Bees for Development Journal Edition 90 - March 2009

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Bees/o; Development Journal 90




Janet Lowore and Nicola Bradbear, Bees for Development Keywords: Africa; African honey bee; beekeeping project; honey; income generation; poverty alleviation

Bees for Development has observed that many beekeeping projects in tropical Africa place emphasis on so-called ‘modern’ hives and yet the results of such projects are often poor: hives are provided but the impact on poverty alleviation is negligible. We have witnessed projects in Ghana, Malawi, The Gambia, Uganda and Zambia, and many other countries, where beneficiaries report no benefit as a result of receiving bee hives. A study undertaken by Lohr (1998) reported that 75% of evaluated beekeeping projects had a low impact.

Cover: Bee expert Dr Irfan Kandemir inspects colonies of Apis mellifera at Mugia, in southeast Turke whee beekeepers take their bees to harvest the special honeydew honey. More on pages 8 and 9.

ISSUE No 90 March 2009 In this

The frequency of failed bee hive projects has led BfD to consider why projects persist in focussing on hive delivery against evidence that this approach rarely brings long lasting or significant benefits. answer invotves three main factors: The *

Poor situation analyses lead planners to believe wrongly that bee hives are the key intervention point for commercialising apiculture;

The types of hives promoted by beekeeping projects are often inappropriate for the context in which they are placed:

Planners and donors favour certain types of projects, especially those that are easy to administer and provide tangible evidence of their support.



Modern hives or modern ideas?


Trees Bees Use




New pollinator project...


Apilrade Africa looks forward



Volcano causes chaos


Does beekeeping enhance rural household income in Botswana?



Poor situation analysis Beekeeping is traditional throughout tropical Africa and is considered a safe, subsistence activity which is low input, low output, low risk, resilient to shocks and ultimately sustainable. However, safe and sustainable does not necessarily fead to wealth creation and poverty reduction. it is strongly believed that farmers should become more commercial.

Throughout Africa

Commercialising the dairy industry is shifting away from traditional breeds and extensive pastoralism towards new breeds and stall feeding. Commercialising agriculture means growing cash crops and investing in technologies like tractors and refrigerated trucks. Many people assume that commercialising beekeeping necessarily calls for change in the technology, and to use ‘modern’ hives. In fact this is incorrect. a

Pine honeydew honey in

News around the World

Turkey. .




Look Ahead/Learn Ahead







Information Porial


Bf D Journal

It is possible for subsistence-level beekeepers to become more commercially orientated, although such a transformation is not dependent upon the choice of hive. The basis of commercial — agriculture is enterprise analysis working out the costs of production and ensuring profitability. A local style hive beats a frame hive in any profitability analysis, and there is no evidence proving that frame hive beekeepers in sub-Saharan Africa harvest greater, total volumes of honey than

beekeepers with local-style hives.

Published quarterly by Bees for Development. and distributed to readers in over 130 countries. Editor Nicola Bradbear PhD Co-ordinator Helen Jackson BSc

Subscription GBP20 (€30, US$40) for one year, four issues including airmail delivery

BfD Journal is included with membership of BfD Trust Readers in developing countries can apply for a sponsored subscription see page 16

Bees/orDevelopment Post

PO Box 105 Monmouth NP25 9AA, UK


+44 (0)16007 13648

This project has spent much time and money in building a bee house and making hives - but there are no bees. The same situation is visible in many countries. Continues on next page

SUPPORT Bees for Development Trust acknowledge: Anglo American Group Foundation; John Lewis Council: Panta Rhea Foundation; Rowse Family Trust; Synchronicity Foundation; E H Thorne (Beehives) Ltd: VITA (Europe) Ltd; Wales for Africa Fund of the Welsh Assembly Government: The Waterloo Foundation; and the many beekeeping groups and individuals who support our work. Please encourage your friends and colleagues to help. We promise to use all financial contributions wisely and effectively to help alleviate poverty and preserve biodiversity, by means of bees and beekeeping.




Bees/or Development Journal 90

poor analysis and false projections. Furthermore, even if the beekeeper could pay back after, say, four years, they do not have the money to buy in the first place — without entering into a debt situation which is rarely


desirable or safe. In a paper describing the success of the producer owned company North Western Bee Products in Zambia, Wainwright

(2002) reported: “It would be difficult to manage the African bees in these [frame] hives. Most importantly, the high capital cost of the hives would burden the beekeeper with debts he would be unable to repay”. Frame hives enable combs to be inspected and replaced in the hive. Yet African bees are quick to abscond when disturbed, so that the colony manipulation and inspection that a frame hive allows, often lead to the loss of the colony. Furthermore, most beekeepers in tropical Africa do not wish to, and have no need to inspect or manipulate the colony. Frame hives are not built to exclude or withstand the predators found in sub-Saharan Africa — ants, beetles, honey badgers, lizards and termites, to name just a few. Stainless Sect eguipment iooks nce but atten remains unused

What about quality? First we must accept that the honey bees in a frame hive and a local hive are exactly the same bees, feeding on the same flora, in the same place, and making identical products. So we know the raw product will be the same.

