Bees for Development Journal Edition 85 - December 2007

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Bees/o; Development Journal 85


Apimondia Congress Melbourne



In September 2007 beekeepers from around the world travelled to Melbourne, Australia to attend the 40th Apimondia International Apicultural Congress. Apimondia organises its work and events according to seven Standing Commissions: Apitherapy, Bee biology, Bee health, Beekeeping economy, Beekeeping for rural development, Beekeeping technology and equipment, and Pollination and bee flora. Within the Standing

Commission for Beekeeping for Rural Development, the plenary session included papers from around the globe, providing perspective of beekeeping development underway worldwide. ve

The second session focussed on bees and beekeeping in Asia. A presentation by Mr Fujio Hisashi of Japan discussed his endeavours to re-introduce Apis cerana to some Japanese

islands where this indigenous bee species had become extinct (see pages 6&7). His paper contrasted with that which followed, where Father David Galvin from Solomon Islands described the problem being faced by beekeepers, where recently arrived Apis cerana is

out-competing the Apis mellifera that had been introduced previously, and used by beekeepers with great success until this recent and unexpected arrival of Apis cerana. The newly arrived Apis cerana is of a race that is not easily manageable, but the beekeepers may yet have to learn to live with them. The third session was organised by Ms Harriet Eeles, Chair of the Working Group concerning co-operation and association between beekeepers, and heard about groupings in South

America, Africa, Asia and Australasia. Harriet was kept busy, not just Chairing the session, but also serving as Spanish interpreter. The fourth session was titled: The Darwin Initiative Workshop on Bees and Biodiversity. Central to this session were papers presented by members of the team from the Keystone Foundation in south India — see the central pages of this edition for more information about their work. Other papers discussed research in Brazil, Colombia, USA, Venezuela and Zambia. It was interesting for this Commission to have a paper —

Dr Tammy Horn presented her findings concerning an area of Kentucky where coal mining has resulted in the removal of habitat, yet where beekeeping can be a significant source of livelihood for local people with few employment opportunities. You will see the full

from the US

Cover: Camels carry honey for the Cabesi Project, Pokot District, Kenya. Read more on page 4.



inside information




2 2

Practical beekeeping


texts of some papers in Apiacta, now published on-line at

Vita Europe Research Award


Cabesi Project


Apimondia Congresses provide a great way to meet other people working in this field of beekeeping development: the next will take place in Montpellier France in September 2009.

Great Bee Ladies


Nicola Bradbear President, Apimondia Standing Commission for Beekeeping for Rural Development

Bees for Development Journal Published quarteriy by Bees for Development and distributed to readers in more than 130 countries.

Editor Nicola Bradbear PhD

Co-ordinator Helen Jackson BSc

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Restoration of Apis cerana japonica....6

Apilrade Africa


Caribbean Congress in Guyana


Bees, biodiversity and forest

livelihoods Trees Bees Use


BID posters in Mandarin


News Around the World


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BODY CREAM USING BEESWAX Finighang Aaron Ndichia, ANCO, Bamenda, Cameroon Cameroon, many beekeepers and honey hunters did not know the value of honey comb. Many would burn the combs to drive away evil spirits (as the belief goes) or discard them as waste. Since introduced them to In


harvesting the beeswax from the combs, beekeepers and non-beekeepers have developed much interest in honey and other bee products. One example is my recipe for body cream. This wonderful lotion has not only increased the demand for beeswax, but solved a major problem among babies, especially within the Kom tribe of North West Province, where new born babies were taken to special traditional healers to be

protected or treated against skin diseases. Adults and babies who use this lotion do not suffer from scabies, tinia, dandruff, chapped lips, sunburned skin, hard skin on their hands, or any of the common skin diseases.

Three honest, traditional doctors have confirmed the positive effect of this lotion for skin problems.


BEESWAX REQUIREMENTS Empty, clean tomato can

(70g size)

- Two clean pots - A wooden pestle - Clean beeswax

Soft oil, for example peanut, soya or castor oil

Cypress and/or Eucalyptus leaves Clean containers Clean cotton string Pure petroleum jelly



ash as you blow the fire. Observe until the contents turn into a uniform mixture. Further watch to make sure that there are no waves in the

small bundle of the leaves with the long cotton string. Suspend the feaves into the mixture making sure not to burn your fingers. Using the string take out the leaves when they have turned yellow-brown. mixture. Tie


Shake the leaves to remove drops of oil back into the pot. Remove the pot in a water bath,

Melt the beeswax gently in one of the clean pots placed over a fire or stove. Measure one tomato can of melted beeswax into another clean pot. Add the equivalent amount of soft oil to the beeswax.

Gently and carefully warm the mixture making sure you do not add dust or



from the heat and add the petroleum jelly using the pestle. Allow io cool a little, but fill the containers whilst the mixture is still warm to ensure a

smooth surface on the surface of the lotion. Allow to set and then put on the lids. Label attractively for sale.


The 2007 Vita Research Award has been won by ~ Nizar Haddad, of Jordan's National Centre for ayricultural Research and Extension for his study of honey bee viruses.




Dr Haddad was presented with the award at the Trust Reception in Melbourne. Dr the Haddad Apimondia Congress investigates during the pathogens that affect honey bees, working to enable the

technological transfer of results to beekeepers

in his own country and

beyond. Dr Max Watkins, Technical Director of Vita, said: “The more we study the causes of honey bee disease, the more important the role of viruses appears to be. Dr Haddad'’s research is particularly timely because of the — named current suspicions that Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV)

Israel - may be an underlying factor in

because it was first identified in CCD in America and may eventually be found to be associated with other sudden bee losses around the world. Researchers are by no means certain that this is the main cause, but Dr Haddad’s work may help cast some light on the issue”. Dr Haddad said: “Viruses are a prime source of confusion and error in diagnosing and managing honey bee diseases, because there is a poor understanding of the dynamics underlying viral disease outbreaks. So far, at least 18 honey bee viruses have been identified across the globe and many of these can be present in a colony at any one time. It is therefore

Dr Max Watkins presents Dr Nizar Haddad (left) with the 2007 Vita Research Award

very difficult to identify bee virus infections and almost impossible to differentiate mixed virus infections in the field. We have established a specialised laboratory to study viruses and other diseases using

molecular techniques and want to co-operate not only with the Arab world, but with scientists and specialists across the globe”. A comprehensive virus survey using DNA-sequencing technologies, says Dr Haddad, may yield new strains of known viruses and possibly new virus species, as well as providing an indication of the distribution of viruses and strains known throughout the world.

