Bees for Development Journal Edition 94 - March 2010

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Bees/or Development Journal 94

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Dear friends 2010 has been declared the International Year of Biodiversity by the United Nations, to raise awareness of the rate at which we humans are reducing the variety of natural life on earth. — Beekeepers are one group who are working to safeguard biodiversity we understand the vital role that bees fulfil. And it seems that more people want to join us beekeeping is enjoying a renaissance! Here in the UK, beekeeping classes are over-subscribed and extra courses are planned. And this edition of BfD Journal brings you news of more success stories in many countries: the

indigenous honey bee Apis cerana japonica is staging a recovery in Japan with beekeepers selling the honey at four times the standard honey price; beekeepers in Turkey selling honey harvested from log hives at premium prices; and beekeepers selling all that they can harvest in Malawi.

TREN

This beekeeping renaissance is bringing many new and beautiful books on bees (see pages 16 and 17), and more internationa! events than ever before (page 18). Just looking at November, it starts during the /nternational Conference on Beekeeping Development and Honey Marketing in Vietnam — (30 October 2 November), followed by the Asian Apicultural Association's ever-larger Congress in South Korea (5-8 November) and, as that Conference closes, the Caribbean Congress kicks off in

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Our cover eatures

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Grenada (8-13 November).

Ichio Tomyam beside

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low-cost way to house bees, introduced to Japan’s Goto Isiands by Fujio Hisashi for restoration of beekeeping with Apis cerana, the Asian hive bee. See page 8 for more information about this successful project.

-

is constantly being updated, and it is all available to you, free of charge.

Nila

ISSUE No 94 March 2010 In this issue

seems that the great value of bees and beekeeping are becoming recognised locally and internationally. Here at Bees for Development we have an abundance of new training materials for beekeepers in Africa, and for beekeepers everywhere, we recommend you to look at the new Information Portal on our website. It contains thousands of articles on all aspects of apiculture It

Rradhear

page

Practical DeekKeePiNg

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Notice Board

5

Coffee with

6

Trees Bees

NOMCY USC...

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Profitable beekeeping with ADIS COLANA

8

News around the World

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Letter

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BOOKSNENf

16

Look Ahead & Learn Ahead

18

New training Modules ........c

20

BID Journal Published quarterly by Bees for Development and distributed to readers in over 130 countries Editor Nicola Bradbear PhD Co-ordinator Helen Jackson BSc

BfD Trust Membership includes B/D Journal at no extra cost.

Readers in developing countries can apply for sponsored subscription. See page 19 a

BeesforDevelopment Post

PO Box 105 Monmouth

NP25 9AA, UK Phone

+44 (0)16007 13648

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Figure

1.

A log hive of the Black Sea region, Turkey.

SUPPORT:

info@beesfordevelopment.org

Bees for Development Trust acknowledge: Anglo American Group Foundation, Panta Rhea Foundation, Rowse Family Trust, Thorne (Beehives) Ltd and VITA (Europe) Ltd. Synchronicity Foundation,

www.beesfordevelopment.org

And the many beekeeping groups and individuals who support our work. Please encourage your friends and colleagues to help.

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PRACTICAL BEEKEEPING

HARVESTING HONEY FROM A LOG HIVE irfan Kandemir, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey Keywords: Black Sea, honeycomb, honey price, log hive, Turkey

August 2008 joined the Beekeepers Safari organised by Bioteymatur and Bees for Development to explore beekeeping experiences in different In

|

regions of Turkey with participants from many countries. During the Safari we witnessed unique management techniques by local people, and would like to share just one of these very special honey harvesting methods which has a long tradition in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. |

Turkish beekeepers use a variety of hives such as simple box hives, log hives, skep hives and frame hives. Honey harvest is a great ceremony for the beekeeper: ‘the happiest day in a beekeeper’s calender’! Harvesting

honey from log hives is especially interesting, and when the hives are in a tree, harvesting can be dangerous and requires co-operation between is difficult to remove honey from these hives without damaging or destroying the bee colony: the bees can become upset and the result is

friends.

It

of course that the beekeeper is stung.

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aver designs

beekeepers use clever designs that discourage queens from laying eggs in some parts of the hive so that honey can be harvested without damaging the brood nest. Beekeepers know that queens have a tendency to lay eggs in only one area of the nest, and this area moves progressively. Also the direction of combs in the horizontal log hive is important for beekeepers

Combs built across the hive (perpendicular to the entrance) can be easily harvested in one piece, usually from the rear of the hive, leaving the remainder for the colony for the winter. However combs built along a horizontal log hive would definitely be broken during harvesting and the beekeeper would have to cut long combs containing some brood. the Black Sea Region the direction of the comb is determined by the beekeepers: they put a small starter comb in an empty horizontal log hive to establish the comb direction. As you see in Figure 3, the direction is not exactly perpendicular to the entrance, nor along the log hive as in Figure In

4, but in between the two. The beekeepers explained that the new direction makes the comb easier to harvest, with less damage to the brood and the

colony.

How do beekeepers harvest honey? Five pieces of equipment are used during harvesting. Two of these are known by every beekeeper: the hive tool and the smoker. Two are knives, to detach the comb from the log hive: one is locally called A/demir or Elseren (a flat bladed scraper), and the other one to cut the comb to

separate the honey and brood part is a Hadi (one-ended cutter). The fifth piece of equipment the Korza or Hegel, looks like a big wooden spoon

(Figure 5).

KLAN KANDEMIR

(Figures 3 & 4).

Figure 2 After opening the rear end of the hive smoke is used fo drive the bees

Figures

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Figure 4. Combs built along the horizontal log hive

Figure 5. Two type of knives and wooden spoon to cut and hold the honeycomb


PRACTICAL BEEKEEPING

The harvesting procedure is in three parts: 1.

