Page 1

University College London The Bartlett School of Architecture BPro MArch Architectural Design

W(A)OnderYard Chen.Chen

Genmao.Li

Zixuan.Wang

Tutor: Daniel Kohler Research Cluster 8: Large City Architecture


W(A)OnderYard

Design Portfolio

Research Cluster 8: Large City Architecture BPro MArch Architectural Design The Bartlett, UCL 2016-2017

Cover Image W(A)OnderYard Persepctive View, by Unity API, December 2016, the Bartlett, UCL Source: W(A)OnderYard Team Personal File All the images of W(A)OnderYard team are avaliable uppon request

Team Member Chen.Chen (Evans)

Genmao.Li (Leo)

Tutor Daniel Kohler Sub-Tutor Rasa Navasaityte Time Academic Year 2016 - 2017

2

Zixuan.Wang (James)


Acknowledgement The whole W(A)OnderYard team during the academic year of 2016 - 2017 All the guests who participated in our design crits and additional tutorial sessions Our design & theory tutor Daniel Kohler and sub-Tutor Rasa Navasaityte All the technical skill tutors and stuffs 3D-Hubs directo Josef Dunne

3


CONTENT 1. Design Brief

2. Sampling Courtyards Courtyard to Stairs Courtyard to WIndows Courtyard to Floors Courtyard to Roofs Catelogue of Extracted Parthood Conditions

3. Whole to Whole Relations to a Courtyard & Cluster Technical Positioning Arrangements Studies Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster Mereologies Design

4. Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies Whole to Part Sunlight Studies Evaluation of Sunlight Sunlight Density Studies

4


5. Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster Flat Arrangemets with Evaluations (Connectivity, Area, Sunlight, Depth of Connection) Vertical Arrangements with Evaluations Cross Arrangements with Evaluations Overlay Arrangements with Evaluations

6. Mixing Parts Studies Infrastructure - Navigations & Connectivity |Depth of Connection Programme - Floor Continuity | Floor Area Environmental Issues - Sun Insulation | Sunlight Density Mixed Arrangements

7. Building Proporsal Plan|Section|Renderings

5


Design Brief The notion of to be urban, or in other words of being situated in a city becomes rather interesting with the digital forms of cities designed by pure quantities: data. Strangely, todays abundant information inverses the foresight of an immaterialist city. The completed anthropomorphic scenography of our environments reverses as you look to its main driving ingredient. Data becomes the missing link between the human and inhuman parts of the city as it makes things talk by pointing to its origin and author: the technical being. Here the role of architecture becomes crucial, as digital cities are always localized in their quantities, their parts and their architecture. Large city architecture relates to architecture like ecology to biology: large city architecture starts with the individual, the automata. Therefore, large city architecture understood as research by architecture offers a complementary scale of complexity to design: complicity. To be urban as being situated in a city is a form of enquiry into the coexistence of human and inhuman parts. A city described by its quantities offers a posthuman agenda for architecture and its city, which overcomes the humanist rift between mass and void; between on the one hand the city as productive mass: the wall, the grid, the globe, the object and on the other hand the city as the void for the flaneur, the parkour, the event. This inquiry on the architecture of the city does not measure the city in the semantic sense that is, as political intervention between a subject and an object: as Metropolis, but by the resonance of its parts, by its mereological complicity: as Large City. Here mereology is an important concept in the part relationship between architecture and city. Mereology, in contrast to the notion of typology is a methodological framework to design an architectural object, not by reference to a content or a form, but by the resonance of its parts. In this way representation is replaced by its commodity with the irreducible complexity of the part itself. Like other terms transferred from mathematics into architecture, mereology should be seen as the collection of strategies considering the intervals between part to wholes, part to parts and whole to wholes. Part to whole relations were nether explicit articulated as framework, but they were always part of architectural descriptions. The underlying method of composition opens the possibility for the conscious reconfiguration of technical objects. As Gilbert Simondon already noticed in his analysis of technical objects, "that which is inherent in a machine is human reality, human gesture, which is fixed and crystallized in functional structures, the modern machines are not pure automata. They are technical beings." The human gesture gives technical objects an unattainable autonomy through vitality. The architectural object in itself is an anthropomorphic composition. In the circulation and exaggeration of Kantian faculty of judgment, the dialectic of humanistic architecture transforms into a design-inherent method. In such an approach, the form of an architectural type is the way how parts are placed in relation towards each other, the architectural design of the figure itself. The architectural design asphysical place contains, the negotiation, practice and history of their participants.

6


At the scale of the city, Alberti famously drew the city to a large house and the house to a small city. Counted by digital logistics, such a comparison becomes rather interesting: if digital objects are discrete, concealed assemblies, then the city cannot be compared and placed next to a house. In digital representation the city has to be encapsulated in architecture. As plot, as compartment wall, as shaft, as window: with digital logistics the city is described, measured, regulated and molded into explicit parts of architecture. The digital mode of incorporation and encapsulation of “city” into architectural parts turns common part to whole conditions upside down. The city is articulated as a physical part of a building for the building addressing the city. This phenomenon is here addressed as “Large Parts”. Today’s zero marginal cost of digital performance effects the city not through the signification and contrast of territories, but through the sheer massing of its parts. This opens the possibility again to articulate the city with architecture. Large parts offer strategic speculations via their emergent effects at large scales. So one might begin to ask, what precisely is considered as a “city” in an architectural part? What part is mandatory, shareable, removable, separable or exchangeable? And most importantly: What grain of resolution might your part of the city have? Simulation environments like game engines offer explorable platforms, starting with the figure, the character and the asset. Such platforms shift the notion of the discrete from formal silence towards the vibrant noise of automata’s particularities. Digital physics simulations promote the conscious design of configurative effects. They do not need abstract concepts of division and addition. Even the simulation of simple properties of physical materiality, such as mass or friction allows the design of configurations that are based on mass distributions, wedging or jamming of parts. The figure of each part influences and is expressed in its figuration. Through this, form is not derived from an abstract concept of distribution, but from the inherent properties of each element. The arrangement is an aspect of a part. So elements can be designed, in which the whole is understood as speculative part of the part as a whole. In other fields we can observe similar interests in large quantities and their rhythms, like high frequency trading, deep learning agents, granularity or stochastic asset models. Investigations into those parallels and their re-articulation in architecture will be a key aspect to design as an important opposition to technocratic building concepts. The project W(A)OnderYard builds on a collection of courtyard samples extracted from existing buildings. Opposed to the notion of a building’s void, here, each sample examines a particular tension between the courtyard and its architectural elements, like its stairs, windows, floors, and roofs. In its repetition, this opens the opportunity to shift the granularity of occupational restrictions, like access, daylight and compartment size from a building’s mass to its parts. This research explores compositional arrangements of explicit part-conditions, termed as mereologies. Each mereology operates at a particular scale, to what we refer as its combinatorial granularity. Finally, by overlapping a range of combinatorial granularities spatially, we propose an arrangement at a specific site, the house of rooms.

