainwater tank Natural materials (FSC wood, cellulose, etc.)

Ground floor

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Costs exc TVA, exc fees 1 150 €/m²

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a good thing for the street - and also by a lot of staircases - either private or shared, which do not take up a great deal of the interior space. Large bay windows provide ample light, while the excellent stability increases wind resistance (the wood is light and has to be anchored) without decreasing the soundproofing, with integrated ventilation ducts in the floors. The contrast between the façades coated with an coloured mineral laminate and natural wood sidings, finely balanced to give nice, but basic tone. Like its occupants, the project speaks a simple lingua franca and presents an image of diversity with one shared aspect - that of living together. A wooden balcony running the whole length of the project provides a more elaborate feature, while providing attractive shadows across the house frontages. This project provided the architect with a number of challenges. Although he had plenty of experience with low energy concepts, it was his first experience of passive design and its calculation software, PHPP: "We were always saying we needed to invent a tool to help us do everything we wanted to do, and then it just happened. We were so happy to be able to use it." Although experienced in wood construction and supported by experienced companies in the field, the architect found that the construction of a building on 4 levels "was still a major challenge!" The design and development was an important stage, and certainly came to the benefit of the 14 families, since prices had to be firmly set in stone. "We had to achieve a construction price of €1150/m² excluding VAT and fees." The architect found the participatory nature very attractive: "It was all the groundwork done by the future inhabitants that attracted me. The three workshops that

took place to prepare the competition scheme, listening to everyone's dreams, their financial limits, etc". This provided a real shake-up to normal construction routine. "The Espoir association members followed the work very closely. They helped with everything, and also took part in decision-making during construction." This participation has been an example to all. "This project represented an opportunity to produce a real change for everyone, including the architect and the construction company, and also the project owners, some of whom had received training in energy matters." To instruct people in their discovery of passive design, the architect drew up a brief guide set out "in the most educational and simple terms possible, avoiding technical jargon. "This was given to the families in October, and the document will be further refined as necessary. Entering a new culture of living, this is a concern shared by Alain Hubert, the patron of the association: "This experience brings us to an important issue here in Europe and Belgium - the limits of technical systems in relation to users' education. I believe that in order to live well in a low energy or passive building, we need education, and there is still some work to do in this regard. " Many social housing stock managers are devastated by the increasing lack of respect for the "public good". Even in the private sector, the experience of group projects shows that it is always difficult to bring people together who have not chosen to be together. "With the Espoir project", says Damien Carney, "it's quite the opposite: they knew each other beforehand, because they had been together all the way. That completely changed the situation." ■ 1 For more details, please see, Thomas Dawance, Immigrés pauvres éco-bâtisseurs, in Alter Echos n°258, 12.09.2008.

housing

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14,7

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endless

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Breathless For how long can you hold your breath? (in seconds) Photos by Annette Etges > www.annetteetges-photography.com Photos published in the IUEOA magazine Issue 03/07 2010 "Air" > www.iueoa.lu

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be.passive presents

a renovation text

Julie Willem

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photos

Valerie Clarysse

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Passive renovation of an industrial hall in Oudenaarde Client Dirk Van Dorpe

www.dvd-metaal.be

Architect Dirk Barte & Bernard Libert www.baert-libert.be

Stability Rik Van Rossen Service engineer @home energiezuinig bouwen Ventilation Klimacomfort Cellulose Liparos Windows Luc Martens bvba Roof Roofingwerken Himbrecht Eric

General Layout

Insulation, insulation, insulation When his workshop, located in an industrial hall that was too small for his needs, the owner was moved, and was questioned at length on the conversion of the premises. Although it was unlikely that the site would receive a new operating license, it was unthinkable to sell it to another industry. To make the industrial hall liveable in order to sell it to private individuals, the lack of comfort and the size of the premises initially appeared to be insurmountable disadvantages. Although ... The tradition of lofts shows how industrial settings can be transformed into amazing living spaces. The owner then discovered the advantages of passive construction techniques. Developing increasing interest in the subject, he took the gamble to keep the building and convert it to accommodate his own family. The renovation was entrusted with architects Dirk Baert and Bernard Libert, representing their first passive design project. They were well prepared for such a task through their extensive experience in low energy buildings. The architects and the client did, however, need a lengthy study period to master the implications of the project. The industrial structure presented a number of

Ground floor

drawbacks: catastrophic compactness in terms of energy efficiency, not a great deal of light, no views, no comfort. Paradoxically, however, it offered the advantage of a large area free of walls and enabled a great deal of flexibility for planning. The spatial design of the project positions enabled wonderful positioning for orientation and views, while developing a fluid, open central space. Large bay windows were installed to light up the living areas, while narrower windows were put in the bedrooms. The whole thing is distributed as a single storey space, with light penetrating right into the heart of the space through a patio carved into the middle of the building. In terms of energy design, the architects wanted to create a box within a box. The existing building was used primarily for weather-sealing, with the addition of an insulated interior wall. This ingenious system and the arrangement of the premises enabled the building to be renovated without making any large-scale structural interventions. All the new partitioning could therefore be achieved without thermal bridges. This would not have been possible in a building with several storeys and many walls, for example. To achieve this protective inner insulation, the architects used the special features of a wide rangeâ–ş renovation

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Year of contruction 1965 - 2007

Detail section

Floor surface area 281 m² Net heating energy requirement (phpp) 14.7 kWh/m² yr

existing cavity wall 14+3+9cm PUR insulation 16.4cm airtight membrane timber frame filled with rockwool 10cm plasterboard

EPDM liner PIR insulation 10cm existing liner existing roof and new timber filled with 19cm cellulose service space 40cm rockwool 15cm lathing 3cm plasterboard 1.9cm

K level 14 EPB level 59 Airtighness 0.47 V/h U value of walls and windows walls : 0.059 W/m².K floor : 0.112 W/m².K roof : 0.080W/m².K Uf : 0.80 W/m²K Ug : 0.60 W/m²K

concrete slab 10cm PE film Sprayed PUR 25 cm concrete slab 20 cm

Systems Heatexchanger Ground duct PV panels Costs exc TVA exc fees 110 415 € means 392 €/m² (Price subject to change, part of the work already completed by the owner directly)

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of insulating materials. Polyurethane, presenting a high level of both thermal and mechanical resistance, is used on under the floor slab (25 cm) and in the panels on the walls (2x8 cm). But its low acoustic performance caused the architects to strengthen the inner wall with 10 cm of mineral wool in a wooden frame. This is indeed a somewhat less efficient in terms of thermal insulation, but it has very good acoustic qualities. Between the floor joists, cellulose appeared to be the most suitable material: once expanded, it occupies a uniform and continuous area throughout the space between two floor joists, at a thickness of 19cm. A 10cm layer of PIR was also added to round off the roof insulation: at an equal lambda coefficient, the PIR is more fire resistant than PUR. And so an inflated insulated box was created within a weathertight box. Water vapour remained a issue in this arrangement. Several layers of vapour barrier were installed between the insulation layers to both

avoid condensation problems and ensure airtightness. In addition, the existing configuration of the premises has avoided the sizeable issue of the drying in the brick façade, given that the existing wall is made up of a ventilated cavity. In a solid brick wall, there is a risk of damage if the brick lets in water, which subsequently freezes. We will probably cover this in a future issue of be.passive. In this project, Dirk Baert and Bernard Libert show that it is possible to perform renovations that achieve the passive standard in a very spread-out and yet extremely anti-compact setting. Is this the future for industrial buildings that have become too hungry for energy?■

For more details, please see the Lhers information sheet:

www.lehr.be/NL-P-Oudenaarde.htm

siding bricks cavity existing wall

insulation PUR 16.4 cm airtight membrane rockwool 10cm airtight membrane plasterboard

room

kitchen

living

Longitudinal section

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be.passive presents

listed building renovation text and photo

Julie Willem

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Listed building renovation rue Vanpe in Forest Brussels, Belgium Client CPAS de Forest Architect, service engineer and building physics A2M www.a2m.be

General layout

Energy consultant Matriciel www.matriciel.be Stability JZH & Partners www.jzh.be General contractor Dherte www.dherte.be