Drive the bees out of the hive

this means smoking after opening

the rear door of the log hive (Figures 2, 6-9). The beekeeper smoked the hive for a long time and finally the bees (Figure 9) were all outside the entrance. Figure 8 shows the combs free of bees and 2.

ready to be cut out. The beekeeper starts to sever the connection of the comb to the ceiling of the log hive with the flat bladed scraper (Figure 10). The wood frame inside the log hive (Figures 7; 11 & 12) is the line that the beekeeper should not cross. Beekeepers harvest all the combs up to the wooden stick whose place is predetermined while making the hive.

3.

The extra special B/D Beekeepers’ Safari to Turkey takes place only every second year. The next opportunity to join the Safari and see marvellous beekeeping in wonderful natural enviornments is

24 July to 5 August 2010 See the website or contact BfD for details

THE BEST TRIP !’VE EVER BEEN ON

11

WHEN ARE

WE GOING AGAIN?* *

After detaching the upper comb connections, the beekeeper uses the one-ended cutter to cut the honey portion of the comb up to the wooden stick or from the area where there is no brood. No matter how careful the beekeeper, there may still be damage to the colony

(Figures

BfD SAFARI TO TURKEY

.

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Phil Cunningham, 2008 Turkey Safari participant ’

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& 12).

Why log hive beekeeping?

TEMA FOUINDATIUY

Beekeepers continue this method of beekeeping because it is traditional, however the significant factor is the selling price of comb honey from the log hives. Strained honey from frame hives sells at about US$15 (€10) per kg, and comb honey obtained from frame hives without foundation is US$30-35 (€20-24). However, comb honey from log hives is much more valuable and can sometimes sell for over

US$100 (€70) per kg.

@

Acknowledgement

PHOTO

The author thanks Anmet Demirci who carried out the harvesting and allowed the pictures to be taken.

Figure 6 Smioning the hive to drive the bees out

Figure 7 The Dees leds 12

Figure 8. Honeycombs ready for harvest

Figure 9. The bees are all in front of the log hive after heavy smoking

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PRACTICAL BEEKEEPING

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Figure 13. ...delicious and ready to serve

NOTICE BOARD 'eumal of Pollination Ecology is a new, open access online Journa/ that publishes original research articles, short mmunications and review articles in all fields of pollination. Looking forward to your contributions says Dr Carolin Mayer, Editor in Chief. Visit www.pollinationecology.org

PROJECT FUNDING FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, supports beekeeping projects in developing countries:

TeleFood Special Fund Beekeepers’ groups and associations may apply for small project funding of up to US$10,000. Request documents should include a brief description of project objectives, proposed food production or income-generating activities, work plan, number of participants, detailed list of inputs with cost estimates and reporting arrangements. Submit your request to the FAO or UNDP office in your country. See www.fao.org and inform BID of the outcome of your application.

1% for Development Fund Small grants to enable community based beekeeping projects in developing countries to get off the ground. Applicants must clearly define objectives and how they are to be attained. See One-Per-Cent-Fund@FAO.org

APIACTA: For the beekeeper and bee scientist Apiacta the Apimondia Journal. Available online from www.apimondia.org

BEE CRAFT: The UK's leading monthly beekeeping magazine. View a digital copy and subscribe on line at www.bee-craft.com ULUDAG BEE JOURNAL: News, practical information and research articles Published quarterly in Turkish with English summaries. See www.uludagaricilik.org IT PAYS TO ADVERTISE

BfD Journal offers a great opportunity to reach thousands of readers. Various sizes available, prices start from GBP35 (US$60; €42) COPYRIGHT: You are welcome to translate and/or reproduce items appearing in BfDJ as part of our Information Service. Permission is given on BfD contact details are provided in full, and you send us a copy of the item or the

the understanding that BfDJ and author(s) are acknowledged, website address where it is used.


Bees for Development Journal 94

AN INTERVIEW WITH ¥

PHOTO

Keywords: Africa, coffee growers, co-operative, Malawi, pollination, Residue Monitoring Plan Bernard Kaunda is Production Manager of Mzuzu Coffee Planters Co-operative Union, Malawi. Mzuzu Coffee specialises in high altitude coffee, grown in the northern highlands. The Co-operative is run by 4,000

coffee growers and staff. This interview was held in December 2009.

BfD

Asa

BK

We went into honey because in year 2000, the Beekeepers Association of Malawi ran into problems and collapsed due to financial mismanagement. This meant that beekeepers in the north of Malawi were faced with marketing difficulties. Members of the

coffee co-operative, why do you sell honey?

Mzuzu Coffee Co-operative put pressure on our marketing department to begin selling their honey alongside their coffee. Therefore in 2002 we started buying and selling honey. We bought

filters and settling tanks from the GTZ Beekeeping Project, and in our first year we purchased and sold 2.3 tonnes of honey.

BD

Was this a good decision?

BK

We discovered that demand for honey was far greater than the volume we could supply, and every year our supplies were falling short of demand within Malawi. In 2006 we worked out a new

Attractively packaged Mzuzu honey and coffee

BK

these requirements. There also is good labour compatibility between honey and coffee, and importantly, the coffee benefits from pollination by honey bees. Coffee and honey are a great, natural

collect honey twice a year (May-June and September-December) and coffee once a year. The farmers run their own collection centres and they take responsibility for recording what is delivered, and by whom, and they undertake preliminary quality checks. The farmers bring the honey in their own buckets to the collection centres and tip their honey into our buckets. We have a system to enable traceability of the honey.

BfD How does Mzuzu Coffee compare

BK

BK

honey. Since May 2009 we have been Fairtrade’ certified. This means that we must keep the honey supplied by our members separate from honey supplied by non-members, as only supplies from members can be sold as Fairtrade honey. However, we are not

yet using the Fairtrade label on the honey as we selling only within Malawi.

BfD

Are you ready to export honey?

BK

We plan to start exporting and have two containers of honey ready for export. We may sell one container to an Arab buyer and we hoped to sell the second container to a buyer in Germany. However, Malawi is not on the list of Third Countries from which EU countries are permitted to import honey, because Malawi has not yet submitted a Residue Monitoring Plan to the EU Commission.