7


8


Sampling Courtyards

Courtyard to Stairs Courtyard to WIndows Courtyard to Floors Courtyard to Roofs Catelogue of Research Extraction

9


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard The Notions of a Courtyard

Source: Space Block Hanoi by Kazuhiro Kojima. 2003, Hanoi http://architecturalgrammar.blogspot.co.uk/2011/03/space-block-hanoi-by-kazuhiro-kojima.html

10


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard The Notions of a Courtyard

Architectural Typology - Courtyard As one of the common architectural types, courtyards

individual interface to entities of various types. These

belonged to the general view of experience that

concepts may reveal the new view of the courtyards

they were just one of the features of the grand

compared to the common view in the past. This

estate and equally to be found as the modest void

report proposes the mereological considerations of a

space from antiquity to the nineteenth century.As

courtyard as the method. The concept of mereology

one of the common architectural types, courtyards

brings the idea of parts to the whole in considerations

belonged to the general view of experience that

of a courtyard, which means a courtyard is not the

they were just one of the features of the grand estate

common experience of void & open space. Instead, it

and equally to be found as the modest void space

is the composition of architectural parts with parthood

from antiquity to the nineteenth century. In the

conditions. In order to articulate the relative relations

article courtyard housing, past, present and future by

between each part, this report brings mereological

Bernard Edwards, courtyards are always regarded

considerations and polymorphism concept together

as the common experience of the feature of void

to reveal a new notion of the courtyards. Thus, the

space. In the past view, courtyards are created by

report observes the internal courtyards with various

different kinds of housing boundaries. It seems that

cases not just as the abstract void meaning but as a

the evidence of the old buildings testifies to the fact

scheme of architectural motivation with large urban

that the courtyards should belong to a common

scale arrangement and aggregation.

experience. The meaning of these open spaces in the middle of the building cannot be examined easily, either architecturally or historically. However, courtyards are not only the geometry of boundaries From Top to Down: The Digram of SiheYuan, a four sided courtyard house. St Edward's School in Oxford

but also contain various architectural parts such as floors, stairs, windows, and roofs. These parts have relative relations between each other which mean they may be considered mereologically. According to the book The Mereological City: A reading of the works of Ludwig Hilberseimer by Daniel Koehler, mereology is characterized as a theory of collective sets in opposition to the Cantorian notion of set. Collective sets can be defined by means of part of relation. In general view, it introduces the concept between parts and whole. Meanwhile, the mereological considerations also refers to one of the programming thoughts called polymorphism, which indicates the provision of an

11


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard The Notions of a Courtyard

Source: T-Space, by Steven Holl. 2008, NYC http://www.stevenholl.com/projects/t-space

12


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard The Notions of a Courtyard

Source: Space Block Hanoi by Kazuhiro Kojima. 2003, Hanoi http://architecturalgrammar.blogspot.co.uk/2011/03/space-block-hanoi-by-kazuhiro-kojima.html

13


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Stairs

14


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Stairs

Courtyard to Stair The stairs are one of the significant parts in these conditions. The characteristic of stairs is the transport space with the continuous tendency, especially in the courtyard parthood condition of Gongwang Art Gallery designed by Wang Shu. The large combined stair consists of many small types of stairs. They are connected with a continuous path from the lower space to higher space that shows a consideration of continuity. Moreover, the stairs reveal the issues of navigation and connectivity considering of architectural design aspects, especially infrastructure issue. The large-scale arrangement and aggregation would have clear navigation to show the hierarchy of the space. The connectivity would reveal the accessibility of an architectural arrangement. It is necessary to have these evaluations to examine architectural element. It also helpful to think parthood conditions as a mereological consideration.

15


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Stairs

St. Stephens Church, 1865, by Patrick Charles Keely, New York

Inamori Auditorium, 2008, by Tadao Ando, Kagoshima

16


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Stairs

Casa La Sierra, 2005, by AZ Architects, USA

Galeria de Casa, 2008, by Giugliani Montero, Madrid

17


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Stairs

EJL Office, 1999, by gonzalez moix arquitectura, Mexico

Azuma House, 2008, by Tadao Ando, Kagoshima

18


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Stairs

House H, 2012, by Hiroyuki Shinozaki Architects, Chiba

Escada Vazada de Concreto, 2003, by Xavier Garcia, Madrid

19


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Stairs

Gongwang Art Gallery part 1, 2014, by Wang Shu, Hangzhou

Gongwang Art Gallery part 2, 2014, by Wang Shu, Hangzhou

20


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Stairs

Santa Maria Warehouse, 2010, by Guillo Architect, Madrid

21


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Windows

22


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Windows

Courtyard to Windows Windows are characterized with the depth of transparency in common experience, which extends the space whether it is enclosed or opened. In this case it could affect the privacy between objects. The distance between two windows would demonstrate the visibility issues. Different distance between the windows not only reveal privacy but also the porosity in largescale arrangements or aggregations. Moreover, windows are the important factors to integrate with environmental issues, including sun insulation and ventilation. Shading boundary of the courtyard brings by sunlight could enrich the environmental issues of the courtyards.

23


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Windows

The Apollo Schools, 1987, by Herman Hertzberger, Amsterdam

Marseilles Unitem, 2008, by Le Corbusier, Marseilles

24


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Windows

House I, 1967, by Eithenman, Vancouver

T-Space, 2012, by Steven Hall, New York

25


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Windows

House H, 2008, by Sou Fujimoto, Tokyo

Habitate 67,1967, by Moshe Safdie, Canada

26


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Windows

Still Courtyard House, 2013, by Apollo Architects & Associates, Chiba

V House, 2009, by Abraham Cota Paredes Arquitectos, Mexico

27


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Windows

Kessel-Lo House, 2014, by NU Architectuuratelier, Begium

28


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Windows

La Roche, 1925, by Le Corbusier, France

29


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Windows

30


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Windows

Courtyard to Floors & Roofs Floors as the mandatory part of space could introduce the initial notion of space. In the courtyard parthood condition House NA designed by Sou Fujimoto, a number of floors are in different height which demonstrate the tendency from lower level to higher level, which indicates continuity of floors. It is different to evaluate an arrangement between massing and floors. The massing is specific in its characteristics. It is the whole or primary entity consists of other parts or secondary pieces. The floors could be the parts in relative relations that reveal the overriding influence of the form. Compared and contrasted to the massing arrangement, the floor arrangements remove the unnecessary parts such as walls and ceilings that show the clear part to part mereological conditions (figure 5). It indicates how these floors work as the continuity root to reveal different hierarchy and parthood conditions in an arrangement. This is the mereological reading of the arrangement and aggregation.