Cross section

Ground floor plan

1st floor

2nd floor

From 1934 to 2011 ! From 335 kWh/m².yr to 19 kWh/m².yr ! No compromises were made on the heritage renovation of the CPAS Forest, located in Rue Vanpé, not far from the Place Saint Denis. This is an exemplary heritage renovation and energy overhaul with no corners cut. Can energy efficiency be brought to such a project? Certainly. The challenge was well met in this case. Built in 1934, the building has had a characterful history, playing a variety of roles, (home, offices, etc.), with the associated patching up, reworking and additions. However, its history, replete with scars, has not dimmed its aesthetic and historical interest. It remains a fine example of the art deco style of the 1930s. Sitting on the corner of the rue Vanpé and rue de Liège, the building has a magnificent façade on both sides of the corner, adorned with carved stone mouldings and decorated in warm brick tones. Although repeatedly modified, the interior spaces, disposed over 2 floors and a basement, have kept a unique colourful charm over time, largely due to the presence of terrazzo on the floor and in the main stairwell. But since its construction, the urban environment has changed, the adjoining buildings, built at a later date, have gradually dwarfed the building with their considerable height. This is why, by 2007, the building found itself in a terrible state, almost unusable, and it no longer meets any real standard of comfort, safety and security required for use. Only a few offices are maintained, their viability solely depending on an enormous oil furnace. There is

also the presence of asbestos in poor condition, covering the heating pipes. Among the many bits of patching up, the rear window frames had been replaced by PVC frames, and adhesive seals were stuck on to prevent drafts. Three large window frames opening out onto the street, originally made of finely crafted metalwork, had been also replaced by large PVC frames. Given this dreadful situation, the CPAS jumped at the chance to perform extensive renovations, aimed at better energy efficiency, during the Call for Exemplary Buildings in the Brussels Region. These works also met the growing need for offices and meeting rooms, and so a schedule was drawn up. A2M was chosen to put forward a project and submit an application to the call for exemplary building. As mentioned above, the surrounding environment consists of much higher buildings, so to balance out this situation, a ninth floor, contrasting with the art deco façade, raises the height of the building. This additional floor, in light timber framing, can accommodate new offices in the schedule plan, without compromising the balance of mass and volume of the existing building. This vertical densification also extends to the basement, where a garden has been dug out and a large fullyequipped meeting room installed. The courtyard of the building, littered with miscellaneous additions, has been made clear, open and bright. The façade was restored and as many of the original elements as possible were kept, with special care taken over the large central►

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staircase, lit by a large bay window. To provide the possible level of comfort while drastically reducing the building's energy consumption, this has been fully lined with thick insulation. This liner passes behind the street façade, rising up from the top floor to the roof, and runs down the outside of the courtyard and passes under the floor slab to provide an constant wrapper around the building. This was painstaking work - to insulate the street façade, a 20cm layer of cellulose was sprayed into OSB boxes (vapour barrier) on the inside of the façade. However, existing slabs joining the façade create breaks in this lining, which could cause problems leading to discomfort, cold spots, or worse, condensation points, mould, fungus and other undesirable things that damage our buildings. Architects also adopted the bold technique of sawing slabs 20cm from the façade, creating a new structure to bear loads, so that insulation can run up and down the façade. The façade is now completely insulated and pinned to the building and its new structure. At the openings, the external metal window frames

with single glazing that form an integral part of the façade have obviously been preserved. The parts previously replaced with PVC have been removed and metal frames made sticking to the original plans were installed. But what can be done to maintain the character of the metal frames without affecting the energy performance of the building? By installing new effective frames, set back and in alignment with the insulation. In a light timber frame, the raised section is also insulated with cellulose in a timber frame, with Celit outside and a vapour barrier inside. The façades of the courtyard, having no special intrinsic character, are insulated with a coating on the outside insulation, which poses no thermal break issues. As the only technology component, a ventilation system with heat recovery rounds off the whole renovation and ensures an impeccable quality of indoor air. Summer comfort is provided through passive cooling strategies, including 'night cooling'. Protected by its insulation, inside and outside, the building has seen its energy consumption fall by more than 90%, with figures in 1934 and 2011 moving from 335 to

"Kersten pipe" test to check the hydrofuge protection of the facade

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Thermal bridge calculation with Bisco

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listed building renovation

Wufi simulation: hygrothermal dynamic simulation during 12 years


The inside insulation process: cutting the floor slab, add osb boxes filles with celulose insulation, add new window frame from inside and airtighness joins, bottom windows opens automatically for night cooling

19 kWh per m² per year respectively, solely thanks to the passive strategy - a simple physical efficient wrapping. This is the best long term investment for renovation projects, as active high-tech systems can always be easily inserted afterwards, while changes to the outer wrapping require heavy investment and are therefore rarely seen. Other measures have nevertheless been implemented to achieve a high efficiency: light fixtures that can be dimmed based on the light level, interior sensors, rainwater collection, green roofing and the installation of 30m² solar panels. This achievement shows that it is possible to combine heritage and energy efficiency, without making any concessions. ■

Floor surface area 1 017 m² Net heating energy requirement (phpp) 19 kWh/m² yr Airtighness 1.3 V/h

The entrance Back facade

U value of walls and windows Uwalls : 0.23 W/m².K Ufloor : 0.32 W/m².K Uroof : 0.12 W/m².K Uf : 1.58 W/m²K Ug : 0.81 W/m²K Systems Heatexchanger, h 90% Cooling strategy: Nifght cooling PV panels 30m² Costs exc TVA, exc fees 1 575 €/m² or 1 441 €/m² (bonus incl)

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be.passive presents

a renovation text

Bernard Deprez

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renovation

photos

RaphaĂŤl Tilman


Passive renovation of an existing house in Watermael-Boistfort Brussels, Belgium Client Hélène Nicodème and Raphaël Tilman Architect low-a, architecture and energy (Raphaël Tilman – Hélène Nicodème)

General layout

www.low-a.be

Service engineer done by client and architect General contractor eau-courant Airtighness Daniel Devroye Electricity Dewert Ventilation Somebat

1st floor

3nd floor

Ground floor

2nd floor

Windows Dethier

Both architects with a strong awareness of energy issues, Hélène and Raphaël bought a small family home and decided to renovate it to the low energy standard. Attracted by the Call for Exemplary Brussels Buildings in 2009, taking care to get close to the passive standard, they decided to renovate their house in a little more depth to meet passive energy requirements. This proved a successful decision (they are now living in their house, and were among the winners of the 2009 contest), and was deserved in terms of the successful passive renovation project bearing in mind the specific conditions of each building. By bringing back the façades on the street side, it was possible to renovate the house by mainly insulating the outside, which represents a significant advantage for a house where every square inch of floor space counts. A coating placed on a 20 cm panel of graphite polystyrene now provides a more compact appearance, more in-keeping with the whole. Only the ground floor had to be insulated on the inside, to avoid having to manage any construction delays waiting for planning permissions. Thermal bridges are regulated by a simple insulation return, cleverly concealing air vents here and there. The fan is placed in the loft, with the drive columns running down the front and rear corners of the building, while an air return is provided in the stairwell. This system responds very well to the compact nature of this house between adjoining neighbours. The architects spared no expense on insulation, but the main problem during the renovation lay in getting

adequate airtightness. There were a number of reasons for this. Firstly, the original construction did not have uniform qualities throughout the house (similar materials, etc.). Also, the architects chose to put an electrical conduit inserted in the façade wall, but this choice raised certain problems, as it proved very difficult to seal the wall, particularly to the right of the power sockets. A great deal of remedial work was therefore necessary to achieve the end result - a beautiful N50 of 0.52 vol/h, thanks largely to the company that conducted extensive tests on it. "It was very difficult," admits Hélène, "We also had to pitch in ourselves. Daniel Devroye showed us how to put in the strips, search for leaks and attach sealing strips everywhere. Walking around with a smoke pencil over three weekends with the help of some friends, we saw the level get gradually lower". For the two architects, the job of insulating and sealing became crucial: "The sealing company gave great advice to the architect and "conductor" to instruct subsequent discussions with companies doing the finishing work. It was a useful experience, because everyone wanted to overcome this challenge, even though the original project wasn't for a passive house". In terms of its construction, it is a typical 1960s house - cheap, mass-market construction with thin walls, single glazing, partitioned spaces, etc. "At first", recalls Raphaël, "we had in mind a classical piano nobile plan, with a completely enclosed L-shaped living room. We chose to knock through all the load bearing walls and replace them with pillars. The space is now completely► renovation