Welcoming the research, Jeremy Owen, Sales Director of Vita, said: “We have been particularly pleased with the quality of the research resulting from Vita’s first two awards which were announced at Apimondia 2005 and 2007. Projects can focus on any aspect of honey bee health and we welcome applications from individuals and organisations”. Applications for Vita’s next award may now be submitted. Closing date 31 May 2008. See



Bees/o; Development Journal 85

- a



multi-faceted, self-help project

Rolf Gloor, Kapenguria, Kenya and Hans-Ulrich Thomas, Zurich, Switzerland

Cabesi stands for Camels, Bees & Silk. These seemingly unrelated items play a central role in

development project funded by BioVision Foundation. a

The West Pokot District is


marginalised area in north-west Kenya,

bordering Uganda with a population of approximately 310,000. Only 4% 10,000 km2 of land can be cultivated: the rest is semi desert.

of the

Land degradation is severe, due to use of the land for livestock grazing and tree felling for firewood. Water is scarce and together with disputes

over grazing rights, often leads to feuds and frequent food shortages.

The Cabesi Project trains self-help groups and individuals in different skills. Emphasis is put on the economic empowerment of women, who are often overlooked when it comes to development activities and

decision making. The skills taught are beekeeping, malaria prevention, silk production, camel husbandry, and mango processing. ‘Cabesi Clubs’ have been

established in four local schools. They meet on a weekly basis and learn more about beekeeping, environment and human health issues.

Camels Camels are perfect animals for transportation: their hooves are less damaging to the ground than the hooves of cows or donkeys. The initial idea of Cabesi was to introduce the camels as transport animals (which had never been cone in the region), to enable beekeepers from remote places to sell their honey in the centres. The bigger project developed out of this idea.


ae Cabe gj

Bees The last three years have been used to build up the necessary infrastructure for the beekeeping part of the Project. Three honey

collection centres have been built and 350 frame hives distributed to



7 me

Pe Pot 4S oe ”

beekeepers and schools. After many trials, a local carpenter is now able to produce hives at a favourable price.

Pelee oe

"eeaet*ee Qo



A continuous job is training of local groups in sustainable beekeeping methods. In Pokot, bees are kept in log hives - hollowed out tree trunks suspended in trees. Owing to the high defensiveness of the local bees, harvesting honey had meant the destruction of the nest or probable loss of the colony through absconding. Keeping honey bees in frame or topbar hives makes the job of honey harvesting easier, and also makes ii more possible for women. The locally managed collection centres are buying honey from farmers for a price above the normal market price. After extraction the honey is transported to Kapenguria, the main city in Pokot. In the newly

constructed market place, the honey is processed, bottled, labelled and packed well for the bumpy truck ride to Nairobi. Selling it there for a good price is no problem. A first trial with 1,200 jars for export to the UK has just been concluded. Most of the staff in the market place are women in need of income for themselves and survival of their families.

Stingless bees tropical areas stingless bees and honey bees are both important for pollination. Stingless bee nests are usually small and well hidden. The honey from stingless bees is highly esteemed by local people, is used In


medicines and commands a very high price. Whoever finds a nest is

Thirty young camels were bought in Wajir, about 550 km away, and after several weeks long walk, arrived at West Pokot. Some local people were sent for training as camel drivers. They are now applying their Skills in training the animals for their duties.

the ‘owner’ of that colony and decides when time has come to harvest. Unfortunately nests are usually destroyed in that process. In a future

The Project provides training and prioritises the economic empowerment of women

Beautifully made and packaged candles several thousand have been sold

project more sustainable forms of management have to be introduced, drawing on experiences with other species around the wortd.

Bees/or Development Journal 85


Beeswax and propolis Until Cabesi started in 2004, beeswax was not used by Pokot people and was discarded. This has now changed with the project yielding enough wax for the production of foundation for the frame hives and

candles of different shapes and sizes. This is another product which is highly requested and gives women urgently needed income. Propolis cream, which helps in many skin irritations, is produced on a in the local communities.

small-scale and enjoys a high demand

Outlook To date the Cabesi programme has been a success. 400 beekeepers have benefited from training and good honey prices, 150 group

members have benefited through education and work in the centres, about 40 came! owners have benefited through training, and many more through improved camel health. In addition 10 malaria scouts and 10 staff in the market place benefited through salaries, as well as four schools from extra curricula activities. The numbers are equally impressive: 10 tonnes of honey, 50 kg of sun dried mango, 200 kg of

propolis and several thousand candles have been sold. Value addition is the idea, in which Cabesi wants to set an example. Every single step up to the final product is carried out within the district. This is the first ycessing and production plant in the whole district, bringing jobs and

income to the area.

While quite a few things have been achieved, much is left to be done. Besides the practical work, other abilities and skills are needed. Business-orientated thinking and management of money, book-keeping and recording are not easy tasks in the community, where 7 out of 10 people are illiterate. Beekeeping itself has to improve in order to produce more quality honey. All this is done towards the two major goals: improvement of the life situation of the neglected Pokot

Community through a sustainable use of the natural resources, and the conservation of the delicate environment.