‘hat differs

is the means of extraction and sometimes post harvest dling. It is true that some traditional beekeepers have very careless methods of harvesting and offer low quality products to the market.

However, closer analysis shows that the market into which they sell accepts the standard of their product.

A promoter of commercial apiculture tends to look to the supermarket as the end point for honey: they correctly observe that the quality demands of a supermarket shelf are different from those of village markets.

Correct situation analysis should reveal the need for:


in harvesting and post-harvest handling to ensure quality


A market for the honey; Market access;

The frame hive is not a stand-alone technology and makes sense only when the beekeeper has access to a centrifugal extractor and can purchase replacement foundation for the frames.

Centrifuges are expensive machines and commonly one is kept at a central location. This means that the beekeeper must transport the box full of frames to the centre (expensive, time consuming and dusty) for extraction. He/she is then faced with the problem of how to return the empty supers to the hives.

The emphasis on honey harvest is often misplaced. The African beeswax trade has delivered income henefits for many traditional

beekeepers for decades, and the world demand for clean beeswax is growing. The opportunity to increase incomes through selling beeswax may far exceed that of the honey trade, and frame hives do not deliver

beeswax in the required volumes.

Hive projects are popular with donors and NGOs The demands and expectations of donor funded projects drive development planners to design projects with visible and measurable outputs. Bee hives are highly suitable in this regard. It is also an attractively simple solution to poverty — give a poor farmer a hive and he/she will become self-sufficient. This attractive idea has an important role to play in fundraising from donors and well wishers.


A profitable system whereby costs are less than income;


A business approach.

Making the transformation from subsistence to commercial beekeeping lires many changes — although the bee hive is not necessarily one of inem, and on its own will not ensure greater profitability. Many hive delivery projects fail because they are not addressing the true problems.

Are the right hives being used? Some types of hives promoted by projects fail in the context in which they are placed. Frame hives fail, or are unsuitable, for four main reasons: *

They are too expensive;


They are not particularly suitable for African honey bees and their environment;


They are only viable when associated infrastructures and inputs are accessible; Often beeswax is the primary, tradable bee product and yet large volumes will not be harvested from frame hives.

Cost benefit analyses showing that a beekeeper can pay back the cost number of years are usually based on figures taken from a book, and not from real field data. Svensson (2002) reports on the failure of beekeeping projects developed on the basis of of a frame hive after


Expensive equipment often goes to waste


is easy to

Bees/or Development Journal 90


One beekeeper said: “/ was advised to provide foundation for my bees because then they can spend more time and energy making

of containers, low investment and poor communication. Without addressing these challenges, changing the type of hive will have little


honey, and | can get more honey more quickly for selling.”

His neighbour replied: “All bees need comb to put the honey in. If have to provide they make it themselves it costs me nothing. | foundation | have to take money out of my pocket to buy it: | would rather the bees made it for themselves for free”.


LOWORE,J. (2008) Personal communication, Kamwenge, Uganda draw up a budget for a certain number of hives and once delivered, they can be photographed and counted, helping the NGO prove that it has implemented the project as planned. It is much harder to see and new market link. This difficulty ultimately stems from the short term nature of many projects. If all beekeeping

measure a new skill or


projects were measured by a change in income, then a business development project, or a market promotion project, should ultimately achieve this measurable impact — but only after considerable time. Most projects do not have this time. Another reason why such projects are popular is that spending money on hives pushes up the costs of projects without increasing complexity of design or delivery. For organisations surviving on a percentage overhead of total project costs, projects which are high on cost, and yet

simple, are attractive to donors and implementing organisations.

Modern projects in tropical Africa

on bee hives.

Market access It is important to focus on market access and the wider market system. The market and the experiences a beekeeper has in selling honey are influential. For exampte if the buyer to whom the beekeeper sells honey

buys honey reliably, and always asks for more honey, the beekeeper has incentive to commercialise. If the town market is good but a farmer has no means to access this market, for example there is no collective — marketing group then they will have a low interest in beekeeping as a

cash crop. Supply chain problems are very typical in Africa and stem from poor market information and linkages, lack of working capital, lack

free place for frame hives


beekeepers should have the skills to understand the concepts of direct costs, implications of and interactions between direct costs, selling price, indirect costs and volume. Enterprise analysis can reveal that focussing on volume as opposed to price per kg can be the key to increasing total yearly income from an apiary. This is contrary to the usual focus on selling price alone.

Harvesting and handling for quality Supermarkets represent an important growth area for the honey industry in Africa. This means new and different expectations in terms of honey quality. Good honey quality can be achieved by any beekeeper who follows simple, recommended practices and, most importantly, has access to a market that demands high quality honey. All beekeeping projects with the aim of commercialisation should invest in training beekeepers and collection centre staff in correct methods of honey harvesting from any type of hive, and correct post-harvest handling and

storage. you have experiences of beekeeping projects, successful or not, we would like to hear from you. Contact



Here at BFD we believe that a truly modern beekeeping project emphasises the building of sustainable businesses, with less emphasis

Another empty bee house, built to provide a theft proof and predator-

Enterprise analysis To earn money and reduce poverty, beekeepers need to be businesslike and this means carrying out simple enterprise analyses. All


Lohr, W. (1998) Sustainable beekeeping development. Bees for Development Journal 48. Svensson, B. (2002) Income from beekeeping: examples of expectations and experience. In: Strengthening Livelihoods: Exploring the role of beekeeping in development *. Bees for Development, Monmouth, UK.