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open onto the stairwell." This is the main benefit provided by passive design in terms of space. There is no need for a thermal buffer because everything is heated in the same way, so the "old-fashioned" small cramped rooms came together naturally to become one big, clear, bright living space. This came as a very welcome surprise for Hélène's parents, who were able to witness the gradual metamorphosis of their small house into a beautiful open space. "They were truly excited about the piano nobile," recalls Hélène. Using programmable ventilation as their heating system, a simple recirculating hood is enough to get rid of all cooking smells in this spacious living area. "We also changed the stair turnings that had been lost to make way for ventilation ducts, etc". Opposite the railway tracks running alongside the street, triple glazing provides extra comfort, as it combines its heat insulating properties with much-appreciated soundproofing. This was included in the original plan. A small house, it has been improved through the addition of an extra room under the roof. Out of step with neighbouring roofs because of the sloping street, this forced the two architects to build a partially exterior party wall. This is an unusual solution that provides continuity of insulation with an inner lining on top of an insulating coating on the outside. This latter overlaps with the neighbour's house, enabling the tiles to be replaced easily. The neighbours know each other, and the solution has not been a problem, especially as it preserved the existing seals and flashings. Barely visible, the successful renovation in the Rue des Archives has little impact on the quaint charm of the street. But Hélène and Raphaël gave themselves the objective of promoting passive design: "We wanted to learn how to live in a passive house, experiencing it ourselves before sharing this knowledge with others." They also plan to host an event to raise awareness of the passive standard and "demystify" it. But it is undoubtedly the fact that the project can be reproduced so readily that provides biggest advantage of the whole operation. Hundreds of houses, all built in exactly the same way and that have become energy sinks, stand to benefit from the groundbreaking work done by Hélène and Raphaël. Work is already being carried out on the house next door. ■ Floor surface area 149 m² Net heating energy requirement (phpp) 15 kWh/m² yr Airtighness 0.52 V/h U value of walls and windows Uwalls : 0.14 W/m².K Ufloor : 0.18 W/m².K Uroof : 0.13 W/m².K Ug : 0.96 W/m²K Ug skylight : 1.63 W/m²K Systems Heat exchnager, h 84% Solar panels 4m² PV incl Costs exc TVA, exc fees 135 000 € 906 €/m² (excl kitchen and sanitary) or 460 €/m² (bonus incl)

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renovation


be.passive presents

a renovation text

Bernard Deprez

renovation

photo

Synergy International

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Renovation of an office building and prefabricated passive appartments extension rue de la loi 42 Brussels, Belgium Client CREDIBE sa

Prefabrication in workshop

Architect SYNERGY international www.synergy-international.com Sébastien Cruyt with Julie Thirion Stability MC² Sébastien Maréchal Service engineer and building physics Eddy Vaelen

Dangerously intelligent Loi_42, making six prefab passive homes at the top of an office building - this is a dangerously intelligent project. It is intelligent because it manages to maintain the look of the post-war office building, with its great stone façades. This is not great architecture, but is certainly great construction very solid. It would have been a terrible shame to pull it down. At the same time as preserving the building, the architect has opted to retain as many elements as possible: the frame (which helps maintain the identity of its façade from the street), blinds, light fixtures, radiators, etc. It is also intelligent because it helps to densify an up-andcoming business district, since the regional agreement on the blueprint for the Rue de la Loi and the competition for a master plan was won by the Ch. de Portzamparc, seeing the size of the offices get taller. The project adds three new floors to the existing five levels above ground. This proposal hardly comes as a surprise: the financial balance of a renovation is often conditional upon the possibility of creating some form of extension. The project therefore gets denser, while maintaining the current parking capacity and providing more space for alternative modes of transport. It also removes all the plant growth in the courtyard and on the roofs. Finally, it is intelligent because it adds density through additional offices, and also provides housing - a studio and five apartments with one to three bedrooms. By separating their corridors and walkways, it allows both functions to exist in harmony. With six passive homes enjoying full sunlight due

General Layout

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to their south-facing orientation, and a view that is second to none, far away from any troubling noise pollution with their triple glazing, breathable air cleaned by the vent filters, it is a safe bet that these apartments will not remain empty for long. The project therefore fulfils the desire to bring a more mixed use to the neighbourhood, and does so by creating a hybrid office area, and not by contaminating a residential area. This is a real Brussels paradox, because for all these reasons, the project is also dangerous. Bringing new residents to a neighbourhood that has lost thousands over the last thirty years, it provides good reasons to build in a space that is already very built up, but which desperately lacks people, trees and bikes. One key point is that this new mixture has to contributes to a better mix of people, and should not reinforce segregation. The five levels of office space were renovated in terms of low energy concepts (K25, BE net heating <41 kWh/m² yr) following a comprehensive audit that led to four action plan proposals: the most comprehensive enables an energy consumption dropping from 273 kWh/m² to 53, with the annual cost falling from €25,150 to €3950 per year. Without wishing to go into detail about the many eco-construction measures that earned the project its win in the Request for Proposals for Exemplary Buildings► in 2008, it uses energy upgrade measures (insulation, ventilation with heat recovery , glazing performance, etc.), which were able to be achieved without changing the spatial structures or partitions. This is a very costeffective solution, as it avoids unnecessary demolition and

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6th floor

7th floor


Floor surface area Appartment 571 m² Offices 1 850 m² Net heating energy requirement (phpp) Apptm 12 kWh/m² yr Off 26.8 kWh/m² yr Net cooling energy requirement (phpp) Off 1.1 kWh/m² yr

waste. Very practical, renovation just needs the application of the most directly effective measures. The study clearly demonstrates that it was possible to double the existing frames from the inside (instead of replacing them with triple glazing). The character of the façade is well maintained, creating a buffer volume between the windows that keeps the heat in during the winter months and uses sunscreens in the summertime which cannot be seen from street level. The approach for dwellings (passive) is the opposite: contrast and visibility, rather than modesty and adaptability. The housing plans provide for a double orientation. Mainly open to the south towards the rue de la Loi, the rooms all face the interior. Playing with the technical constraints, such as the presence of the panel points and elevator shafts, the rooms are designed as lightweight steel structures, part of which are prefabricated, with the rest assembled on-site. The

breathable cover is banded with wood, including movable flaps clearly visible to the south. From a technical standpoint, the extra heat and hot water are provided by the renovated office facility.. ■

Airtighness 0.60 V/h Total primary energy requirement Off 34 kWh/m² yr U value of walls and windows Apptm: off: walls : 0.15 W/m².K 0.20 W/m².K floor : 0.13 W/m².K 0.40 W/m².K roof : 0.13 W/m².K 0.20 W/m².K Uf : 0.80 W/m²K Ug : 0.60 W/m²K Systems Heatexchanger 92% PV and solar panels Heatpomp

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shared details Details are downloadable for free. The architectural drawings can be used with .dwg format compatible CAD software. Calculation of the thermal bridge is performed using Trisco, developed by www.physibel.be. and can be viewed with free Kobra software The hygrometric calculation can be viewed with Wufi software, developed by www.wufi.de

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shared details

www.a2m.be

Jette Program: Floor surface area: Client: Architect: Stability Service engineer: Energy concept: Contractor: Statut:

Social housing 284 m² Foyer Jettois A2M C.I.C Engineering A2M A2M - Ecorce Falco Completed

8 0.49

kWh/m².yr vol/h-1


1 2

Ψ= 0.033 W/(m.K)

0>10>20>30>40>50>60>70>80>90>100 % relative humidity

0° 1° 2° 3° 4° 5° 6° 7° 8° 9° 10° 11° 12° 13° 14° 15° 16° 17° 18° 19° 20°C isotherm curves

"Wufi 2D" result

Thermal bridge "Kobra" result

22 21

Total watercontent [kg/m³]

20 19

3

18 17 16

1 exterior rendering

15

expanded polystyrene graphite Néopor® λ 0,032 w/m²K 40cm concrete blocks 19cm plaster 1.5cm

14 2012

2013

2014

2015

"Wufi" result : water content simulated over 3 years

2 windowframe covered with 5cm insulation 3 airtightness band

outside: window's fitting

inside : airtighness

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www.mdw-architecture.com

Savonnerie Program: Floor surface area: Client: Architect: Stability Service engineer: Contractor: Statut:

housing 6 500m² CPAS Brussels MDW architecture MK engineering Waterman TCA CFE Completed

15 0.60

kWh/m².yr vol/h-1


1

2 3

Ψ= 0.095 W/(m.K) 0>10>20>30>40>50>60>70>80>90>100 % relative humidity

0° 1° 2° 3° 4° 5° 6° 7° 8° 9° 10° 11° 12° 13° 14° 15° 16° 17° 18° 19° 20°C isotherm curves

"Wufi 2D" result

Thermal bridge "Kobra" result

1 brick siding 9cm

35 BRUXELLES_chap_9-10:Mise en page 1

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Page 149

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Total watercontent [kg/m³]

CHAPITRE 09 TEAM SPIRIT ! / PAGES 148 – 149 33

+ hook slide 3cm Celit® panel λ 0.048 w/m²K 18 mm Cellulose insulation λ 0.041 w m² K 14cm + FSC wood caisson vapour barrier LA CAPACITÉ OSB 15mm D’ENGAGEMENT space with rock wool (MW) 5cm MANIFESTÉE Fermacell® PAR partition 12.5mm DESpaint PROFESlatex - Leinos®

SIONNELS QUI

2 existing steel structure PLACENT AVANT continuous rigid PUR insulation

32

TOUTE CHOSE

airtightness L’AMOUR DU OSB 15mm TRAVAILrockwool BIEN (MW) 5cm insulating FAIT, DES BEAUX Fermacell® partition 12.5mm

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2013

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"Wufi" result : water content simulated over 3 years

2015

MATÉRIAUX...

