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20.512 THESIS BOOKLET

ARCHITECTURE x MOVEMENT: HOW HUMAN CIRCULATION NETWORKS CAN SHAPE THE WORKPLACE HOONG YONG WEN, BENJAMIN (1000545)


TABLE OF CONTENTS 01 THESIS OVERVIEW

5

03 CO-WORKING SPACES

49

Introduction 5

Introduction 49

Architectural Potential

6

Co-Working Case Studies

52

Research Questions

7

Office Space Programs

60

Other Case Studies

62

Introduction 9

05 ADDITIONAL FACTORS

73

Circulation Efficiency

10

Research Methodology

73

Computational Design Tools

13

Proxemics 74

Agent-Based Models

13

Urban Design Qualities

76

Particle Swarm Systems

14

Case Studies

83

Path Systems

16

06 DESIGN PROCESS + PROPOSAL

95

02 ARCHITECTURE X MOVEMENT

9

03 SITE SELECTION

23

Introduction 95

Why Changi Business Park?

23

Path Generation

History + Development

27

Path Hierarchy + Organization

100

Future Expansion

39

Architectural Treatment

102

Specific Site Selection

41

Interior Massing

104

Building Types

43

Programmatic Allocation

108

Points of Interest

45

Roof Design

114

Design Proposal Deliverables

116

96

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01 THESIS OVERVIEW

INTRODUCTION This thesis stems from observations of the

Due to the majority of time the general population

importance

within

spends at work, my chosen intervention site is

architectural projects. Circulation networks are what

of

circulation

networks

Singapore’s Changi Business Park. This business

connects all programmatic spaces; and this is not

park was launched in 1997, with plans to undergo

limited to interior spaces within buildings, but rather

further expansion and development in the near

external ones as well.

future. However, with the business park’s current focus

on

large-scale

and

already-developed

In our fast-paced lifestyles, the ‘convenience factor’

businesses, the focus typology of this thesis will

plays a key role in how we perceive the spaces around

be placed on start-ups and small-scale businesses

us. We as human beings are always looking for the

as to tackle the lack of appropriate spaces for such

best route, the shortest route, or the most enjoyable

firms.

route. With this in mind, I want to investigate how computational methods can be used in planning and optimizing such routes to provide a more pleasurable experience from point to point.

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ARCHITECTURAL POTENTIAL This thesis therefore envisions a connectivity-based architectural intervention that merges the usage of circulation computational design tools and the characteristics and necessities of start-up and small-scale office spaces. This thesis will test the role of the architectural intervention and its ability to fulfil the following objectives: 1. The Urban Scale To

accentuate

connectivity

between

various

essential nodes and use this connectivity as a motivational factor towards promoting human circulation. 2. The Workplace Scale To boost social cohesion and sense of space, promoting interactions and social sustainability.

6


RESEARCH QUESTIONS A

human-oriented

will

01. What suitable computational process prototypes

be adopted in this thesis, placing a significant

that revolve around connectivity and circulation

importance

exist to augment future design approaches?

on

design

methodology

human-centric

factors

and

human-scale experiences. This then gives rise to several research questions:

02. Are such computational processes scalable to apply to sites of varying sizes? 03. How can the results of such tools be processed to become feasible works of architecture? 04. What physical and psychological factors affect how positively or negatively people perceive circulation networks? 05. How can such factors be integrated, controlled, or applied architecturally? 06. What are effective programmatic spaces that can act as circulation attractor points for users? 07. What factors affect perceived physical and psychological comfort of a space and how can they can be controlled or applied architecturally? 

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02 ARCHITECTURE x MOVEMENT

INTRODUCTION In architecture, circulatory systems refer to the

Another reason why movement within architecture

planned pathways and routes for humans to move

is so important is that it depicts the liveliness of

through space. Circulation systems play a key role

spaces. When comparing vibrant and activated

in building layouts and spatial organization as they

spaces to deserted ones, the difference comes

form a skeleton that connects all programmatic

down to number of users. With human movement

elements within a building, as well as determine and

injected, spaces seem more active and energetic,

define the interface between what is interior and

giving a sense of dynamism and rejuvenation, thus

exterior space. Overall, these networks are designed

leading to the attraction of even more users to the

and curated in a way that controls the movement of

vicinity.

people, allowing the different users to “experience� the work of architecture in various ways.

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CIRCULATION EFFICIENCY When dealing with the efficiency of circulatory

THE ‘TIRING LENGTH PERSPECTIVE’

systems, distance is usually thought of as the primary factors – as shorter pathway distances

The ‘tiring length perspective’ describes the

would require less time to walk. However, it should be

condition where pedestrians can glance at the whole

thought as one of the parameters to minimize, and

length of the route before the journey begins.2 Even

not the only goal. Ultimately, efficiency of circulatory

though this may be the most efficient form of a path

systems should be thought as a mixture of both

for walking, if the path is too linear and seemingly

physical and psychological factors.

endless, the prospect of walking is already exhausting before it has begun.

PHYSICAL DISTANCE VS PERCEIVED DISTANCE

To combat this issue, pathways should be segmented into manageable divisions, allowing people to have

According to studies by renowned urban design

more frequent psychological walking goals in the

consultant, Jan Gehl, a walking distance of 500m

middle distances. This, in turn, also provides for more

is mostly accepted.1 However, this acceptable

opportunities of view change that help increase the

distance will always be a balance of actual distance

appeal of a walk. Pathways should also be made

along with the quality of the walking route. If the

to integrate elements of interest or stimulants

paved circulation path is of good quality and visual

to combat psychological boredom derived from

stimulants are provided along the way, a considerably

walking on uninteresting pathways.

longer walking distance may be deemed acceptable; whereas if the route is uninteresting and mundane, it

The examples on the right show how either program

would cause the pedestrians to feel more tired and

and activity or building placement planning can help

have less of a desire to walk.

alleviate any potential cases of the 'tiring length perspective' from emerging.

1 Gehl, 2010

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2 Gehl, 2010


COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN TOOLS

AGENT-BASED MODELS

In order to augment future design processes, various

“An agent is a computer system that

computational tools that deal with circulation and

is situation in some environment, and

connectivity will be studied to see what opportunities

that is capable of autonomous action

exists that can be incorporated during the design

in this environmentin order to meet its design objectives.”

phase of this thesis project.

– Wooldridge, 1999 As part of the research, agent-based models will firstly be introduced, followed by two different

Agent-based models are forms of computational

subsets of such models: particle swarm systems and

simulations

path systems.

autonomous agents within a set environment. These

that

involve

having

groups

of

agents are given decision-making capability and rules to follow within the environment as well. As the agents react to each other and the environment, behaviours can be observed – leading to emergent actions such as self-organizational and bundling COMPONENTS OF AGENT-BASED MODELS

Numerous Agents Decision-Making Heuristics Rules + Adaptive Processes Interaction Topology Environment

operations. Agent-based models help to frame a bottom-up approach as any guiding geometries or boundaries are all derived from the system’s constituent units; this is as opposed to the typical top-down design approach mostly evident in the field of architecture.