BioVision is an independent, non-profit Swiss foundation which is politically and denominationally neutral. BioVision is active in the dissemination and implementation of scientific methods for sustainable improvement of living conditions in Africa. BioVision was founded in 1998 by Hans Rudolf Herren, with the aim to sustainably improve the living conditions of people in Africa and conserving nature as the basis of all life.

For further information see

@SREAT BEE LADIES Claire Chavasse The Irish beekeeping community lost one of their leading beekeepers with the death of Claire Chavasse in August 2007. Many of those who participated in the Apimondia Congress in Dublin in 2005 will remember Claire, who ensured that the Workshops on Beekeeping for Rural Development were so smoothly run, enabling experts to give perfect demonstrations of candle making, carpentry and many other practical aspects of beekeeping. Claire Chavasse was both expert practitioner and expert lecturer in beekeeping, always providing meticulously prepared, scientifically correct information, yet delivered in a style that encouraged learning. Claire would always question rather than take statements and traditional teachings as absolute, and had no

time for poor standards.

Claire was laid to rest in the graveyard where the tree had grown that provided the timber for the top-bar hives made at the Workshops mentioned above. Claire was a marvellous lady: a kind and generous friend and mentor to many people.

Eva Crane Eva Crane died in early September 2007: the following week, at the opening ceremony of the Apimondia Congress in Melbourne, participants observed a minute in silent remembrance of this lady. Amongst the audience of apicultural scientists and beekeepers there would have been few who had not at some stage consulted ner work, now published in many languages. Eva Crane was an erudite lady who made the field of documentation of apicultural science her own. Well into her eighties, Eva Crane continued to work, writing major texts such as The world history of beekeeping and honey hunting, and gaining

respect beyond the ‘bee world’ as her studies took her into the fields of anthropology and archaeology.The great feature of Eva Crane's work is that every statement, every reference, can be relied upon to be

scientifically correct. Her aim was to procure information about bees, to present it in a rigorously scientific way, and so that people could subsequently gain access. Organising information took the form of creating a library, databases, identifying and cataloguing museum items, and any other route necessary for collating information such that it

became accessible. |

feel fortunate to have known Eva Crane

without her and the existence

Association (IBRA), our own organisation, Bees for Development, would not exist today. of the International Bee Research

Nicola Bradbear





RESTORATION OF APIS CERANA JAPONICA ON THE GOTO ISLANDS Fujio Hishahi, Nagasaki, Japan The Goto Islands are Japanese islands in the East China Sea. When visited Fukue Island, one of the Goto Islands, during the oilseed rape blooming season four years ago, looked for Apis cerana japonica on visited the other Goto Islands several the flowers, but found none. |


Fukue tsland where Apis cerana japonica became extinct 60 years ago

times, in golden rod blooming seasons between 2004 and 2007, and discovered that three of the other islands also had no found no bees. Apis cerana japonica, and only Tsushima and Hirado had bees. wanted to know whether the bees had never inhabited the islands or if they had become extinct. If they were extinct, wanted to know the |



cause and how plants could bear fruit without these major pollinators. interviewed elderly people met for information about the bees. looked for beekeepers and evidence of the bees’ previous presence, and became certain that Apis cerana japonica had been indigenous. The bees disappeared from three of the islands 60 years ago and from the fourth island about 15 years ago. concluded that there was common |





cause for the disappearance of these bees - deforestation of the indigenous trees on the islands.

Cause and effect

mountainous islands. A few trees were left uncut on cliffs along the seacoasts because the woods there were believed to attract fish. However over time the remaining trees were also cut down for fuel for cooking, making charcoal and drying tobacco leaves. Young trees grew from the stumps but it took the trees about ten years to begin bloomir again. So there must have been a period when there were no flowers. Thus, people deprived the bees of their food and the bees starved to death and became extinct about 60 years ago.

Poor harvest Farmers say that they do not grow many kinds of crops on the islands, such as pumpkins, cucumbers, melons and watermelons, because they cannot expect a good harvest. Instead root crops, mainly sweet potatoes, are grown. Very few of the islanders noticed the absence of the pollinator, Apis cerana japonica. Bumble bees, butterflies, beetles and birds sparsely pollinate the islands.

During and after the Second World War (1939-1945), many people were evacuated from air raided cities to the islands, and the islands

opened the land to farming to provide much needed food.

But now the indigenous trees, evergreen, shiny leafed trees have grown again in the islands: people made windbreaks for their crops by raising the trees, and once more they could provide forage for bees.

Some islands are flat while others are mountainous. On the flat islands, almost all the trees were cut down, while some were left on the

Indigenous nectar sources in southern Japan

quickly became over-crowded. The new inhabitants cut down trees and

Fufio Hisashi is a retired teacher who has been keeping Apis cerana japonica in Nagasaki Prefecture. Japan for 20 years. He has 100 colonies at 30 aprary sites.








Japanese name

Camellia sasanqua


Castanea crenata

Japanese chestnut

Castanopsis sieboldii

suda jit

llex integra

mochi noki

Ligustrum japonicum


Pasania edulis

mateba shit

Phus javanica


Prunus jamasakura

Japanese wild cherry

Viburnum awabuki


Oilseed rape, an abundant nectar source





ene! Bebe





Bees/or Development Journal 85


Project begins was determined to restore Apis cerana japonica to Goto Islands. Most


of the islands are becoming depopulated year after year, and the neglected fields are spreading. thought the presence of bees might |

help the land produce more crops and help people to make their living. |

chose Uku Island to start. This island is nearest to my home and has couple who love Apis cerana

no economic forests. Fortunately,




asked them to co-operate with me to restore the sent four of my colonies to them in February 2007.

japonica live there.


A local newspaper reported my activity, and some people of the Goto Islands asked me how to get the cclonies. They wanted to keep bees on their islands. We began the Project for restoration of Apis cerana on Goto Islands. Many people have joined us. Some began making trap hives to set at their friends’ homes on the mainland.