3 Illmod ® peripheral seal

Savonnerie Heymans – Building E (Passive house) PUR insulation embedded in the existing steel structure (continued in front of the slab edge) "In order to preserve the industrial character of the site, the metal frame of the Image virtuelle brick siding façades were retained. To avoid thermal bridges, contacts between the structure du projet Savonnerie ventilated cavity Heymans [042]. of the façade and the new interior supporting structure have been limited to those Arch. MDW Architecture. box+ cellulose made necessary by the bracing. " Vapour bareer pending

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photo : georgesdekinder.com

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www.r2d2architecture.be

Brasserie Program: Floor surface area: Client: Architect: Stability Service engineer: Contractor: Statut:

housing 1 420m² Ixelles municipality R2D2 Matriche Détang In Advance Completed

10 15 0,60 0,53 (fr)

(fr)

(bk

(bk)

kWh/m².yr vol/h-1


1

Ψ= 0.118 W/(m.K) 2

0>10>20>30>40>50>60>70>80>90>100 % relative humidity

"Wufi 2D" result

0° 1° 2° 3° 4° 5° 6° 7° 8° 9° 10° 11° 12° 13° 14° 15° 16° 17° 18° 19° 20°C isotherm curves

Thermal bridge "Kobra" result

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Total watercontent [kg/m³]

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1 brick siding 9cm

ventilated space 6cm panel - Celit® λ 0,048 w/m²K 18 mm expanded polystyrene graphite Néopor® λ 0,032 w/m²K 12 cm concrete 20cm plaster 1.5 cm

48 47 46 45

2 brick siding 9cm

ventilated cavity 6cm panel - Celit® λ 0,048 w/m²K 18 mm Cellulose insulation λ 0.041 w m² K 30 cm OSB panel

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"Wufi" result : water content simulated over 3 years "Complexity of eco-construction detail bringing together the wall/frame heat transfer and the non-insulating concrete skeleton of a building and insulated timber frame filling elements. Provided to works, this detail enables

prefabricated components for almost all constituent sets. Thermography performed after construction only distinguishes the wooden parts from insulated concrete ones with difficulty. " V. Spirer, architect

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www.a2m.be

IPFC Program: Floor surface area: Client: Architect: Stability Service engineer: Energy concept: Contractor: Statut:

School 2 755 m² Province du Brabant Wallon A2M Ney & Partners Solyremy Cenergie TWT-Rogiers Completed

10 0.54

kWh/m².yr vol/h-1


6.5 0.8 5.4 2.2

50.9 33.7 30

11 1.5 1 10

1

2 3

4 5

Ψ= 0.067 W/(m.K)

0>10>20>30>40>50>60>70>80>90>100 % relative humidity

"Wufi 2D" result

0° 1° 2° 3° 4° 5° 6° 7° 8° 9° 10° 11° 12° 13° 14° 15° 16° 17° 18° 19° 20°C isotherm curves

Thermal bridge "Kobra" result

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Trespa Celite Cellulose in FJI 45/300 OSB Kerto grille block

2

sun blind

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galvanised steel structure Trespa

4

pro-clima airtightness

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Triple glazing frame Internorm

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Total watercontent [kg/m³]

34 33 32 31 30 29 2012

2013

2014

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"Wufi" result : water content simulated over 3 years

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phpp

stone paper scissors text

Marny di Pietrantonio, Benoit Quevrin

stupid trick

Is it better to insulate the wall with 30cm of expanded polystyrene or the equivalent in extruded polystyrene?

To answer this question scientifically, we posed the question to a renowned physicist, Mr. Cooper, who gave the following answer: "When a compromise cannot be made because of an excessively precise assessment preventing clear scientific evidence, we are not dealing with a

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game of rock, paper, scissors but rather including two additional variables that throw a bit of randomisation into the mix... I call it: rock, paper, scissors, lizard, Spock. "Scissors cut paper, paper covers rock, rock crushes lizard, lizard poisons Spock,Spock smashes scissors, scissors decapitates lizard, lizard eats paper, paper disproves Spock, Spock vaporizes rock and, as itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s always been, rock crushes scissorsâ&#x20AC;Ś" The Big Bang Theory.


encoding trick

The ground is considered to play a role in the thermal resistance of the building it supports. It is logical that the PHPP will then ask you the question (>"ground" tab> cells [G6] and [G7]) to find out what the thermal conductivity of the soil is (lambda, λ) as well as its volumetric heat.

architect trick

Update on "g": is a factor that

architects often tend to overlook, and yet ... When ordering a window, the thermal glazing and frame coefficients have a significant impact. Similarly, thermal bridges and the introduction of the interlayer have some level of importance, but the "g" solar factor is just as important. Therefore, at one extreme, note that for

For fans of thermal bridge calculation, the earth must be represented as a material having a certain conductivity. But what conductivity? If you read the EN ISO 13370 standard, you will find a lot of interesting information about the values used according to the type of

terrain. In the absence of more details (eg: in-situ test to determine what values correspond to your terrain), the last two columns of the attached table will certainly be useful.

triple glazing with a low solar factor (0.48 for example), in some cases and for certain orientations, "super insulation" doubleglazing with a percentage of solar radiation passing through a relatively high element (0.65) may be more beneficial in terms of energy balance. So special attention has to be paid to this factor in addition to the famous U. I'll

let you try it out for yourself in your PHPP encoded plans... To clarify, the price of triple glazing is undoubtedly directly proportional to this factor: check whether it may be more costefficient to improve other elements of the building before breaking the bank on that.

scientific trick

How much time do we need to heat a passive house?

The moral of the story: "A passive house cools, so you need a water bottle for two nights!"■

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temperature changes after switching off the heating

DELTA T [C ]

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Heavy passive Light passive

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heavy standard 5

0 0

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Heures

temperature changes after switching on the heating again

Heavy passive

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Light passive

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DELTA T

We simulated a conventional house (four façades, 155m² surface area for energy references) and considered three cases: 1. passive design with very high inertia (all exterior walls are concrete and accessible) 2. passive design with low inertia (eg with inside insulation) 3. K45 Standard with very high inertia (same as 1). Suppose you are planning a long weekend in January. We can assume that there is no heating or internal inputs and that ventilation is adjusted to minimum levels. The simulation is done with an mean average outdoor temperature of 2°C representing the Belgian climate. Figure 1 shows the change in temperature over time for the three variants. After 80 hours (over three days), the temperature in a passive house with inertia decreased by just 2°C, while in house K45, the inside of your refrigerator is now hotter than your living room! Basically, it is perfectly logical that a well insulated house maintains its temperature level the longest. We can also note that a passive house with low inertia is also warmer than the K45 house ... with inertia! This is good to know - at least in January. In the next issue, we'll repeat the exercise with a bit more detail for the month of July. Now imagine that you're back from holiday, nicely warmed up, and you switch the heating on. Like the three little pigs, each in his house, the respective starting temperatures are 18°C, 13.4°C and 5°C. The heating power in passive houses are 2kW, and 25kW in the K45 house. Figure 2 shows that it will still take 40 hours (1.75 days) to reach 20°C in the passive house, whereas in just 30 hours, the other and its 25 kilowatts have swallowed up 15°C to catch up. It should be noted nevertheless, that from 19°C (temperature reached after 20 hours in Variant 1), life becomes liveable ... in a passive house!

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Leaving for Antarctica - entering a world of extremes.