BfD How does selling honey compare BK

with selling coffee?

Generally, coffee is the biggest earner but not for everyone, some earn more from honey. For example a farmer may earn MWK300,000 (US$2,020; €1,475) from coffee and MWK250,000

(US$1,683; €1,230) from honey.

BfD How is honey collection

and consolidation organised?

We are the largest honey company in Malawi and we plan to expand. We are aiming for an annual turnover of 100 tonnes. The habits of consumers are changing and people are buying more honey as a regular food item. The main outlets for our honey within Malawi are supermarkets and grocery stores.

turnover from honey sales increased?

We have enabled farmers to acquire more hives, and every year since 2006 we have run input schemes. In 2007, we bought and sold 15 tonnes, in 2008 this rose to 41.6 tonnes, and in 2009, we expect more than 50 tonnes of honey. We buy from Co-operative members and non-members, although the members supply most

with other honey businesses in

Malawi?

combination!

BfD Has your annual

we collect honey from the rural areas we pay MWK250 (US$1.68; if a beekeeper brings honey to us here at the factory in Mzuzu we pay MWK260 (US$1.75; €1.29) per kg. We If

€1.23) per kg, whereas

package for our farmers. We organised inputs of 10 hives, 3,000 coffee seedlings and enough seed for 0.4 ha of wheat. We recognised that income just from coffee is not always adequate, and the payment terms for coffee are difficult for poor farmers to manage: the income comes only once a year and even then, farmers are paid months after harvest. We were looking for ways that farmers could diversify their livelihoods. Increased income, and income spread over the year are important, and beekeeping meets

B/D

HONEY AND COFFEE BERNARD KAUNDA

BfD What about beeswax? BK

We sell beeswax to a buyer in Blantyre. Beeswax is still seen as a by-product, and some beekeepers throw it away. We rely on our extension worker who teaches the importance of beeswax he has a lot of work to do!

BfD What BK

is your biggest remaining challenge?

To achieve the necessary investment for further expansion: we still rely on donors for our expansion programmes. We intend to

establish a revolving fund that can be accessed by beekeepers needing finance to increase their hive numbers. Some beekeepers increase their hive numbers without external finance, for example in Chakaka. Other beekeepers have 70-80 hives and have not waited for a donor to help them expand, but not all beekeepers will do this.

BfD

Bernard

- thank you very much.

Producer-owned co-operatives must meet Fairtrade Standards set by the Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International to achieve Fairtrade certification. For details see wwwfairtrade.net

*

?

For non-European Union (EU) countries to be eligible to export honey to the EU, they must meet certain food safety requirements concerned with monitoring residues of veterinary substances in food products.

For more information see WWw.ec.europa.eu/food/food/chemicalsafety/residues/index and the BfD website


Polyscias fulva Araliaceae

PHOTOS

TREES BEES USE

PAUL LATHAM

Bees for Development Journal 94

Paul Latham, UK Keywords: Apis mellifera adansonii, Ghana, honey collection, honey bee management, West Africa

Apicultural value Polyscias fulva is an important source of nectar and pollen for bees. Polyscias ferruginea Synonym Common name Impembati

Description

Polyscias fulva. a fast growing, deciduous tree

A fast growing deciduous tree up to 30 m tall, often with a straight, slender trunk to about 9 m before developing branches, like the spokes

Uses

of an umbrella. The tree has a flat topped crown. The bark is grey and smooth and the leaf scars are prominent. Leaves are compound, up to 1m long, with 6-12 pairs of leaflets plus one at the tip, each leaflet is and leathery, 9-20 cm long, with a rounded base and covered with

for placing hives and the tree is often grown to provide shade. The timber is light, soft and pale in colour, and makes poor quality

tieam-yellow hairs. The flowers are green-yellow, honey scented, very smail and in loose heads up to 60 cm long. The main stalks have red brown hairs. The fruit is small, black, more or less oval and often ribbed.

It is however tough and odourless and is used for making hives and containers for food. The bark from small roots is pounded in water and the resultant liquid can be drunk as a remedy for stomach-ache.

firewood.

The tree can be grown with crops as the high crown lets in sunlight and the leaves produce good mulch. This species is becoming rare in its

Ecology Polyscias fulva is found

Beekeepers use the regular and wide branching habit of Polyscias fulva

natural habitat. in the wetter

highland forests and in the bamboo zone in Tanzania. The tree is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa at an altitude range of 1,180-2,500 m, with annual

References

rainfall of 1,500-2,000 mm.

EGLI, A.; KALINGANIRE, A. (1988) Les arbres et arbustes agroforestiers au Rwanda. Institut des Sciences Agronomique du Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.

Propagation

FICHTL, R.; ADI, A. (1994) Honeybee flora of Ethiopia. Deutscher Entwicklungsdienst, Bonn, Germany. 510 pp.

Polyscias fulva is usually grown from wild seedlings, although in Umalila, Tanzania the tree is also planted using stakes. Seeds can also be used: collect the fruits immediately they turn purple-black on the tree. Allow them to mature in the shade for one or two days then extract the seed by soaking the fruits in cold water for 4-6 hours. Squeeze out the seeds which will float in the water, then dry them in the shade. 7% of seeds germinate after 35-45 days. Seeds can be stored for up wo years.

Flowers of Polyscias fulva are green “yellow and honey scented

TURRILL, W.B. et a/ (Eds). Flora of tropical East Africa (1952-1979). Crown Agents, London, UK. ICRAF (1998) Agroforestree database. CD Rom. LOVETT, J. C. et al (2006) Field guide to the moist forest trees of Tanzania. Society for Environmental Exploration, UK; University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 344 pp.

MBUYA, L.P et a/ (1994) Useful trees and shrubs for Tanzania. Swedish International Development Authority, Stockholm, Sweden. 542 pp.


