20.512 THESIS BOOKLET
ARCHITECTURE x MOVEMENT: HOW HUMAN CIRCULATION NETWORKS CAN SHAPE THE WORKPLACE HOONG YONG WEN, BENJAMIN (1000545)
TABLE OF CONTENTS 01 THESIS OVERVIEW
03 CO-WORKING SPACES
Co-Working Case Studies
Office Space Programs
Other Case Studies
05 ADDITIONAL FACTORS
Computational Design Tools
Urban Design Qualities
Particle Swarm Systems
06 DESIGN PROCESS + PROPOSAL
02 ARCHITECTURE X MOVEMENT
03 SITE SELECTION
Why Changi Business Park?
History + Development
Path Hierarchy + Organization
Specific Site Selection
Points of Interest
Design Proposal Deliverables
01 THESIS OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION This thesis stems from observations of the
Due to the majority of time the general population
spends at work, my chosen intervention site is
architectural projects. Circulation networks are what
Singapore’s Changi Business Park. This business
connects all programmatic spaces; and this is not
park was launched in 1997, with plans to undergo
limited to interior spaces within buildings, but rather
further expansion and development in the near
external ones as well.
future. However, with the business park’s current focus
In our fast-paced lifestyles, the ‘convenience factor’
businesses, the focus typology of this thesis will
plays a key role in how we perceive the spaces around
be placed on start-ups and small-scale businesses
us. We as human beings are always looking for the
as to tackle the lack of appropriate spaces for such
best route, the shortest route, or the most enjoyable
route. With this in mind, I want to investigate how computational methods can be used in planning and optimizing such routes to provide a more pleasurable experience from point to point.
ARCHITECTURAL POTENTIAL This thesis therefore envisions a connectivity-based architectural intervention that merges the usage of circulation computational design tools and the characteristics and necessities of start-up and small-scale office spaces. This thesis will test the role of the architectural intervention and its ability to fulfil the following objectives: 1. The Urban Scale To
essential nodes and use this connectivity as a motivational factor towards promoting human circulation. 2. The Workplace Scale To boost social cohesion and sense of space, promoting interactions and social sustainability.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS A
01. What suitable computational process prototypes
be adopted in this thesis, placing a significant
that revolve around connectivity and circulation
exist to augment future design approaches?
human-scale experiences. This then gives rise to several research questions:
02. Are such computational processes scalable to apply to sites of varying sizes? 03. How can the results of such tools be processed to become feasible works of architecture? 04. What physical and psychological factors affect how positively or negatively people perceive circulation networks? 05. How can such factors be integrated, controlled, or applied architecturally? 06. What are effective programmatic spaces that can act as circulation attractor points for users? 07. What factors affect perceived physical and psychological comfort of a space and how can they can be controlled or applied architecturally?â€ƒ
02 ARCHITECTURE x MOVEMENT
INTRODUCTION In architecture, circulatory systems refer to the
Another reason why movement within architecture
planned pathways and routes for humans to move
is so important is that it depicts the liveliness of
through space. Circulation systems play a key role
spaces. When comparing vibrant and activated
in building layouts and spatial organization as they
spaces to deserted ones, the difference comes
form a skeleton that connects all programmatic
down to number of users. With human movement
elements within a building, as well as determine and
injected, spaces seem more active and energetic,
define the interface between what is interior and
giving a sense of dynamism and rejuvenation, thus
exterior space. Overall, these networks are designed
leading to the attraction of even more users to the
and curated in a way that controls the movement of
people, allowing the different users to â€œexperienceâ€? the work of architecture in various ways.
CIRCULATION EFFICIENCY When dealing with the efficiency of circulatory
THE ‘TIRING LENGTH PERSPECTIVE’
systems, distance is usually thought of as the primary factors – as shorter pathway distances
The ‘tiring length perspective’ describes the
would require less time to walk. However, it should be
condition where pedestrians can glance at the whole
thought as one of the parameters to minimize, and
length of the route before the journey begins.2 Even
not the only goal. Ultimately, efficiency of circulatory
though this may be the most efficient form of a path
systems should be thought as a mixture of both
for walking, if the path is too linear and seemingly
physical and psychological factors.
endless, the prospect of walking is already exhausting before it has begun.
PHYSICAL DISTANCE VS PERCEIVED DISTANCE
To combat this issue, pathways should be segmented into manageable divisions, allowing people to have
According to studies by renowned urban design
more frequent psychological walking goals in the
consultant, Jan Gehl, a walking distance of 500m
middle distances. This, in turn, also provides for more
is mostly accepted.1 However, this acceptable
opportunities of view change that help increase the
distance will always be a balance of actual distance
appeal of a walk. Pathways should also be made
along with the quality of the walking route. If the
to integrate elements of interest or stimulants
paved circulation path is of good quality and visual
to combat psychological boredom derived from
stimulants are provided along the way, a considerably
walking on uninteresting pathways.
longer walking distance may be deemed acceptable; whereas if the route is uninteresting and mundane, it
The examples on the right show how either program
would cause the pedestrians to feel more tired and
and activity or building placement planning can help
have less of a desire to walk.
alleviate any potential cases of the 'tiring length perspective' from emerging.
1 Gehl, 2010
2 Gehl, 2010
COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN TOOLS
In order to augment future design processes, various
“An agent is a computer system that
computational tools that deal with circulation and
is situation in some environment, and
connectivity will be studied to see what opportunities
that is capable of autonomous action
exists that can be incorporated during the design
in this environmentin order to meet its design objectives.”
phase of this thesis project.
– Wooldridge, 1999 As part of the research, agent-based models will firstly be introduced, followed by two different
Agent-based models are forms of computational
subsets of such models: particle swarm systems and
autonomous agents within a set environment. These
agents are given decision-making capability and rules to follow within the environment as well. As the agents react to each other and the environment, behaviours can be observed – leading to emergent actions such as self-organizational and bundling COMPONENTS OF AGENT-BASED MODELS
Numerous Agents Decision-Making Heuristics Rules + Adaptive Processes Interaction Topology Environment
operations. Agent-based models help to frame a bottom-up approach as any guiding geometries or boundaries are all derived from the system’s constituent units; this is as opposed to the typical top-down design approach mostly evident in the field of architecture.
PARTICLE SWARM SYSTEMS Particle Swarm Systems are a type of agent-based
EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION:
model that exists as a form of a nature-inspired
NEW WARSAW MARKET (PIOTR BASZYNSKI)
metaheuristics originating from the swarming nature of animals (the flocking of birds and grouping
Baszynski’s project was aimed towards developing
of fish). Learning from these behaviours ultimately
a new design for a multifunctional market hall in the
result in high-optimized systems.
centre of Warsaw.