We were well aware of the insulation capacity of the polar station, and we were very confident about our stay. We realised that when there's a dozen people in the room, the temperature reached 22°C without heating - just using the ventilation system. It's obviously very effective! Life in the station imposes its own rules. The station is perched on a rocky ridge. Access is gained through the huge 2000m² garages built of wood buried in the snow, for cost reasons. So we enter a garage, which serves as the first chamber, then the stair tower, which forms a second chamber, before entering the station. It is fitted with automatic door closers to avoid any mistakes made by users ... Inside, in the passive space, the temperature is the same throughout. In Antarctica, unlike Belgium, you can't open the windows. We have a double window which is triple-glazed, one window 40cm on top of the other. The temperature is controlled through ventilation using outside air, which is very dry and ranges on average between -15 to -20°C in the summer. We can also adjust

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Elizabeth's diary

humidity and CO2 levels. The real difficulty in Antarctica is our goal of only using energy available on the ground - the sun and the wind. The sun shines 24 hours a day in summer, but doesn't show itself at all in winter, when there is more wind. So we installed solar panels and wind turbines. We also have batteries to store energy and use the energy when we don't have enough. We stop our research in winter and everything is automatic. We heat the station where needed and we monitor everything by computer from Europe through a satellite link installed just this year. We collect all the information, so we can change the thermostat, change the ventilation humidity, stop or open a circuit, etc. We still have some problems to resolve in the technical core, where it is still too hot because of the bioreactor system used for water treatment, which provides more heat than we anticipated. For scientific and technical building to function, with all the people that all this sometimes involves, we have been forced to go far beyond anything that exists in the world today. We had to create an intelligent network to make all the energy required by the


building and its users available. It is a "smart grid", which is three times more efficient than anything that currently exists. It means we only have to produce 10% of all the energy we actually. Everything is computer-controlled - which represents the real risk for us. This is completely new, and this prototype will certainly have to change as time goes by. The interesting thing about this station is that it is a prototype. We are going to develop solar panels and develop a new generation of batteries four times more efficient (to replace the generator backup we still require at the moment, that starts automatically when the energy reserves fall below the minimum level required to keep "brain" of the station operating). All this is certainly somewhat futuristic!

Elisabethâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s diary August 2010 Interview Alain Hubert, by Bernard Deprez

photos

International Polar Foundation

In 2002, Alain Hubert founded the International Polar Foundation (IPF) in order to raise public awareness about the importance of polar science and climate change, and also to establish the Polaris Climate Change Observatory in a number of cities around the world (www.polarfoundation.org). Acting in science and education, Alain Hubert continues to give presentations across the globe, and take part in polar expeditions. . â&#x2013; 

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passive blows hot and cold A few months after its creation, the PMP, in conjunction with PHP, held a major event in 2007 to promote the passive standard in Brussels, with the support of Bruxelles Environnement (which was in the process of providing its first subsidies to encourage passive design at the time), the government and a number of private sponsors [1]. The event, inspired by initiatives undertaken in a number of cities in Germany and Austria by the Climate Coalition (Klimabündnis), ran following the IPCC meeting, held in Brussels in February 2007, which had been so encouraging. The ICEchallenge operation took place from 18 April to 31 May at the Mont des Arts, in the heart of the capital. Two large blocks of 1300kg of ice was installed in two houses - the first non-insulated (wooden structure, U = 3 W/ m² K) and the second super-insulated (wooden structure, U <0.15 W/m² K). How long would it take for the ice blocks to melt? This challenge was turned into a game, with the general public asked to estimate how much ice, to the nearest gramme, would withstand six weeks of exposure thanks to insulation. This was about testing a construction standard - that of passive houses. The nerves of the organisers were rather strained by the fact that the spring of 2007 was dubbed the "hottest in history" by the Royal Meteorological Institute, with average temperatures that were 3°C higher than the normal seasonal maximum, approaching 30°C in April. The first block of ice completely disappeared after 11 days, on 29 April at 1.25pm. As for the second block, the judge stated to the press and Minister Huytebroeck that after 44 days spent in the passive house, there was still more than 456kg of ice left standing, amounting to 35.13% of the original block. The event turned out to be a boon for passive design. The houses were viewed at Mont des Arts by thousands of locals and tourists, and a webcam broadcast live images at www. icechallenge.be, which received over 5726 visits between 18 April and 31 May. 1416 people entered the competition,

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winning a great many prizes. The ICEchallenge.be website was listed on 15,100 pages (June 2007). In addition, many associations joined in with the event, including The Green Challenge, which organised a major game bringing together Scouts of all nationalities (they celebrated their centenary in Brussels), and also APERe Inter-Environnement Bruxelles, the Urban Center (ABEA), Etopia, the Nicolas Hulot Foundation, etc. Taking its lead from Brussels, Antwerp did the same thing from 5 June to mid-July at Ecohuis [2]. In 2009, Brussels launched a variation on this idea: the Brussels ENERGY Challenge [3]. By reversing the principle, the event was held in winter in the Rue Neuve - a busy shopping street, from 11 February to 9 March. The challenge was to estimate the energy consumed by two houses to maintain a constant temperature of 20°C using electric radiators. The passive house also had 2 super insulating windows, which enabled visitors to check the temperature on a prominently displayed thermometer. Having demonstrated the technical efficiency of the passive standard, this exercise was aiming to help people understand the implications of energy efficiency on the daily household budget, and in terms of CO2. Power consumption was displayed on a big screen, relaying not only the actual difference in energy consumption between the two houses, but also to extrapolate that information across the region. With a counter stopping at 281.7 kWh, the non-insulated house ultimately consumed nearly 20 times more than the passive house (14.35 kWh). It was calculated that if all of Brussels was built on the passive standard, hundreds of millions of euros and thousands of tonnes of CO2 would be saved each year. While implementing the same tools (website, collaborations, on-site activities, etc) and expanding the ranks of its partners, the operation did, however, suffer from the cold and rain, as the number of visitors (on-site and via the Internet) failed to exceed the 2007 figures. Finally, from 30 September to 20 October 2009, the ICEchallenge resurfaced again in Flanders, in Genk [4] in its original form...almost: equipped with four beautiful windows,

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participants also had to take the sunlight challenge! This was a real first, and the competition ended with a very positive result for passive standard. Capable of resisting the extra warmth, the green house still had over 187kg of ice at the end of five weeks, a weight correctly estimated (to the nearest 2kg) by the winner. â&#x2013;  [1] see www.icechallenge.be [2] www.icechallenge.be/Antwerpen.258.0.html [3] www.brusselsenergychallenge.be [4] www.limburgisoleert.be/nl/album/24

Ice-challenge at Mont des Arts, Brussels

Brussels Energy Challenge, Rue Neuve, Brussels

Ice-challenge, central market, Genk

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platformframe or balloonframe ?

Platform-frame

Balloon frame

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Olivier Henz

In timber frame construction, there are two structural systems, the "platform-frame" and the "balloon frame". The platform-frame system consists of constructing buildings on independent levels, the joist floor constituting a platform for building the level above. The continuity of the outer walls is systematically interrupted by the floor structure. With the balloon-frame, however, the height of the outer walls usually corresponds to the height of the dwelling. The continuity of the outer walls is not interrupted. The basic difference between these two systems therefore lies at the assembly between the outer walls and intermediary floors. The platform-frame system is by far the most common in wood frame construction. We will therefore examine the various assembly options based on the linear thermal bridge, the airtightness and the water vapour distribution. For all these details, the heat transfer coefficient from the outer wall is assumed to be 0.13 W/m² K.

The only negative point is the unnecessary extra loss of energy through ventilation. In this situation it is almost impossible to meet the airtightness standard during an infiltometry test for passive buildings (the value of n50 â&#x2030;¤ 0.6 h-1). 1.2 Improving airtightness To resolve this problem, OSB panels have to be connected in an airtight way, located on either sides of the intermediary floor. This can be done using a membrane stretched over the perimeter of the floor (Fig. 2 and 3). But to apply this solution, we need to perform a water vapour distribution test. This is an airtight membrane and, like OSB for the walls, plays the role of a brake, or a vapour barrier. We know that a brake or a vapour barrier should ideally be placed on the warmer inside of insulation. Here, the membrane will have to be

The Platform-frame 1.1 Base Case It is unfortunately not unusual to still see platformframe assemblies being used on worksites which have no airtightness strategy at the assembly between the wall and floor. OSB panels, which provide such an airtight seal in the vertical wall, are typically interrupted with the intermediary floors (Fig. 1). Constructively, this does not present a major problem, as water vapour can migrate through the assembly without any risk of condensation.