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PARTICLE SWARM SYSTEMS Particle Swarm Systems are a type of agent-based

EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION:

model that exists as a form of a nature-inspired

NEW WARSAW MARKET (PIOTR BASZYNSKI)

metaheuristics originating from the swarming nature of animals (the flocking of birds and grouping

Baszynski’s project was aimed towards developing

of fish). Learning from these behaviours ultimately

a new design for a multifunctional market hall in the

result in high-optimized systems.

centre of Warsaw.

The most common model of Swarm Behaviour is

As a start, spatial arrangements and circulation

the Biods model, created by Craig Renolds in 1986.

patterns of existing bazaars were observed – so

In Boids, three very fundamental rules were applied

as to inform the behaviours of the agents in the

to the agents to control their behaviour (separation,

Particle Swarm System. It was found that such

alignment, and cohesion). If viewed as a single unit,

informal open-air bazaars had sellers place their

the rules applied to each agent are quite basic, but

stores in very organic, non-orthogonal manners that

through the process of allowing numerous agents to

evolving as even more stalls are set up, at the same

individually interact with each other, it gives rise to a

time accommodating the circulatory movements of

complex emergent system as an output.

both the shop-owners and the buyers – a form of emergent behaviour. The actions and movements observed were then applied to the site where a simulation was crafted to mimic people’s market shopping behaviour. Other

SEPARATION

ALIGNMENT

COHESION

Overall, Particle Swarm Systems aims to be able to mimic social behaviours in everyday life – allowing people’s choices, interactions and movement to be modelled and predicted in the digital realm. 14

information was also added to the system such as the site boundaries (the environment), the location of entrances (agent emitters), as well as zoning (goal seeking). From there, a market layout was generated from the actions of the agents.


NEW WARSAW MARKET VISUALS + STUDIES (SOURCE: BASZYNSKI)

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PATH SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION

MINIMAL PATH SYSTEM (SOAP FILM MODEL)

Between the 1960s and 1980s, Frei Otto and his team ventured into a series of physical form-finding

Minimal Path Systems are networks which provide

experiments surrounding connectivity and self-

the shortest connectivity between a set of nodes. To

organization. These experiments can be classified

achieve this in the physical world, Otto and his team

into three fundamental configurations:

used a soap film model to visualize this system. Due to the behaviour of soap film which results in

1. Direct Path System

a minimal surface area within a given boundary, it

2. Minimal Path System

results in edges that are minimized as well.

3. Minimized Detour Path System In mathematics, these optimization problems fall under the umbrella term of the ‘Steiner Tree Problem’,

DIRECT PATH SYSTEM

where to minimize the total length of connections

(GEODESIC MODEL)

between nodes, the system must go through a process of self-organization. In this process, new

This model is where points are connected via a

nodes and vertices are added to the system (called

geodesic. This system assumes an efficiency based

Steiner points) to form a terminal or connection

system where direct connections are provided and

point for a subset of points. These connectivity to

point-to-point travel occurs.

these new points always contain three connective edges that form a 120-degree angle between them.

This system also acts as the starting point for the

The result of this system is a model that minimizes

hybridised Minimized Detour Path System.

the length of pathways that needs to be travelled assuming multiple-node journeys.

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SOAP BUBBLES FORMING MINIMAL PATH SYSTEMS

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MINIMIZED DETOUR PATH SYSTEM

In the digital realm, Lars Spuybroekit, a Dutch

(WET THREAD MODEL)

architect and professor, argued that these physical systems represent a subset of agent-based

With the aforementioned systems presenting a

modelling as well.

configuration for extreme situations (one for path

pathways would firstly be set out connecting various

To achieve the simulation,

length and one for detours), a model that attempts

nodal points. These initial paths would then be

to find a balance between the two is the Minimized

divided into several segments, each containing an

Detour Path System. As an analogue model, a

attraction or repulsion point. Each of these points

network of threads similar to the Direct Path System

then signify the “agents” of the system and can

were created. Each thread was then given a freedom

interact with its neighbouring entities. Even though

of length of 8 percent and then placed in water,

the positions of these points are somewhat fixed and

resulting in a self-reconfiguration that formed an

rigid, Spuybroekit stated that they do have a certain

optimized connectivity network.

amount of freedom to move and act, and that the limitation of freedom can be seen as a rule of the

With this system, an equilibrium between path

environment the agents are placed in. This way, the

distance and detours is also found for the sake of

original nodal points of connection can be preserved

producing variety in the travel journey. This can be

– respecting the beginning and end points of each

tied in with with Jan Gehl’s factors that affect walk

connection.

psychology and walk appeal, in which could affect overall walkability of spaces as well.

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PHYSICAL WET THREAD FORM-FINDING MODELS (SOURCE: MAREK KOLODZIEJCZYK)

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EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION:

EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION:

GENERIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE (AEDAS R&D)

URBAN REEF (SHAMPOO)

To

human-centric

Using the Hudson Yards area of New York as the site

architectural design, the Aedas R&D partnered

show

the

possibility

of

of intervention, the Shampoo team set a requirement

with the Fraunhofer Institute in Stuttgart to create

of 3,000 housing units to be placed. The target for the

a demonstration that integrated the use of path

building form was to be a series of mid-rise buildings

systems. A research institute was the chosen

that were interconnected in order to enhance the

typology for this demonstration. It allowed the initial

amount of social integration within the region.

placement of communal facilities, such as cafĂŠs, libraries and lobbies, to be placed within the system,

By studying the vicinity at an urban scale, important

followed by the implementation of an algorithm that

nodes were superimposed along with an hourly

connected these spaces to the various surrounding

pedestrian count, thereby notifying of each node’s

laboratories and offices. The emergent intersection

priority of connectivity. After applying a self-bundling

points that arrived from these connectivity networks

and self-organising algorithm, this then resulted in a

were then interpreted as social spaces for informal

series of apertures that defined possible positions of

interactions between the users of the building.

vertical circulation cores for buildings.

CIRCULATION NETWORKS GENERATED BY AEDAS R&D (SOURCE: EMPATHIC SPACE)

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URBAN REEF (SOURCE: SHAMPOO)

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03 SITE SELECTION: CHANGI BUSINESS PARK

WHY CHANGI BUSINESS PARK? Singapore’s population predicted to increase by one

as they enter working life will have very significant

million people by the year 2030. It is not surprising

health impact when they are in their 60s."

that Singapore is no exception when it comes to health risks associated to urban life.

Furthermore, the work-driven culture in Singapore is also damaging to the “well-being” of a person.