Wainwright, D. (2002) North Western Bee Products: A Zambian success story. In: Strengthening Livelihoods. Exploring the role of beekeeping in development.* Bees for Development, Monmouth, UK. * Available from the BfD web store

Obtaining the parts needed for frame hive beekeepina can he cifficult

Bees/or Development Journal 90

TREES BEES USE Kotschya recurvitolia Paul Latham, UK

KOTSCHYA RECURVIFOLIA Genus: Fabaceae Common name: Intenga

Description: A very variable, erect, much branched, aromatic shrub up to 4 m fall. The plant is covered with yellow to whitish sticky, hairs. Leaves are compound with 8-18 leaflets which are curved at the tips. Flowers are borne in dense masses, are golden yellow and covered with golden bristly hairs. The pods are hairy and the seeds greenish to dark red-brown.

Ecology: 1,800 m



is one of the dominant plants of upland grassland above Umalila, southern Tanzania. Also present in moorland,


bamboo forest, forest glades, at forest edges and in secondary thickets. Present in Ethiopia and south to Malawi and Zambia.

The fast paragraph in Dr Jacob Mogga’s article Quality honey from affordable local-style hives (page 3 of BfDJ 89 December 2008)

Uses: A valuable bee forage plant, yielding nectar throughout the day during May and June. The stems make good firewood which does not produce much smoke. Finger millet is commonly planted on land cleared from Kotschya recurvifolia as it is reported to improve soil

bothers me and


hope you can publish a warning in the next issue:

“Honey should be extracted only by draining through perforated containers or galvanized wire mesh. It must at all times be properly covered with a clean sheet or cloth to avoid bee foragers coming to


collect the honey’.

References: CRIBB, PJ.; LEEDAL, G.P (1982) The Mountain Flowers of Southern Tanzania. A A Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Galvanized iron mesh is coated in zinc, a toxic element. The zinc can be taken up by the honey. Many years ago honey arriving in plastic barrels in the UK was rejected because the metal plugs were

BEENTJE, H.J. (1994) Kenya Trees.

made of cast zinc. Parts of frame hives may be galvanized, for example runners, or even made of zinc, for example queen

Shrubs and Lianas. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya.

excluders, but a thin coating of propolis seems to prevent attack. So would discourage the use of galvanized wire mesh.

BURROWS, J.; WILLIS, €. (2005) Plants of the Nyika Plateau. SABONET 31 405 pp.


Do keep up the good work. May we all enjoy a peaceful 2009, start getting global warming under control and develop beekeeping

Right: Kotschya recurvifolia flowers


Above right: Kotschya recurvifolia is often found in dense clumps in

Dr Fred Clark, London, UK


NEW POLLINATOR @ROJECT The five-year project Conservation and Management of Pollinators for Sustainable Agriculture through an Ecosystem Approach, worth

US$26.45 million (€20.40 m), has been launched by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to better protect bees, bats and birds that are essential fo the world’s crop production. The unique project will be implemented through the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), and will help ensure food security through the protection of the key pollinator

species. The project is co-ordinated by FAO (UN Food and Agriculture Organization). It will be executed through partnerships with the Governments of Brazil, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan and South

birds, butterflies and even mosquitoes are essential for food production because of their role in pollination.

Pollinators also have a key role in maintaining ecosystem services including ensuring biodiversity and helping nature to adjust to external threats such as climate change. For these reasons, pollinators are known as keystone species in many terrestrial habitats. The main threats to pollinators can be linked to disease, pesticide use, habitat loss and degradation, monocultures and the introduction of exotic

species, causing concern to agricultural producers and conservationists. This project will contribute to the conservation, sustainable use and management of pollinators by: 1.

Developing and implementing tools, methodologies, strategies and best management practices for pollinator conservation and sustainable use;


Building local, national, regional and global capacities to enable the design, planning and implementation of interventions to mitigate pollinator population declines, and establish sustainable pollinator

Africa in collaboration with stakeholders from different environmental and agricultural communities at national and international level, including ministries, research institutions, agencies, academia, NGOs,

private sector and farming communities. The GEF will contribute US$7.8 million (€6.01 m) and leverage another US$18.65 million

(€14.38 m) from other partners including multilateral organisations, governments and academic institutions. Pollinators such as bats, bees,

management practices: 3.

Promoting the co-ordination and integration of activities related to the conservation and sustainable use of pollinators at the international level to enhance global synergies.

More information (search for ‘pollinator’)


APITRADE AFRICA LOOKS FORWARD Dorcas Zaizi, ApiTrade Africa, Kampala, Uganda *

Office premises have been acquired and the Secretariat relocated in January 2009. This means that UEPB, the Uganda Export Promotion

things needed to be done. Although the Secretariat was in charge of the co-ordination processes, we appreciate the contributions of each one of the ApiTrade members, namely the Executive Commitiee, founder


We are planning our next AGM which had been proposed for Kigali, Rwanda, but is now planned for Kampala, Uganda, 2-4 April 2009.

members and those who joined throughout the year.