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04 positioned on the edge of the floor, meaning the outer side of the joist floor. It can be insulated by an 18mm wood fibre panel, but this can eventually lead to a risk of condensation between the inside of the vapour barrier and the peripheral wooden joist floor, which could damage this area over the long term. To assess the risk of condensation, a calculation of dynamic water vapour distribution over a period of ten years (WUFI) was performed and the results show that the initial moisture content of wood decreases and that a hygrometric balance of 12 to 13% settled after the first three years (Fig. 4). So there is no fear of wood damage in this situation. This result may seem surprising, but can be explained by the relatively high temperature of the vapour barrier on the edge of the floor. The linear thermal bridge of this connection does, however, remain an issue. To recap, the wall has a U-value (unaffected by the thermal bridge) of 0.13 W/ m² K. The value of the linear thermal bridge here is to 0.34 W/mK (Fig. 5). This means that a metre of flooring loses as much heat as 2.6m² of the façade - that's an entire floor! By checking with the PHPP about the impact this type of connection can have in a single family dwelling with a single intermediate floor, we can see that there is an increase of ± 5 kWh/m² net heating energy requirement per year! Reducing the linear thermal bridge is a must! 1.3 Reducing the thermal bridge The introduction of a thermal insulator between floor joists reduces the value of the linear thermal bridge to

0.04 W/mK (Fig. 6 and 7). Under the same conditions as above, its impact on the net heating requirement is reduced to ± 0.5 kWh/m² per year. This value and its impact on the energy performance of a building are acceptable. So are the airtightness and thermal bridge issues now resolved for this type of connection and this platform-frame construction system? No. The temperature conditions of the vapour barrier change on the colder side of the insulation, and we need to

07 check on the risk of condensation again. Under static temperature conditions (+20°C inside / -10°C outside the wall), the surface temperature of the vapour brake drops from 0°C to -8°C. The introduction of insulation in detail

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08 has reduced the flow of heat, which guarantees a high vapour brake temperature. A further dynamic calculation of the risk of condensation shows a fundamentally different and more disturbing graph, as there has been a progressive increase of relative humidity in the peripheral joist floor beyond 20% (Fig. 8). There is a real risk of wood damage. 1.4 Reducing the risk of condensation To resolve this condensation issue, different strategies are available to us. We can work on the degree of openness to vapour distribution in the vapour barrier, and its Îźd value. By increasing its vapour permeability, we can reduce the risk of condensation. Unfortunately, this strategy is less efficient than increasing the insulation thickness. It is therefore not a good strategy for passive buildings. Another option is to move the airtightness membrane inside to a warmer area. A dynamic calculation of the vapour distribution shows that the initial moisture in the timber decreases and a relatively balanced hygrometry stands at 13% (Fig. 9). The risk of wood damage is once again resolved in this situation. The need for more wood with this solution slightly increases the value of linear thermal bridge, moving to 0.044 W/mK (Fig. 10). Wooden rails and OSB floor panels affect the value of linear thermal bridge in the platform-frame system. No significant improvement is possible. Only a structural change (eg I-beams rather than massive joist floors) or a construction system could further reduce the impact of the connection between the floor and the wall on the energy balance.

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Picture : passive house in Mariakerke, architect: Giovanni Declercq, contractor: Lab15


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The Balloon-frame system By performing the same type of detail with a balloonframe, the value of the linear thermal bridge falls to 0.0067 W/mK. If we remember, any value less than 0.01 W/mK is no longer considered as a thermal bridge in the passive standard. Airtightness is achieved by the OSB panel, which is not interrupted at the joint (Fig. 11 and 12). The risk of condensation and vapour distribution at the joint between the floor and the wall does not fundamentally differ from the situation in an undisturbed wall.

Picture : Passive house in Mariaburg, architect Denc! Studio, contractor : Lab15

Picture : passive house in Laarne, architect: Renaat Van De Putte, contractor: Lab15

Conclusions Platform-frame : • The systematic verification of the risk of condensation, the airtightness and the value of the linear thermal bridge has to be performed. • The risk of condensation increases with the increasing thickness of insulation, as is the case with the passive standard. • Airtightness membranes have to be installed on the site during the installation of the framework, and special care must be taken not to puncture them. • The linear thermal bridge values are higher. • The implementation of the framework is easier because the elements are small. Balloon-frame: • The structural elements are larger (the size is only limited by the length of the jambs). • Additional sealing membranes are not necessary if the OSB panel is positioned continuously. • The detail does show any different vapour distribution behaviour to walls undisturbed by joints. • The assembly joint has no thermal bridge. ■ in detail

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Approximately 125 million Japanese people live on a chain of islands (Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū, Shikoku and Okinawa), which include a variety of climatic zones (from moderate climate in Hokkaido to subtropical conditions in Okinawa). Hokkaido, the most northern island, has a climate very similar to Switzerland. However, the majority of people live¬ within three of the milder climate zones (see map), and because of its harsher climate people living in Hokkaido needed to establish their own building standard independently from the main part of the country. If you travel across Japan during winter, you will soon realize that houses in Hokkaido are generally much more comfortable than those in Tokyo. In the main parts of Japan, the summer climate is usually much more problematic than winter, because of high temperatures in combination with high levels of air humidity, which are clearly key impediments to living comfort. Furthermore they can also have a negative impact on the timber structure of a house, which needs to be kept in good condition and strong enough to resist earthquakes as well as termites. On the other hand, there are ways of getting through the cold winter in

Japan. For example, sitting around the kotatsu, a table with integrated heating underneath, or taking a hot bath and jumping straight into the futon, which people seem to prefer rather than insulating the walls and making buildings draught-free. People from Hokkaido seem to have a better understanding of the European way of thinking with regards to the importance of insulation and draught-free building construction, i.e. towards Passive House idea. However the Japanese housing market will not likely be easily transformed by a minority (n.b. only five million people live on Hokkaido), and furthermore, the stronger the Passive House movement in Hokkaido, the stronger the anti-Passive House movement in the rest of the country will likely become. This is a similar discussion to the one in Europe around ten years ago. There is also still a very strong belief that insulated timber houses will generate condensation within the walls and create the so-called “sick house syndrome”. Another myth is that draught-free construction will block the air circulation within the house, causing mould in the summer. These misunderstandings are very easy to correct, but there are still too many architects and home owners who believe that insulation in walls is not necessary. Japanese building standards are still generally biased towards the decentralized heating habits of Japanese people. Statistics show that more people die due to the shock

It’s moving in Japan

the passive house in Japan text

Miwa Mori, PassiveHouseJapan

Key Architects

Contact PASSIVEHOUSEJAPAN T +81 467 39 5031 info@passivehouse-japan.org www.passivehouse-japan.org

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caused by the temperature difference between the warm living areas and cold wet areas (toilets and bathrooms for example), than people die due to traffic accidents every year in Japan. Incidentally toilet seats with integrated electric heating are standard equipment these days in order to make the visit to the toilet more bearable. The Passive House in Kamakura was built in an environment where people believe that insulation also helps to heat up the house in summer. The heating demand would virtually be zero with only 240mm of wood fiber insulation (which can be considered an enormous amount for a Japanese house). However, most people resent the idea of Passive House when they hear of the 20% additional construction costs that would be required to turn a small house into a Passive House. This aversion is even higher when you consider that the owner paid around 39 million yen (about 320,000 euros) for just a 120m² plot of land. The main challenge for the Passive House in Kamakura is to prove that high levels of insulation and draught-free construction methods will actually contribute to energy savings in the summer months, and also to prove that it is possible to design cost effective Passive House buildings with the products available on the market today. Insulation of course contributes to the cooling up to a certain degree in summer, but once you install too much insulation, the heat created during the day can not be released effectively via the external walls

and windows. Should windows be kept open during the night? No. That would allow more and more humidity into the house and the primary energy demand for dehumidification would increase drastically. Furthermore, the moisture movement within the wall reverses between winter and summer. Using a typical polyethylene vapor barrier could cause summer condensation within the wall, which would be devastating to any timber structure. Passive House Japan has been founded to establish appropriate construction methods that achieve maximum energy efficiency in the humid Japanese summer climate. We are encouraging people in Hokkaido to build to the Passive House Standard and are also trying to convince people in and around Tokyo that there is no risk in insulating buildings and building draught-free if the moisture movement is properly considered. We are also providing information about the embodied energy of construction materials. Saving energy during the construction period is also a very important issue for us. Fortunately, all these issues are very easy to accept for Japanese people who have a very long tradition of building houses out of paper, timber and clay. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hope Japanese people will soon come to realize the benefits of the Passive House are not only energy savings but also a more comfortable living environment during both summer and winter. â&#x2013; 

Key Architects

Key Architects

"The certification of the first Passive House in Kamakura was a milestone to change the view of Japanese people towards energy efficient buildings with a high living standard but there is still a long way to go ! " it's moving in Japan