According to the 2010 National Health Survey, nearly

In fact, Singaporeans hold the record for being the

6 out of 10 Singapore residents do no exercise at all

world’s fastest walkers – a reflection of the pace of

in their leisure time. The top three reasons for such

life in a city. What this leads to is less leisure time,

physical inactivity were: “no time” due to work or

less time socializing, a lack of exercise, poor eating

family commitments, “too lazy” and “no interest”. In

habits and a higher chance of drinking and smoking

a National Sports Participation Survey conducted

– all resulting in a reduced quality of life.

in 2011, it was found that 54 percent of Singapore residents aged 13 and above did not partake in any

In 2014, Singapore was ranked 97th out of 145

form of sport or exercise within three months.

countries in a Global Well-Being Index survey, scoring highest in financial well-being (9), but alarmingly low

Another effect of urbanization is that the “convenient”

for the other four indicators: community well-being

culture promotes unhealthy food consumption and

(72), purpose well-being (111), social well-being (123)

generally an unhealthy lifestyle. Another research

and physical well-being (137).

conducted in 2016 by epidemiologists at the National University of Singapore project that 34

A 2016 research conducted in Singapore indicates

percent of Singaporeans aged 24 to 35 can expect

that stress (56%) and lack of physical activity (52%)

to be diabetic by the time they are 65 years old. The

remain to be the top health issues, followed by lack

research suggests a higher rate of obesity for people

of sleep (32%) and obesity (24%).

below age 40 is due to "a big drop in physical activity" when people start working. Professor Chia Kee Seng,

Therefore, by selecting Changi Business Park as

dean of the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health,

an intervention site, an emphasis can be placed on

suggested that it is "important for those in their 20s

improving the overall movement of people in the

to recognise that the dramatic lifestyle changes

workplace – a place where the majority of hours are spent in a day.

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CHANGI BUSINESS PARK Launched in July 1997, Changi Business Park is a 66 hectare area located in eastern Singapore. Currently, it comprises of high technology businesses, data and software oriented firms, R&D branches, industrial estates, mixed-use developments, as well as a local university, the Singapore University of Technology and Design. Changi Business Park is also in close proximity to the Singapore Expo, allowing the area to not only attract business-oriented visitors, but the general public included. The business park also houses the Expo MRT station, which provides for easy accessibility to the area.

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SITE ANALYSIS 01: HISTORY + DEVELOPMENT To understand the shifts over time of the built environment, connectivity and central “heart� of Changi Business Park, historical studies will be done to map out these elements and will help to better predict how future developments on the site may cause for a further change from the current conditions.

1995: BEFORE THE LAUNCH Before the launch of Changi Business Park, the site only contained an elongated Somapah Road. At this time, no other connectivity networks were present.

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1998: START OF THE INDUSTRIAL SPRAWL One year after the launch of Changi Business Park, the main arterial vehicular networks were laid down. At this time, industrial buildings started to be constructed on the outer fringe of the business park. For these industrial buildings to be close to Changi Airport and the logistic facilities nearby, transportation and logistical processes can be simplified, leading to overall costs to be reduced.

29


2000: THE SINGAPORE EXPO Within the past two years, the first phase of the Singapore Expo was erected, along with the addition of more industrial buildings along the fringe of the business park. It was at this time that secondary road networks were laid down for the future expansion of the main business district. Due to the absence of the Expo MRT station (which only opened in 2001), accessibility to the site was still limited and was not considered an attractive region for the general public. It is because of this that a central "heart" of the business park did not exist at the time as building density was sparse and spread out.

31


2007: OVERALL GROWTH By this period, expansion has occurred throughout Changi Business Park. The outer fringe zone was filled out with both industrial estates and commercial buildings. Developments in the middle of the business park also started being erected. Next to the business park, the addition of the Expo MRT station in 2001 meant that the entire area was more accessible due to the much-improved connectivity to the other regions of Singapore. At this time, the Singapore Expo was also expanded with the addition of the MAX Pavilion. It was due to this expansion that Somapah Road has to be demolished, providing a lack of direct access to Upper Changi Road. Due to the growth and addition of the MRT station that a central "heart" emerged, leading to an increased importance to the area surrounding the Singapore Expo and station.

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2008: THE RETURN OF SOMAPAH ROAD Within the year, a straightened Somapah Road returned to the vincinity, allowing for a more direction connection towards Upper Changi Road. This also provided for accessibility to the site of the new university development at the north of the business park.

35


2017: THE PRESENT In the past decade, more expansion has been done in the main business district with the addition of nine more office buildings and the Changi City Point shopping mall. Towards the north of the site now sits the Singapore University of Technology and Design. All contributing towards the densification of the business park. The addition of the Changi City Point shopping mall helps to reinforce the location of the "heart" of Changi Business Park and promotes a congregating of pedestrians due to the accessibility to the MRT station and the services provided by the shopping mall itself.

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SITE ANALYSIS 02: FUTURE EXPANSION For the future of Changi Business Park, further

With these future development plans in mind, it is

expansion can be expected. With the secondary

speculated that the heart of the business park will

roads already put into place, the now-barren plots of

move northwards towards the site of the MAX Pavilion.

the land at the north will house the addition of future

This site will thus have an increased importance to

business developments to the business park. With

the overall connectivity of the business park as it

the growing business district and growing university,

marks the intermediate space that people will walk

a new Upper Changi MRT station will be constructed

through to be connected between the business

to facilitate ingress and egress to the business part.

district, the new expansion, as well as the university.

In addition, a realignment and widening of Simei and Somapah Road will occur, leading to improved overall accessibility.

39


SITE SELECTION With the future developments in mind, the selected site of intervention will be where the Max Pavilion currently sits on. This is to be able to target a large group of potential pedestrians as this site slowly becomes the new 'heart' of Changi Business Park.

41


G A

B C D

F

E

I H L J K

M

N

O

COMMERCIAL

EDUCATIONAL

INDUSTRIAL


SITE ANALYSIS 03: BUILDING TYPES Currently, Changi Business Park is filled with a mixture of commercial and industrial buildings, with the university sitting on the fringe of the business park’s

boundaries.

The

commercial

buildings

in the business park are geared towards larger corporations, such as CitiBank, DBS, and IBM. What currently is lacking within the business park are opportunities for smaller-scale research, entrepreneurial start-ups, and co-working spaces, much like the incubators provided in the One-North business parks. By incorporating such work and research space, a sense of liveliness and curiously can be injected into Changi Business Park, allowing for an attraction of people to such spaces and helping to deeper integrate the university with the business park’s activities.

A. NESTLE / NIKE B. SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC C. HONEYWELL D. HUAWEI E. IBM F. STORHUB G. STORHUB H. PARK AVENUE SERVICED OFFICES I. PARK AVENUE CHANGI HOTEL J. CISCO SYSTEMS K. CITIBANK L. STANDARD CHARTERED M. DHL N. DBS O. DHL

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15

14 13 12

11

01 02

06 03 04

05

07 08

10

09


SITE ANALYSIS 04: POINTS OF INTEREST (OFF-SITE) Identifying the important nodes in close proximity to the site will be a vital step for cirulation planning as these are the points in which pedestrians would walk to and fro. Nodes noted down offer a significant amount of foot traffic at specific times of the day and can help notify of any future circulation trends.

01. BUS STOP 02. SINGAPORE EXPO 03. EXPO MRT 04. CHANGI CITY POINT 05. FAIRPRICE XTRA 06. FITNESS FIRST 07. F&B 08. F&B 09. F&B 10. F&B 11. ACCESS POINT 12. CBP EXPANSION 13. SUTD 14. UPPER CHANGI MRT 15. RESIDENTIAL ZONE

45


06

07

05

04 01 02

03


SITE ANALYSIS 05: POINTS OF INTEREST (ON-SITE) The points of interest on the site itself are mainly to do with the ingress and egress points. These are where future potential users of the site can access it easily and serve as the most convenience locations.