Impossible restoration The bees died out from Nakadori Island only 15 years ago, after 45 years of survival through the post-war confusion. met a carpenter, Mr Uno, who had kept Apis cerana japonica in his back yard. He is the |

last Apis cerana japonica beekeeper on the Goto Islands. The trees re not all cut down after the war because the land was too

,,,Juntainous for farming. So the bees survived. Later however, came the time of rapid economic growth and the government mounted a campaign to plant cash trees, such as cedar and cypress, for housing construction. The indigenous trees were cut down and subsidised cedar saplings were planted. Now most of the island is covered with the cedar forests and bees cannot be found anywhere. It seems impossible to restore bees to Nakadori.

Pumpkins are expected to produce belter crops with Apis cerana japonica pollinators

Trap hives One of the project members, Dr Miyazaki, decided to take care of the restoration on Fukue Island. He and set the traps around Mount Mayu estimated the area to be suitable for 1,000 in Shimabara City. |


colonies. But to our disappointment, no bees appeared around the traps. We learned that pesticide had been sprayed from helicopters and exterminated the bees in that area. The local government did it to get rid of pine tree pests.

The government staff found our traps and demanded we remove them. Their excuse was that the bees might sting the tourists. We also found out that they had been spraying the pesticide on Uku Island and the other islands for the past 30 years. They have been devastating the islands killing many kinds of insects, crustacea and seaweed. We

protested at the city hall and started a movement to siop it. They insisted they should preserve the beautiful sights and block the wind with the pine trees. We are now in dispute.

Some people who grow strawberries and blueberries on Uku Island became members of the project to use Apis cerana japonica instead of Apis mellifera which they had leased from the mainland beekeepers. Apis cerana japonica are easy to keep and can protect themselves from hornet attacks.

Hives use two kinds of hives for keeping and transferring the bees to the islands: local log hives that we call ‘turnover’ hives and box hives. There are also various other kinds of traditional hives in Japan. The |

use have advantages in colony management, and harvesting is easy. Turnover hives used to be woven with bamboo and honey coated inside with clay. But now there are no bamboo craftsmen left alive, So some are made from logs. made mine with wooden planks.




You turn the hive upside down after harvesting from the top of the hive. This means the brood cells that occupied the bottom of the combs

become the top. The bees take care of the larvae with no problem. The principle of this hive is not widely known even in Japan. was informed that the colonies sent to Uku Island have developed into 19 colonies during this breeding season. After the breeding season visited Uku |



Island to see how the colonies were doing, and found them all large and active. They have on average multiplied five fold, and are surely going to reproduce themselves into more than 1,000 colonies in a few |

The turnover’ hive olfers advantages in colony management and honey harvesting

years. Then fruits and vegetables can be grown on a large-scale.


APITRADE AFRICA AT The new network for trade of African honey, Apilrade Africa, was presented for the first time at the APIMONDIA Congress in Melbourne.


The Chairman of the Task Force, Mr Harun Baiya, and the Secretary, Mr Bosco Okello were present, and ApiTrade Africa had an attractive

display stand within ApiExpo. Bosco Okello delivered a presentation about the new network. These activities created much interest with African participants keen to join. On the final day of the Congress, Vita (Europe) Ltd sponsored a reception for 150 delegates on behalf of both

Bees for Development Trust and ApiTrade Africa.

What did we learn? Apilrade Africa needs a Secretariat. +

Contact Api Trade Africa at the following (temporary) e-mail address:

There is plenty of interest from new participants to attend ApiTrade Africa's next meeting, planned for February 2008 in Nairobi.


Background: Prior to the Apimondia Congress in Dublin 2005, Bees for Development organised a Workshop to consider issues surrounding trade in African honey. An outcome from that Workshop was a resolution to create new network to enable linkages to be made between producer groups and honey traders, both inside Africa and beyond. Two subsequent meetings of the groups have been held, and an interim task force has been established. The network has chosen the title ApiTrade Africa. Proceedings from BfD Honey Trade Workshops are available on the BfD website and for purchase on CD. a

The dense forest and mature trees of the rain forest provide magnificent potential for

Venezuela to the west, Brazil to the south and Suriname to the east. The country


boasts more that 300 km of Atlantic coast,

transport is also Sometimes necessary, but

with 90% of the country covered in lush, green, tropical forest.

iS very

The population of Guyana is 750,000 people, of six races and as many religions and languages. The principal language is

English. Guyana’s 17,000 hectares of pristine tropical rain forest are in the highland region with rapids, rivers, mountains and waterfalls,

nectar Sources.

In many cases the forests accessible only by trail and boat. Air


Akayos in the Upper Mazaruni of Guyana in the villages of Kamarang, Waramadong, Kako and Jawalla rear Africanised bees. The forage is abundant in the surrounding forests that are in the foot hills of Mount Roraima.

The villages are 1,000 m above sea level. The honey from this region has a very special flavour. Several beekeepers have

bees in the secondary forest, which is

including the majestic Kaiteur Falls.

accessible by road.


Guyana has a wide variety of timber. Local beekeepers have found Silverbali wood to

Given Guyana’s proximity to Brazil, we were among the first to experience the arrival of

Africanised honey bees in the late 1970s. The bees soon became the dominant


in the country.

Africanised bees

spread to the coastal region and cohabited

this region with people and animals. There have been many instances of human

disturbance of the bees. Guyana has approximately 200 beekeepers scattered throughout the country with 1,500



Guyanafs situated on the South American Coast betweenthe Atlantic in the north,



be the most appropriate wood for manufacturing hive bodies and frames. This

wood is light, and resistant to termites and the weather. Beekeepers obtain wooden

The Fifth Caribbean Beekeeping Congress will be held in Guyana in November 2008. It will enable beekeepers to

witness how Africanised honey bees are both productive and useful to many people.