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It is essential that professionals are aware that this magnificent adventure can also be a source of dispute and questioning of responsibility

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right angle

the end of the state of grace text

FrĂŠdĂŠric Loumaye, lawyer

A pioneering spirit imbued with idealism and goodwill has been the driving force behind the various players in the first passive projects. Project owners were aware of the novelty of these structures, and therefore that they may involve a good deal of trial and error. They have been patient and understanding when dealing with various technical problems during construction. The first architects embarking on this adventure were often early-adopter idealists, tirelessly devoting themselves to bringing the project to fruition. The architect, besides the most profitable party in most cases, doesn't hesitate to spend considerable time on making buildings achieve their goals. Be aware that if you back to an hourly fee charged by the architects for this kind of project, we could say they don't really earn much money at all... The first contractors were also motivated by the same spirit as the early-adopting idealist architects. They worked as true "craftsmen", setting to work immediately and not resting until they were satisfied, achieving the Holy Grail of the passive design world: certification. Idealism, faith and a passion for the passive ideal was the oil that ran the engine of these early projects. However, the growth and success of the passive standard will inevitably lead to the end of the honeymoon between the project owners, architects and contractors. The willingness on the part of the authorities to impose the passive standard on all new construction has meant that project owners will be building this kind of construction by force and not through passion. In the excitement of the moment, developers may just see the sales potential of the passive standard and nothing else. They may want to bend the philosophy of the

passive standard to their way of thinking - profitability and tight timing. Some contractors may want to take on this new niche while being confident that they will continue to work as before without really delving deep into the methodology necessary to succeed with a "passive house". Considering these buildings like any other, these professionals will completely ignore their special nature and their fragility of implementation at all stages, from structural works to the finished product. The first troupe of passionate architects will inevitably broaden out into professionals who "do" passive work either by legal obligation or to please the project owners, but will do it without conviction ... It often takes just one part of the architect, project owner, contractor triangle to fail to be motivated by the same goodwill, passion and skill, for the whole machine to grind to a halt at the first hurdle. The process can be either the best friend or the worst enemy of the architect and the contractor. Faced with the exciting challenge of passive design, it is essential that professionals are aware that this magnificent adventure can also be a source of dispute and may call into question their responsibility. At each stage of the development of a passive building, the construction professional, and more specifically the architect, may incur liability. The purpose of this section, which will now be regular inclusion in the magazine, is obviously not showering enthusiasm on passive design but rather playing a preventive role. Each successive stage of a passive project will be examined under the microscope. This will be "unpleasant" for some, but nevertheless useful...â&#x2013; 

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The "passive house" standard was developed for homes in temperate climates. This standard has been extended to office buildings with low energy consumption and high levels of comfort [1]. But energy consumption differs greatly between homes and offices. A deep-seated analysis of the existing method of calculation and clear hypotheses are very important in order to ensure a reliable estimate for energy consumption and comfort in passive offices. The demand for energy for cooling was studied for the

passive CIT Blaton office building in Schaerbeek [2]. The results of the PHPP [3] software were compared with results from dynamic simulations of buildings done using TRNSYS [4]. The impact of two important hypotheses, the value of internal contributions and meteorological data were analysed [5].

CIT Blaton in Schaerbeek

This office building houses the general headquarters of CIT Blaton in Schaerbeek (architect: A2M, Technical: MK Engineering, sustainability consultant: Arcadis, stability: CIT Blaton and Ney). Only the rear building was done using the "passive house" standard (see cross-section). It has four floors, with the central two floors accommodating the offices. The second floor has an area of 278m², a vertical clearance of 2.5m and includes a meeting room, an open plan office, two small offices, bathrooms and a stairwell. During construction, the existing concrete frame was retained. This structure is suspended in an envelope made up of elements consisting of FJI beams closed with OSB panels and filled with cellulose (U = 0.13 W/m² K). The interior walls are done in cellular masonry. The U-value of the window is 0.80 W/m² K, while the solar factor is equal to 0.51. External sun protection is provided in the form of hinged shutters.

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passive offices: cooling demand text

Stijn Coenen, Joke De Vroede, Hilde Breesch, Ralf Klein (promoteurs)

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Monthly requirements for cooling exhibit a similar trend in PHPP and TRNSYS, except July and August (Fig. 03). Unlike TRNSYS, PHPP indicates some hot periods in July. Figure 04 compares the heat loss and heat gain from April to October inclusive. There are obvious differences in both losses by ventilation and transmission in the internal gains. There are two reasons for these differences. Firstly, TRNSYS only counts ventilation losses and internal gains during office hours, unlike PHPP. Secondly, PHPP calculates a constant indoor temperature of 25°C, while the temperature varies in dynamic simulations and in this case is on average less than 25°C.

Occasional internal gains vary between 23 and 30 W/m² in the office space. The building meets the airtightness requirements for the "passive house" standard: n50 = 0.44 h-1. Mechanical ventilation provides a flow of 1200 m³/h for the floor type and also meets the heating needs. To do this, two cross-flow heat exchangers are connected in series. In each area, post-heating batteries are also placed on the air ducts and powered by a gas condensing boiler. Passive cooling is ensured by natural intensive night ventilation and by indirect adiabatic cooling.

Comparison of calculation methods

The PHPP (Passivhaus Projektierung Paket (3)) provides a static method of monthly calculation based on the energy balance method in accordance with NBN EN ISO 13790 [6]. The building - here on the second floor - is considered Zone 1. The energy demand for cooling is calculated for each month. TRNSYS (Transient Systems Simulation [4]) is dynamic thermal simulation software that divides the building into several zones, which mainly correspond to one room. TRNSYS calculates the energy demand for cooling in each zone per time unit - in this case per hour.

Impact of hypotheses

Three scenarios for internal gains during office hours were established based on occupation: a low scenario (67%), medium (75%) and high (100%). This amounts to an average load of 20, 24 and 33 W/m² in office spaces. Figure 5 illustrates the impact of these scenarios on the annual energy demand for cooling. There is considerable uncertainty about the application of cold: with PHPP, it varies between 4.1 and 16.1 kWh/ m² per year, while the maximum demand for cooling in the Brussels region is equal to 15 kWh/m² per year [1]. In terms of certification, this means that the hypotheses regarding on internal energy gains have to be determined correctly. The difference between PHPP and TRNSYS increases alongside the internal gains. Figure 6 focuses on the monthly cold demand in TRNSYS for three different scenarios. The choice of scenario has a significant impact on the duration of the cooling season. For the highest scenario, this period is longer than two months in this office building in comparison to the other scenarios. Furthermore, energy demand for cooling is calculated using meteorological data based on the normal Uccle climate between 1961 and 1990. However, measurements at the Uccle meteorological station indicate that the average outside temperature (1961-1990) has been exceeded every year from June to August, during the last fourteen years. It ►

Energy demand for cooling

The energy demand for cooling the second floor is calculated for a maximum ambient temperature of 25°C (meteorological data from Uccle [7]). The average monthly outdoor temperature and sunshine in PHPP are treated as monthly average values in TRNSYS. The annual cold requirements amounts to 5.5 kWh/ m² per year in TRNSYS and 7.0 kWh/m² per year in PHPP. Dynamic simulation forecasts a yearly energy demand for cooling lower that is than the monthly method. This is consistent with the findings of Sofic and Bednar [8].