ONGOING CONSTRUCTION OF THE SUTD CROSSING

01. UPPER CHANGI ROAD CROSSING 02. EXPO DRIVE CROSSING TO SINGAPORE EXPO 03. CHANGI SOUTH AVENUE 1 CROSSING + EXPO MRT ACCESS 04. MRT STRUCTURAL BARRIER 05. SOMAPAH ROAD + CHANGI SOUTH AVENUE 1 CROSSING 06. FUTURE SUTD CROSSING 07. UPPER CHANGI + SOMAPAH ROAD CROSSING

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03 DESIGN TYPOLOGY: CO-WORKING SPACES

CO-WORKING SPACES To invoke movement within the workplace, a new

Through this, social interaction is built up, resulting

form of working environment will be introduced to

in quick and efficient networking. With such new

the site: co-working spaces.

connections, small businesses are able to grow, progress, and expand quickly as compared to being

“People don’t want to punch their

in an isolated and singular working environment.

clock anymore and then have their life start when they leave the office, they

The diagrams on the following page depict the many

want their life to be integrated, they

advantages of co-working spaces.

want to feel like there’s value in what they do everyday.” – Miguel McKelvey, WeWork Founder The concept of co-working allows individual or small groups of entrepreneurs to share open workspaces instead of having to rent out private cubicles or setting up makeshift workspaces in public areas. These shared spaces allow the users to contribute towards or just be exposed to the doings of others

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72% OF CO-WORKERS FORECASTED AN INCREASE IN INCOME

50% OF CO-WORKERS ACCESS THEIR WORKSPACE AROUND THE CLOCK

71% REPORT A BOOST IN CREATIVITY SINCE JOINING A CO-WORKING SPACE

62% OF CO-WORKERS SAID THEIR STANDARD OF WORK HAD IMPROVED

90% OF CO-WORKERS REPORT AN INCREASE IN SELF-CONFIDENCE

70% OF CO-WORKERS FEEL HEALTHIER AS COMPARED TO IN A TRADITIONAL OFFICE

ANNUAL GLOBAL CO-WORKING SURVEY: ADVANTAGES OF CO-WORKING SPACES (SOURCE: DESKMAG)


64% OF CO-WORKERS ARE BETTER ABLE TO COMPLETE TASKS ON TIME

75% OF CO-WORKERS REPORTED AN INCREASE IN PRODUCTIVITY

80% OF CO-WORKERS REPORTED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF THEIR BUSINESS NETWORK

92% OF CO-WORKERS REPORTED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF THEIR SOCIAL CIRCLE

86% OF CO-WORKERS REPORTED A DECREASE IN THEIR SENSE OF ISOLATION

83% OF CO-WORKERS REPORTED THAT THEY TRUSTED OTHERS IN THEIR CO-WORKING SPACE


CO-WORKING SPATIAL LAYOUTS As an opportunity to understand the fundamental layouts of co-working spaces, three examples of various scales will be analysed. 01. Small - Co-Working Office by Appareil 02. Medium - SimplyWork 3.0 by 11architecture Ltd. 03. Large - SimplyWork 6.0 by 11architecture Ltd.

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CO-WORKING OFFICE (APPAREIL)

SIMPLYWORK 3.0 (11ARCHITECTURE LTD)

SIMPLYWORK 6.0 (11ARCHITECTURE LTD)


CO-WORKING OFFICE (APPAREIL) Location: Barcelona, Spain Area: 205m2 (Small-Scale) By analysing a co-working space at this small scale, it is possible to understand the basic programmatic elements of such spaces. From this, it can be seen that as a minimum, a large area (160m2) with work desks and meeting desks are provided, along with a small pantry (8m2) and a single bathroom (4m2).

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SIMPLYWORK 3.0 (11ARCHITECTURE LTD.) Location: Shenzhen, China Area: 650m2 (Medium-Scale) At the medium scale, more types of working environments can be supplied, such as open work areas, enclosed work areas, teleconferencing rooms, as well as meeting rooms. It can be seen that the layout is quite modular and utilising a repeated room size throughout the floorplan. As for the spaces of rest, it is interesting to note that even though this case study is at a different scale than APPAREIL’s co-working space, the amount of pantry space still remains at a constant size.

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03 SIMPLYWORK 6.0 (11ARCHITECTURE LTD.) Location: ShenZhen, China Area: 2,100m2 (Large-Scale) At the large scale, workspace modules can still be observed but instead at a scale that can fit almost 4-5 times the number of people as compared to the medium scale. However when comparing the size difference, it seems that this large-scale development loses the personal touch and intimacy of what a co-working space should be and it evolves into a more conventional office space. With the additional floor area, other amenities can be added such as gyms and movie screening areas. While the additional recreational amenities are a welcome, the scale the workspaces are implemented appear to not work as well in this development as compared to the other two case studies.

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OFFICE SPACE PROGRAMS ‘LIVE / WORK / PLAY’

MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS To start this identifying of human needs, we can look

The ‘Live / Work / Play’ paradigm has been a

at Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. This psychological

direction that mixed-use developments go by and

theory that was introduced in 1943 sets out five

are being judged by for many years. However, a

categories of needs to help one feel motivated,

recent argument has come about stating that such

starting from the most basic level at the bottom.

developments are actually incomplete when dealing with meeting the needs of the users within. Instead, it should actually be expanded to tackle more aspects of basic human needs.

SELF-ACTUALIZATION

ESTEEM NEEDS

SOCIAL BELONGING

SAFETY NEEDS

PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

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01 Physiological Needs

‘LIVE / WORK / PLAY / EAT / SHOP’

These are the most basic needs that need to be met which refers to the physical requirements needed for

By integrating Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs within

survival, including aspects like food, water, clothing,

the ‘Live / Work / Play’ paradigm, it can be seen that

and shelter.

it needs to be expanded to a ‘Live / Work / Play / Eat / Shop’ concept instead, where a wider range of

02 Safety Needs

needs are being met. This means that other types

The next level is safety, which points towards various

of programmatic spaces need to be included as well

sources such as personal security, financial security,

within the working environment to provide a type of

and health and well-being.

space that fulfils a wider range of needs for people to feel satisfied.

03 Social Belonging The third level of needs is social belonging, which is

Taking it further, by incorporating the co-working

achieved by having opportunities to be able to form

workspace style, the top three needs in the hierarchy

and maintain significant relationships.

are also being met. By being placed in a co-working space, it allows for enhanced interaction with others,

04 Esteem Needs

allowing social and esteem needs to be fulfilled. As

Esteem is the feeling of being respected and

businesses in the co-working environment tend to

recognized by others.

grow quickly, it would help to aid the achievement of self-actualization as well.

05 Self-Actualization Self-actualization refers to an individual’s big-picture goals and the realization of their own potential of achieving it.