Bees for Development Journal 94

PROFITABLE BEEKEEPING WITH APIS CERANA FUJIO HISASHI

Fujio Hisashi, Sasebo City, Nagasaki, Japan Keywords: Asian honey bee, Apis cerana japonica, bee behaviour, box pile hive, Goto Islands, honey production, Japan, Vespa mandarina

PHOTOS

am reporting my progress since the article Restoration of Apis cerana japonica on the Goto Islands was published in BfDJ 85, December 2007. In that article described how reintroduced Apis cerana to four |

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Japanese islands where indigenous honey bees had become extinct after World War Il. traced all the families that had kept the bees on these islands before the end of the war, and described causes for |

extinction of Apis cerana.

Immediate results To produce enough bees for the islands, invented a device to protect bees from attack by the Asian hornet Vespa mandarina and put it on all my hives. Consequently my colony numbers doubled every year and |

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had enough to transfer 50 colonies to the Goto Islands in 2008.

On each island the bees rapidly increased in numbers and people

decided to take up beekeeping as their occupation. They realised that beekeeping with Apis cerana was more lucrative than with Apis mellifera, because the Apis cerana honey sells at four times the price of

Apis mellifera honey.

Advantages and disadvantages of Apis cerana Apis cerana suffers from hardly any disease.

is not necessary to administer medicines to the bees and the honey is free from residues of unnatural chemicals. Apis cerana is resistant to attack, is docile, a It

any

good pollinator and produces delicious honey. Also you need less

beekeeping equipment.

ee

An Apis cerana swarm finds shelter to cluster

same amount of honey as from Apis mellifera. For example, one island produces a certain, total amount of nectar. Both species of honey bees collect the same amount of nectar from the island. The price of honey from Apis cerana is four times that of Apis mellifera. If you use Apis cerana to collect the nectar, you will harvest the same amount of honey but four times the amount of money!

Some say that Apis cerana readily abscond. say that they hardly abscond without reason. The beekeeper’s thoughtlessness causes this absconding and rarely experience it with my bees. will explain how |

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docile Apis cerana is. The bees make friends with humans and they never sting their friends: never wear a bee veil even when harvest honey. A smoker? No, never use one. |

There is one disadvantage with Apis cerana: their radius of foraging activity at 2 km is half that of Apis mellifera. This means that a colony covers only a quarter of the area covered by Apis mellifera and therefore one colony of Apis cerana produces one quarter of the honey produced a by an Apis mellifera colony. do not think that this is necessarily will the colonies as four times If have get you many disadvantage. you |

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if you live with them for 20 a time. now understand around expressions. Apis mellifera also but understand has a language, only 10 expressions in their

Apis cerana has a language that you can learn |

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vocabulary.


PROFITABLE BEEKEEPING WITH APIS CERANA

Apis cerana flies without making any sound.

If you hear a hum, the bees are saying something to you and their sisters. You will notice that after they become your friend, they are silent as they pass you as they go out and come back into the hive. When Apis cerana are attacked by Vespa mandarina, they come to you and beg for your help. They hum

and alight on your shoulder. keep Apis cerana yourself!

If

you doubt that insects do such a thing,

Differences in behaviour Apis cerana bees face upwards when in a cluster and do the same when working on honeycombs. Apis mellifera face downwards. There are other differences in behaviour between the two species. Apis cerana’s ‘forearms’ seem to be stronger than those of Apis mellifera, and will

Apis cerana queens lay eggs only in newly built cells. This means that the cells are not used twice for eggs, and workers have to keep building new cells downwards. Repeated use of movable frames in hives is not helpful for Apis cerana: used empty combs are troublesome for the workers, who need space to build new cells for brood, rather than the honey cells. Only in the nectar flow season, the used combs in movable frames enable the bees to fill the honey cells more quickly, because they can save time on rebuilding honeycombs. Therefore, we find the ‘box pile hive’ to be the best hive for Apis cerana. You create room for new cells for brood by adding a new box at the bottom of the hive, to enable the combs to be built downwards.

hang in a cluster with the weight of the others hanging below.

Apis cerana catch and confine hornets with their strong ‘forearms’ forming a ball of bees around the hornet and killing it with heat (see picture overleaf).

Box pile hives* For 20 years have been searching for the best hive for Apis serana. have collected many types of hives, and pictures of hives, “omall over Japan and the rest of Asia. built hives and tested |

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believe now that the best is the ‘box pile hive’ or ‘multi-storey hive’ that is a traditional, Japanese style of hive. It consists of 3-4 piled up boxes with the internal dimensions of each box at 25 x 25 x 15 cm. The hive has a lid, and floor with entrance

them with my bees.

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am certain that dimensions for the box pile hive.

and a number of boxes.

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have arrived at the best A nest of Apis cerana

Unlike Apis meififera, Apis cerana lays eggs in newly built cells, and you have to keep giving them room to extend the combs downwards. Box pile hives are a good solution, because you always can add a box to the bottom of the hive.

Hives with movable frames are a further development of the box pile hive. Many of them are in use in Iki Island where the nectar flow is abundant all year because beekeepers grow forage plants to flower continuously. The bees are spared the job of rebuilding honeycombs and so they collect nectar more quickly. *The box pile hive is similar to the Abbé Warré hive — a simple hive in which bees build their combs attached to slats across the

ailings of the box. No frames and no foundation. Slots enable the vees to move between boxes [Ed]

For more on hive designs see the Information Portal of the BID website

satay

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Apis mellifera tice ditt

The box pile hive

Apis cerana face upwards


PROFITABLE BEEKEEPING WITH APIS CERANA

Apis cerana evolved

in monsoon forests using hollows in tree trunks

for nesting, /e vertical cylinders. This means that the best hives for Apis cerana ate vertical and long.