31


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Windows

House NA, 2008, by Sou Fujimoto, Tokyo

House Vision 2, 1999, by Sou Fujimoto, Tokyo

32


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard to Windows

Kindergarten Cassarate, 2007, by Bruno Fioretti Marquez Architekten, Spain

Nishinoyama House, 2014, by SANAA, Kyoto

33


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard Catelogue

Courtyard to Stairs

Azuma House

Santa Maria Warehouse

Inamori Auditorium

Galeria De Casa CKN

EJL Office

escada vazada de concreto

St. Stephens Church

Casa La Sierra

Gongwang Art Gallery part 1

Gongwang Art Gallery part 2

Courtyard to Windows

Still Courtyard House

Marseilles Unitem

La Roche

Habitate 67

Applo School

Kessel-Lo House

T-Space

House H

V House

House I

House Vision 2

Kindergarten Cassarate

Courtyard to Floors & Roofs

House NA

34

Nishinoyama House


W(A)OnderYard Research of Courtyard Courtyard Catelogue

Courtyard Catelogue

35


36


Whole to Whole Relations to a Courtyard & Cluster

Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

37


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

1. Discrete Assembly

38

2. Add the profiles (Connection Points) to the parts

3. Profiles connect by each other without overlap


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard & Cluster Mereology is the concept of parts and wholes

various of secondary typologies (parts) integrate

in mathematics logic and philosophy. It is the

in function10. The structured whole may reveal the

fundamental concept of the part to whole. Then

characteristics from the basic form of secondary

it could be characterized as the specific relations

typologies which relates to the whole to whole

such as part to part, whole to part and whole to

relation, which means means one courtyard parthood

whole. As an architectural consideration, mereology

condition connect to another type of the condition

could be defined as a study of primary typology

with their specific and overriding characters.

and secondary typology. In the article A Short Introduction to Mereology by Rafal Gruszczynski,

In order to create the clusters within different

every primary typology consists of various of

characters, the first step is characterizing the specific

secondary typologies. As an abstract consideration

positioning of the courtyards. There is various of

in mereology, primary typology is the whole and

positioning that depend on the possibilities of

secondary typology is the part. Therefore, a

connectivity. Considering of the characters of

courtyard parthood condition could be regarded

architectural parts in parthood conditions of the

as a balanced massing composition. The aim of

courtyards, the stairs could be one of the connected

the mereological consideration of a courtyard is to

part because of the navigation issue. An accessible

reveal the overriding influence of primary typology

cluster should have the clean and continuous path

which is defined by the types and characters. The

as the navigation system. The staircases as the

mereological consideration also shows the new

navigation part in the courtyard parthood conditions

view of architectural objects in different sets. In the

are the potential connected positioning. Another

article Architectural Design Elements: Curriculum

type of the positioning is the area or space that

Development by Kurt Dierich, it illustrates one primary

could accessible or walkable such as square and

typology consists of many secondary typologies.

internal courtyard. There are three main types of the

A secondary typology also may consist smaller

courtyards parthood conditions would be used in

typologies that would compare or contrast to the

positioning study.

primary typology. Considering the research of the parthood conditions of the courtyards above, a primary typology is the courtyard parthood condition itself and secondary typologies are architectural parts – walls, slabs, floors, stairs, and windows. Some of the secondary typologies may dominate the position of the courtyards, which would bring the notion of the courtyards. Therefore, the mereological considerations of a courtyard is to analyze how

39


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Profile Connection A-B

Profile Connection B-C

Profile Connection A-B-C

Profile Connection B-C-D

Profile Connection A-B-C-D

40


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Technical Positioning Clusterings Catelogue Due to the different positioning, the clusters that

In this case, it refers to the whole to whole relation

created by the courtyard parthood condition have the

according to the mereological consideration. Whole

diverse characters. For example, some of the clusters

to whole relation means one courtyard parthood

are linear and the others are enclosed. The characters

condition connect to another type of the condition

of the cluster depend on the number of connection

with their specific and overriding characters.

points such as two points (A-B, B-C), three points (A-B-C,

They also have different massing volume as well

B-C-D), and four points (A-B-C-D). If one courtyard

and they are separate three primary typologies.

parthood condition has more possibility to connect,

When they are arranged as an entity in the large

the cluster would have various of characters as the

scale, the composition is clear and enormous. The

compositions.

clusters are combined three characteristics from the courtyards parthood conditions which refer the

The clustering catelogue shows another characters

overriding influence. The stairs as one of the overriding

of clustering that created by one type courtyard

characters in these three courtyard parthood

parthood condition in different scale. They may

conditions are the navigation system connected

become into a dense composition like a wall (figure

various roots. The overall composition which created

13) or a soft linear arrangement like a sprawl (figure

by these conditions has clear navigation system and

14) which has the porosity. These findings could reveal

high ratio connections due to the specific characters

the design inspirations of the clusters which fulfil the

of stairs.

architectural motivation. For example, an architectural cluster contains a series of considerations such as

The value of the whole to whole studies indicates

programme, infrastructure, environmental issues, and

the design motivation of a cluster in architectural

privacy. A dense composition which like the wall refers

motivation. The different characters could dominate

to the aspect of infrastructure because it provides a

the notion of the clusters. For example, the staircases

sense of the vertical structure. A linear composition

bring the notion of the navigation of a composition

that has the porosity may relate to the issue of privacy.

and the windows reveal the environmental issues.

Different distance dominates the extend of the privacy.

However, these studies of the mereological

An enclosed arrangement like the aggregation may

considerations refer to technical understanding

refer to the high connected area, which means the

of the positioning which relate to polymorphism

space has the flexible navigation system.

considerations. The overall compositions that created by various of courtyards parthood conditions is a class

The clustering catelogue also shows the clusters

and the character of the courtyards is the subclass.

that is mixed by two or three courtyards parthood

The clusters could be specified as a composition of

conditions. They consist of stairs to show the courtyard

parts such as stairs, floors, and windows but lack of the

relations which is the same characters among them.

architectural notions.

41


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Profile Connection A-B

Profile Connection A-C-D

Profile Connection B-C-D

Profile Connection A-B-C

Profile Connection A-B-C-D

42


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Profile Connection A-B

Profile Connection B-C

Profile Connection C-D

Profile Connection A-B-D

Profile Connection A-B-C-D

43


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Specific Characters Compositions

44


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Specific Characters Compositions

45


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Profile Connection A-B

Profile Connection B-C

Profile Connection C-D

Profile Connection A-D

Profile Connection A-B-C-D

46


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Profile Connection A-B

Profile Connection A-C-D

Profile Connection B-C-D

Profile Connection A-B-C

Profile Connection A-B-C-D

47


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Specific Characters Compositions

48


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Specific Characters Compositions

49


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Linear Composition

50


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Dense Composition

51


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Enclosed Composition

52


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Linear Composition

53


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

2 Types of Courtyard Parthood Conditions Composition

54


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

2 Types of Courtyard Parthood Conditions Composition

55


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Mixing Different Characters of Courtyards Diagram 1

56


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Mixing Different Characters of Courtyards Diagram 2

57


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Mixing Different Characters of Courtyards Diagram 3

58


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Mixing Different Characters of Courtyards Diagram 4

59


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Large Scale Linear Courtyard Parth

60


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

hood Conditions Composition

61


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Large Scale Dense Courtyard Pa