March 2009, Bosco Okello will be full-time CEO of the Secretariat.



Our first full year was challenging but also rewarding for ApiTrade Africa. From the AGM held in Nairobi in March 2008, it was clear that many

A number of recommendations were made at ApiExpo Africa held in Kampala in October 2008 aimed at strengthening ApiTrade Africa and ensuring that we achieve our objectives. Following these recommendations we have undertaken the following:

Board, is no longer housing the Secretariat.




in the process of overhauling our website and intend to make it more interactive and client-orientated.


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Nimia Manquian and Miguel Meira, Universidad Austral de Chile



Keywords: South America; Chile; honey bee; income generation


We are concerned about the social and economical impact following the eruption of the Chaitén volcano in Chilean Patagonia in May 2008, and still erupting now in February 2009. The town is 10 km from the

volcano crater, but many beekeepers had to leave their homes and sources of income. Upon their return, most found that because of the ash that covered the area they had lost everything: house, farm and hives.



The local community had been working closely with the Animal Health Agency, Ministry of Agriculture and Universidad Austral de Chile. This partnership was aiming to improve beekeeping in the region and to develop a survey focused on honey bee diseases, honey quality and giving technical training to local beekeepers. However after the volcano erupted new priorities arose in helping the community to restart working and living in their homeland. A social, environmental and economic

assessment to resettle beekeeping is high priority. Considering this new challenge we decided to contact BD. We hope we can work together and need your assistance in helping our communities recover from the consequences of this devastating event.

Bee hives after the volcanic eruption

Bees killed by ash and fumes. Volcanic ash fell in layers up to 15 cm deep «




V Sebina


Joyce P Lepetu,

Botswana, the beekeeping section reported 222 individual beekeepers with 232 colonies, 85 beekeeping clubs with 86 colonies, 40 government demonstration apiaries with 97 colonies and 16 beekeeping groups with 24 bee colonies. Table 1 shows that 73 bee colonies produced 2,578 kg of comb honey, which generated sales of BWP36,930 (US$4,560; €3,363) during the honey flow period of October 2000 to July 2001. Table 2 lists the main problems encountered by by the beekeepers



A case study of Gaborone region In




Table 1. Honey production inventory, October 2000 to July 2001 Name

No of


(47 beekeepers interviewed)

Average kg of}




per kg







per hive

Individual beekeepers


Beekeeping clubs


Government apiaries




Table 2. Problems for Gaborone region beekeepers

Problem Robbed by humans

Attack by bee pirate (insect predator) 15


Absconding Lack of management skills












Above right: A clay house provides shade for up to 40 top-bar hives Below: Traditional grass thatched, clay houses are built from local materials and are good for shading hives in hot semi-arid areas like Botswana


% 11





37 | 78

Absconding by drought effects



Insufficient bee forage









Insufficient visits by beekeeping personnel

Attack by wax moth


No of beekeepers}

Attack by ants

The whole article Potential of the beekeeping industry enhancing rural household incomes in Botswana is on the \nformation Centre of the BfD website

Bees/or Development Journal 90

PINE HONEYDEW HONEY IN TURKEY irfan Kandemir, Department of Biology, Ankara University, Tandogan 06100, Ankara, Turkey a E = s

Keywords: Apis mellifera; beekeeping: honey bee; Marchalina hellenica; Pinus sp


axe a S 2 =

Marchalina hellenica This pine tree parasite is found only on the Aegean coasts of Turkey, Greece and Italy. Marchalina hellenica feeds on branches of the pine tree and its body produces a sweet secretion .

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known as honeydew. This sugary secretion is then collected by honey bees and converted by them to the honey known as honeydew or pine

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Marchalina hellenica lives on red pine and other pine species including coastal pine Pinus halepensis, Scotch pine Pinus sylvestris and nut pine Pinus pinea The honey obtained from red pine is the most important. The insect obtains nutrients from the pine’s sap (20% protein and 80% carbohydrate), however, to get enough nutrients to grow, the



insect sucks more sap and filters it. Later it excretes the excess juice. This juice is sugary and is collected by honey bees. Bacandritsos et a/ (2002) showed that the pine sap contains a high proportion of sucrose {> 40%), considerable fructose and smaller amounts of glucose and maltose. Depending on the climatic conditions of the region the female insect produces a cottony mass and deposits 200-300 eggs underneath this in late March. From mid May to June hatching starts and young insects leave the cottony mass and move to the pine twigs and branches, where they insert their mouthparts and feed on the plant saps (Schimitschek 1944: Canakcioglu 1977). The larvae moult three times, each time changing their feeding position. The first drops of honeydew appear around mid August, and the quantity increases according to the size of the insect. These insects have been introduced to other regions of

Turkey, but without success. There are some reports of successful introduction to other forest trees like firs (Bacandritsos, 2002).