The most common model of Swarm Behaviour is
As a start, spatial arrangements and circulation
the Biods model, created by Craig Renolds in 1986.
patterns of existing bazaars were observed – so
In Boids, three very fundamental rules were applied
as to inform the behaviours of the agents in the
to the agents to control their behaviour (separation,
Particle Swarm System. It was found that such
alignment, and cohesion). If viewed as a single unit,
informal open-air bazaars had sellers place their
the rules applied to each agent are quite basic, but
stores in very organic, non-orthogonal manners that
through the process of allowing numerous agents to
evolving as even more stalls are set up, at the same
individually interact with each other, it gives rise to a
time accommodating the circulatory movements of
complex emergent system as an output.
both the shop-owners and the buyers – a form of emergent behaviour. The actions and movements observed were then applied to the site where a simulation was crafted to mimic people’s market shopping behaviour. Other
Overall, Particle Swarm Systems aims to be able to mimic social behaviours in everyday life – allowing people’s choices, interactions and movement to be modelled and predicted in the digital realm. 14
information was also added to the system such as the site boundaries (the environment), the location of entrances (agent emitters), as well as zoning (goal seeking). From there, a market layout was generated from the actions of the agents.
NEW WARSAW MARKET VISUALS + STUDIES (SOURCE: BASZYNSKI)
PATH SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION
MINIMAL PATH SYSTEM (SOAP FILM MODEL)
Between the 1960s and 1980s, Frei Otto and his team ventured into a series of physical form-finding
Minimal Path Systems are networks which provide
experiments surrounding connectivity and self-
the shortest connectivity between a set of nodes. To
organization. These experiments can be classified
achieve this in the physical world, Otto and his team
into three fundamental configurations:
used a soap film model to visualize this system. Due to the behaviour of soap film which results in
1. Direct Path System
a minimal surface area within a given boundary, it
2. Minimal Path System
results in edges that are minimized as well.
3. Minimized Detour Path System In mathematics, these optimization problems fall under the umbrella term of the â€˜Steiner Tree Problemâ€™,
DIRECT PATH SYSTEM
where to minimize the total length of connections
between nodes, the system must go through a process of self-organization. In this process, new
This model is where points are connected via a
nodes and vertices are added to the system (called
geodesic. This system assumes an efficiency based
Steiner points) to form a terminal or connection
system where direct connections are provided and
point for a subset of points. These connectivity to
point-to-point travel occurs.
these new points always contain three connective edges that form a 120-degree angle between them.
This system also acts as the starting point for the
The result of this system is a model that minimizes
hybridised Minimized Detour Path System.
the length of pathways that needs to be travelled assuming multiple-node journeys.
SOAP BUBBLES FORMING MINIMAL PATH SYSTEMS
MINIMIZED DETOUR PATH SYSTEM
In the digital realm, Lars Spuybroekit, a Dutch
(WET THREAD MODEL)
architect and professor, argued that these physical systems represent a subset of agent-based
With the aforementioned systems presenting a
modelling as well.
configuration for extreme situations (one for path
pathways would firstly be set out connecting various
To achieve the simulation,
length and one for detours), a model that attempts
nodal points. These initial paths would then be
to find a balance between the two is the Minimized
divided into several segments, each containing an
Detour Path System. As an analogue model, a
attraction or repulsion point. Each of these points
network of threads similar to the Direct Path System
then signify the “agents” of the system and can
were created. Each thread was then given a freedom
interact with its neighbouring entities. Even though
of length of 8 percent and then placed in water,
the positions of these points are somewhat fixed and
resulting in a self-reconfiguration that formed an
rigid, Spuybroekit stated that they do have a certain
optimized connectivity network.
amount of freedom to move and act, and that the limitation of freedom can be seen as a rule of the
With this system, an equilibrium between path
environment the agents are placed in. This way, the
distance and detours is also found for the sake of
original nodal points of connection can be preserved
producing variety in the travel journey. This can be
– respecting the beginning and end points of each
tied in with with Jan Gehl’s factors that affect walk
psychology and walk appeal, in which could affect overall walkability of spaces as well.
PHYSICAL WET THREAD FORM-FINDING MODELS (SOURCE: MAREK KOLODZIEJCZYK)
EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION:
EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION:
GENERIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE (AEDAS R&D)
URBAN REEF (SHAMPOO)
Using the Hudson Yards area of New York as the site
architectural design, the Aedas R&D partnered
of intervention, the Shampoo team set a requirement
with the Fraunhofer Institute in Stuttgart to create
of 3,000 housing units to be placed. The target for the
a demonstration that integrated the use of path
building form was to be a series of mid-rise buildings
systems. A research institute was the chosen
that were interconnected in order to enhance the
typology for this demonstration. It allowed the initial
amount of social integration within the region.
placement of communal facilities, such as cafĂŠs, libraries and lobbies, to be placed within the system,
By studying the vicinity at an urban scale, important
followed by the implementation of an algorithm that
nodes were superimposed along with an hourly
connected these spaces to the various surrounding
pedestrian count, thereby notifying of each nodeâ€™s
laboratories and offices. The emergent intersection
priority of connectivity. After applying a self-bundling
points that arrived from these connectivity networks
and self-organising algorithm, this then resulted in a
were then interpreted as social spaces for informal
series of apertures that defined possible positions of
interactions between the users of the building.
vertical circulation cores for buildings.
CIRCULATION NETWORKS GENERATED BY AEDAS R&D (SOURCE: EMPATHIC SPACE)
URBAN REEF (SOURCE: SHAMPOO)
03 SITE SELECTION: CHANGI BUSINESS PARK
WHY CHANGI BUSINESS PARK? Singapore’s population predicted to increase by one
as they enter working life will have very significant
million people by the year 2030. It is not surprising
health impact when they are in their 60s."
that Singapore is no exception when it comes to health risks associated to urban life.
Furthermore, the work-driven culture in Singapore is also damaging to the “well-being” of a person.