62


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

arthood Conditions Composition

63


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations

1.Discrete Assembly

64

2.Change of proportion and size of courtyard

3.Diversity Assembly in different proportion and size


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations

Proportion Considerations Proportion refers to the ratio aspect considering of

Scale reveals the precise size or volume of the whole

a composition or arrangement, which means a size

objects. The characteristics of the objects would be

relation between the various parts and whole. A well

changed with the variation of the scale. However,

designed building proportion would show the order and

the proportion refers to the size or volume relations

scale of a building aesthetically. One of the meanings

between the architectural parts and the compositions

of proportion is to emphasis the relations between

and arrangements. It would not affect the

architectural parts and the entity itself in visual aspect.

characteristics of the compositions. For example, the

In the book The Seven Lamps of Architecture by John

thickness of the walls or floors would be characterized

Ruskin5, he mentions about the necessaries of how

with the design considerations of the scale. However,

proportion works in compositions and arrangements.

as the considerations of proportion issues, one

He thinks there is no proportion between equal objects.

architectural part would be changed but not the

The equal typologies are not the compositions and

other parts such as the thickness of walls or floors,

arrangements if they are lack of the proportion issues. In

which means these parts are still be comparable to

the article Art to Architecture by Ludwig Hilberseimer6,

the original conditions. There are two figures show

he explains that proportions in architectural contexts

the variation of proportion issues of two courtyards

are the relations between parts and the whole.

parthood conditions from existing buildings.

However, the whole is more than the collection of parts or components. It focuses on the relations. The design considerations of the proportion would enrich the notion of the parthood condition in an aesthetic way and fulfil the mereology concept of part to whole in the visual issue. During the research of parthood condition from the existing buildings, the scale of the courtyards is orginal without any variation of proportion. In this case, the research of proportion focuses on the architectural parts in parthood condition of the courtyards. For example, the stairs could be changed shorter or longer comparing to their original scale. The floors or walls may also be redesigned higher or longer as well in order to fulfil the proportion issues. One of the most important factors should be noticed during the proportion research is the difference between the scale aspect.

65


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations

Case of Proportion Changing Diagram 1

Case of Proportion Changing Diagram 2

66


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations

Case of Proportion Changing Diagram 3

Case of Proportion Changing Diagram 4

67


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations

Case of Proportion Changing Diagram 1

Case of Proportion Changing Diagram 2

68


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations

Case of Proportion Changing Diagram 3

Case of Proportion Changing Diagram 4

69


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations

Proportion Changing Clustering Diagram 1

Case of Proportion Clustering Diagram 2

70


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations

Proportion Changing Clustering Diagram 3

Case of Proportion Clustering Diagram 4

71


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations

Proportion Changing Clustering Diagram 5

Case of Proportion Clustering Diagram 6

72


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations

Proportion Changing Clustering Diagram 7

Case of Proportion Clustering Diagram 8

73


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations

Proportion Changing Clustering Diagram 7

Case of Proportion Clustering Diagram 8

74


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Proportion Considerations

Case of Proportion Clustering Diagram 9

75


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

76

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 1

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 2

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 3

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 4


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 5

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 6

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 7

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 8

77


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

78

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 9

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 10

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 11

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 12


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 13

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 14

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 15

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 16

79


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

80

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 17

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 18

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 19

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 20


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations of a Courtyard Arrangements

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 21

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 22

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 23

Technical Positioning Clustering Diagram 24

81


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Perspective View of the Mereologies composition of La Roche

82


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements The value of the whole to whole studies indicates

considerations, the integration of parts is no more

the design motivation of a cluster in architectural

than the summation mathematically. Each part has

motivation. The different characters could dominate

the relative relation to another part and they could

the notion of the clusters. For example, the staircases

be structured by a specific order. Considering of the

bring the notion of the navigation of a composition and

architectural motivation to the courtyard parthood

the windows reveal the environmental issues. However,

condition, the overriding influence that emphasizes

these studies of the mereological considerations refer

the character should be modified. In order to reveal

to technical understanding of the positioning which

this consideration, some unnecessary parts such as

relate to polymorphism considerations. The overall

walls, doors, corridors, and windows are removed. The

compositions that created by various of courtyards

rest parts reveal the specific characters of internal

parthood conditions is a class and the character of

courtyard of Villa La Roche which is necessary

the courtyards is the subclass. The clusters could be

architectural motivation.

specified as a composition of parts such as stairs, floors, and windows but lack of the architectural notions. In order to reduce the technical assembly feeling of the composition, the architectural motivation would be provided as the modification. According to the concept of the mereology, one of the most overriding parts which dominate the notion of the courtyards parthood conditions would be extracted as a part. The next step is arranging and designing the part in an architectural sense of order as the specific compositions in different scale that called mereologies. For example, one of the courtyards parthood conditions would be selected due to its specific notion such as Villa La Roche designed by Le Corbusier in 1923. As the regard of condition, the architectural parts integrate as an internal courtyard which is the notion of the project. The whole parthood condition that extracted from the existing building consists of walls, stairs, windows, corridor, and balcony. These architectural parts integrate together with the intended function issues. As the mereological

83


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Original Courtyard Parthood Condition Extraction - VHouse

84

Extracted parts


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Mereology 1

Mereology 2

Mereology 3

Mereology 4

Mereology 5

Mereology 6

Mereology 7

Mereology 8

Mereology 9

Mereology 10

Mereology 11

Mereology 12

85


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Small & Medium Scale Composition

86


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Large Scale Vertical Composition

87


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Original Courtyard Parthood Condition Extraction - House H

88

Extracted parts


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Mereology 1

Mereology 2

Mereology 3

Mereology 4

Mereology 5

Mereology 6

Mereology 7

Mereology 8

Mereology 9

Mereology 10

Mereology 11

Mereology 12

89


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Small & Medium Scale Composition

90


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Large Scale Vertical Composition

91


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Original Courtyard Parthood Condition Extraction - Apollo School

92

Extracted parts


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Mereology 1

Mereology 2

Mereology 3

Mereology 4

Mereology 5

Mereology 6

Mereology 7

Mereology 8

Mereology 9

Mereology 10

Mereology 11

Mereology 12

93


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Small & Medium Scale Composition

94


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Large Scale Vertical Composition

95


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Original Courtyard Parthood Condition Extraction - La Roche

96

Extracted parts


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Mereology 1

Mereology 2

Mereology 3

Mereology 4

Mereology 5

Mereology 6

Mereology 7

Mereology 8

Mereology 9

Mereology 10

Mereology 11

Mereology 12

97


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Overlay Composition

98


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Vertical Composition

99


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Small & Medium Scale Composition

100


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Sectional View

101


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

Mereological Composition of the La Roc

102


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Whole Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mereological Considerations on Architectural Arrangements

che Courtyard - Large Scale Composition

103


104


Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster

Visibility Studies Whole to Part Sunlight Studies Evaluation of Sunlight Sunlight Density Studies

105


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

The perspective view of image shows the notion of visual connectivity according to the windows

106


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

Visibility Studies Transparency means a simultaneous perception of different spatial locations. Space not only recedes but fluctuates in a continuous activity (Kepes quoted in Rowe & Slutzky, 1982) The concepts and conditions of transparency parallel movements of Relativity theories and their implications; where space-time relativistic thinking allows for two objects to coexist simultaneously in the same space and time, as such transparency is a space-time condition of betweeness, a simultaneous perception of space to investigate a merging of storeys and spaces into a contiguous and continuous space.