Nowadays, due to global warming, the number of scale insects is decreasing, and this is influencing the amount of secretions produced, and directly reducing pine honey production. The scale insect is economically important for Turkish Beekeepers. Below Honey bee colonies in the pine tree forest

The colton, inass Cat De see

tas Ano ga

Geog tte


However, for a ong time it was regarded as a parasite that should be controlled to save the pine trees. Yet there was no evidence that the

scale insects had any harmful effects, and the main activity period of the scale insects does not overlap with the main growth period of the pine trees. There is still some debate as to whether the scale insect is a harmful parasite, but its benefit for the beekeeping sector is well known.


= = 2

Turkey is the world’s largest producer of pine honeydew honey. This special honey is collected by bees from another insect, called


Starting in late August, all of Turkey's migratory beekeepers aggregate in this famous south-west corner where the Aegean meets the Mediterranean, in order to collect these precious sugary secretions. Thousands of colonies assemble on the roadsides by forests to get

close to the insects on the pines. You should come and see the beauty of this congregation beside the high mountains! In 2008 a group of people on the Beekeepers’ Safari (see below) witnessed the beekeeping, pine trees and the scale insects. We hope for success for both species, Apis mellifera and Marchalina hellenica, as well as for these beekeepers here in Turkey.

This article with references is on the

BD website

Information Centre

Top right: A group of scale insects

Main picture: Cottony mass produced by female scale insect Marchalina hellenica Battorn right: Cottony mass (close-up)

SAFARI TO TURKEY August 2008 saw the first Beekeepers’ Safari to Turkey co-organised by TEMA Foundation and Bees for Development. Participants followed a busy schedule and were rewarded with a trip of a lifetime, visiting bees and beekeepers in different areas of Turkey, while experiencing local culture, foods, and music, and

the natural wonder of the areas visited. Comments from satisfied

participants included: “It was pleasure to meet the beekeepers and see their beekeeping. Turkey is a very large, diverse country; the schedule

was excellent. This was for me the best trip when are we going again?”


have ever been on

The next Safari to Turkey takes place in 2010, provisional dates

7-19 August. To read more, and for details of forthcoming Safaris see our

website, or contact


- address page 16.


Bees/or Development Journal 90

Bees/or Development Journal 90


of honey are

produced in Azerbaijan per annum. There are

approximately 10,000 beekeepers, who have increased the number of bee colonies from




in the last few years.

Exhibitions in Baku organised by the Ministry 200 beekeepers

of Agriculture attract over

from aimost every region in the country.



Bimbia Bonacikombo Forest Zone the

challenge has been to manage forest resources effectively for conservation and sustainable development. Beekeeping was adopted because it clearly generates income for livelihoods. Mount Cameroon Project/GTZ



This is the Beekeeping and Honey Centre at Bimponso in the Twifo Hemang Lower Denkyira District in the Central Region. It was established by the District Beekeepers’ Association under the directorship of Richard Karikari, Gladys Mensah and Nana Yaw Adobah. A bigger centre is under construction at Twifo Praso, the District Capital. These projects are sponsored by contributions from 605 Association




members, although we are seeking additional sponsorship to equip both Centres. We aim to provide a base for honey trading and beekeeping research in the District.

Richard Kwame Karikari

identified Bonakanda-Bova Beefarmers Group to organise training workshops

sponsorship of Mrs Lilian Etomb: Quan, BOBEEFAG extended its activities to Bimbia by developing an apiary. BOBEEFAG will implement a ten month project with the

indigenous people, starting with a two day training workshop in February 2009. This workshop will bring together 50 participants and is sponsored by Limbé Ili Council-

Bimbia, Cameroon Development Corporation, and Limbé Botanic Garden. Each participant will return home with a top-bar hive. A major problem is lack of information on apiculture extension.

Lyonga Mbake Samuel, Delegate-BOBEEFAG

Fl Concern over honey harvest

INDIA Sangeeta Deol received training in apiculture

justified to pay high prices for the honey as they believed the product was authentic. He

and mushroom farming at Punjab Agricultural University in 1986. Sangeeta started

was worried about the repercussions of such sales, because many tourists visit the stalls.

beekeeping with 10 hives. Marketing honey was initially a problem. By 1995 her business had increased to 3,200 hives and she formed

the relevant ministry but has yet to receive a

a company to sell honey. She was the first woman to receive the Farmer of India Award.

Sakina Mohamed

Sangeeta was also commended as Punjab’s leading bee farmer with a gold medal for agricultural diversification from Punjab Agricultural University and an award from the Kisan Club for honey production. She says

lack of marketing facilities for beekeepers disheartens her and excessive use of

insecticides and pesticides in Punjab and neighbouring states disappoints her.

Sent by Mahindu Kumar Soni, The Tribune, September 2008

Bee farmers have been advised to move their

hives to secure locations away from strong winds and flood prone areas. Farmers have been asked not to harvest honey over the next two months because this will exhaust the

bees and there will be no food left for them. Farmers have been advised to top up their hives with dry sugar feeds. "Last year, we produced about 700 tonnes of honey but in 2009 it is expected there will be a shortfall of more than 100 tonnes because many bees are dead and floral vegetation has been badly disturbed,” said Kamal Prasad, National

Co-ordinator for Agriculture. Over 200 hives are known to have been destroyed; this figure will rise because agriculture officers have not

yet reached some areas due to road blocks and flooding.