According to the 2010 National Health Survey, nearly
In fact, Singaporeans hold the record for being the
6 out of 10 Singapore residents do no exercise at all
world’s fastest walkers – a reflection of the pace of
in their leisure time. The top three reasons for such
life in a city. What this leads to is less leisure time,
physical inactivity were: “no time” due to work or
less time socializing, a lack of exercise, poor eating
family commitments, “too lazy” and “no interest”. In
habits and a higher chance of drinking and smoking
a National Sports Participation Survey conducted
– all resulting in a reduced quality of life.
in 2011, it was found that 54 percent of Singapore residents aged 13 and above did not partake in any
In 2014, Singapore was ranked 97th out of 145
form of sport or exercise within three months.
countries in a Global Well-Being Index survey, scoring highest in financial well-being (9), but alarmingly low
Another effect of urbanization is that the “convenient”
for the other four indicators: community well-being
culture promotes unhealthy food consumption and
(72), purpose well-being (111), social well-being (123)
generally an unhealthy lifestyle. Another research
and physical well-being (137).
conducted in 2016 by epidemiologists at the National University of Singapore project that 34
A 2016 research conducted in Singapore indicates
percent of Singaporeans aged 24 to 35 can expect
that stress (56%) and lack of physical activity (52%)
to be diabetic by the time they are 65 years old. The
remain to be the top health issues, followed by lack
research suggests a higher rate of obesity for people
of sleep (32%) and obesity (24%).
below age 40 is due to "a big drop in physical activity" when people start working. Professor Chia Kee Seng,
Therefore, by selecting Changi Business Park as
dean of the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health,
an intervention site, an emphasis can be placed on
suggested that it is "important for those in their 20s
improving the overall movement of people in the
to recognise that the dramatic lifestyle changes
workplace – a place where the majority of hours are spent in a day.
CHANGI BUSINESS PARK Launched in July 1997, Changi Business Park is a 66 hectare area located in eastern Singapore. Currently, it comprises of high technology businesses, data and software oriented firms, R&D branches, industrial estates, mixed-use developments, as well as a local university, the Singapore University of Technology and Design. Changi Business Park is also in close proximity to the Singapore Expo, allowing the area to not only attract business-oriented visitors, but the general public included. The business park also houses the Expo MRT station, which provides for easy accessibility to the area.
SITE ANALYSIS 01: HISTORY + DEVELOPMENT To understand the shifts over time of the built environment, connectivity and central â€œheartâ€? of Changi Business Park, historical studies will be done to map out these elements and will help to better predict how future developments on the site may cause for a further change from the current conditions.
1995: BEFORE THE LAUNCH Before the launch of Changi Business Park, the site only contained an elongated Somapah Road. At this time, no other connectivity networks were present.
1998: START OF THE INDUSTRIAL SPRAWL One year after the launch of Changi Business Park, the main arterial vehicular networks were laid down. At this time, industrial buildings started to be constructed on the outer fringe of the business park. For these industrial buildings to be close to Changi Airport and the logistic facilities nearby, transportation and logistical processes can be simplified, leading to overall costs to be reduced.
2000: THE SINGAPORE EXPO Within the past two years, the first phase of the Singapore Expo was erected, along with the addition of more industrial buildings along the fringe of the business park. It was at this time that secondary road networks were laid down for the future expansion of the main business district. Due to the absence of the Expo MRT station (which only opened in 2001), accessibility to the site was still limited and was not considered an attractive region for the general public. It is because of this that a central "heart" of the business park did not exist at the time as building density was sparse and spread out.
2007: OVERALL GROWTH By this period, expansion has occurred throughout Changi Business Park. The outer fringe zone was filled out with both industrial estates and commercial buildings. Developments in the middle of the business park also started being erected. Next to the business park, the addition of the Expo MRT station in 2001 meant that the entire area was more accessible due to the much-improved connectivity to the other regions of Singapore. At this time, the Singapore Expo was also expanded with the addition of the MAX Pavilion. It was due to this expansion that Somapah Road has to be demolished, providing a lack of direct access to Upper Changi Road. Due to the growth and addition of the MRT station that a central "heart" emerged, leading to an increased importance to the area surrounding the Singapore Expo and station.
2008: THE RETURN OF SOMAPAH ROAD Within the year, a straightened Somapah Road returned to the vincinity, allowing for a more direction connection towards Upper Changi Road. This also provided for accessibility to the site of the new university development at the north of the business park.
2017: THE PRESENT In the past decade, more expansion has been done in the main business district with the addition of nine more office buildings and the Changi City Point shopping mall. Towards the north of the site now sits the Singapore University of Technology and Design. All contributing towards the densification of the business park. The addition of the Changi City Point shopping mall helps to reinforce the location of the "heart" of Changi Business Park and promotes a congregating of pedestrians due to the accessibility to the MRT station and the services provided by the shopping mall itself.
SITE ANALYSIS 02: FUTURE EXPANSION For the future of Changi Business Park, further
With these future development plans in mind, it is
expansion can be expected. With the secondary
speculated that the heart of the business park will
roads already put into place, the now-barren plots of
move northwards towards the site of the MAX Pavilion.
the land at the north will house the addition of future
This site will thus have an increased importance to
business developments to the business park. With
the overall connectivity of the business park as it
the growing business district and growing university,
marks the intermediate space that people will walk
a new Upper Changi MRT station will be constructed
through to be connected between the business
to facilitate ingress and egress to the business part.
district, the new expansion, as well as the university.
In addition, a realignment and widening of Simei and Somapah Road will occur, leading to improved overall accessibility.
SITE SELECTION With the future developments in mind, the selected site of intervention will be where the Max Pavilion currently sits on. This is to be able to target a large group of potential pedestrians as this site slowly becomes the new 'heart' of Changi Business Park.
B C D
I H L J K
SITE ANALYSIS 03: BUILDING TYPES Currently, Changi Business Park is filled with a mixture of commercial and industrial buildings, with the university sitting on the fringe of the business park’s
in the business park are geared towards larger corporations, such as CitiBank, DBS, and IBM. What currently is lacking within the business park are opportunities for smaller-scale research, entrepreneurial start-ups, and co-working spaces, much like the incubators provided in the One-North business parks. By incorporating such work and research space, a sense of liveliness and curiously can be injected into Changi Business Park, allowing for an attraction of people to such spaces and helping to deeper integrate the university with the business park’s activities.
A. NESTLE / NIKE B. SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC C. HONEYWELL D. HUAWEI E. IBM F. STORHUB G. STORHUB H. PARK AVENUE SERVICED OFFICES I. PARK AVENUE CHANGI HOTEL J. CISCO SYSTEMS K. CITIBANK L. STANDARD CHARTERED M. DHL N. DBS O. DHL
14 13 12
06 03 04
SITE ANALYSIS 04: POINTS OF INTEREST (OFF-SITE) Identifying the important nodes in close proximity to the site will be a vital step for cirulation planning as these are the points in which pedestrians would walk to and fro. Nodes noted down offer a significant amount of foot traffic at specific times of the day and can help notify of any future circulation trends.