61


LARGE OFFICE CASE STUDIES To better understand the layouts of offices as they expand, three large-scale and more “traditional� offices were studied to be able to get a sense of the various program types integrated within, as well as the program-to-program ratios. 01. Microsoft Building 44 (ZGF Architects) 02. Square Headquarters by Bohlin Jackson 03. Tencent by M Moser Associates

62


MICROSOFT BUILDING 44 (ZGF ARCHITECTS)

SQUARE HEADQUARTERS (BOHLIN JACKSON)

TENCENT (M MOSER ASSOCIATES)


MICROSOFT BUILDING 44 (ZGF ARCHITECTS) Location: Washington, USA Area: 14,678m2 Microsoft Redmond Building 44 is comparatively the most traditional office out of the three examples, having a very linear circulation path with the various workspaces branching out. The workspaces in this case are all enclosed, which results in the opportunities for social interaction to happen either at the circulation paths or common relaxation and recreational spaces.

CIRCULATION FOCUS ROOM KITCHEN / PANTRY LOBBY MEETING ROOM RECREATIONAL SPECIALTY SPACE TOILET + SERVICES WORK SPACE

64


SQUARE HEADQUARTERS (BOHLIN JACKSON) Location: San Francisco, USA Area: 16,111m2 In plan, Square’s office looks rather conventional too, however, the two main linear circulation spines were intentionally designed to have open desks along the sides for people to use as temporary workspaces, allowing and increasing opportunities for chance meetings and collaboration. In addition, the workspaces provided in Square are rarely enclosed, giving a sense of openness and belonging for everyone.

CIRCULATION FOCUS ROOM KITCHEN / PANTRY LOBBY MEETING ROOM RECREATIONAL SPECIALTY SPACE TOILET + SERVICES WORK SPACE

66


TENCENT (M MOSER ASSOCIATES) Location: Guangzhou, China Area: 9,914m2 In

Tencent’s

case,

the

circulation

network

disappeared and dissolves together with the workspace. This allows employees to walk wherever they please, however may pose a problem with social interaction as movements are not concentrated to certain pathways, but rather interspersed throughout the office (which in the case of having a low density of people, may not be as effective for interaction).

CIRCULATION FOCUS ROOM KITCHEN / PANTRY LOBBY MEETING ROOM RECREATIONAL SPECIALTY SPACE TOILET + SERVICES WORK SPACE

68


COMPARISON The chart on the right shows the distribution of programmatic areas within each office. As it is quite obvious that a bulk of the area are given to work spaces, it it interesting that circulation space takes up more than 15% of the total area. This also raises up a possible design direction where the circulation space is a common space shared between multiple companies instead of each company needing their own circulation space – much like the characteristics of co-working spaces, but applied on a much larger scale.

70


100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Microsoft Circulation

Focus Room

Tencent Kitchen / Pantry

Lobby

Meeting Room

Square Recreational

Toilet + Services

Specialty Space

Work Space

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05 RESEARCH OF ADDITIONAL FACTORS

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Since a human-oriented design approach will be adopted in this thesis, additional research will be done to understand the factors that affect human behaviours and human perceptions in terms of spatial boundaries at the individual human-scale. This would provide a better understanding in potential dimensions and geometries utilised in the architectural intervention. Factors affect the built environment will also be studied to see how they affect the perception of spaces. By understanding this, it would allow for the architecture design and architectural elements of the buildings to directly contribute to the circulation experience.

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PROXEMICS The study of proxemics refers to how humans unconsciously set up various spatial boundaries and structures the micro-space around them.1 These spatial boundaries not only apply to interpersonal scale, but can also be extrapolated to the organization of space within architecture, and even further to the scale of towns and cities.

PUBLIC DISTANCE SOCIAL DISTANCE PERSONAL DISTANCE INTIMATE DISTANCE

0.45M 1.20M 3.60M 7.60M

1 Hall, 1963

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INTERPERSONAL DISTANCES

EFFECTS OF SPACE INVASION

To understand the fundamental characteristics of

The unwanted intrusion of a boundary may lead

the space surrounding an individual, Hall set out four

to negative reactions. For example, if personal

categories of interpersonal distance radii:

space were to be infringed upon, it could lead to psychological discomfort, anger, and even anxiety.2

01. Intimate Distance (0.00m – 0.45m)

Physiological reactions may also result from this

Intimate space is usually reserved for close

such as “increased heart rates, sweating, and

relationships or when there is a high level of comfort

increased blood pressure.”3

between individuals. In the crowded urban context, it may be accepted 02. Personal Distance (0.45m – 1.20m)

that such spatial intrusions are just a way of modern

Personal space usually comes into play between

life; however, this does not mean that architectural

family members or close friends. This is the distance

design should move on considering this as a norm,

in which an individual would be able to hold or grasp

but rather be more proactive in trying to address

another with extended arms.

and account for potential encroachments on such interpersonal space.

03. Social Distance (1.20m – 3.60m) Social space is the boundary that is normally used with acquaintances. This is the comfortable distance kept with strangers that one may interact with. 04. Public Distance (3.60m – 7.60m) Public distance is a neutral zone usually used for public speaking. On the other hand, this zone is also used for general observations of people without having to interact with them.

2 Hall, 1990 3 Middlemist and Knowles, 1976

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URBAN DESIGN QUALITIES There are many different elements that can be

PEDESTRIAN AND TRANSIT-FRIENDLY DESIGN:

considered in the built environment when wanting

A PRIMER FOR SMART GROWTH1

to improve the circulation experience. Some factors directly relate to the pedestrian, such as pathway

This study provides a checklist for features that

dimensions and shade provided, whereas other

should be provided at the urban design level. These

factors relate more abstractly to the qualities of the

features are then sorted into three categories

environment. The following are a consolidation of a

varying in importance: essential features, highly

few studies and guidelines.

desirable features, and nice additional features.

1 Ewing, 1999

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ESSENTIAL FEATURES

A HEALTHY CITY IF AN ACTIVE CITY: A PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PLANNING GUIDE1

01 Medium-to-High Densities 02 Mix of Land Uses 03 Short to Medium Length Blocks 04 Transit Routes Every Half-Mile

In this guidebook produced by the World Health Organization, various action strategies are set out

05 Two- or Four-Lane Streets (with Rare Exceptions)

to aid in the promotion of a healthy and active city

06 Continuous Sidewalks Wide Enough for Couples

by increasing the physical activity within the urban

07 Safe Crossings

environment.

08 Appropriate Buffering from Traffic 09 Street-Oriented Buildings 10 Comfortable and Safe Places to Wait HIGHLY DESIRABLE FEATURES 11 Supportive Commercial Uses

One of the strategies mentioned is the increasing of green spaces. However, these green spaces are not just isolate plots of landscaping, but need to be an easily accessible urban green network that is

12 Gridlike Street Networks

complemented by a series of squares and outdoor

13 Traffic Calming along Access Routes

spaces that promote active living.

14 Closely Spaced Shade Trees along Access Routes 15 Little Dead Space, or Visible Parking

In addition, another strategy is to embed various

16 Nearby Parks and Other Public Spaces

programmes (such as workplaces, shops, schools,

17 Small-Scale Buildings (or Articulated Larger Ones) 18 Classy Looking Transit Facilities NICE ADDITIONAL FEATURES

and healthcare facilities) to form integrated neighbourhoods. This is so that people may consider walking and cycling as the main means of

19 Streetwalls

transportation as these active mobility modes may

20 Functional Street Furniture

be more efficient in short distances.