Islanders’ efforts to become professional beekeepers Iki Island is the

most successfu! of the four islands, and where we tried

to create professional beekeepers. Eleven people started keeping Apis cerana japonica, each with two hives that gave them in 2007. By spring 2009 some of them had 30 colonies and harvested 500 kg of |

honey with an income of about JP¥5 million (US$55,200; €40,000). They anticipate having 100 colonies in 2010, with beekeepers each

harvesting one tonne of honey. The beekeepers are cultivating neglected fields for forage sources and creating new apiary sites. They plan to grow buckwheat and rape seed, and by planting seeds continuously, nectar sources will be available

‘Making friends’ with Apis cerana the bees never sting their friends .

.

Devices for condensing honey Japan we have two periods in the year: dry and wet seasons. The humidity in the dry period is 45%, and can reach 75% in the rainy season. The bees are unable to condense their honey sufficiently at this

throughout the year. More people are interested to start beekeeping and they plan to create a union of entrepreneurs.

In

Success factors for professional beekeepers

time and the honey, if harvested, will ferment and cannot be served on the table. It must be stored in a refrigerator to prevent fermentation. Apis mellifera beekeepers heat the honey at 50°C for three hours to Fi"

Ensuring sufficient forage is the most important issue for beekeeping. indigenous trees are thriving on Iki Island and the scent of their flowers

the fermenting yeast.

drifts all over the island in the swarming season. However, beekeepers cannot depend solely on the natural nectar flow, and it is necessary to

plant other nectar sources like buckwheat, rapeseed and annual vegetables. Iki Island is depopulated like other islands of Japan and

beekeepers have sought ways to reduce the water content to below 20% without heating. They found a way to extract the water from the honey using a desiccant. This discovery has enabled them to

there are many neglected fields. Fortunately, most of the members are farmers and they can rent other fields for almost nothing.

harvest honey at any time it fills the hive. You do not have to feed the bees with sugar syrup and you can harvest every 45 days.

The colony needs to cool down

Extracting the honey

Iki Island

10


PROFITABLE BEEKEEPING WITH APIS CERANA

Usually the ‘doors ate closed atid bees use Ne

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Apis cerana catch and contne hornets with their strong ‘forearms’ and kill them with heat by ‘balling’ the hornet

Mr Masahiro and his box pile hives in his apiary on Iki Island

Further reading

Apis ceranais one of eight honey bee species indigenous to Asia. Apis cerana naturally nests inside cavities and therefore can be kept

BfD Journal 85 Restoration of Apis cerana japonica on the Goto Islands BfD Journal 61 Mono Block Clay Hive for Apis cerana

in hives.

BfD Journal 54 Effect of Apis mellifera on indigenous plant and animal species in Japan BfD Journal 30 Apis mellifera versus Apis cerana in the north of

Apis mellifera is the (only) honey bee species indigenous to Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Apis mellifera has been introduced world-wide and provides the basis for beekeeping industries in many countries.

Thailand

BfD Journal 26 Genetic diversity in Apis cerana 11


Bees for Development Journal 94

i:

We have established the Northern Beekeepers’ Association and Manyselok HB is our project. The project apiary is located in Foley Siding, 40 km from Francistown where 80% of the village population of 475 are unemployed. We own 15 hives but only nine are usually colonised at any time and absconding of colonies is a big challenge to overcome. We are planning a workshop

PHOTO

BOTSWANA

MAYSELOK HB

NEWS AROUND THE WORLD Dr Nik Soriani presented a paper on The activities of Tualang honey as an anti-cancer Supplement at the 2nd International Conference on the Medicinal Use of Honey. This was organised by the Federal Agricultural

to encourage more people to take up beekeeping.

Marketing Authority that has subsequently provided USM with 1.3 tonnes of Tualang

Onosi Seloka and Justice Manyothwane. Manyselok HB. Tonota

honey for use in future research.

Tualang honey is extracted from Apis dorsata nests on Tualang trees that grow to a height of 29 m. The trees are found in East Asian rainforests, mostly in Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Palawan, north-east Sumatra and southern Thailand. Each tree can hold more than 100 nests. The bees are said to prefer the Tualang tree because the branches start at

least 3 metres above the ground and the trunk is slippery, making it hard for honey-loving sun bears to climb.

Source: www.bernama.com.my

PAKISTAN abantleysat

CAMEROON

MALAYSIA

Forty worried bee farmers convened at the Cameroon Cultural Centre in Buea in January to develop recommendations towards a

Professor Madya Dr Nik Soriani Yaacob, Head of the Universiti Sains Malaysia's (USM)

Lyonga, who organised the workshop to create awareness in the sector. The bee farmers formed the Southwest House of Bee Farmers,

SOWEBEEH. Among problems facing the bee farmers are difficulty in colonising hives, insufficient funds and equipment, inadequate marketing Skills and strategies, lack of collaboration from partners due to conflicting ideas combined with general ignorance about the

sector.

It

was resolved that a policy be

enacted based on needs to: *

provide training in beekeeping and marketing of bee products

introduce law(s) to protect bees and uphold beekeeping for eco-system conservation

enhance the environment for bees, human and livestock habitation

include beekeeping in the school curriculum and involve youth in the sector institute a marketing structure and quality control.

Source: Azore Opio www.thepostwebedition.com

and significant cytotoxic effect on cancer cells cultured in the lab. "Cancer cells

treated with Tualang honey went through an apoptosis process where cancer cells die, a process that normally does not happen. Also Tualang honey can expedite the effect of tamoxifen that is used to kill cancer cells”, she said. The research is in the early stages and more detailed study is necessary.

DR CONGO

supports education and fights poverty through skill-building. Through the Foundation, she heard about the Empowerment through honey bee farming project, or Plan Bee, and the

.

chance to train as a beekeeper. The northern and Chitral regions of Pakistan are ideal for honey production. The project trains women, helping them to package honey for sale at a premium price, and linking them with lucrative markets, including top hotels. The Foundation buys honey on condition that the beekeepers send their children to good schools, have regular check-ups and

improved nutrition.