01. BUS STOP 02. SINGAPORE EXPO 03. EXPO MRT 04. CHANGI CITY POINT 05. FAIRPRICE XTRA 06. FITNESS FIRST 07. F&B 08. F&B 09. F&B 10. F&B 11. ACCESS POINT 12. CBP EXPANSION 13. SUTD 14. UPPER CHANGI MRT 15. RESIDENTIAL ZONE
04 01 02
SITE ANALYSIS 05: POINTS OF INTEREST (ON-SITE) The points of interest on the site itself are mainly to do with the ingress and egress points. These are where future potential users of the site can access it easily and serve as the most convenience locations.
ONGOING CONSTRUCTION OF THE SUTD CROSSING
01. UPPER CHANGI ROAD CROSSING 02. EXPO DRIVE CROSSING TO SINGAPORE EXPO 03. CHANGI SOUTH AVENUE 1 CROSSING + EXPO MRT ACCESS 04. MRT STRUCTURAL BARRIER 05. SOMAPAH ROAD + CHANGI SOUTH AVENUE 1 CROSSING 06. FUTURE SUTD CROSSING 07. UPPER CHANGI + SOMAPAH ROAD CROSSING
03 DESIGN TYPOLOGY: CO-WORKING SPACES
CO-WORKING SPACES To invoke movement within the workplace, a new
Through this, social interaction is built up, resulting
form of working environment will be introduced to
in quick and efficient networking. With such new
the site: co-working spaces.
connections, small businesses are able to grow, progress, and expand quickly as compared to being
“People don’t want to punch their
in an isolated and singular working environment.
clock anymore and then have their life start when they leave the office, they
The diagrams on the following page depict the many
want their life to be integrated, they
advantages of co-working spaces.
want to feel like there’s value in what they do everyday.” – Miguel McKelvey, WeWork Founder The concept of co-working allows individual or small groups of entrepreneurs to share open workspaces instead of having to rent out private cubicles or setting up makeshift workspaces in public areas. These shared spaces allow the users to contribute towards or just be exposed to the doings of others
72% OF CO-WORKERS FORECASTED AN INCREASE IN INCOME
50% OF CO-WORKERS ACCESS THEIR WORKSPACE AROUND THE CLOCK
71% REPORT A BOOST IN CREATIVITY SINCE JOINING A CO-WORKING SPACE
62% OF CO-WORKERS SAID THEIR STANDARD OF WORK HAD IMPROVED
90% OF CO-WORKERS REPORT AN INCREASE IN SELF-CONFIDENCE
70% OF CO-WORKERS FEEL HEALTHIER AS COMPARED TO IN A TRADITIONAL OFFICE
ANNUAL GLOBAL CO-WORKING SURVEY: ADVANTAGES OF CO-WORKING SPACES (SOURCE: DESKMAG)
64% OF CO-WORKERS ARE BETTER ABLE TO COMPLETE TASKS ON TIME
75% OF CO-WORKERS REPORTED AN INCREASE IN PRODUCTIVITY
80% OF CO-WORKERS REPORTED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF THEIR BUSINESS NETWORK
92% OF CO-WORKERS REPORTED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF THEIR SOCIAL CIRCLE
86% OF CO-WORKERS REPORTED A DECREASE IN THEIR SENSE OF ISOLATION
83% OF CO-WORKERS REPORTED THAT THEY TRUSTED OTHERS IN THEIR CO-WORKING SPACE
CO-WORKING SPATIAL LAYOUTS As an opportunity to understand the fundamental layouts of co-working spaces, three examples of various scales will be analysed. 01. Small - Co-Working Office by Appareil 02. Medium - SimplyWork 3.0 by 11architecture Ltd. 03. Large - SimplyWork 6.0 by 11architecture Ltd.
CO-WORKING OFFICE (APPAREIL)
SIMPLYWORK 3.0 (11ARCHITECTURE LTD)
SIMPLYWORK 6.0 (11ARCHITECTURE LTD)
CO-WORKING OFFICE (APPAREIL) Location: Barcelona, Spain Area: 205m2 (Small-Scale) By analysing a co-working space at this small scale, it is possible to understand the basic programmatic elements of such spaces. From this, it can be seen that as a minimum, a large area (160m2) with work desks and meeting desks are provided, along with a small pantry (8m2) and a single bathroom (4m2).
SIMPLYWORK 3.0 (11ARCHITECTURE LTD.) Location: Shenzhen, China Area: 650m2 (Medium-Scale) At the medium scale, more types of working environments can be supplied, such as open work areas, enclosed work areas, teleconferencing rooms, as well as meeting rooms. It can be seen that the layout is quite modular and utilising a repeated room size throughout the floorplan. As for the spaces of rest, it is interesting to note that even though this case study is at a different scale than APPAREILâ€™s co-working space, the amount of pantry space still remains at a constant size.
03 SIMPLYWORK 6.0 (11ARCHITECTURE LTD.) Location: ShenZhen, China Area: 2,100m2 (Large-Scale) At the large scale, workspace modules can still be observed but instead at a scale that can fit almost 4-5 times the number of people as compared to the medium scale. However when comparing the size difference, it seems that this large-scale development loses the personal touch and intimacy of what a co-working space should be and it evolves into a more conventional office space. With the additional floor area, other amenities can be added such as gyms and movie screening areas. While the additional recreational amenities are a welcome, the scale the workspaces are implemented appear to not work as well in this development as compared to the other two case studies.
OFFICE SPACE PROGRAMS ‘LIVE / WORK / PLAY’
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS To start this identifying of human needs, we can look
The ‘Live / Work / Play’ paradigm has been a
at Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. This psychological
direction that mixed-use developments go by and
theory that was introduced in 1943 sets out five
are being judged by for many years. However, a
categories of needs to help one feel motivated,
recent argument has come about stating that such
starting from the most basic level at the bottom.
developments are actually incomplete when dealing with meeting the needs of the users within. Instead, it should actually be expanded to tackle more aspects of basic human needs.
01 Physiological Needs
‘LIVE / WORK / PLAY / EAT / SHOP’
These are the most basic needs that need to be met which refers to the physical requirements needed for
By integrating Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs within
survival, including aspects like food, water, clothing,
the ‘Live / Work / Play’ paradigm, it can be seen that
it needs to be expanded to a ‘Live / Work / Play / Eat / Shop’ concept instead, where a wider range of
02 Safety Needs
needs are being met. This means that other types
The next level is safety, which points towards various
of programmatic spaces need to be included as well
sources such as personal security, financial security,
within the working environment to provide a type of
and health and well-being.
space that fulfils a wider range of needs for people to feel satisfied.
03 Social Belonging The third level of needs is social belonging, which is
Taking it further, by incorporating the co-working
achieved by having opportunities to be able to form
workspace style, the top three needs in the hierarchy
and maintain significant relationships.
are also being met. By being placed in a co-working space, it allows for enhanced interaction with others,
04 Esteem Needs
allowing social and esteem needs to be fulfilled. As
Esteem is the feeling of being respected and
businesses in the co-working environment tend to
recognized by others.
grow quickly, it would help to aid the achievement of self-actualization as well.