107


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

Visibility Study in 5m Distance

108


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

Generic Room Visibility Studies

109


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

Visibility Study in 10m Distance

110


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

Visibility Study in 15m Distance

111


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

4 Profiles Connection with 2m Limitation (Same Degree)

4 Profiles Connection with 5m Limitation (Same Degree)

112


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

4 Profiles Connection with 45 Degree (Same Distance)

4 Profiles Connection with 65 Degree (Same Distance)

113


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

Specific Characters Compositions

114


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

Specific Characters Compositions

115


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

4 Profiles Connection with 2m Limitation (Same Degree)

2m 45%

5m

65%

2m

4 Profiles Connection with 5m Limitation (Same Degree) 45%

5m

65%

116


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

4 Profiles Connection with 45 Degree (Same Distance)

2m 45%

5m

65%

2m 45%

4 Profiles Connection with 65 Degree (Same Distance)

5m

65%

117


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

Specific Characters Compositions

118


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

Specific Characters Compositions

119


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

4 Profiles Connection with 2m Limitation (Same Degree)

2m 45%

3m

65%

4 Profiles Connection with 5m Limitation (Same Degree) 2m 45%

3m

120

65%


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

4 Profiles Connection with 45 Degree (Same Distance)

m

m

m

m

45%

65%

4 Profiles Connection 45%with 65 Degree (Same Distance)

65%

121


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

Specific Characters Compositions

122


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Visibility Studies

Specific Characters Compositions

123


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

Generalroom roomwith with one one window window General (other three sides are doors to connect)

(other three sides are doors to connect)

Solar Angle: 25 (refers to northern Europe) 1. To ensure every room can: get sunlight by one window Northern Europe)at least; Solar elevation angle 25°(eg. 2. ensure Keep the solarroom anglecan andget change theby east-west angleat toleast; get 1. to every sunlight one window different situations.

2. keep the solar elevation angle and change the east-west angle to get different situations.

124


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

Whole to Part Sunlight Studies Looking into more environmental considerations, It

such as wind, garden and landscape, instead of

is not hard to find precedents in history. Most settlers

centralized system, which break the hierarchy of

from ancient to pre-industrial era discovered the

tradition and supports more possibilities. Hilberseimer’

influence of climate on comfortable habitat, and these

sun penetration study of room put the sun exposure

became one of the crucial factors, which affected the

as one of the constructive elements, then the

strategy they planned their settlements8. Environmental

oriented room depending on sun is designed by the

consideration in urban organization, especially sunlight,

direction of the therapeutic sunlight. By this method,

has a long history from ancient city to modern city.

the room was able to get sufficient sunshine during a

For instance, Ancient Greeks planned whole cities in

certain time which households needed. He redefined

Greece and Asia Minor, such as Priene, to allow every

the element of room, then the meaning of room are

homeowner accessible to sunlight during winter to

no longer a simple composition of space for dwelling

warm their homes. The plan of ancient Priene in Greece

but a rational arrangement for living environment.

is one of the first cities to adopt a grid, oriented for

Hilberseimer extended this apporach from room

solar access for all homes. By running the streets in a

scale into urban scale. He continued the certain

checkerboard pattern which running east-west and

orientation of room to more masses of units in order to

north-south, every house could face south, permitting

ensure that the value of sunshine could be achieved

the winter sun to flow into the house throughout the

by each unit in one certain time. It is visible that

day. Another example, a neighbourhood for about

the mereological thinking of sunlight could not only

2500 people was built in the city of ancient Olynthus in

impacts on the room organization but also could be

the fifth century BC, which is called the first solar city.

applied in urban form.

Similarly, The streets were built perpendicularly to each other, running long in the east-west direction, so that all houses could get sun exposure with consistently built around a south-facing courtyard. In industrial era, Ludwig Hilberseimer shifted his urban thought from modern functionalism into ecology strategy. As he pointed out, the problem in functionalism is that it merely gives proper place in functions and forms, and separates from each other. That is one reason why modern architecture lost environmental factors and some of them like a form of Source from: Ludwig Hilberseimer, sunlight density diagram

engineering. In his essay The element of city planning11, urban city could be formed by decentralized elements,

125


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

126

West 80

West 70

West 60

West 45

West 30

West 15

6: 00 pm

5: 00 pm

4: 00 pm

3: 00 pm

2: 00 pm

1: 00 pm


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

0

East 15

East 30

East 45

East 60

East 70

East 80

12: 00

11: 00 am

10: 00 am

9: 00 am

8: 00 am

7: 00 am

6: 00 am

127


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 80°— 6.am Top view

Top View - East 80 - 6: 00 am

128


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 80°— 6.am

Perspective View - East 80 - 6: 00 am

129


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 70°— 7.am Top view

Top View - East 70 - 7: 00 am

130


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 70°— 7.am

Perspective View - East 70 - 7: 00 am

131


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 60°— 8.am Top view

Top View - East 60 - 8: 00 am

132


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 60°— 8.am

Perspective View - East 60 - 8: 00 am

133


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 45°— 9.am Top view

Top View - East 45 - 9: 00 am

134


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 45°— 9.am

Perspective View - East 45 - 9: 00 am

135


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 30°— 10.am Top view

Top View - East 30 - 10: 00 am

136


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 30°— 10.am

Perspective View - East 30 - 10: 00 am

137


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 15°— 11.am Top view

Top View - East 15 - 11: 00 am

138


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 15°— 11.am

Perspective View - East 15 - 11: 00 am

139


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

0°— 12.00 noon Top view

Top View - 0 - 12: 00

140


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

0°— 12.00 noon

Perspective View - 0 - 12: 00

141


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 15°— 1.pm Top view

Top View - West 15 - 1: 00 pm

142


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 15°— 1.pm

Perspective View - West 15 - 1: 00 pm

143


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 30°— 2.pm Top view

Top View - West 30 - 2: 00 pm

144


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 30°— 2.pm

Perspective View - West 30 - 2: 00 pm

145


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 45°— 3.pm Top view

Top View - West 45 - 3: 00 pm

146


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 45°— 3.pm

Perspective View - West 45 - 3: 00 pm

147


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 60°— 4.pm Top view

Top View - West 60 - 4: 00 pm

148


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 60°— 4.pm

Perspective View - West 60 - 4: 00 pm

149


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 70°— 5.pm Top view

Top View - West 70 - 5: 00 pm

150


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 70°— 5.pm

Perspective View - West 70 - 5: 00 pm

151


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 80°— 6.pm Top view

Top View - West 80 - 6: 00 pm

152


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 80°— 6.pm

Perspective View - West 80 - 6: 00 pm

153


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

Generalroom roomwith with one window window General (otherthree three sides sides are (other are doors doorsto toconnect) connect)

Solar Angle: 65 (refers to Malaysia) Solar elevation angle 65°(eg. 1. To ensure every room can get :sunlight byMalaysia) one window at least; 1. to every sunlight one window 2. ensure Keep the solarroom anglecan andget change theby east-west angleat toleast; get different situations. 2. keep the solar elevation angle and change the east-west angle

to get different situations.