Alricanised bee handler removing a colony from the eaves of a house

equipment from Kingdom Apiary Products & Supplies, while protective clothing and honey harvesting equipment are also available in Guyana. FURTHER READING Guyana: an overview of beekeeping Bees for Development Journal 82

Stingless bees Journal 8?

in Guyana

Bees for Development

Zoom in on Guyana Bees for Development

hives. There are thousands of wild honey bee colonies. There are six Africanised bee

Further information watch the BFD website

Journal 24

handlers operating on the coast.


the information.

Thanks to Aubrey Roberts and Linden Stewart for








SCFOREST livelihoods

in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve



elem ciilaretese

interdependency of bees, biodiversity and tar Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats of South India. Omit


local livelihoods - harvesting honey from wild nesting The indigenous bees of the mountainous Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve play an important role in However: bees is of the culture. part Apis dorsata * The population size and distribution of these Apis dorsata bees is unknown



eemecoiaeiee Moris ger

Feta Sree

cae genteel



LE rok Ue Re This Project endeavours to combine scientific data mine ss Cel is being implemented by an Indian organisation, Keystone Foundation, working in partnership with local indigenous communities and Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu Forest Departments, together with three UK-based organisations: The School of Development Studies, of University of East Anglia; Bees for Development; and The Centre for Agri-Environmental Research, University Reading.




fe Ned



: .

Panjari/Badava Yeravas, Tani Yeravas, Karimpalans, Pathiyans, Malapulayans, Mala Kudiyas, Mudugas, Todas, Kotas, lrulas/Kasabas, Mala Malasar, Malapanikkars, Malamuthans, Thaccanaadans, Badagas, Wynaadan Chettis and Manthadan Chettis.


Urali Kurumbas, Kaadu Kurumbas, Kadars, Cholanaickens, Pathinaickens, Mudugas, Adiyans, Arnadans, Paniyans, Kurichiyans, Mullu Kurumbas, Malaivedans,

The indigenous communities in the NBR include the Aalu Kurumbas, Paalu Kurumbas, Jenu Kurumbas, Kattunaickens, Sholegas, Betta


Atthe outset it was necessary for Keystone to build its to the research. This involved the recruitment of additional staff, bringing skills in implement capacity and social and with science, entomology, ecology many new field researchers and assistants. Five field centres have been upgraded, and are now provided with physical resources to enable the fieldwork. Keystone staff received further training on biodiversity, with a particular focus on entomology, from Simon Potts and Stuart Roberts (University of Reading) and Nicola Bradbear (Bees for Development), while Janet Seeley and Adam *-Pain (University of East Anglia) trained the team in approaches to social research. ~~

Choice of case study sites was an important early task, and was undertaken by a site selection team, consisting of a pollination botanist, an ecologist, a livelihood researcher, an entomologist and a forest management specialist. They were assisted in the field by — g three guides a forest department officer, a field worker from Keystone and a member of the local indigenous community from each area. After numerous field visits, 5 research locations and 16 plots, each of 1 hectare, were selected. These have been selected to capture contrasts of biogeography, the distribution and honey collecting practices of the major tribal communities, as “> well as practical and strategic considerations of coverage across the three Indian states (Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala) that are contained within the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Training manuals on survey analysis and methods (both for biodiversity and for social research) have been prepared and Re



distributed. ~




vey. _m



With all these preparations completed, fieldwork could begin, undertaking survey of the insects and the vegetation in each 1 hectare plot, completing additional studies of bee colony densities in the vicinity of the research plots, UNdertaking livelihood studies in the nearby area, assessing honey collection practices, and carefully recording and compiling all of this data.


Pratim Roy and Janet Seeley visited senior officials in forestry departments in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala to ensure that they are fully appraised of the Project, and in May 2007, some of these personnel travelled to UK to visit and share discussions with a variety of community forestry projects.

addition to all of this research and learning, a new ‘indigenous bee resource centre’ has been built in the main town in the Nilgiris, Ootacamund or ‘Ooty’. This centre, now named Shola Ridge, was opened with the beneficial arrival of an Apis dorsata colony to nest on the veranda, in October 2006. This centre is for outreach, to inform people about the value of bees and biodiversity, and has proved highly popular with local schools. In

in September 2007, four Keystone staff and Bees for Development presented the project to the apicultural community at the Apimondia International Apicultural Congress in Melbourne, Australia.

OUTPUTS Increased scientific and livelihood knowledge through research; strengthened capacities of key institutions; enhanced technical and professional skills through training; and increased awareness and policy engagement in India and UK through dissemination and advocacy. DATES

This is a three-year Project running from June 2006 - May 2009.


Total award from the Darwin Initiative is UK 275,308.

CVE Colil

Keystone Foundation, Kotagiri, Tamil Nadu, India


| Sioa ed


University of East Anglia,

Aare em





Bees for Develepment,




University of Reading, Centre of Agri-Environmental Research, UK



Bees/or Development Journal 85



Michael Duggan, Ireland Apicultural value

of bumblebees.




Fuchsia magellanica and its relative Fuchsia excorticala are important sources of nectar for Apis mellifera. They are highly rated and their pollen is very distinctive. Fuchsia are also popular with some species is recommended for planting for bees.

Botanical names Fuchsia magellanica

Fuchsia excorticata

Family Onagraceae

Names English Spanish

Fuschia sp are important nectar sources — —




New Zealand


Fuchsia magellanica is

a native of South

Leaves —

Konini Kotukutuku

Opposite or in threes

America and Fuchsia

excorticata is native in New Zealand. They grow prolifically in temperate and oceanic climates. In the west of Ireland and south-west


England it withstands high winds but not frosts. They grow 3-15 metres high and Fuchsia magellanica is often planted as a hedge on either side of a lane as the bushy growth is impenetrable. It does not appear to grow 400 m above sea level in this climate. Fuchsia excorticata

the rain, and long slender stalks. Corrola with four red petals paired with leaf axils.

grows profusely on the fringes of the bush on the north and south islands of New Zealand.