05 Self-Actualization Self-actualization refers to an individual’s big-picture goals and the realization of their own potential of achieving it.
LARGE OFFICE CASE STUDIES To better understand the layouts of offices as they expand, three large-scale and more â€œtraditionalâ€? offices were studied to be able to get a sense of the various program types integrated within, as well as the program-to-program ratios. 01. Microsoft Building 44 (ZGF Architects) 02. Square Headquarters by Bohlin Jackson 03. Tencent by M Moser Associates
MICROSOFT BUILDING 44 (ZGF ARCHITECTS)
SQUARE HEADQUARTERS (BOHLIN JACKSON)
TENCENT (M MOSER ASSOCIATES)
MICROSOFT BUILDING 44 (ZGF ARCHITECTS) Location: Washington, USA Area: 14,678m2 Microsoft Redmond Building 44 is comparatively the most traditional office out of the three examples, having a very linear circulation path with the various workspaces branching out. The workspaces in this case are all enclosed, which results in the opportunities for social interaction to happen either at the circulation paths or common relaxation and recreational spaces.
CIRCULATION FOCUS ROOM KITCHEN / PANTRY LOBBY MEETING ROOM RECREATIONAL SPECIALTY SPACE TOILET + SERVICES WORK SPACE
SQUARE HEADQUARTERS (BOHLIN JACKSON) Location: San Francisco, USA Area: 16,111m2 In plan, Squareâ€™s office looks rather conventional too, however, the two main linear circulation spines were intentionally designed to have open desks along the sides for people to use as temporary workspaces, allowing and increasing opportunities for chance meetings and collaboration. In addition, the workspaces provided in Square are rarely enclosed, giving a sense of openness and belonging for everyone.
CIRCULATION FOCUS ROOM KITCHEN / PANTRY LOBBY MEETING ROOM RECREATIONAL SPECIALTY SPACE TOILET + SERVICES WORK SPACE
TENCENT (M MOSER ASSOCIATES) Location: Guangzhou, China Area: 9,914m2 In
disappeared and dissolves together with the workspace. This allows employees to walk wherever they please, however may pose a problem with social interaction as movements are not concentrated to certain pathways, but rather interspersed throughout the office (which in the case of having a low density of people, may not be as effective for interaction).
CIRCULATION FOCUS ROOM KITCHEN / PANTRY LOBBY MEETING ROOM RECREATIONAL SPECIALTY SPACE TOILET + SERVICES WORK SPACE
COMPARISON The chart on the right shows the distribution of programmatic areas within each office. As it is quite obvious that a bulk of the area are given to work spaces, it it interesting that circulation space takes up more than 15% of the total area. This also raises up a possible design direction where the circulation space is a common space shared between multiple companies instead of each company needing their own circulation space â€“ much like the characteristics of co-working spaces, but applied on a much larger scale.
Tencent Kitchen / Pantry
Toilet + Services
05 RESEARCH OF ADDITIONAL FACTORS
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Since a human-oriented design approach will be adopted in this thesis, additional research will be done to understand the factors that affect human behaviours and human perceptions in terms of spatial boundaries at the individual human-scale. This would provide a better understanding in potential dimensions and geometries utilised in the architectural intervention. Factors affect the built environment will also be studied to see how they affect the perception of spaces. By understanding this, it would allow for the architecture design and architectural elements of the buildings to directly contribute to the circulation experience.
PROXEMICS The study of proxemics refers to how humans unconsciously set up various spatial boundaries and structures the micro-space around them.1 These spatial boundaries not only apply to interpersonal scale, but can also be extrapolated to the organization of space within architecture, and even further to the scale of towns and cities.
PUBLIC DISTANCE SOCIAL DISTANCE PERSONAL DISTANCE INTIMATE DISTANCE
0.45M 1.20M 3.60M 7.60M
EFFECTS OF SPACE INVASION
To understand the fundamental characteristics of
The unwanted intrusion of a boundary may lead
the space surrounding an individual, Hall set out four
to negative reactions. For example, if personal
categories of interpersonal distance radii:
space were to be infringed upon, it could lead to psychological discomfort, anger, and even anxiety.2
01. Intimate Distance (0.00m – 0.45m)
Physiological reactions may also result from this
Intimate space is usually reserved for close
such as “increased heart rates, sweating, and
relationships or when there is a high level of comfort
increased blood pressure.”3
between individuals. In the crowded urban context, it may be accepted 02. Personal Distance (0.45m – 1.20m)
that such spatial intrusions are just a way of modern
Personal space usually comes into play between
life; however, this does not mean that architectural
family members or close friends. This is the distance
design should move on considering this as a norm,
in which an individual would be able to hold or grasp
but rather be more proactive in trying to address
another with extended arms.
and account for potential encroachments on such interpersonal space.
03. Social Distance (1.20m – 3.60m) Social space is the boundary that is normally used with acquaintances. This is the comfortable distance kept with strangers that one may interact with. 04. Public Distance (3.60m – 7.60m) Public distance is a neutral zone usually used for public speaking. On the other hand, this zone is also used for general observations of people without having to interact with them.
2 Hall, 1990 3 Middlemist and Knowles, 1976
URBAN DESIGN QUALITIES There are many different elements that can be
PEDESTRIAN AND TRANSIT-FRIENDLY DESIGN:
considered in the built environment when wanting
A PRIMER FOR SMART GROWTH1
to improve the circulation experience. Some factors directly relate to the pedestrian, such as pathway
This study provides a checklist for features that
dimensions and shade provided, whereas other
should be provided at the urban design level. These
factors relate more abstractly to the qualities of the
features are then sorted into three categories
environment. The following are a consolidation of a
varying in importance: essential features, highly
few studies and guidelines.
desirable features, and nice additional features.
A HEALTHY CITY IF AN ACTIVE CITY: A PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PLANNING GUIDE1
01 Medium-to-High Densities 02 Mix of Land Uses 03 Short to Medium Length Blocks 04 Transit Routes Every Half-Mile
In this guidebook produced by the World Health Organization, various action strategies are set out
05 Two- or Four-Lane Streets (with Rare Exceptions)
to aid in the promotion of a healthy and active city
06 Continuous Sidewalks Wide Enough for Couples
by increasing the physical activity within the urban
07 Safe Crossings
08 Appropriate Buffering from Traffic 09 Street-Oriented Buildings 10 Comfortable and Safe Places to Wait HIGHLY DESIRABLE FEATURES 11 Supportive Commercial Uses
One of the strategies mentioned is the increasing of green spaces. However, these green spaces are not just isolate plots of landscaping, but need to be an easily accessible urban green network that is
12 Gridlike Street Networks
complemented by a series of squares and outdoor
13 Traffic Calming along Access Routes
spaces that promote active living.