In

the hope of raising more

«

national policy on bee farming. "I believe that you can have an impact," said Rural Women Development Centre Co-ordinator, Beatrice

Department of Pathology reported that honey from Tualang trees has anti-cancer qualities

to Haji Samad Khan, who is blind, for 8 years. The couple have two children. Jur has been assisted by the Hashoo Foundation, which

CEPANKI

chi

The Centre de Promotion de |’Apiculture et de l’Agriculture au Nord—Kivu (CEPANKI) was established in 2005. The Association has 26 members (22 men and 4 women) and is located in Kibati, 12 km from Goma in North Kivu.

CEPANK! manages three sites in the territories of Masisi, Nyiragongo and Rutshuru and has a communal field experiment at Kibati. CEPANKI’s objective is to improve conditions for beekeepers Kibati and North Kivu by increasing the production of bee products and in

sustaining the environment. We are seeking financial support. if you can assist please contact us c/o BFD.

Jean Kakule Musubao, Co-ordinator, CEPANKI

PHOTO

its

Onosi Seloka and customers at the 2009 National Youth Expo in Gaborone

Jur Bus is 24 years old and has been married


NEWS AROUND THE WORLD

funds to expand into the international market, the Foundation entered World Challenge in

2008 and won prize money of US$20,000

(€14,500)

ws

z= Ss

= Zz =x

= 2 e x 3 oe

The award has been used to buy tools, gloves and veils for the women, saving the

beekeepers time, cutting workload and providing protection from bee stings. The rest of the fund was spent on selling the honey

2 S = a

NIGERIA Members of the Ukehe Beekeepers’ Group have been trained and empowered with assistance from materials provided by Bees for Development Trust and have developed a practical training manual. Picture: Christian Akpoke is on the left, the lady to the extreme right is group |

leader, Ms Anwurika.

Christian Akpoke, Ebony State Fr

internationally and working to get the honey certified as organic and fair trade. The original aim was to train 50 women over two years,

however the Foundation has already trained 316, expanding into other districts including, Nagar, Chitral and Ghizer, where Jur lives. The first group of 90 women now earn about US$1,500 (€1,090) a month and can afford to pay for their children’s education. Economic stability has risen in the region. Women feel more socially integrated thanks to the project and the gap in earnings between men and women has narrowed. Jur said: “At first was rful of working with bees but we were well trained and given equipment to protect us.” The Hashoo Foundation is now looking into larger markets including Europe, the Middle East and North America. |

Information sent to

BfD

by Julian Lush, UK.

Source: www.shell.com

TURKEY

SRI LANKA Sri Lanka consumption of so-called ‘palm honey’* is greater than the consumption of honey. This is because palm honey is much cheaper and available throughout the country. Historically honey was collected by honey hunting but this method does not meet present demand, and In

Sri Lanka imports honey from several countries. Now we have programmes to increase honey production. All field extension staff in the Department of Agriculture (DoA) have been trained in the basics of beekeeping and can advise farmers on honey harvesting.

Most of the indigenous people Veddar or Wnaniya-la-etoe (forest dwellers) live in an area known as Dabana, 75 km from Peradeniya where our Agriculture Research Institute is located. Initially the people were hunters, now they live from agriculture and collect bee honey from the rest. The photograph was taken during beekeeping training for indigenous people and village

school children

in Dabana.

Asoka Palamakumbuta, Peradeniya *Watery sap from palm trees is boiled down to a deep golden syrup called palm honey

The Turkish Apiarists Union has implemented a project to form a ‘honey home’ in every city to make it easier to purchase high-quality honey. Hasan Yavuz, Chair of the Antalya Chamber of Apiarists Union, said that the Ministry of Agriculture has been introducing new systems to prevent artificial honey production. The Chamber has 1,125 members, owning 110,000 hives. The government grants financial help to producers with at least 30 hives. The incentive includes TRY6 (US$4; €2.9) for each hive, and aims to protect local producers who have difficulty standing up to large-scale industrial apiarists.

Yavuz Said that the market price for honey should be at least TRY20 (US$13.3; €9.6) per kg and people should question honey sold for less. Honey production in Turkey is not currently subject to serious supervision, however the honey homes project will create a control mechanism. Beekeepers who are members of the Union will also be members

of the company founded within the project

and can Sell their honey in the honey homes. Income will be distributed among the

PHOTO

ASOKA PALAMAKUMBURA

members. The project will bring advantages for consumers and honey packaging will include information detailing from which

a The author (left), leader of the indigenous people, Uru Warige Vanniya and Mr during the training programme

S

J S Karunaratna (DoA)

region the honey originates. The Union will guarantee that the honey is genuine, and in case of any complaint, will have authority to open an investigation.

Source www.hurriyetdailynews.com 13


NEWS AROUND THE WORLD

TANZANIA Honey Expo is a conference and exhibition of East African bee products. It is organised by the Tanzania Honey Council Limited (THCL) representing stakeholders from the public and private sectors working in the field of

supporting initiatives.

Prime Minister the Rt Hon Mizengo Pinda MP

2. To strive for sufficient supplies of quality and safe bee product

The main objective of Honey Expo is to increase trade in Tanzanian bee products by addressing market access constraints, and

3. To address the barriers of beekeepers

Specific objectives were: 1. To promote Tanzanian bee products in the

domestic and international markets

access to financial services 4. To address barriers to market access PHOTO €: CASSIAN T MUMBI

beekeeping. Member organisations include Belgium Technical Cooperation, Honey Care Africa Tanzania Ltd, the Ministry's Forestry & Beekeeping Division, National Honey Show

Ltd, SIDO, Tanzania Gatsby Trust and Traceability-T Ltd. The 2009 Expo was held at Mnazi Mmoja grounds in Dar es Salaam from 20-25 October and attracted 500 participants. The Expo was opened by

through good practices and conduct among members 5. To lobby and advocate for building of a

competitive beekeeping sector in Tanzania 6. To come up with the Strategic Plan that will guide the development of beekeeping

sub-sector

in

Tanzania

7. To facilitate networking among members

and stakeholders.

response to what he had seen and heard, the Prime Minister urged beekeepers and the In

Tanzania Honey Council to increase the production of honey and beeswax.