Fig. 03 : Monthly cooling requirements 3,5 3,0 2,5

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is therefore important to use climate data that will also include high outdoor temperatures. Meteonorm software [6] generates a sequence of summer temperatures corresponding to heat levels that we only see once every ten years. Figure 07 illustrates the impact of warmer climate data with average occupancy. The cold demand with PHPP increases by 7.0 to 9.8 kWh / m² per year. This is a significant increase, but is substantially lower than the impact of domestic gains. The duration of the cooling season is hardly influenced here.

winter

Conclusion

Dynamic simulations with TRNSYS provide energy demand for cooling to be lower than that provided by the monthly PHPP method of calculation for the passive CIT Blaton office building. The uncertainty relating to the demand for cooling is strongly influenced by internal gains and, to a lesser extent, by climate data. Unequivocal hypotheses have to be generated made for certification. ■

summer day

Cit-Blaton HQ Architect: A2M Energy concept: Arcadis Belgium Contractor: CIT-Blaton

summer night

[1]Deprez, B., Di Pietrantonio, M., Henz, O., Moreno-Vacca, S., Marrecau, C., Van Loon, S., De Herde, A. Gratia, E., Dartevelle, O., Busch, B. (2009), Mise au point de critères passifs pour les bâtiments tertiaires en Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Convention TERTIAIRE IBGE E06-166 [2]Bossaer, A. (2007) [Online], Renovatie kantoorgebouw CIT-Blaton, te raadplegen op: http://www.citblaton.be/PDF/passif/nl/CITPG.pdf [3]Passivhaus Institut. (2007), Passivhaus Projektierungs Paket (PHPP) version 2007, http://www.passiv.de/index.html [4]Klein, S.A., Beckman, W.A., Mitchell, J.W., Duffie, J.A., Duffie, N.A., Freeman, T.L., Mitchel, J.C., Braun, J.E., Evans, B.L., Krummer, J.P., Urban, R.E., Fiksel, A., Thornton, J.W., Blair, N.J., Williams, P.M., Bradley, D.E., McDowell, T.P., Kummert, M. (2004). TRNSYS 16: a transient system simulation program, user manual. Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA. [5]Coenen, S., De Vroede, J. (2009), Analyse van de berekeningsmethode ter bepaling van de energievraag voor koeling in kantoorgebouwen volgens de passiefhuisstandaard, Masterproef Industrieel ingenieur bouwkunde, KaHo Sint-Lieven, Gent, Belgium [6]NBN EN ISO 13790 (2008), Energieprestatie van gebouwen Berekening van het energiegebruik voor verwarming en koeling [7]Meteotest (2003), Meteonorm: global meteorological database for engineers, planners and education version 5.0., Bern, Switzerland [8]Sofic, M., Bednar, T. (2007), Analysis of the monthly method for cooling energy demand calculation in office buildings, in Bauphysik 29 (3), p. 202-207

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the game of 7 errors Compare the top photo with the one below and find the 7 differences. The house above is a passive house. The house below is standard.

> pmp > php

www.maisonpassive.be www.passiefhuisplatform.be

Solution: There is no difference. The passive house consumes 10 times less energy but it is impossible to tell, unless you're the one paying the energy bills!

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flash 08 focus 12 humour 15 global view 16 face à face 20 parole d’image 24 le missionnaire 27 qu’en dites-vous 28 architecture partagée 35 dossier 46 portrait 50 phpp, vademecum 54 logement 60 non-résidentiel 64 rénovation 67 immobilier 70 Elisabeth's diary 81 ça bouge en ... 82

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flash 08 focus 12 humour 14 global view 16 perspective 18 carte blanche 22 le missionnaire 24 parole d’image 26 architecture partagée 29 dossier 39 phpp, vademecum 52 logement 59 rénovation 64 détail 69 tante Monique 76 Elisabeth's diary 78 ça bouge en 80

trimestriel du standard passif > www.bepassive.be

Looking forward Etat de la question

bureau de dépôt 2099 Antwerpen X P 910294

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be.passive trimestriel du standard passif > www.bepassive.be

Bruxelles passif en 2015

bureau de dépôt 2099 Antwerpen X P 910294

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State of the issue Natuurcentrum Bourgoyen

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be.passive goes wild 11 free details

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Brussels to be PassivHaus Schools Théatre De Vieze Gasten IPFC

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Rehab Passive office in Marche

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Labels Aeropolis II

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Fine Tuning VMM passive offices

Events 27 > 28 15th International Passive House Conference

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This year the symposium will take place in Congress Innsbruck, Rennweg 3, A-6020 Innsbruck/Austria > www.passivhaustagung.de

13 > 15 PLEA2011: Architecture & sustainable development

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27th International conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, organised in Louvain-La-Neuve! > www.plea2011.be

09 > 11 PassiveHouse Fair 2011

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From Friday 9 to Sunday 11 September 2011 the PassiveHouse Fair opens its door at Tour & Taxis in Brussels. >www.passivehouse.be

PassiveHouse Symposium 2011 pmp and php are organising the tenth Passive House Symposium. Over the years this unique initiative has developed into a leading event in the world of passive and very energy efficient building. Localization: Crown Plaza Bruxelles – Le Palace >www.passivehouse.be

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pmp on facebook To increase our interactivity, the Plateforme Maison Passive has nowadays its own facebook page! You can find there our last news about activities, passive standard, agenda, photos, videos and you can react to any of those. Have a nice trip and "like it" ! > www.facebook.com/pages/Plate-Forme-Maison-

Passive-asbl

Training & workshops

PHPP 1 PHPP2 Thermal bridges 1 Thermal bridges 2 !! NEW !! Vapor, moisture and airthighness for more info :

pmp > www.maisonpassive.be > Nos services > Formations php > www.passiefhuisplatform.be > ‘diensten’ > ‘cursussen’


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Solution: The house above is a passive house. The one below is also a passive house. There no differences. The passive standard is a level of performance that has to be achieved - it is not simply a recipe that you apply.

www.maisonpassive.be www.passiefhuisplatform.be

> pmp > php

House in Mouscron, BE Architect: J-L. Dewulf

Compare the top photo with the one below and find the 7 differences.

House in Walhorn, BE Architect: Atelier Weiherhof-D. Dethier

the game of 7 errors (2)


Be.passive is a quarterly magazine from be.passive asbl, in association with PMP asbl and PHP vzw www.bepassive.eu info@bepassive.be Cover photo: Julie Willem AéropolisII, Brussels, architect: Architectes Associés Editor in chief Bernard Deprez Editorial Board Edith Coune, Sebastian Moreno-Vacca, Christophe Marrecau, Peter Dellaert, Julie Willem Editorial Adriaan Baccaert, Edith Coune, Bernard Deprez, Marny Di Pietrantonio, Wouter Hilderson, Sebastian Moreno-Vacca, Benoit Quevrin, Stefan Van Loon, Adeline Guerriat, Julie Willem, Christophe Marrecau, Peter Dellaert, Johan Cré, Caroline Kints, Jeroen Poppe, Liesbet Temmerman, Olivier Henz Graphics and Prepress Julie Willem Sebastian Moreno-Vacca Photographs Filip Dujardin, Annette Etges, Pierre Kroll, Christophe Urbain, Julie Willem, Jacob JeBailey, Asher DeGroot, David Gallaugher, Andre Forget, Annette Etges, Fonds du Logements, Annie Van Gemert, Architectes Associés, Gérard Bédoret, Valerie Clarysse Translations be translated Editing in english: Nana Yaa Boakye-Adjei Managing editor Sebastian Moreno-Vacca be.passive asbl c/o pmp asbl Place Flagey 19 1050 Brussels Belgium Subscriptions subscribe@bepassive.be

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Contributors to this issue: Evelyne Huytebroeck Brussels Region Minister in charge of the Environment Energy and Urban renewal, Grégoire Clerfayt, Ismaël Daoud, Thibault Hermans, Olivier Bastin, Gilles Toussaint, Frédéric Loumaye, Caroline Chapeaux, Blaf Architecten, Architectes Associés, Damien Carnoy, B612, MDW architects, R2D2-architecture, MSA architects, A2M architects, Johan Berte, Pierre Blondel, B-architecten, George Monbiot, Cenergie, Group Arco, Raphaël Tilman, Hélène Nicodème, Olivier Marquet (Triodos BE), Lili Julien, Bram De Meester (Arcadis), Hilde Breesch (KHo St Lieven), Ralf Klein, Urban-PLatform architects, Bruno Busch (Neo construct), Synergy International-Sébastyien Cruyt and Julie Thirion, Eddy Vaelen, Credibe SA, Alain hubert International Polar Foundation, Miwa Mori, Stijn Coenen, Joke De Vroede, Atelir Weiherhof, J-L Dewulf Special thanks go to Virginie Henry, Aline Branders, Gérard Bédoret and Piet Standaert (www.Physibel.be) and to ... The Big Bang Theory's Dr Sheldon Cooper Advertising Chaufour Développement sprl Yves de Schaetzen yves@macstrat.be Printing Poot Printers Printed with vegetable inks Copyright pmp/php Articles are the sole responsibility of their authors. All rights of reproduction, translation and adaptation (even partial) reserved for all countries. This issue is supported by Brussels Environnement


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BVB architects

L’Escaut - MSA

Urban Platform

G. Bedoret

MSA

Cepezed

BXL Eco1

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2015: Brussels goes passive! 108

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Cerau, MDW, AAC, Antex

D Carnoy

H Nicodème, R Tilman

A2M

In 2006 the Brussels-Capital Region did not yet have any passive buildings. By 2013, Brussels will have more than 80.000 m² passive buildings. On 3 March 2011, the Brussels-Capital Region passed an order amending the EPB, setting the PassiveHouse Standard for 2015 for every new building.


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