14 Closely Spaced Shade Trees along Access Routes 15 Little Dead Space, or Visible Parking
In addition, another strategy is to embed various
16 Nearby Parks and Other Public Spaces
programmes (such as workplaces, shops, schools,
17 Small-Scale Buildings (or Articulated Larger Ones) 18 Classy Looking Transit Facilities NICE ADDITIONAL FEATURES
and healthcare facilities) to form integrated neighbourhoods. This is so that people may consider walking and cycling as the main means of
transportation as these active mobility modes may
20 Functional Street Furniture
be more efficient in short distances.
21 Coherent, Small-Scale Signage 22 Special Pavement 23 Lovable Objects, Especially Public Art
(SOURCE: EWING'S CHECKLIST OF URBAN DESIGN FEATURES)
1â€ƒEdwards and Tsouros, 2008
MEASURING THE UNMEASURABLE: URBAN DESIGN QUALITIES RELATED TO WALKABILITY
In a recent study, Ewing and Handy not only focused
on physical features that affected walkability, but
Number of People
also argued that perceptual quality are as important
factors that affect the walking experience. The
the physical features of the urban environment, urban design qualities of the built environment, individuals reactions to such factors and how it all comes together to affect walkability and walking
URBAN DESIGN QUALITIES Imageability
behaviour. INDIVIDUAL REACTIONS Sense of Safety
Sense of Comfort
Level of Interest
1â€ƒEwing and Handy, 2009
subjectivity and shows the relationships between
figure attempts to organize the various factors by
Imageability is the quality of a place that makes it distinct, recognizable, and memorable. A place has high imageability when specific physical elements and their arrangement capture attention, evoke feelings, and create a lasting impression.
Legibility refers to the ease with which the spatial structure of a place can be understood and navigated as a whole. The legibility of a place is improved by a street or pedestrian network that provides travelers with a sense of orientation and relative location and by physical elements that serve as reference points.
Transparency refers to the degree to which people can see or perceive what lies beyond the edge of a street or public space. Physical elements that influence transparency include walls, windows, doors, fences, landscaping, and openings into midblock spaces.
Linkage refers to physical and visual connections from building to street, building to building, space to space, or one side of the street to the other which tend to unify disparate elements. Tree lines, building projections, marked crossings all create linkage. Linkage can occur longitudinally along a street or laterally across a street.
Enclosure refers to the degree to which streets and other public
Complexity refers to the visual richness of a place. The
spaces are visually defined by buildings, walls, trees, and other
complexity of a place depends on tvhe variety of the physical
elements. Spaces where the height of vertical elements is
environment, specifically the numbers and kinds of buildings,
proportionally related to the width of the space between them
architectural diversity and ornamentation, landscape elements,
have a room-like quality.
street furniture, signage, and human activity.
Human scale refers to a size, texture, and articulation of physical elements that match the size and proportions of humans and, equally important, correspond to the speed at which humans walk. Building details, pavement texture, street trees, and street furniture are all physical elements contributing to human scale.
Coherence refers to a sense of visual order. The degree of coherence is influenced by consistency and complementarity in the scale, character, and arrangement of buildings, landscaping, street furniture, paving materials, and other physical elements.
DEFINITION TABLE OF URBAN DESIGN QUALITIES (SOURCE: EWING AND HANDY)
ENCLOSURE RATIOS Buildings are an essential factor of urban design
overpower scale of the exterior spaces. With a ratio of
and walkability. They help to “define outdoor space,
less than 1:1, the perception of the pedestrians within
influence view, modify microclimates, and affect the
is of a deep well, invoking a sense of discomfort.
functional organization of the adjoining landscape.”
One way they affect the outside pedestrians is the
Depending on the densities of the built environment,
distance to building height ratio.
building masses do not need to be the element for calculation distance to height ratios. At lower
According to Gary Robinette in Plants, People, and
densities, the planting along the streets can take
Environmental Quality, when a 1:1 distance to height
over the dominant role of defining the enclosure of
ratio is achieved, full enclosure is perceived. This
the exterior space. Trees can be used to humanize
is when the building completely “fills and extends
the distance to height ratio as they visually enclosing
beyond the cone of vision.” The sense of enclosure
or complete an area of open space. Vertically, the
is slowly lost as the ratio decreases, until a 4:1 ratio,
planting can define exterior space by through
where the sense of enclosure is completely lost. In
branches and leaves to create a visual ceiling. Unlike
addition, as noted by Yoshinobu Ashihara in Exterior
the solidness of building enclosures, using plants
Design in Architecture, ratios between 1:1 and 3:1 have
for enclosures depend on visual suggestion and
an interior-like and intimate perception, whereas
illusion, therefore planting proximity will be another
spaces with a ratio over 6:1 will be considered as very
factor to consider that affects the level of enclosure,
open and public.
the closer they are spaced, the more enclosure the
space will seem. The objective is not, however, just to pack buildings and build higher in order to get a lower ratio.
Relating back to the ‘tiring length perspective’, visual
Consideration must also be taken to not design
termination points due to building masses can also
outdoor spaces where the building height and mass
influence the sense of enclosure.
1 Booth, 1990 2 Booth, 1990
1:1 RATIO FULL ENCLOSURE IS PERCEIVED
1:1 TO 1:3 RATIO EXTERIOR SPACE IS DESCRIBED TO BE "INTIMATE"
4:1 RATIO A LOSS OF PERCEIVED ENCLOSURE OCCURS
>1:6 RATIO EXTERIOR SPACE IS DESCRIBED TO BE "PUBLIC"
<1:1 RATIO EXTERIOR SPACE IS TOO ENCLOSED AND UNCOMFORTABLE
CONNECTING NODES: SEOUL 7017 OVERPASS (MVRDV) The Seoul 7017 Overpass was a project launched
ANALYSING URBAN DESIGN QUALITIES
by the Seoul Metropolitan Government in order to convert a deteriorated elevated highway into a path
Referring back to Ewing & Handy’s urban design
for people. This 938m connective overpass taken on
qualities, physical linkage plays a major role in this
by MVRDV will feature over 200 different species of
project as the overpass will provide connectivity to
greenery, and hold various programs such as book
17 different pedestrian roads to promote walking.
cafes and libraries, flower shops, puppet theatres, convenience shops, waterfront spaces, garden care
The elements of complexity and coherence are also
centres, and tourist information centres.
touched upon in a certain balance – overall, the entire overpass will be adorned with over 24,000 plants and trees, giving a sense of continued coherence throughout the project; the element of complexity and variety then plays a part when all plants are labelled and sorted by alphabetical order. This allows the overpass to not only have different
KOREA CITY AIR TERMINAL
zones of greenery that provide an orderly botanical educational experience, but to also tap onto the curiously of people and encourage them to keep
SEOUL STATION SQUARE
walking to experience all the different zones.