154


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

Sunlight Arrangements from Different Time in Malaysia

155


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

156

West 80

West 70

West 60

West 45

West 30

West 15

6: 00 pm

5: 00 pm

4: 00 pm

3: 00 pm

2: 00 pm

1: 00 pm


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

0

East 15

East 30

East 45

East 60

East 70

East 80

12: 00

11: 00 am

10: 00 am

9: 00 am

8: 00 am

7: 00 am

6: 00 am

157


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 80°— 6.am Top view

Top View - East 80 - 6: 00 am

158


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 80°— 6.am

Perspective View - East 80 - 6: 00 am

159


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 70°— 7.am Top view

Top View - East 70 - 7: 00 am

160


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 70°— 7.am

Perspective View - East 70 - 7: 00 am

161


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 60°— 8.am Top view

Top View - East 60 - 8: 00 am

162


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 60°— 8.am

Perspective View - East 60 - 8: 00 am

163


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 45°— 9.am Top view

Top View - East 45 - 9: 00 am

164


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 45°— 9.am

Perspective View - East 45 - 9: 00 am

165


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 30°— 10.am Top view

Top View - East 30 - 10: 00 am

166


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 30°— 10.am

Perspective View - East 30 - 10: 00 am

167


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 15°— 11.am Top view

Top View - East 15 - 11: 00 am

168


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

East 15°— 11.am

Perspective View - East 15 - 11: 00 am

169


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

0°— 12.00 noon Top view

Top View - 0 - 12: 00

170


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

0°— 12.00 noon

Perspective View - 0 - 12: 00

171


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 15°— 1.pm Top view

Top View - West 15 - 1: 00 pm

172


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 15°— 1.pm

Perspective View - West 15 - 1: 00 pm

173


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 30°— 2.pm Top view

Top View - West 30 - 2: 00 pm

174


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 30°— 2.pm

Perspective View - West 30 - 2: 00 pm

175


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 45°— 3.pm Top view

Top View - West 45 - 3: 00 pm

176


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 45°— 3.pm

Perspective View - West 45 - 3: 00 pm

177


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 60°— 4.pm Top view

Top View - West 60 - 4: 00 pm

178


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 60°— 4.pm

Perspective View - West 60 - 4: 00 pm

179


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 70°— 5.pm Top view

Top View - West 70 - 5: 00 pm

180


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 70°— 5.pm

Perspective View - West 70 - 5: 00 pm

181


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 80°— 6.pm Top view

Top View - West 80 - 6: 00 pm

182


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Whole to Part Sunlight Studies

West 80°— 6.pm

Perspective View - West 80 - 6: 00 pm

183


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Sunlight Duration Studies

>2 hours

Sunlight Duration in 0-2 hours

184


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Sunlight Duration Studies

Sunlight Duration Studies Based on this consideration, the different arrangements according to each certain sunshine duration from 2 hours to 10 hours was produced, by controlling the active sunlight in several directions. As show in the figure 26, the upper five clusters demonstrate the growing of characters from getting the least of 2 hours’ sunshine duration to the least of 10 hours sunshine duration. The under five colorized clusters are the evaluation for each corresponding structure by calculating the sun penetration ratio in each unit. The red color refers to the minimum sunshine ratio, which means that this unit can get zero sunshine during one day; the yellow color refers the maximum sunshine ration which means that the least of 10 hours sunshine duration can get during one day. Then the bar in the bottom explains that more yellow means more sunshine duration in each unit. This process shows how the mereological condition of sun-isolation impacts the arrangement of units, which is beneficial for doing rational distribution of sunisolation for each unit according to different functions or conditions in terms of architecture and urban organization.

185


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Sunlight Duration Studies

>4 hours

Sunlight Duration in 2-4 hours

186


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Sunlight Duration Studies

>6 hours

Sunlight Duration in 4-6 hours

187


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Sunlight Duration Studies

>8 hours

Sunlight Duration in 6-8 hours

188


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Sunlight Duration Studies

>10 hours

Sunlight Duration more than 8 hours

189


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Sunlight Duration Studies

10 hours

Evaluation of Sunlight Duration in 0-2 hours

190


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Sunlight Duration Studies

10 hours

Evaluation of Sunlight Duration in 2-4 hours

191


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Sunlight Duration Studies

10 hours

Evaluation of Sunlight Duration in 4-6 hours

192


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Sunlight Duration Studies

193


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

Source from: Ludwig Hilberseimer, sunlight density diagram

194


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

Density Studies of Sunlight According to former studies, the research on urban

in the book Megastructure: Urban futures of the

density is another significance. Sun penetration is

recent past, author Reyner Banham illustrates his

one factor influences the distance between each

understanding about urban form, which is called

settlements. For instance, Zeilenbau rows, designed

megastructure — a large frame in which all the

by Otto Haesler, Gropius and other architects in

functions of a city or part of a city are housed14.

Dammerstock, Karlsruhe. Rows of housing oriented

Many urban planning projects and social housing

towards the sun with 2.5 times height between rows in

projects in mid-twentieth century demonstrates this

order to eliminate the influence of shadow during whole

notion and its progress. For instance, the similarity

year. Siedlung Westhausen, planned by German urban

between Paul Rudolph’s Lower Manhattan project

planner Ernst May and architect Ferdinand Kramer, its

and Ludwig Hilberseimer’s Vertical city is the traffic

analytic model demonstrates that the arrangement

system which separates from building structures.

concept according to sun and shadow determines the

But the backward terrace structure is the most

rational distance between each row of buildings.

obvious difference between these two cities, which distinguishes the character in terms of daylighting

From Top to Down: Siedlung Westhausen, Grundriss der Gesamtanlage, 1929-1931.

The Barbican Estate, one of the famous brutalist

form. Besides, some mini-magestructure in terms of

architecture in London is another good example to

building scale also follows similar concept. Many

this research. As show in the figure 32, the plan of this

famous social housing projects in London, such as

conceptual model expresses the combination between

Brunswick Center Housing and Alexandra Road

distribution and continuity. Low storied units stretch

Housing, have a similar character on structure

together into a whole and keep a certain distance

with backward terrace. As show in figure, residents

by generating the central courtyard, which could

in each flat could achieve a broad horizon and

get sufficient sunshine from the south-facing window;

sufficient daylighting because of the glazed living

most of high storied dwellings lay the northern edge

room following backwards terrace, according

of site in consideration of the minimum influence of

to the consideration on better sun-insolation. The

shadow. It could be regarded as a paragon in terms of

two-storey basement including parking area and

urban density and interactivity in that period and also

inner supermarket according to less sun-insolation

nowadays.

combines the upper residential parts into a whole building, but separates from each other in terms of

Following the concept, it’s necessary to make clear

formation logic. This common modernist method dose

The conceptual model and its completion of Barbican Estate for flats and apartments, designed by architects Chamberlin, Powell and Bon, 1955, London.