Riteshni Singh, Fiji Times online

MALAYSIA Several Orang Asli (indigenous people) have been unwittingly exploited to sell a syrupy

Professor Yusoff has forwarded his findings to response.

NIGERIA May 2008 was full of beekeeping in Ketu Area of Ogun State. Potential beekeepers were identified and trained in the use of top-bar hives and provided with information supplied by BFD Trust. We now have 25 new

beekeepers, and 18 have at least two tap-bar hives installed on their farms. 65% of the

hives are occupied and monitored by our team in the Bees Extension Education

Services (BEES). We plan to organise a beekeeping association in honour of Dr Eva Crane and hope to reach out to Ketu speakers in

Benin and Nigeria. Our next training

solution which is being passed off as honey

sessions are scheduled for April and July 2009. ELACODS Bee Farm bought a

at stalls in the Sungai Perak rest area. People were buying the amber-coloured solution,

motorcycle for use by BEES when visiting farmers and monitoring training in the area.

it is wild honey harvested by the Orang Asli. Universiti Malaya biochemist Kamaruddin Mohd Yusoff chanced upon the

thinking that

Elijah Akanni Asade. BEES. Elacorns Bee Farm, flaro Ei.USh ARAN: ASADE


and develop sustainable bee farms within the tropical region of Mount Cameroon. With the

scam after testing samples of the ‘honey’ from the stalls intending to analyse the properties of wild honey harvested by the Orang Asli. Instead, he found it to be syrup that had been chemically treated to mimic the physical properties of honey. When he asked

the Orang As/i people for an explanation he was told that someone had asked them to sell the product. He said visitors often felt





visited Bhati Khan village Narowal District in December 2008. Sixty out of 1,000 Apis mellifera colonies were moved by the beekeepers from Pasror 60 km in the west. In Pasror, Brassica compestris had supplied nectar and pollen for the honey bees in


Pakistan Agricultural Research Council's three year project Studies on IPM with reduced chemical approach to avoid

resistance of parasitic mites, honey bee disease and pests has been successfully implemented with work on most objectives: Identification of parasitic mite distribution

September and October. The target bee flora in Bhata Khan is sarsoon a close relative of

Brassica compestris, a fodder crop that blooms January-February. Other important bee flora in the area includes Acacia arabica, Adhatoda vaskca, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus sp, Mangifera indica, Trifolium alaxandrinum and Ziziphus jujube. Average honey yield per colony is 100 kg. Muhammad M

and behaviour, Developing a reduced

K Chaudhry PHOTO ‘



chemical beekeeping management system; Breeding of resistant honey bee colonies; Assessing the combination of integrated Pest Management (IPM) contro! methods;

Training beekeepers; Standardising equipment. The 2nd National Training

Workshop for beekeepers and scientists Hands on training on IPM of parasitic mites for sustainable beekeeping was organised by the Honey Bee Research Programme, National Agricultural April 2008. Drs Ales and Stephen Martin, an bee diseases and

Research Centre, in Gregorc from Slovenia UK international experts pests were invited

April 2009 we will run another training programme with the help of resource materials donated by BfD Trust. peakers.


Dr Elizabeth Stephen, Programme Leader, Honey Bee Research Programme, Islamabad

PHILIPPINES “For farmers, especially fruit growers, to get the most out of their crops, pollination by honey bees is the key, while beekeepers do not have to worry where their bees can feed. If the practice was implemented, farmers would not need chemicals to increase their yields, and there would be a beneficial

relationship between farmers and beekeepers," said Patricio Ananayo, Chief of the Agribusiness and Marketing Assistance %ision, Department of Agriculture (DA).

ong the best nectar producers are chayote, Citrus sp, coffee, mango and wild sunflower. Cut flower plantations are not

advisable forage areas for bees because these do not produce enough nectar. Beekeepers claim that because of lack of

imports 90-95% of its honey requirements whilst the DA has no specific funds to support the beekeeping industry. Dr Sito said:

“Agencies are unaware of the contributions of beekeeping in terms of increasing food production and as an alternative source of livelinood. Bees are the most efficient natural pollinators and can contribute 20-40% in crop yield, however there are crops that do not attain their maximum production because of lack of pollination.”


Sito’s report A model for provincial beekeeping in La Union, The Philippines is on the B/D website Information Centre Dr

DVD - Beekeeping in the Philippines available from the BfD online store

support from the government, development of

Do your bees make propolis? We would like to test it and possibly buy it from you... A major research project has been started by BeeVital and we would like your help. If you are interested in finding out whether your propolis is suitable for medicinal use and learning about sustainable ways of

harvesting & using propolis please send a sample (50g) to:

potential economic contribution.