BUS TRANSFER CENTRE
FORTRESS WALL OF SEOUL
CONNECTIVITY MAP OF SEOUL 7017
SUMMARY Since this project is an adaptation rather than a built one, its geometry is fixed and cannot be altered drastically. Due to the long and straight nature of vehicular roads, this conversion would have led to the emergence of the â€˜tiring length perspectiveâ€™, however it seems that the integration of linkages, new programmatic spaces, and greening strategies help to mitigate this and still promote walking throughout the project.
REJUVENATING SPACE: NEW ROAD, BRIGHTON CITY (GEHL ARCHITECTS) Brighton is a seaside city on England’s south coast that attracts millions of tourists annually. Running from the pier to the North Laine neighbourhood runs a ‘cultural mile’, of which New Road lies at the heart of. New Road, however, was slowly becoming a run-down back alley rather than a main connectivity attraction – transforming into a space filled with antisocial behaviours that did not attract businesses or pedestrians to its vicinity. In the urban scale, the city of Brighton was also filled with many incomplete pedestrian and cycling networks that hindered forms of active mobility to go to workplaces. New Road was then used as a model of how outdoor spaces and streets could be rejuvenated to promote both public life and modes of active mobility.
NEW ROAD BEFORE INTERVENTIONS BY GEHL ARCHITECTS (SOURCE: GEHL ARCHITECTS)
INTERVENTIONS Instead of the implementing the city council’s initial
“Traffic levels have dropped by 93%,
idea of becoming a pedestrian-only street, Gehl
the number of pedestrians has
Architecturs reimagined New Road to be a walkable
increased by 62%, and there has been
road with a sharing of space with cars, but on the
a massive 600% increase in lingering
pedestrians’ terms. User-unfriendly features such as
activities. People apparently enjoy
kerbs and road crossings were flattened, allowing for
being here. Today 86% would like to
a single layer of street for pedestrians to move freely
see more areas like New Road in their
over. By providing this flattened plane, it implied
the importance of the pedestrians over the other potential users of the street.
SUMMARY Using the side of the street that was adjacent to a park, the existing greenery was employed to
This case study shows how simple geometrical
continue the sense of enclosure provided by the
gestures such as flatting kerbs or by adding public
building frontage. This then demarcated a suitable
furniture and lighting can all affect the perception
space to place a long wooden bench that overlooked
of a street and enhance its walkability. Going back
the public space, allowing for opportunities for rest
to the four main contributing factors of walkability,
and chances to people-watch.
it is essential to not only consider the comfort of potential pedestrians, but tap into the other aspects
With the numerous theatres on New Road, it was
such as functionality, usefulness, and the sense of
found that it had a lot of potential to become an active
safety as well.
environment at night. Lighting was then strategically added on the street to provide pedestrians with a sense of feeling welcomed and safe during these times and to encourage dwelling.
PROMOTING PUBLIC LIFE: KAOHSIUNG STATION (MECANOO) This 18.2 hectare station design situated in Taiwan works towards providing flexible public space to bring people together. This single project aims to be the hub for a multitude of transport modes, including regional trains, city metros, buses, taxis, and bicycle services. At the top of the project, sits an expansive public green roof that act as fingers reaching out towards the city, providing connectivity with the nearby existing buildings such as hotels, commercial buildings, shops and restaurants. The green roof does not only act as public space, but doubles as protection for the public plaza beneath it from Kaohsiung’s tropical climate – much like large tree canopies do. Here, it is envisioned that people gather to meet, slow down their pace of life to enjoy the surrounding views and natural elements, or visit the events held in the central plaza space, ranging from farmers' markets, to performances, and mobile libraries.”1
1 Mecanoo, 2016
SUMMARY From this station, it can be seen how important the provision of a public space is, that it is a unifying elements that serves as an attractor and brings people together. In order to be able to achieve this, connectivity plays a major role as well as the public space will need to be easily accessible by the buildings of close proximity in order to promote this public life.
VARIATIONS OF POTENTIAL PUBLIC ACTIVITIES IN THE SHELTERED PLAZA (SOURCE: MECANOO)
06 DESIGN PROCESS + PROPOSAL
INTRODUCTION To begin the design process, the following steps will be carried out:
01 PATH GENERATION
04 INTERIOR MASSING
Using the various points of interests analyzed
The initial massing will then be broken up further to
previously, two separate systems of circulation
form the modules within. By working with modules, it
strings will be generated to find the optimized
gives flexibility to the various size of office that can
network of pathways.
exist to accomodate various-sized companies.
02 PATH HIERARCHY + ORGANIZATION
05 PROGRAMMATIC ALLOCATION
The results obtained from the wet thread model are
Through environmental simulations and distance
then processed. This involves grouping the strings in
requirements of co-working spaces, the modules will
according to their usage and predicted activeness.
be zoned for different functions and programmes.
03 ARCHITECTURAL TREATMENT + MASSING
06 ROOF DESIGN
Based on the hierarchy the strings are placed in,
Due to the large span of the building, the roof will be
each will be treated differently architecturally. These
designed to allow light through to the interior with
come in three categories: landscaping, surfaces, and
the help of skylights. The aim for this is to alter the
quality of light as well to correspond to the amount of social interaction happening in the space.
01 PATH GENERATION The path generation algorithm begins with the identification of fixed points, which in this case are the points of interest within and around the site. The points are then interconnected, representing the potential circulation pathways taken by users. Each pathway is then broken down into shorter segments, demarcated with a point (the 'agent' of this system). Every 'agent' is then given a behavior and radius in which that behavior is applied. In this case, the behavior is an attractive force applied, meaning if other points exist within the given radius, the 'agent' will start to attract that point towards itself. This is then repeated for numerous iterations, which results in a system that slowly tightens itself, giving an optimized pathway solution in the end.
ALGORITHM INPUTS: - FIXED POINTS - CONNECTIVE PATHWAYS - SEGMENT LENGTH - ATTRACTION RADII
EACH 'AGENT' ATTRACTS OTHER AGENTS THAT ARE WITHIN THE SPECIFIED RADII AND THE SYSTEM TIGHTENS
THIS PROCESS IS REPEATED NUMEROUS TIMES UNTIL THE 'AGENTS' ARE ALL OUT OF RANGE OF ONE ANOTHER
UPPER PATH GENERATION
The upper path system is based on points of interests located all around the vincinity of Changi Business Park that are potential points that people come from and want to go towards.