An oblong berry, black and very juicy when ripe.

Purple with red sepals, pendant which protects the nectar and bees from



Pollen grains Dark blue and sticky, and the viscous threads joining them are very distinctive. They are triangular in the polar view and with three lobes or conical projections. Large as a family, and Fuchsia grains are 75 um

(See photograph right).

Pale yellow with a delicate flavour and low viscosity. In spite of a wet climate it often has a moisture

content of 16-17% and in the west of Ireland does not crystallise.

anical description ruchsia magellanica has thin stems, generally arching with a pale bark which peals in long strips.

What plants do your bees use send details to Bees for

Development, address on page 2.

NEW POSTERS The latest Mandarin editions of Bees for Development's /nformation Posters interested participants at a recent meeting aimed to arouse

awareness of honey bees for harmony and to boost bee products. The meeting with 200 participants took place in October, in Cixi City, Zhejiang Province in China.

Thanks to Jin Tangdong for translating the posters into Mandarin, and for this information. Posters are being distributed within China by Cixi Beekeepers’ Association.

Bees for Development Information Posters No


Beekeeping sustains livelihoods

ten good reasons

No 2 Pollination Now available in English, Mandarin, Portuguese and Spanish. Free of charge to beekeepers in developing countries or you can buy through our web store at



Poster production kindly sponsored by Anglo American pic


Bees/o; Development Journal 85




Honey production decline

Guaranteed market for beekeepers

Rift Valley Province beekeeping officer, John Mwangi, said 2,010,000 litres of honey was

The international quality processing factory known as Eswatini Swazi Kitchen Honey

produced in 2006 compared to 2,023,481 harvested in 2005. He said that production

The company has injected E1.6 million (€167,000; US$225,000) into the business, a grant from the African Development Foundation (ADF), which covers costs for transport, machinery for the factory, training for farmers as well as running and

(ESKH) is situated in Manzini. Project Manager John Burnett says they are working

peaked in 2003 at 2,250,000 litres of honey, but since then it has been on the decline:

hard to develop the beekeeping industry in Swaziland, with the aim of bringing income to

“The downward trend is set to continue because bees are lacking sources of nectar. Though demand for local honey had gone up, production was low, which has also pushed

rural communities living in poverty. “We have made a commitment to beekeepers in

prices up”. Mwangi said environmental destruction especially of forests was the major cause of the shortage of forage for bees. Land demarcation due to increasing population was

also affecting beekeeping because people fear bee stings and are reluctant to accommodate hives near densely populated areas.

“The leading honey producing areas are the arid and semi-arid regions because they are sparsely populated and with less human effect on the environment”, he said. The areas include Baringo, Laikipia, West Pokot, Samburu, Transzoia and Narok. The cost of materials for the construction of hives also

discouraged the farmers.

Source: Beatrice Obwocha, East African Standard, Nairobi

NEPAL Nepal's Department of Food Technology and Quality Control (DFTQC) is to launch a programme to monitor pesticide residues in food items. According to The Himalayan

Times the programme includes the development of techniques to monitor the use of pesticides while producing food items for export, and monitoring production

mechanisms. “The EU rejected exported Nepali tea and honey recently, stating that they contained high pesticide residues”, said Nava Raj Dahal, a food researcher at the DFTQC. “Asa member of the World Trade Organization, we have obligations to fulfil to compete in the international market. The monitoring

programme will help harmonise our products with the international standard and lower the risk of rejection”. This year DFTQC aims to make farmers aware of the issue of pesticide

residues, said Dahal: “Previously, we had focused on making consumers aware of pesticide residue, but the root issue was not addressed”.

Source: Xinhua, July 2007

Swaziland to provide an assured market for all the honey their bees produce, if it meets our quality standards. Our business must be sustainable in order for us to continue to meet this commitment. To break even in the first year, we are looking to buy 14 tonnes of honeycomb from local farmers. So far we have received only two tonnes, however, we are looking at expanding production in the near future, depending on the supply from

administrative costs. The company also received E500,000 (€52,000; US$70,000) from the Irish Missionary Development Fund, which was used to erect the factory structure

and for staff training.

ESKH has 10 staff members, including Elizabeth Henwood, who is the factory manager. “As production grows, we plan to take on more women and our focus is on

those who are from poor and disadvantaged backgrounds”, said Burnett. The factory has been fully operational since June 2007.

ESKH is looking at supplying both local an. export markets. “The market for honey in Swaziland is relatively small and unless we

farmers”, he said.

“The price for honey delivered to the factory gate is 15.5 (€1.6; US$2.2) per kg. The farm gate price for honey collected from rural communities is E14 (€1.5: US$2) per kg. The price difference reflects transport costs involved in collecting the honey. To put these figures in context, a farmer who has 30 hives can expect to receive E6,000 (€625; US$840) per harvest. With an average of three harvests per year, a beekeeper would make about

can export the honey overseas, we will be limited in the amount of income we can bring to rural communities. To export honey, we have to meet rigorous quality and hygiene

requirements,” said Burnett.

All honey ESKH buys must meet these quality standards: +

Must be ripe


Must be in the comb Must be harvested into sealed ESKH 20

E18,000 (€1,900; US$2,500)”, explained

litre buckets

Burnett. “We are aware that beekeepers can sell 500 g jars of honey for E20


(€2.1: US$2.9), potentially making E40 (€4.2; US$5.8) from one kilogram over double what we are offering. However, when they add up all the costs associated with this


higher selling price, we are convinced that they can make more profit from selling their

“We need to ensure our business is as efficient and easily accessible as possible. We are setting up bulking centres in the rural

per kg”.