Cassian T Mumbi, Njiro Wildlife Research Centre, Arusha

a

te

Prime Minister, the Rt Hon Mizengo Pinda MP visits one of the pavilions at the 2009 Expo. Looking on are Rt Hon Shamsa Mwangunga MP, Minister of Natural Resources & Tourism (right), and Rt Hon Dr Mary Nagu MP, Minister for Trade & Indusiry (left).

LETTER In

response to

UGANDA

Plagued by ticks? Or Varroa

mites? am a beekeeper in Peru working at 2,8003,500 m above sea level. read B/DJ |

|

regularly and was interested to see the article* about the use of the leaves of aspen trees Populus tremula in controlling Varroa. would like to report that in Tarapoto, a city of the Peruvian forest |

(400 m above sea level) some beekeepers use the leaves of ‘huamansamana’ (Jacaranda copaia) macerated in 96° ethanol. This is applied in the same way as thymol is used, and the reduction in numbers of Varroa is remarkable.

Research is underway and we are hopeful of good results. |

am sure that in nature we can find

substances that neutralise Varroa without altering the quality of the honey.

Javier Llaxacondor, Lima, Peru *Published in B/D Journal 92 (page 5) and available on the Information Portal of the BFD website

An extended report is on the B/D website Information Portal

Twenty five participants attended the Transforming beekeeping into a business workshop organised by Nebbi District Beekeepers’ Association in March 2009. Practical demonstrations on hive making accompanied lectures on bee products, honey quality contro! and marketing, and pests and diseases. Material supplied by Bees for Development Trust was distributed.

Ochoun Emirious Uthuma. Nebbi District Honey Beekeepers Association, Nebbi

ron

art

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PHOTO «

Sa

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H Msuya, Beekeeping Officer Extension, Forestry & Beekeeping Division, Dar es Salaam


Bees for Development Journal 94

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BOOK SHELF BEEKEEPING, THEORY AND PRACTICE Donald Rugira Kugonza 2009 282 pages 15

(€19) Code K900

This is

a welcome new text on African beekeeping. Part one (six chapters) covers all the background information concerning bee biology, anatomy and social behaviour that beekeeper might wish to know. a

Part two (nine chapters) describes beekeeping itself. Local style hives, top-bar hives and frame hives are described and there is much useful information and advice, with plenty of helpful diagrams, illustrations and photographs. While most of the fext is relevant, it does describe several practices without mentioning that they are not practised in tropical Africa — for example Chapter 8 describes how to ‘install package bees’ — a concept

familiar only to beekeepers in America. It is admirable to see efforts made to estimate returns on investment, however predicting average yields of 80 kg from Langstroth (frame) hives is unrealistic. Bees for Development would be interested to hear fram any beekeeper in tropical Africa who has achieved such yields! These few

comments aside, this text has much to commend

it, and is a useful new

addition to the range of books available

on African beekeeping.

INSECT BEHAVIOR Robert W Matthews and Janice R Matthews 2010 (2nd edition) 514 pages Hardcover 66.99

(€100) Code M905

An academic text appropriate for those needing scientific appreciation of how insect behavioural systems function, that provides considerabie detail on honey bee and other social insects’ bioiogy. Therefore a useful text for college libraries, but not essential reading for beekeepers.

MANAGEMENT OF VARROA DESTRUCTOR 0 P Chaudhary 2007 96 pages price fo be announced

MANAGEMENT OF

VARROA DESTRUCTOR

Varroa destructor arrived in North india in 2004. It rapidly killed tens of thousands of the European Apis mellifera colonies upon which large-scale beekeeping operations are based in this region. At first Indian beekeepers endeavoured to follow Varroa control methods that had provided effective elsewhere. Yet these offen proved impossible in India because of differences in equipment and climate. This book describes the life cycle and methods for detection of Varroa. It then addresses biotechnical, organic and chemical methods for control of Varroa that fit well with prevailing conditions. In the long term, the only satisfactory solution is that beekeepers select Varroa tolerant honey bee colonies, and this is discussed, together with integrated approaches to Varroa management. This is an excellent and useful text for beekeepers in India and neighbouring countries who are keeping Apis mellifera haney bees.

FIREFLIES, HONEY AND SILK Gilbert Waldbauer 2009 233 pages Hardcover 18

(€27) Code W920

This is an exquisitely produced book whose presentation entices the reader within. The author is a Professor ot Entomology retired from the University of Illinois, USA, obviously enjoying his retirement to produce learned and beautiful explanations of the ways in which insects enrich our lives. He focuses on just a few species — those ‘insects people like’ and naturally the list includes honey bees. The enjoyable text visits history, mythology, literature, ecology, and slowly reveals the mind-blowing complexity of plant and animal communities. We like the foundation-embossed inner cover of this beautiful book!

A SHORT HISTORY OF THE HONEY BEE E Readicker-Henderson 2009 164 pages Hardcover 15

(€22) Code R145

Another beautiful book, this has fantastic full and double page colour photographs of bees, flowers, beekeeping and bee products. Accompanying these pictures is an extended essay that explains some history of honey, hOW nectar is transformed into honey, and what beekeeping entails. Surely, a wonderful introduction for non-beekeepers who would like to understand more about bees and honey.