21 Coherent, Small-Scale Signage 22 Special Pavement 23 Lovable Objects, Especially Public Art

(SOURCE: EWING'S CHECKLIST OF URBAN DESIGN FEATURES)

1 Edwards and Tsouros, 2008

77


MORE OBJECTIVE

MEASURING THE UNMEASURABLE: URBAN DESIGN QUALITIES RELATED TO WALKABILITY

1

PHYSICAL FEATURES

In a recent study, Ewing and Handy not only focused

Sidewalk Width

Building Height

on physical features that affected walkability, but

Street Width

Number of People

also argued that perceptual quality are as important

Traffic Volume

Weather

factors that affect the walking experience. The

Tree Canopy

the physical features of the urban environment, urban design qualities of the built environment, individuals reactions to such factors and how it all comes together to affect walkability and walking

URBAN DESIGN QUALITIES Imageability

Transparency

Legibility

Linkage

Enclosure

Complexity

Human Scale

Coherence

behaviour. INDIVIDUAL REACTIONS Sense of Safety

Sense of Comfort

Level of Interest

LESS OBJECTIVE

1 Ewing and Handy, 2009

78

WALKING BEHAVIOUR

subjectivity and shows the relationships between

OVERALL WALKABILITY

figure attempts to organize the various factors by


IMAGEABILITY

Imageability is the quality of a place that makes it distinct, recognizable, and memorable. A place has high imageability when specific physical elements and their arrangement capture attention, evoke feelings, and create a lasting impression.

LEGIBILITY

Legibility refers to the ease with which the spatial structure of a place can be understood and navigated as a whole. The legibility of a place is improved by a street or pedestrian network that provides travelers with a sense of orientation and relative location and by physical elements that serve as reference points.

TRANSPARENCY

Transparency refers to the degree to which people can see or perceive what lies beyond the edge of a street or public space. Physical elements that influence transparency include walls, windows, doors, fences, landscaping, and openings into midblock spaces.

LINKAGE

Linkage refers to physical and visual connections from building to street, building to building, space to space, or one side of the street to the other which tend to unify disparate elements. Tree lines, building projections, marked crossings all create linkage. Linkage can occur longitudinally along a street or laterally across a street.

ENCLOSURE

COMPLEXITY

Enclosure refers to the degree to which streets and other public

Complexity refers to the visual richness of a place. The

spaces are visually defined by buildings, walls, trees, and other

complexity of a place depends on tvhe variety of the physical

elements. Spaces where the height of vertical elements is

environment, specifically the numbers and kinds of buildings,

proportionally related to the width of the space between them

architectural diversity and ornamentation, landscape elements,

have a room-like quality.

street furniture, signage, and human activity.

HUMAN SCALE

COHERENCE

Human scale refers to a size, texture, and articulation of physical elements that match the size and proportions of humans and, equally important, correspond to the speed at which humans walk. Building details, pavement texture, street trees, and street furniture are all physical elements contributing to human scale.

Coherence refers to a sense of visual order. The degree of coherence is influenced by consistency and complementarity in the scale, character, and arrangement of buildings, landscaping, street furniture, paving materials, and other physical elements.

DEFINITION TABLE OF URBAN DESIGN QUALITIES (SOURCE: EWING AND HANDY)

79


ENCLOSURE RATIOS Buildings are an essential factor of urban design

overpower scale of the exterior spaces. With a ratio of

and walkability. They help to “define outdoor space,

less than 1:1, the perception of the pedestrians within

influence view, modify microclimates, and affect the

is of a deep well, invoking a sense of discomfort.

functional organization of the adjoining landscape.”

1

One way they affect the outside pedestrians is the

Depending on the densities of the built environment,

distance to building height ratio.

building masses do not need to be the element for calculation distance to height ratios. At lower

According to Gary Robinette in Plants, People, and

densities, the planting along the streets can take

Environmental Quality, when a 1:1 distance to height

over the dominant role of defining the enclosure of

ratio is achieved, full enclosure is perceived. This

the exterior space. Trees can be used to humanize

is when the building completely “fills and extends

the distance to height ratio as they visually enclosing

beyond the cone of vision.” The sense of enclosure

or complete an area of open space. Vertically, the

is slowly lost as the ratio decreases, until a 4:1 ratio,

planting can define exterior space by through

where the sense of enclosure is completely lost. In

branches and leaves to create a visual ceiling. Unlike

addition, as noted by Yoshinobu Ashihara in Exterior

the solidness of building enclosures, using plants

Design in Architecture, ratios between 1:1 and 3:1 have

for enclosures depend on visual suggestion and

an interior-like and intimate perception, whereas

illusion, therefore planting proximity will be another

spaces with a ratio over 6:1 will be considered as very

factor to consider that affects the level of enclosure,

open and public.

the closer they are spaced, the more enclosure the

2

space will seem. The objective is not, however, just to pack buildings and build higher in order to get a lower ratio.

Relating back to the ‘tiring length perspective’, visual

Consideration must also be taken to not design

termination points due to building masses can also

outdoor spaces where the building height and mass

influence the sense of enclosure.

1 Booth, 1990 2 Booth, 1990

80


1:1 RATIO FULL ENCLOSURE IS PERCEIVED

1:1 TO 1:3 RATIO EXTERIOR SPACE IS DESCRIBED TO BE "INTIMATE"

4:1 RATIO A LOSS OF PERCEIVED ENCLOSURE OCCURS

>1:6 RATIO EXTERIOR SPACE IS DESCRIBED TO BE "PUBLIC"

<1:1 RATIO EXTERIOR SPACE IS TOO ENCLOSED AND UNCOMFORTABLE

81


CONNECTING NODES: SEOUL 7017 OVERPASS (MVRDV) The Seoul 7017 Overpass was a project launched

ANALYSING URBAN DESIGN QUALITIES

by the Seoul Metropolitan Government in order to convert a deteriorated elevated highway into a path

Referring back to Ewing & Handy’s urban design

for people. This 938m connective overpass taken on

qualities, physical linkage plays a major role in this

by MVRDV will feature over 200 different species of

project as the overpass will provide connectivity to

greenery, and hold various programs such as book

17 different pedestrian roads to promote walking.

cafes and libraries, flower shops, puppet theatres, convenience shops, waterfront spaces, garden care

The elements of complexity and coherence are also

centres, and tourist information centres.

touched upon in a certain balance – overall, the entire overpass will be adorned with over 24,000 plants and trees, giving a sense of continued coherence throughout the project; the element of complexity and variety then plays a part when all plants are labelled and sorted by alphabetical order. This allows the overpass to not only have different

KOREA CITY AIR TERMINAL

zones of greenery that provide an orderly botanical educational experience, but to also tap onto the curiously of people and encourage them to keep

SEOUL STATION SQUARE

walking to experience all the different zones.