He explained that if a farmer pays E3 for a jar and E1.50 on a label and transport costs of E2 per jar, then they are paying 6.50

(€0.7; US$0.9) in overheads per jar, making it both difficult to make a profit or offer value to customers. “These expenses have not been factored in, in addition to the expenses of buckets, processing equipment as well as

communities, which are supplying ESKH. These centres are managed and controlled by representatives in the communities who report to ESKH when there is enough honey to justify

collection”, Burnett explained. The representatives weigh the honey so that when ESKH comes to collect, they can bring


cheques made out to the beekeepers for the right amount. Payment will only be made it

comes in small amounts over a long time. By selling to ESKH, beekeepers get an assured market, a fair price for their honey, and payment shortly after they have harvested. We hope that beekeepers will be able to exploit these advantages to invest in their businesses and support their families”, Burnett said.


creosote coating Must come from beekeepers who are registered as ESKH providers.

Centres in rural areas

honey at a bulk price of E14 (€1.5; US$2)

time and energy. Many farmers have told us that once they have processed their honey, they are not even able to sell it or if they do,

Must be clean, without bees, grass or dirt Must come from hives that do not have

after extension officers have done quality and weight checks. The centres are also used to store empty 20 litre buckets so that registered ESKH suppliers can collect buckets when they are ready to harvest.

Free training

John Burnett said

a comprehensive feasibility study had shown that Swaziland imparts a


Bees/or Development Journal 85


large share of its honey and that the beekeeping industry is underdeveloped.

“ESKH has committed

(€31,200; US$42,000)


to spend 300,000

on training over the

next two years to help beekeepers improve their skills and increase their yields and



profits”, he said.

Source. articles by Nomile Hlatshwayo at WWW. LIMES. CO.SZ


Kutsungirira is the Shona word for ‘perseverance in difficult times’. Kutsungirira


Beekeeping Club (KBC) is in Mwenezi District


and was founded in 1997 by Michael Hlungwani and Miriro Muhera, together with

eight neighbours from Shazhaume village. The aim of KBC is to train rural farmers as beekeepers, to create optimal conditions for

Kutsungirita Honey Shop easily visible on the main road between Harare and South Africa


beekeeping, and to generate income from the o's of honey and bee products, all on an

In 2004, KBC members built their own shop, where they sell their bee products and beekeeping equipment. The shop, situated

ironmentally-friendly basis. Mwenezi District is hot and dry, causing most agricultural harvests to fail. Fortunately, there are many indigenous trees and shrubs that

40 km from Shazhaume, is easily visible and accessible along the road between South

flower even with little rain and are therefore

Africa and the towns of Masvingo and Harare. Visiting tourists and long-distance travellers

attractive to bees.

are interested in the origin of the products.

KBC therefore hopes to add an information centre to the site. The classroom block and kitchen are already built. A hostel for 20 participants and a beekeeping museum will be next, with a tree nursery and orchard planned.

Ellen Michaelis and Michael Hlungwani

THAILAND AAA Workshop The workshop was held 28-30 June 2007 at Mahasarakham University with the theme Honey bee biology: bee breeding, queen rearing and instrumental insemination. It aimed to propagate the merits of beekeeping for rural development and sufficiency economy in Thailand. Prof Dr Siriwat

Wongsiri, President of AAA, was the meeting organiser and opened the workshop. 28 avnerts from Australia, China, France, India, udi Arabia and Thailand made presentations. Over 60 people attended the workshop and enjoyed the excursion on the final day.

Chen Lihong See page 20 for details of the forthcoming AAA Conference


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A major research project has been started by BeeVital and we would like your help. you are interested in finding out whether your propolis is suitable for medicinal use and learning about sustainable ways of harvesting & using propolis please send a sample (50g) to: __|f

BeeVital, Brereton Lodge, Goathland, Whitby, North Yorkshire YO22 5JR, UK Tel:


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Bees/o; Development Journal 85


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Bees/or Development Journal 85


LOOK AHEAD ARGENTINA APIMONDIA 42nd Intemational Apicuitural

Congress Takes place in 2011, Buenos Aires Dates and details will appear here

BHUTAN 2nd International Beekeeping Congress 19-21 August 2008, Thimpu

Further details

BRAZIL XVII Congresso Brasileiro de Apicultura Ill Congresso Brasileiro de Meliponicultura 4-9 June 2008, Belo Horizonte

Further details

CHILE Congreso Iberolatinoamericano de Apicultura

9-13 July 2008, Concepcion



APIMONDIA 41st International Apicultural Congress 17-20 September 2009, Montpellier Further details

XXXII International Congress of Entomology 6-12 July 2008, Durban


GUYANA 5th Caribbean Beekeeping Congress 10-16 November 2008 Further details page 8

British Beekeepers’ Association Annual

Convention 19 April 2008, near Warwick Further details

ITALY Apimedica & Apiquality International Forum 9-12 June 2008, Rome Further details

15-17 February 2008, Oracle, Arizona

February 2008, Nairobi Further details


MEXICO APIMONDIA: 2nd World Symposium of queen bee breeders 15-19 October 2008, Nuevo Vallata


Further details


BfD Training Days

1-4 November 2008, Hangzhou, Zhe jiang Further details page 20

Further details


Organic Beekeeping Meeting


ApiTrade Africa

RUSSIA APIMONDIA/SICAMM: Apiculture in the 27st — Century Dark Bee in Russia 19-22 May 2008, Moscow

9th AAA Conference




Further details


Further details

Further details

Bees for Development can arrange beekeeping study tours and visits. Tailormade to suit requirements. Contact us for


you want notice of your conference, workshop or meeting to be included here and on our website send details to Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth NP25 4AB, UK. E-mail



Bees for Development



FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, supports beekeeping projects in developing countries. Beekeepers’ groups d associations may apply for small project funding of up to


US$10,000 from the TeleFood Special Fund. Applications for projects with budgets over US$10,000 must be submitted through a Government Ministry. See and Remember to tell BD

AND LEARNING Trinidad & Tobago: 21-31 January 2008 NEW- Norway: May/June 2008 NEW- Turkey: 2-12 August 2008

the outcome of your application.