that how distribution pattern could generate the form

not meet the goal of interaction on mereological

of density. As Aldo Van Eyke argued, mechanized

parts. Digital method maybe is another way could

The top view and section of Brunswick Center Redevelopment, designed by Patrick Hodgkinson.

production is not for human but for population, which

works better.

steps towards a better configurative discipline in terms of design for the large number of population. Similarly,

195


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'1 point' Clustering

Min

Max 1860 units

196


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'2 Ă— 2' Clustering

Min

Max 1940 units

197


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'3 Ă— 3' Clustering

Min

Max 1990 units

198


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'4 Ă— 4' Clustering

Min

Max 1856 units

199


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'5 Ă— 5' Clustering

Min

Max 1966 units

200


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'6 Ă— 6' Clustering

Min

Max 1904 units

201


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'7 Ă— 7' Clustering

Min

Max 1750 units

202


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'8 Ă— 8' Clustering

Min

Max 1770 units

203


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'1 point' Clustering

Min

Max 1860 units

204


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'2 Ă— 2 Ă— 2' Clustering

Min

Max 1751 units

205


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'3 Ă— 3 Ă— 3 ' Clustering

Min

Max 1715 units

206


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'4 Ă— 4 Ă— 4' Clustering

Min

Max 2067 units

207


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'5 Ă— 5 Ă— 5' Clustering

Min

Max 2315 units

208


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'6 Ă— 6 Ă— 6' Clustering

Min

Max 2039 units

209


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'7 Ă— 7 Ă— 7' Clustering

Min

Max 2010 units

210


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

'8 Ă— 8 Ă— 8' Clustering

Min

Max 2003 units

211


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

1940

1990

1856

1860

1751

212

1715

2067


W(A)OnderYard Whole to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Density Studies of Sunlight

1966

2315

1904

1750

2039

2010

1770

2003

213


214


Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster

Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster Flat Arrangemets with Evaluations Vertical Arrangements with Evaluations Cross Arrangements with Evaluations Overlay Arrangements with Evaluations

215


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

1.Cartesian Gird

216

2.Discrete Assembly Cartesian Positioning

3.Discrete Assembly Merological Positioning


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster Due to the mereological thought, the part to whole

regarded aspect. In other words, the parts are thus

relationship is diverse . There are several relationships

conceptualized as congeneric and uniform. For

for parts: shareable, exchangeable, removable,

example, the structure of the Zambian herdsmen

separable, mandatory and so forth. Meanwhile, for the

village can be regarded as a ring, where certain

relationship between parts and whole, there are several

deliquescent buildings grow in perfect circles.

relationships: homomerous, homogeneous, canonically,

Actually, this circle is consist of a thousand of

encapsulated and so forth. However, for large-scale

thatched huts. These different definitions are based

aggregation, it is focused on the relationship between

on different scales. Therefore, the thousands of

parts and the whole. Therefore, there have two main

thatched huts are homogeneous parts of the

strategies to aggregate large-scale aggregation:

structure of the Zambian herdsmen village. In form,

homomerous and homogeneous.

homogeneous is the extension of homomerous. The parts are more diverse and flexible. The diversity of

Homomerous is the similar qualities between the parts

the parts can take more capacities and possibilities

and the whole. The whole is consist of the similar parts.

to the whole, especially in large-scale aggregation.

In other words, the part and the whole have decisive properties in common. In architecture, for instance, in Louis Auguste Boileau’s design , he uses the quarter of dome as the basic element. The arches were combined together in a delicate method. These arches formed the main part of the church in four directions. Windows and the another type of arches formed joint part of four directions. This arches unit can create a plane in the homomerous method. Therefore, in this case, the quarter of dome is the homomerous part of the roof. In form, homomerous implies duplicate. It is one of the most common form of architecture. From ancient to modern times, from the Romanesque Voussures Imbriquees Louis Auguste Boileau’s

basilica to industrial prefabricate residence, duplication and duplicable plays an important role. Quiet a part of them is consist of homomerous parts. Meanwhile, homogeneous is comparable qualities between the parts and the whole. It plays a crucial role in architecture as well. In homogeneous, the part is comparable to the other parts of the whole in a

217


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Floor Continuity Diagram 1

218


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Floor Continuity Diagram 2

219


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Flat Arrangement with Walls

220


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation

221


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Flat Arrangement with Walls

222


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation

223


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Flat Arrangement with Walls

224


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation

225


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Flat Arrangement with Walls

226


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation

227


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Flat Arrangement with Walls

228


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation

229


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Flat Arrangement with Walls

230


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation

231


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Vertical Arrangement with Walls

232

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Vertical Arrangement with Walls

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation

233


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Vertical Arrangement with Walls

234

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Vertical Arrangement with Walls

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation

235


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Cross Arrangement with Walls

236


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Cross Proportion Arrangement with Walls

237


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Overlay Arrangement with Walls

238


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation

239


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Overlay Arrangement with Walls

240


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation

241


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Overlay Arrangement with Walls

242


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Floor Continuity shows Part to Part Relation

243


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Vertical Overlay Arrangement with Walls

244


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Vertical Overlay Arrangement with Walls

245


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Vertical Overlay Arrangement with Walls

246


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Investigation of Homomerous & Homogeneous Cluster

Vertical Overlay Arrangement with Walls

247


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

In terms of evaluation of mereological clusters, it is

means the floor has more connectivity to the other

necessary to back to the original case arrangement.

floors. Compared with the lines, it can be seen that

In original case arrangement, the cases assemble in

more connectivity floors are appear on the main

merelogical position. The group in RC8, the Bartlett

branches of the arrangement. The dark blue floors,

School of Architecture find that it has a continuous

which means less connectivity floors are appear on

route in the arrangement. Due to the research of

the edge and terminal of the branches.

mereology and floor continuity, this continuous route is distinguishable.

Furthermore, the evaluation of sunlight duration shows the situation of sunlight duration in a day.

The group in RC8, the Bartlett School of Architecture

From red to yellow, more red means less sunlight

find that without walls, the mereological arrangement

duration in a day, more red means more sunlight

shows different reachability and accessibility. The wall

duration in a day. It can be seen in that the edge of

divided the floor into separate spaces, each case is

arrangements has more sunlight duration than the

a part of the arrangement. The reachability is limited.

central of arrangements.

Without the wall, one can reach to everywhere on the floor. Each floor becomes indistinguishable. The floors

The group in RC8, the Bartlett School of Architecture

in the same height become a whole. This different

evaluate all 4 characteristics and classify the

situation could be applied to architecture that needs

arrangements in 3 types: infrastructure, programme

a continuous space or a large number of separate

and environmental issues. They find that the floor

spaces.

size in “highrise” and “overlay” is very small. That means mostly the floor in these characteristics is

Floor size, more light means bigger floor size. It can

separate. Compared with the floor size evaluation

be seen in the overview of floor size, from flat to

in the flat arrangement, architects could select the

vertical, the proportion of darker area is increased

space whatever they need. Compared with others

gradually, it means the floor size becomes smaller

characteristics, “overlay” is more yellow than the

gradually. In this evaluation, the floor shows a big one

other three. That is benefit from the arrangement

or several different parts. The group in RC8, the Bartlett

of “overlay” has variety of branches. It means

School of Architecture believed that it is beneficial

“overlay” have more sunlight duration than others

for architecture that needs a huge space or several

characteristics. The group in RC8, the Bartlett School

different functional spaces.

of Architecture believes that it could be applied in architecture that in different climates or different

Architecture make an evaluation for floor connectivity.

sunlight duration needs.