BeeVital, Brereton Lodge, Goathland, Whitby, North Yorkshire Y022 5JR, UK

Director of the National Apiculture Research, Training and Development Institute (NARTDI),

Tel: Fax:

Dr Apolonio Sito, said that the apiculture sector is lagging behind because there is no Government agency to spearhead development. “The contribution of


the apiculture industry is slow, despite its


beekeeping as a key to food security and environmental conservation is not recognised," said Sito. Patricio Ananayo,

Chief of the DA’s Agribusiness and Marketing Assistance Services (AMAS) said the country

+44 (0)1947 896037 +44 (0)1947 896482

Reviewed in BIDS 73


Bees/or Development Journal 90



ITALY Apimiel

6-8 March 2009, Piacenza

ARGENTINA APIMONDIA 42nd International Apicultural Congress Takes place in 2011, Buenos Aires Dates and details will appear here

SAUDI ARABIA 6th International Arab Apiculture Conference 17-19 March 2009, Riyadh


Further details

Congresso Brasileiro: XVIII Apicultura & IV Meliponicultura 2010, Cuiaba Further details will appear here

SLOVENIA 32nd State Beekeepers' Convention &

10th Congreso Iberolatinamericano de

Apicultura 2010, Rio Grande do Norte Further details will appear here

KENYA 2009 Baraka College

Further details

5-11 April; 2-8 August; 15-21 November: Introduction to beekeeping

17-23 May; 27 September - 3 October: Making beekeeping equipment

5-11 July:

Processing bee products 30 August - 5 September:

International Trade Exhibition

21-22 March 2009, Celje Further details

Bee breeding

Further details

SOUTH KOREA 10th Asian Apicultural Association



Bees for Development Courses


Further details.

3rd Congreso Cubano de Apicultura 9-13 March 2009, Ciudad de la Habana


Sustainable Bee Keeping 2-3 May 2009, Ragman’s Permaculture Farm,

2nd ApiTrade Africa AGM


Further details

FRANCE APIMONDIA 41st International Apicultural Congress 15-20 September 2009, Montpellier Further details


2-4 April 2009, Kampala

Strengthening livelihoods by means of beekeeping An introduction 19 June 2009, Monmouth

Further details


Welsh Beekeepers’ Association Convention 28 March 2009, Builth Wells Further details

BfD Beekeepers’ Safaris Holidays, Travel and Adventure Trinidad & Tobago 25 January - 4 February 2010

6th Caribbean Beekeeping Congress 7-13 November 2010

British Beekeepers’ Association Annual Convention

Further details will appear here



18 April 2009, near Warwick Further details

Bees, Biodiversity and Livelihoods Conference 27-29 March 2009, Conoor, The Nilgiris Further details

National Honey Show 29-31 October 2009, Weybridge Further details.

Further details on our website


7-19 August 2010 (provisional dates)

We can arrange other tailor-made beekeeping study tours and visits. Contact us for details.

you want notice of your conference, workshop or meeting to be included here and on our website send details to Bees for Development, address on page 16

NOTICE BOARD COMPETITION International Apiculture Photography Contest


closing date 30 Apri! 2009. See

PROJECT FUNDING FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, supports beekeeping projects in developing countries. Beekeepers’ groups and associations may apply for small project funding of up to US$10,000 from the TeleFood Special Fund. Request documents should include a brief description of the project's objectives, the proposed food production or income-generating activities, the work plan, the number of participants, a detailed list of inputs with cost estimates and the reporting arrangements. Submit your request to the office of FAO or UNDP in your country. See and inform BfD of the outcome of your application.

BEE CRAFT A full colour monthly magazine for beginners and experts covering all aspects

of beekeeping in the UK and Ireland. 22 Credit cards For free and overseas rates contact (one year). accepted. sample copy

for 12 issues

ULUDAG BEE JOURNAL News, practica! information and research articles Published quarterly in Turkish with English summaries. See

PAYS TO ADVERTISE BfD Journal offers a great opportunity to reach thousands of readers. Prices start from IT


(€53, US$70), various size ads available.

Copyright You are welcome to translate and/or reproduce items appearing in BfDJ as part of our Information Service. Permission is given on the understanding that 8fD/ and the author(s) are acknowledged, Bees for Development contact details are provided in full, and you send us a copy of the item or the website address where it is used.


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34418 Istanbul - Turkey

7.4+ - F.+90.212.324.53,22

Bees/or Development Journal 90







Michael Schacker

2008 292 pages Hardback 14.99 How Colony Cea

[Cha ouray



Our Food Supply ont

(€22.50) $300

Michael Schacker is a science writer who has taken it upon himself to make a full investigation of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). In this highly readable text he looks at all the current theories, such as mobile phones, and quickly dismisses some of them. The insecticide imidacloprid certainly looks the most likely culprit, and Schacker gives an excellent account of how this story has unfolded in Europe and North America. He goes on to

propose solutions to the CCD problems, amongst them a plea for organic golf courses: surely a suggestion that bears our support!

An enjoyable read on a serious topic.