IFS ASSISTANCE International Foundation for Science calls for applications for research grants from young scientists in developing countries.

Contact us for details

Details at

BEE CRAFT A full colour monthly magazine for beginners and experts alike covering all aspects of beekeeping in the UK and Ireland. 22 for 12 issues (one year). Credit cards accepted. For free sample copy and overseas rates contact ULUDAG BEE JOURNAL


- a link between News, practical information and research articles Published world. Turkish beekeeping and the quarterly in Turkish with English summaries. Contact PAYS TO ADVERTISE BfD Journal offers a great opportunity to contact thousands of readers. Various sizes available, prices starting from 35 (€53, US$70). Contact us for delails. IT


Bees/or Development Journal 85




Heinrich Gritsch 2007 180 pages Hardback


(€45) Code G300

This is a beautiful book which the author describes as being for “people who love honey and nature, for pupils, teachers and beekeepers”, Over 400 fantastic colour photographs provided by 40 photographers accompany the succinct English and German text depicting all aspects of apiculture, and associated human culture. Beekeeper or not, nobody


: No fear of bees

can resist turning the pages of this book!

BEES AS POLLINATORS IN BRAZIL — ASSESSING THE STATUS AND SUGGESTING BEST PRACTICES Edited by Vera Lucia Imperatriz-Fonsceca, Antonio Mauro Saraiva and David De Jong 2006 96 pages plus 14 pages of colour images and illustrations soft cover 29.30 (€44) Code 1400 This book is the outcome of the Workshop Sao Paulo Declaration on Pollinators plus Five held at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil in October 2003, focussing on ways to maximise the usefulness of indigenous pollinators and improved management of Africanised honey bees. Chapters cover: Surveying and monitoring of pollinators in natural landscapes and in cultivated fields; Assessment of pollinator-mediated gene flow; and Bee management for pollination purposes, including bumblebees, solitary bees, honey bees and stingless bees.

The book includes tables of cultivated plants that probably benefit from pollination by solitary bees, recommendations for individual crops, and stingless bees used as crop pollinators, also the outcome from a workshop on /nformation Technology for Pollinator Initiatives. These workshops were co-ordinated by the International Pollinators Initiative and included participation by leaders of the African, Brazilian, European, and North American Pollinators Initiatives. This book serves as a guideline for initiatives in Brazil and neighbouring countries, and as a model for other pollinator initiatives. Brazil has successfully demonstrated viable pollination techniques using several species of social stingless bees and with other groups of indigenous social and solitary bees, and probably has the largest number of university-

employed bee researchers in the world.


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BEFRIENDING BUMBLE BEES Elaine Evans, lan Burns and Marla Spivak 2007 65 pages spiral bound soft cover 15.50 (€23.20) Code E400 A wonderful guide for anyone who likes bumblebees, wants to know more, and to rear colonies. This new text has been prepared by the University of Minnesota Extension Department, so it refers to North American species of bumblebees and habitat. However, the clear guidance provided, combined with the useful pictures and diagrams will be valuable for bumbiebee enthusiasts in other parts of the world. Part one is about bumblebees, the benefits they bring and how they live. Part two consists of six chapters detailing how to raise them, while Part three provides additional information. Very well written text accompanied by excellent colour pictures.

BEEKEEPING AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT ICIMOD 2007 35 pages soft cover Free fo download at A new booklet published by ICIMOD, the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, based in Kathmandu, Nepal, it nicely sets out the argument for beekeeping’s role in rural development. Well illustrated and with clear diagrams, it will give the reader a rapid appreciation of the benefits of beekeeping for rural livelihoods, and understanding of appropriate entry points for intervention.

THE BACKYARD BEEKEEPER Kim Flottum 2005 167 pages soft cover 19.80

(€29.70) Code F555

This entertaining and interesting book benefits from Kim Flottum’s extensive knowledge of beekeeping in North America and carries the subtitle An absolute beginner's guide to Keeping bees in your yard and garden. The aim of the book is to widen the appeal of beekeeping as an enjoyable and accessible pastime. The first three chapters cover an introduction to bees and beekeeping plus what to expect during your first year. Chapter 4 explains what you can make and do with beeswax — clearly explained recipes for making candles, soap and cosmetics, and Chapter 5 considers honey — delicious recipes for drinks, salads and desserts. This book would certainly encourage the beginner to get started.






Bees/orDevelopment Journal 85



(€27) Code C060

Tom Carroll 2006 88 pages soft cover 18


A good description of beekeeping as it practised today in Kenya. Clear, practical information begins with an introduction to beekeeping, the different types of hives and how to get started. An explanation of the beekeeping year is followed by the harvesting and marketing of bee products, and then the costs and profits of starting a beekeeping enterprise. Colour photographs accompany the text and useful annexes offer recipes for value-added products and sources of further information. This is a realistic and practical text for beginner beekeepers in Kenya and other parts of Africa.



(€25.50) Code L500

The first chapter describes beekeeping in Umalila and emphasises its importance. The following section on plants has been steadily increased by Paul Latham’s six visits to Umalila during the last ten years, allowing this third edition to provide details of over 150 plants, many with multiple uses in addition to their nectar and/or pollen reserves.


J Se





Plants Visitas othe:


Bees and

= sts of

Umaliie, =...


Arrays of excellent colour photographs accompany every entry. The aim of the book is to help farmers and development workers to identify plant species and to encourage planting and conservation.



BREEDING THE HONEYBEE First published in 1987 118 pages soft cover


(€16.5) Code A210



First published in 1983 206 pages soft cover


(€16.5) Code A220

‘Back by popular demand’ Northern Bee Books have reprinted two books by one of the legends of world beekeeping

- Brother Adam, who devoted his

life to the honey bee.

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