BUS TRANSFER CENTRE

FORTRESS WALL OF SEOUL

SUNGNYEMUN GATE

NAMDAEMUN MARKET

CONNECTIVITY MAP OF SEOUL 7017

83


SUMMARY Since this project is an adaptation rather than a built one, its geometry is fixed and cannot be altered drastically. Due to the long and straight nature of vehicular roads, this conversion would have led to the emergence of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;tiring length perspectiveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, however it seems that the integration of linkages, new programmatic spaces, and greening strategies help to mitigate this and still promote walking throughout the project.

85


REJUVENATING SPACE: NEW ROAD, BRIGHTON CITY (GEHL ARCHITECTS) Brighton is a seaside city on England’s south coast that attracts millions of tourists annually. Running from the pier to the North Laine neighbourhood runs a ‘cultural mile’, of which New Road lies at the heart of. New Road, however, was slowly becoming a run-down back alley rather than a main connectivity attraction – transforming into a space filled with antisocial behaviours that did not attract businesses or pedestrians to its vicinity. In the urban scale, the city of Brighton was also filled with many incomplete pedestrian and cycling networks that hindered forms of active mobility to go to workplaces. New Road was then used as a model of how outdoor spaces and streets could be rejuvenated to promote both public life and modes of active mobility.

NEW ROAD BEFORE INTERVENTIONS BY GEHL ARCHITECTS (SOURCE: GEHL ARCHITECTS)

87


INTERVENTIONS Instead of the implementing the city council’s initial

“Traffic levels have dropped by 93%,

idea of becoming a pedestrian-only street, Gehl

the number of pedestrians has

Architecturs reimagined New Road to be a walkable

increased by 62%, and there has been

road with a sharing of space with cars, but on the

a massive 600% increase in lingering

pedestrians’ terms. User-unfriendly features such as

activities. People apparently enjoy

kerbs and road crossings were flattened, allowing for

being here. Today 86% would like to

a single layer of street for pedestrians to move freely

see more areas like New Road in their

over. By providing this flattened plane, it implied

city.”

the importance of the pedestrians over the other potential users of the street.

SUMMARY Using the side of the street that was adjacent to a park, the existing greenery was employed to

This case study shows how simple geometrical

continue the sense of enclosure provided by the

gestures such as flatting kerbs or by adding public

building frontage. This then demarcated a suitable

furniture and lighting can all affect the perception

space to place a long wooden bench that overlooked

of a street and enhance its walkability. Going back

the public space, allowing for opportunities for rest

to the four main contributing factors of walkability,

and chances to people-watch.

it is essential to not only consider the comfort of potential pedestrians, but tap into the other aspects

With the numerous theatres on New Road, it was

such as functionality, usefulness, and the sense of

found that it had a lot of potential to become an active

safety as well.

environment at night. Lighting was then strategically added on the street to provide pedestrians with a sense of feeling welcomed and safe during these times and to encourage dwelling.

89


PROMOTING PUBLIC LIFE: KAOHSIUNG STATION (MECANOO) This 18.2 hectare station design situated in Taiwan works towards providing flexible public space to bring people together. This single project aims to be the hub for a multitude of transport modes, including regional trains, city metros, buses, taxis, and bicycle services. At the top of the project, sits an expansive public green roof that act as fingers reaching out towards the city, providing connectivity with the nearby existing buildings such as hotels, commercial buildings, shops and restaurants. The green roof does not only act as public space, but doubles as protection for the public plaza beneath it from Kaohsiung’s tropical climate – much like large tree canopies do. Here, it is envisioned that people gather to meet, slow down their pace of life to enjoy the surrounding views and natural elements, or visit the events held in the central plaza space, ranging from farmers' markets, to performances, and mobile libraries.”1

1 Mecanoo, 2016

91


SUMMARY From this station, it can be seen how important the provision of a public space is, that it is a unifying elements that serves as an attractor and brings people together. In order to be able to achieve this, connectivity plays a major role as well as the public space will need to be easily accessible by the buildings of close proximity in order to promote this public life.

VARIATIONS OF POTENTIAL PUBLIC ACTIVITIES IN THE SHELTERED PLAZA (SOURCE: MECANOO)

93


06 DESIGN PROCESS + PROPOSAL

INTRODUCTION To begin the design process, the following steps will be carried out:

01 PATH GENERATION

04 INTERIOR MASSING

Using the various points of interests analyzed

The initial massing will then be broken up further to

previously, two separate systems of circulation

form the modules within. By working with modules, it

strings will be generated to find the optimized

gives flexibility to the various size of office that can

network of pathways.

exist to accomodate various-sized companies.

02 PATH HIERARCHY + ORGANIZATION

05 PROGRAMMATIC ALLOCATION

The results obtained from the wet thread model are

Through environmental simulations and distance

then processed. This involves grouping the strings in

requirements of co-working spaces, the modules will

according to their usage and predicted activeness.

be zoned for different functions and programmes.

03 ARCHITECTURAL TREATMENT + MASSING

06 ROOF DESIGN

Based on the hierarchy the strings are placed in,

Due to the large span of the building, the roof will be

each will be treated differently architecturally. These

designed to allow light through to the interior with

come in three categories: landscaping, surfaces, and

the help of skylights. The aim for this is to alter the

enclosures.

quality of light as well to correspond to the amount of social interaction happening in the space.

95


01 PATH GENERATION The path generation algorithm begins with the identification of fixed points, which in this case are the points of interest within and around the site. The points are then interconnected, representing the potential circulation pathways taken by users. Each pathway is then broken down into shorter segments, demarcated with a point (the 'agent' of this system). Every 'agent' is then given a behavior and radius in which that behavior is applied. In this case, the behavior is an attractive force applied, meaning if other points exist within the given radius, the 'agent' will start to attract that point towards itself. This is then repeated for numerous iterations, which results in a system that slowly tightens itself, giving an optimized pathway solution in the end.

96


ALGORITHM INPUTS: - FIXED POINTS - CONNECTIVE PATHWAYS - SEGMENT LENGTH - ATTRACTION RADII

EACH 'AGENT' ATTRACTS OTHER AGENTS THAT ARE WITHIN THE SPECIFIED RADII AND THE SYSTEM TIGHTENS

THIS PROCESS IS REPEATED NUMEROUS TIMES UNTIL THE 'AGENTS' ARE ALL OUT OF RANGE OF ONE ANOTHER


UPPER PATH GENERATION

The upper path system is based on points of interests located all around the vincinity of Changi Business Park that are potential points that people come from and want to go towards.


GROUND PLANE PATH GENERATION

As for the ground plane path, these are mainly ingress and egress points on the site that link to road crossings and identified areas on the site that have significant important (demarcated drop-off point and sports areas).


02 PATH HIERARCHY + ORGANIZATION With the system of pathways generated, the next step is to process these strands. The first step of this processing is to sort the pathways in terms of usage. By using existing node density counts from the initially identified points of interests, as well as predictions for future development nodes, the pathway strands were sorted into two different tiers: primary circulation paths and secondary circulation paths. The pathways generated on the ground plane are also considered as a tier of circulation paths on their own to form the parkscape.

100


SECONDARY CIRCULATION

PRIMARY CIRCULATION


03 ARCHITECTURAL TREATMENT With the pathways being separated into three

As for the secondary pathways, these were treated as

different tiers, the next step for the processing

bridges that provided additional circulation networks

of these pathways are to apply an architectural

to accompany the main primary ones. These were

treatment to each type.

also left open air to connote the temporariness of the dwelling expected to happen on these surfaces.