GROUND PLANE PATH GENERATION
As for the ground plane path, these are mainly ingress and egress points on the site that link to road crossings and identified areas on the site that have significant important (demarcated drop-off point and sports areas).
02 PATH HIERARCHY + ORGANIZATION With the system of pathways generated, the next step is to process these strands. The first step of this processing is to sort the pathways in terms of usage. By using existing node density counts from the initially identified points of interests, as well as predictions for future development nodes, the pathway strands were sorted into two different tiers: primary circulation paths and secondary circulation paths. The pathways generated on the ground plane are also considered as a tier of circulation paths on their own to form the parkscape.
03 ARCHITECTURAL TREATMENT With the pathways being separated into three
As for the secondary pathways, these were treated as
different tiers, the next step for the processing
bridges that provided additional circulation networks
of these pathways are to apply an architectural
to accompany the main primary ones. These were
treatment to each type.
also left open air to connote the temporariness of the dwelling expected to happen on these surfaces.
To differentiate the elevated primary and secondary pathways, the contrast of enclosure and open
Lastly, the ground plane is chosen to act as a park-like
surfaces were used.
network, connecting the outdoor shared amenities as well as providing easy travelling from each of the
For the primary pathways, these were offset a large
ingress and egress points of the site.
distance in order to be able to accomodate other enclosed spaces such as the co-working offices and other shared ammentinites.
TWO PATH SYSTEMS GENERATED FROM WET THREAD MODEL
THE LOWER SYSTEM ACTS AS CIRCULATION FOR THE GROUND PARK
THE UPPER SYSTEM IS SPLIT INTO MORE VS LESS USED STRINGS
MORE = ENCLOSURE LESS = SURFACE BRIDGES
SECONDAY CIRCULATION = CONNECTION BRIDGES
PRIMARY CIRCULATION = ENCLOSURE
04 INTERIOR MASSING (UPPER) The next step was to produce the interior partitions
These segments were then offset inwards to
and segments that would house office spaces and
produce the interior partitions. By giving the offsets
other programmatic elements.
a set of regular distances, modules are being provided, allowing for the opporunity to merge and
To achieve this, any curved geometries in plan-view
expand any neighbouring partitions to accomodate
were first segmented up to a fixed length. This was to
for sceniarios such as expanding businesses or
ensure feasibility of the facade when extruded in the
accomodating programs that require larger areas.
Z-axis (such as by using flat glass panels),
RAW UNIT DISTRIBUTIONS
04 INTERIOR MASSING (GROUND) Intersections play a key part in determining the enclosures for the ground plane. Since there should not be any barriers to the circulation network, the first set of input geometries were the open space left over by the circulation network. These geometries were then intersected with the elevated primary circulation network, which then informed of the buildable space on the ground floor. These spaces were then proccessed using the same segmentation algothrim used on the upper floor, however with a smaller division to provide greater flexibility in the form.
GROUND PLANE MASSINGS OBTAINED FROM NEGATIVE GROUND-SPACE INTERSECTED WITH THE PRIMARY CIRCULATION MASSING ABOVE
05 PROGRAMMATIC ALLOCATION For the upper modules, a solar irradiation simulation was run to understand the heat distribution throughout the building. The programs were then placed in accordance to this and the programme's dwelling time. For example, spaces for vertical circulation and toilets are spaces for temporary dwelling and so were placed at the warmer zones.
05 PROGRAMMATIC ALLOCATION Stairs were then added to promote a height difference between the circulatory route, the programmatic spaces, as well as any ingress and egress points. These stairs also act as both intermediate meeting and resting points, as well as allows companies to spill out into the more "public" realm to display any products or research.
05 PROGRAMMATIC ALLOCATION For the ground plane, the programmes were allocated
01 BUSINESS FRONTAGE
based on the characteristics of the four frontages
Being the busiest side, the programmes allocated
of the site: business, educational, exhibitional, and
near this side would be those that can attract people
from the business park (such as sports spaces) and also opporunities to show the work-in-progress to stir up curiousity (fabrication spaces).
02 EDUCATIONAL FRONTAGE The programmes on this side of the site cater to the inquisitive minds of the students at SUTD (reference library and display spaces) and also provide services that could be of use to the students (retail spaces and lifestyle shops).
03 EXHIBITIONAL FRONTAGE The elements located towards this end are mostly for showing off the undergoings of the companies within the site (exhibition spaces and fabrication spaces to show work-in-progress).
04 RESIDENTIAL FRONTAGE Since this is the quieter and less active side of the site, more private spaces will be placed here (confidential work areas).
NT AG E
NT AG E
GE EDUCATIONAL FRONTA
NT AG E
06 ROOF DESIGN The initial intent of the roof was to just simply allow light to the interior through the addition of skylights. However, this developed further through the manipulation of a pixel grid and the usage of attractor points to allow them to converge. This resulted in a roof that could vary the quality of lighting within â€“ the intersection points and spaces of higher interaction would be brighter and more active, whereas a slightly dimmer lighting quality was created for the pathways of less social interaction.
PORTIONS OF LESSER SOCIAL INTERACTION = SPARSE SKYLIGHTS
PORTIONS OF HIGHER SOCIAL INTERACTION = DENSER SKYLIGHTS
RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT CONNECTION
CBP EXTENSION CONNECTION B
CBP SHORTCUT CONNECTION
BUS STOP CONNECTION
SINGAPORE EXPO CONNECTION
CBP RING CONNECTION
EXPO MRT CONNECTION
GROUND LEVEL PLAN
GROUND LEVEL PLAN
AUDITORIUM EVENT SPACE
STORAGE + DELIVERY
UPPER UNIT DISTRIBUTION PLAN
UPPER UNIT DISTRIBUTION PLAN
RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT CONNECTION
CBP EXTENSION CONNECTION B
CBP SHORTCUT CONNECTION
BUS STOP CONNECTION
SINGAPORE EXPO CONNECTION
CBP RING CONNECTION
EXPO MRT CONNECTION
UPPER UNIT LAYOUT PLAN
UPPER UNIT LAYOUT PLAN
PUBLIC STUDY SPACE
UTILITARIAN LAYER: 100M RADII - TOILETS - M+E
RETAIL LAYER: 100M RADII - CAFE - RESTAURANTS - SHOPS
RECREATIONAL LAYER: 75M RADII - SHARED PANTRIES - GAME ROOMS - RELAXATION PODS
COLLABORATION LAYER: 50M RADII - MEETING ROOMS - COLLABORATION ROOMS - CO-WORKING ROOMS
GROUND LEVEL PERSPECTIVES
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