HIsTORY OF THE Ww

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BOOK OF HONEY Stefan Bogdanov information on the properties and composition of honey, honey for health and honey trade. Accessible online at www.bee-hexagon.net/en/honey.htm

16

fac aSia s A Teatby E.READICKER-HENDERSON


BOOKSHELF

PROCEEDINGS OF THE BIODIVERSITY AND LIVELIHOODS CONFERENCE: <Coonoor, The Nilgiris, India

RA

edited by Rajyashree Dutt, Janet Seeley, Pratim Roy

This new book is one output from the three year project Bees, Biodiversity and Forest Livelihoods in the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve that was funded by the UK Darwin Initiative and implemented by Keystone Foundation (India), the School of International Development (University of East Anglia, UK), Bees for Development and the Centre for Agri-Environmental Research (University of Reading, UK). These Proceedings contain a wealth of information achieved during the three years of the project. Much data and discussion are provided, with rich information

available here for future researchers in this field. The 236 pages are beautifully designed and lavishly illustrated with pictures of life in the Biosphere Reserve: the mountains, wildlife, people and their ways of life, and of course the various bee species.

BfD has copies available for distribution

to

Zoun-zah Mares 2009 ‘Coons, The Migirie

projects and beekeeping organisations in Asia

BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT GUIDES Guide 1 Market access for beekeepers Bees for Development 2010 (2nd edition) 28 pages 10

(€15) Code B&DG1

3 Guide, intended for tropical Africa, explains the importance of creating direct links between beekeepers and honey buyers and how these can be achieved. it is not about harvesting and processing honey, nor is it a beekeeping manual. The focus of the Guide is how to make beekeeping a business, for which effective marketing

of bee products is essential. There is emphasis on scale: developing an industry in which thousands of people can participate. This emphasis requires locking at trade beyond the local area of the beekeeper, towards the wider

market system and the way it works. The Guide considers three main themes: beekeeping as a business: industry for thousands of beekeepers; and trade to distant markets.

Guide 2 Information for honey packers Bees for Development 2010 (2nd edition) 32 pages 10

(€15) Code B&DG2

This Guide intended for tropical Africa addresses the packing of honey for wholesale or retail sale and contains information useful for people planning to start a honey packing business. African honey industries are often fragmented. The local market for packed, table honey is growing due to expanding urban populations with growing wealth within some sections of society. Challenges faced by honey packers include weak supply chains, lack of finance, and poor availability of good quality containers. Untess local businesses adequately and efficiently supply the urban markets, honey imports will increase.

REARING BUMBLE BEES

IN

THE LABORATORY

limir Ptacek /n Czech

instructions for laboratory rearing of 14 species of bumble bees. The technique used for Bombus terrestris served as a model, and experience gained with Bombus pascuorum was applied for several other species. The list of enemies noted during rearing is included as well as basic recommendations for using bumble bees for pollination. The simple guide allows recognition of Czech species of bumble bees and cuckoo bumble bees. 111 colour photos illustrate the text. See e-shop www.librix.eu/en/books/detail/chov-cmelak-v-laboratori-473

A review

in

English and picture appendix is available through the Journal of Pollination Ecology website (see page 5).

BUYING BOOKS AND OTHER MEDIA FROM BfD Order through our web store Secure Payment System Or send us an e-mail, or post us a note of what you want, or we can send you an order form. Payment required with order

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17


Bees for Development Journal 94

LOOK AHEAD

GREECE

UK

APIMONDIA: 2nd Honeydew Symposium of

7-9 April 2010, Crete

BBKA Spring Convention 16-18 April 2010, Stoneleigh Park, Coventry Further deiails www.britishbee.org.uk

Further details www.honeydew-symposium.gr

USA

GRENADA

1st International Conference: Pollinator

www.apimondia2011@mci-group.com

6th Caribbean Beekeeping Congress 8-13 November 2010

BELGIUM

Further details page 20

Biology, Health & Policy 24-28 July 2010, Pennsylvania State

the IHC

ARGENTINA APIMONDIA: 42nd International Apicultural

Congress September 2011, Buenos Aires Further details

Beekeeping & Development

University Further delails www.ento.psu.edu/news

MEXICO

Diversity of

ICPBR Pollination Symposium 27 June - 1 July 2010, Cholula (Puebia) Further details www.uoguelph.ca/icpbr

Initiative

26 March 2010, Brussels Further details benoit.clivier@maya.be

VIETNAM Beekeeping Development & Honey Marketing Affiliated with Apimondia

BRAZIL

SLOVENIA

Congresso Brasileiro: XVIII Apicultura & IV Meliponicultura

APIMONDIA: Apimedica & Apiquality Forum 28 September - 2 October 2010, Ljubljana Further details www.apimedica.org

9-22 May 2010, Cuiaba Further details www. brasilapicola.com.br

30 October

SOUTH KOREA 10th Asian Apicultural Association Congress 5-8 November, 2010, Busan Further details page 20

BULGARIA APIMONDIA: Organic beekeeping conference 27-29 September 2010, Black Sea Coast Further details

TURKEY

www.bee-hexagon.net/en/organic.htm

43rd Annual Meeting of Society for

COLOMBIA 1st Simposio Iberolatinoamericano de

Invertebrate Pathology 11-15 July 2010, Trabzon

Apiterapia 2-5 June 2010, Tolima Further details

Further details www.sip2010.org

2 November 2010, Hanoi

Further details www.ias201Ohanoi.com

LEARN AHEAD IRELAND Irish Beekeepers Summer Course

26-31 July 2010, Gormanston Further delails ryansfancy@gmail.com

B/D Beekeepers’ Safaris 2010 Turkey: 24 July - 5 August Rodrigues and Mauritius:

24 November - 4 December. Further details on our website

apiterapiacolombiana@gmail.com if you want notice of your

conference, workshop or meeting to be included here and on our website send details to Bees for Development, address on page 20

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Welcome to Grenada

6th Caribbean Beekeeping Congress 8-13 November 2010

warmth, hospitality and beauty of Grenada

We invite beekeepers, scientists, technicians, hobbyists, equipment suppliers and other stake holders to interact and exchange ideas and experiences. You are welcome to visit our apiaries and participate in hands-on experience with our beekeepers on the Island of Grenada and our sister Isle of Carriacou More information

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Green life with bee world Congress sessions Apiculture extension Bee biology

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