From dark blue to cyan, darker blue means the floor has less connectivity to the other floors, more cyan

248

Furthermore, even with the same characteristic,


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Evaluations of a Cluster different arrangements could present the different level

floor size, sunlight duration and the order of assembly

of floor connectivity. For the practical application in

are beneficial for practical programme.

architecture, architects could select different situation of floor connectivity for different functions.

Furthermore, mixing different characteristics in mereological arrangements are necessary. It could

The group in RC8, the Bartlett School of Architecture

reply complicated urban context and appeal. As

believed that it is necessary to mix different

a new form of architecture assembly, it has huge

characteristics. Due to previous research, every

potential in urban renovation and urban renewal.

arrangement has their own benefit in architecture practice. Therefore, the arrangement that mixing different characteristics could be applied in multifunctional space. Moreover, these arrangements could reply complicated urban context and appeal. As a new form of architecture assembly, it has huge potential in urban renewal. In conclusion, due to the diversity of the types of the courtyard, it is suitable for large-scale aggregation. Both of homomerous and homogeneous aggregation has huge potential on large scale arrangement. The limit of homomerous aggregation depends on the characteristics of the case. Several conditions could limit the scale of homomerous aggregation. However, due to the diversity and more changeable conditions, the limitation of homogeneous aggregation is smaller than homomerous aggregation. Homogeneous aggregation has a huge potential to develop the large scale architecture. Moreover, based on the relationship between floor and floor, the part to part relations could be applied in mereological arrangements. It can get different characteristics by change the methods of connection. The evaluation of floor reachability, floor connectivity,

249


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Vertical Arrangement with Walls 1

250

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

251


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Vertical Arrangement with Walls 2

252

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

253


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Vertical Arrangement with Walls 3

254

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

255


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Vertical Arrangement with Walls 4

256

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

257


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Vertical Arrangement with Walls 5

258

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

259


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Vertical Arrangement with Walls 6

260

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Vertical Arrangement with Walls 6

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

261


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Vertical Arrangement with Walls 7

262

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

263


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Continuity

264


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Continuity

265


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Area

266


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Area

267


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Connectivity

268


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Connectivity

269


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Connectivity

270


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Connectivity

271


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Flat Arrangement with Walls 1

272

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

273


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Flat Arrangement with Walls 2

274

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

275


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Flat Arrangement with Walls 3

276

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

277


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Flat Arrangement with Walls 4

278

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

279


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Flat Arrangement with Walls 5

280

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

281


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Flat Arrangement with Walls 6

282

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

283


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Flat Arrangement with Walls 7

284

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

285


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Flat Arrangement with Walls 8

286

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

287


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Continuity

288


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Continuity

289


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Area

290


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Area

291


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Connectivity

292


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Connectivity

293


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Connectivity

294


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Connectivity

295


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Overlay Arrangement with Walls 1

296

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

297


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Overlay Arrangement with Walls 2

298

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

299


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Overlay Arrangement with Walls 3

300

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

301


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Overlay Arrangement with Walls 4

302

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

303


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Overlay Arrangement with Walls 5

304

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

305


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Overlay Arrangement with Walls 6

306

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

307


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Overlay Arrangement with Walls 7

308

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

309


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Small Area

Overlay Arrangement with Walls 8

310

Large Area

Floor Area


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

Less Sunlight

More Sunlight

Sun Insulation

311


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Continuity

312


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Continuity

313


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Area

314


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Area

315


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Connectivity

316


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Connectivity

317


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Sunlight Isulation

318


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Sunlight Isulation

319


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Cross Arrangements

320


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Cross Arrangements

321


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Continuity

322


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Continuity

323


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Floor Connectivity

324


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Evaluation of a Cluster

Less Connectivity

More Connectivity

Floor Connectivity

325


326


Mixing Parts Studies

Infrastructure - Navigations & Connectivity |Depth of Connection Programme - Floor Continuity | Floor Area Environmental Issues - Sun Insulation | Sunlight Density Mixed Arrangements

327


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mixing Parts Studies

Navigation & Connectivity

Infrastructure

Depth of Connectivity

Floor Continuity

Programme

Floor Area

Sun Insulation

Environmental Issues

Sun Density

'3 Ă— 3 Ă— 3 ' Clustering

Min

Max 1715 units

Sun Ratio

328


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mixing Parts Studies

East 15°— 11.am

East 70°— 7.am

West 15°— 1.pm Top view

West 80°— 6.pm Top view

'8 × 8 × 8' Clustering

'3 × 3' Clustering

Min

Max 1990 units

'2 × 2' Clustering

Min

Max 1940 units

'1 point' Clustering

East 80°— 6.am

East 80°— 6.am Top view

West 80°— 6.pm

Min

Max

Min

Max 2003 units

'6 × 6 × 6' Clustering

Min

Max 2039 units

1860 units

329


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mixing Parts Studies

Mixing Parts - Cross & Flat

330


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mixing Parts Studies

Mixing Parts - Cross & Flat in Floor Continuity

331


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mixing Parts Studies

Mixing Parts - Cross & Flat

332


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mixing Parts Studies

Mixing Parts - Cross & Flat in Floor Continuity

333


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mixing Parts Studies

Mixing Parts - Cross & Flat

334


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mixing Parts Studies

Mixing Parts - Cross & Flat in Floor Continuity

335


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mixing Parts Studies

Mixing Parts - Vertical & Flat

336


W(A)OnderYard Part to Part Relation to a Courtyard & Cluster Mixing Parts Studies

Mixing Parts - Vertical & Flat in Floor Continuity

337


338


339


340


341


342


343


344


Building Proporsal

345


W(A)OnderYard Building Proporsal Architectural Proporsal

Building Plan 1 - Mixing Functions, including office, library, dormitory, bathroom, and leisure.

346


W(A)OnderYard Building Proporsal Architectural Proporsal

Architectural Proporsal

347


W(A)OnderYard Building Proporsal Architectural Proporsal

Building Plan 2 - Conference & Restaurant & Library

348


W(A)OnderYard Building Proporsal Architectural Proporsal

Building Plan 3 - Bedroom & Living

349


350


351


352


353


W(A)OnderYard Design Works Collection Oct.2016 - Sep.2017

BPro MArch Architectural Design The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL

BPro Bartlett RC8 W(A)OnderYard Design Portfolio  

It's the design portfolio from BPro RC8 "Large City Architecture" led by Daniel Koehler from the UCL Bartlett.

BPro Bartlett RC8 W(A)OnderYard Design Portfolio  

It's the design portfolio from BPro RC8 "Large City Architecture" led by Daniel Koehler from the UCL Bartlett.

Advertisement