Bee Pollination in Agricultural Ecosystems EDITED


Rosalind R. James Theresa L.. Pitts-Singer




edited by Rosalind R James and Theresa L Pitts-Singer 2008 231 pages Hardback 41 (€61.60) J450

Recent increases in problems for Apis mellifera honey bees have brought pollination to the forefront. This text provides expert, thorough and up-to-date views of the current state of pollination in agriculture. It is written by authorities in this field and reviews these topics: Bees in nature and on the farm; Crop pollination services from wild bees; Crop pollination in greenhouses; Pollinating bees crucial to farming wildflower seed for US habitat restoration; Honey bees, Bumble bees and Bio control; three Chapters on managing solitary bees, and five Chapters on environmental risks associated with bees; Environmental impact of exotic bees introduced for crop pollination; Invasive exotic plant-bee interactions; Estimating the potential for bee-mediated gene flow in genetically modified crops; Genetically modified crops effects on bees and pollination; The future of agricultural pollination. This text is required reading for students, practitioners and policy makers.



2009 168 pages 12.99

(€19.50) F100

This beautifully illustrated and published book is enough to make anyone feel keen to take up beekeeping. However it is not written for the complete beginner™, rather it is for the beekeeper who has largely succeeded at maintaining healthy honey bee colonies, and now aims to harvest specific crops of artisan and varietal honeys Descriptions of honey plants and beekeeping practices relate particularly to North America, but much of the advice on harvesting, handling and using honey will be of interest to beekeepers everywhere. Another useful and new text for the beekeeper’s library. *In this case you need Complete

and easy guide to beekeeping by the same author


2007 240 pages 26.50

(€39.00) C300

Motivated by the wider organic principles of fairness and care with regard to our common environment, Ross Conrad has proved to himself and others that it is possible to keep honey bees in the USA without relying on dangerous, synthetic chemical compounds. Much of the practical ‘how to do’ information comes directly from

his own experience of running an organic apiary in Vermont. This valuable book brings together numerous organic techniques that can be used by beekeepers. Successful application of these techniques, however, ROSS CONRAD

depends on the beekeeper having good knowledge of the bees and their environment, and as with all things natural and ecological, there is no ‘one size fits all’ solution.


Bees/or Development Journal 90

BUYING FROM BfD Order through our web store Secure Payment System Or send us an e-mail, fax, or post us a note of what you


want or we can send you an order form.

Specialist for beekeeping, honeyhouse and honey processing — worldwide.

Payment is required before orders are dispatched

DELIVERY UK addresses: FREE delivery on orders up to 1 kg Outside UK: Orders dispatched by airmail post. Add 10% for delivery to Europe; 25% for outside Europe Orders over 500

please request our quote

HOW TO ORDER Secure order and payment at www. °



eaRal to Credit/Debit card Maestro/Mastercard/Visa. We need card number, name on card, valid from and expiry dates, card issue number (if given), Security number on back of card. Cheque/bank draft in GBP or Euros payable to Bees for Development


APIMONDIA 2009 15-20 SEPTEMBER MONTPELLIER, FRANCE Ne welcome ail participants from the world of bees to discuss the challenges of apiculture at international

level. Honey- & Fruit Presses

We are preparing a high-quality scientific programme focussed on the work of international researchers, and also activity areas and demonstrations in the heart of the ApiExpo exhibition.

With a honey press you will be able to offer a differentiated product. Art. Nr: 108750/60

The Apimondia Standing Commission for Beekeeping for Rural Development will focus on problems of marketing honey, and assisting beekeepers to market cooperatively. If you want fo present a talk about your work at the Congress, you must submit a summary of your proposed paper according to details given at the Apimondia Congress website.

4-Frame Extractor Our 4-frame tangential economy extractor is perfect for more advanced hobbyists with up to 15 colonies. Art. Nr.: 108279

Foundation Rollers Aset of rollers consists of two machines: Apre-roller and an embossing roller. Art. Nr.: 104510/20

at A ailable


A/S Hertoftvej 16, Ragebel DK-6400 Sanderborg Ae.


OOS Oils K

Fax +45 74 48 80 oF

Bees/ov Development Journal 90

African Beekeeping Information Nagel This important new extension to the Bees for Development Information Service will be online from April 2009 The Portal will include e


Apiculture and development

Bees, plants and pollination

Approaches to beekeeping Bee biology and behaviour *

Bees, conservation and environment


Bee health

Education and training

Glossary of terms

° Bee products

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Honey hunting

Bee species and races

Markets and trade e

Bees and people

Practical beekeeping

The Information Portal will provide access to thousands WWW. beesfo Ka oA

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of document:

This new service has been made possible with support from the MTOM La LT USS aU AS


Beesfor Development Trust? SPONSORED SUBSCRIPTION

Members receive m@

If you would like to receive BfD Journal but you cannot pay the 20 subscription, apply for a sponsored subscription.

@ BfD Journal @ invitations to BFD Trust events @ Newsletters

Download an application form from our website, send an email to


Or send a letter. We need to know your name, organisation, full postal address, email address (if any), plus a few details about your beekeeping is available

to resource-poor beekeepers, projects, and groups in developing countries and is supported with funds raised by BfD Trust

+44 (0) 16007 13648

50 BFD Trust tamper evident seals to show your support Annual fee

Category Individual:

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Membership For those who want to


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Bees for Development 2009



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