To differentiate the elevated primary and secondary pathways, the contrast of enclosure and open

Lastly, the ground plane is chosen to act as a park-like

surfaces were used.

network, connecting the outdoor shared amenities as well as providing easy travelling from each of the

For the primary pathways, these were offset a large

ingress and egress points of the site.

distance in order to be able to accomodate other enclosed spaces such as the co-working offices and other shared ammentinites.

TWO PATH SYSTEMS GENERATED FROM WET THREAD MODEL

102

THE LOWER SYSTEM ACTS AS CIRCULATION FOR THE GROUND PARK

THE UPPER SYSTEM IS SPLIT INTO MORE VS LESS USED STRINGS

MORE = ENCLOSURE LESS = SURFACE BRIDGES


SECONDAY CIRCULATION = CONNECTION BRIDGES

PRIMARY CIRCULATION = ENCLOSURE


04 INTERIOR MASSING (UPPER) The next step was to produce the interior partitions

These segments were then offset inwards to

and segments that would house office spaces and

produce the interior partitions. By giving the offsets

other programmatic elements.

a set of regular distances, modules are being provided, allowing for the opporunity to merge and

To achieve this, any curved geometries in plan-view

expand any neighbouring partitions to accomodate

were first segmented up to a fixed length. This was to

for sceniarios such as expanding businesses or

ensure feasibility of the facade when extruded in the

accomodating programs that require larger areas.

Z-axis (such as by using flat glass panels),

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RAW UNIT DISTRIBUTIONS


04 INTERIOR MASSING (GROUND) Intersections play a key part in determining the enclosures for the ground plane. Since there should not be any barriers to the circulation network, the first set of input geometries were the open space left over by the circulation network. These geometries were then intersected with the elevated primary circulation network, which then informed of the buildable space on the ground floor. These spaces were then proccessed using the same segmentation algothrim used on the upper floor, however with a smaller division to provide greater flexibility in the form.

106


GROUND PLANE MASSINGS OBTAINED FROM NEGATIVE GROUND-SPACE INTERSECTED WITH THE PRIMARY CIRCULATION MASSING ABOVE


05 PROGRAMMATIC ALLOCATION For the upper modules, a solar irradiation simulation was run to understand the heat distribution throughout the building. The programs were then placed in accordance to this and the programme's dwelling time. For example, spaces for vertical circulation and toilets are spaces for temporary dwelling and so were placed at the warmer zones.

COOLER

108

WARMER


OFFICE

COLLABORATION

RECREATIONAL

RETAIL

UTILITARIAN


05 PROGRAMMATIC ALLOCATION Stairs were then added to promote a height difference between the circulatory route, the programmatic spaces, as well as any ingress and egress points. These stairs also act as both intermediate meeting and resting points, as well as allows companies to spill out into the more "public" realm to display any products or research.

110


OFFICE

COLLABORATION

RECREATIONAL

RETAIL

UTILITARIAN


05 PROGRAMMATIC ALLOCATION For the ground plane, the programmes were allocated

01 BUSINESS FRONTAGE

based on the characteristics of the four frontages

Being the busiest side, the programmes allocated

of the site: business, educational, exhibitional, and

near this side would be those that can attract people

residential.

from the business park (such as sports spaces) and also opporunities to show the work-in-progress to stir up curiousity (fabrication spaces).

02 EDUCATIONAL FRONTAGE The programmes on this side of the site cater to the inquisitive minds of the students at SUTD (reference library and display spaces) and also provide services that could be of use to the students (retail spaces and lifestyle shops).

03 EXHIBITIONAL FRONTAGE The elements located towards this end are mostly for showing off the undergoings of the companies within the site (exhibition spaces and fabrication spaces to show work-in-progress).

04 RESIDENTIAL FRONTAGE Since this is the quieter and less active side of the site, more private spaces will be placed here (confidential work areas).

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BU

SIN

ES

SF

RO

NT AG E

RE

SID

EN

TIA

LF

RO

NT AG E

GE EDUCATIONAL FRONTA

EX

HI

BIT

IO

NA

LF

RO

NT AG E


06 ROOF DESIGN The initial intent of the roof was to just simply allow light to the interior through the addition of skylights. However, this developed further through the manipulation of a pixel grid and the usage of attractor points to allow them to converge. This resulted in a roof that could vary the quality of lighting within â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the intersection points and spaces of higher interaction would be brighter and more active, whereas a slightly dimmer lighting quality was created for the pathways of less social interaction.

DIMMER

114

BRIGHTER


PORTIONS OF LESSER SOCIAL INTERACTION = SPARSE SKYLIGHTS

PORTIONS OF HIGHER SOCIAL INTERACTION = DENSER SKYLIGHTS


SITE PLAN

SITE PLAN

RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT CONNECTION

SUTD CONNECTION

A

CBP EXTENSION CONNECTION B

A’

CBP SHORTCUT CONNECTION

BUS STOP CONNECTION

B’

SINGAPORE EXPO CONNECTION

CBP RING CONNECTION

EXPO MRT CONNECTION

0

30

60

90

120


GROUND LEVEL PLAN

GROUND LEVEL PLAN

REFERENCE LIBRARY

A

EXHIBITION SPACE

PRIVATE FABRICATION

RETAIL

AUDITORIUM EVENT SPACE

B

GYM

EXHIBITION SPACE

CAFE

DISPLAY SPACE

A’

OPEN FABRICATION

MAIN ENTRANCE

B’

STORAGE + DELIVERY

0

30

60

90

120


UPPER UNIT DISTRIBUTION PLAN

UPPER UNIT DISTRIBUTION PLAN

RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT CONNECTION

SUTD CONNECTION

A

CBP EXTENSION CONNECTION B

A’

CBP SHORTCUT CONNECTION

BUS STOP CONNECTION

B’

SINGAPORE EXPO CONNECTION

CBP RING CONNECTION

EXPO MRT CONNECTION

0

30

60

90

120


UPPER UNIT LAYOUT PLAN

UPPER UNIT LAYOUT PLAN

ENCLOSED OFFICE

RECREATION ROOM

EVENTS ROOM

CAFE

MEETING ROOMS

PANTRY

PUBLIC STUDY SPACE

0

4

8

12

16


SECTION B-B'

SECTION A-A'


PROGRAMMATIC AXONOMETRIC

UTILITARIAN LAYER: 100M RADII - TOILETS - M+E

RETAIL LAYER: 100M RADII - CAFE - RESTAURANTS - SHOPS

RECREATIONAL LAYER: 75M RADII - SHARED PANTRIES - GAME ROOMS - RELAXATION PODS

COLLABORATION LAYER: 50M RADII - MEETING ROOMS - COLLABORATION ROOMS - CO-WORKING ROOMS


GROUND LEVEL PERSPECTIVES


INTERIOR PERSPECTIVES


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Architecture x Movement: How Human Circulation Networks Can Shape The Workplace  

Thesis Booklet

Architecture x Movement: How Human Circulation Networks Can Shape The Workplace  

Thesis Booklet

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