Bees for Development Journal Edition 76 - September 2005

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Beesfor Development Journal 76


This issue of BeesforDevelopment Journal especially features beekeeping projects supported by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (DANIDA). These projects have been run in co-operation between the Danish Beekeepers' Association (DBF) and local NGOs.


The Gambia - see page 4 - the DBF project ran between 1992 and 1994, and from 1996 to1998, in co-operation with Sifoe Kafoo Farm and Gambia Co-operative Beekeepers. Tanzania In the Arusha area, there was co-operation with local beekeepers' associations and Njiro Wildlife Research Centre from 1994-1999. Dominica 1995-1997 in co-operation with Carib Territory Women Beekeepers' Association. Guinea Bissau 1996-1998 in co-operation with TOTOKAN. India 1997-2006 in co-operation with Palni Hills Conservation Council and Keystone 2002-2004. Vietnam 2004-2005 in co-operation with Vietnam Beekeepers' Association and Vietnam Bee Research and Development Centre. Other projects have been in Nicaragua 2003-2006 with the Danish NGO Nepenthes in co-operation with Fundacion del Rio (see page 7), and in Cape Verde 2000-2003 with EDBI and Beesforr Development, in co-operation with the Ministry of Agriculture and Amigos da Natureza. These projects are unfortunately only like drops in the ocean. FAO and other organisations working with poverty elimination should be doing so on a greater scale to support beekeeping training and increasing knowledge of the importance of bee pollination for improving crop yields. The development of sustainable forms of beekeeping is one of the cheapest and most secure ways to improve living conditions in many rural areas of the world.

Ole Hertz Social anthropologist and beekeeper, Bornholm, Denmark

This picture by Marcus Harvey shows a beekeeper playing bagpipes to accompany Philip McCabe's attempt to break the world record for a Bee Beard, in Ireland June 2005. This event took place to mark the Apimondia Congress being held in Ireland, and raised funds for Bóthar and BfD Trust. Marcus Harvey won the 'Seeds of Change & Observer' photography competition with another picture in this series. © Marcus Harvey

BeesforDevelopment Journal


Editor Nicola Bradbear PhD, Co ordinator Helen Jackson BSc Bees for Development Journal is published quarterly by Beesfor Development and has readers in more than 130 countries.

Inside information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Subscription – One year UK£20 (€28, US$34) for four issues including airmail delivery.

African Honey Workshop . . . . . . . . . . 3


Apimondia 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Practical Beekeeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

– Discounts are available for multiple subscriptions of ten or more. – Subscribe through the secure order and payment system at where you have the choice to receive Bees for Development Journal (BfDJ ) by post or to download it in PDF format. – Alternative methods of payment see page 14. – Readers in developing countries can pay subscriptions by Beeswax Barter or Candle Currency. See BfDJ 67. Readers in developing countries We hope that BfDJ encourages you in your beekeeping endeavours. Apiculture is a great way to strengthen livelihoods, while at the same time ensuring the maintenance of biodiversity. Beesfor Development is here to help you with information and advice. If you are financially unable to pay your subscription contact us to receive BfDJ and to join our network. Copyright As part of Beesfor Development’s Information Service you are welcome to translate and/or reproduce items appearing in our Journal. Permission is given on the understanding that BfDJ and author(s) are acknowledged, our contact details are provided in full, and you send us a copy of the item, or the website address where it is used.

BeesforDevelopment Trust Many individuals, beekeeping associations, groups and companies support our work and we are grateful to all our donors. Subscriptions help to ensure that we continue with our work of providing information and support to beekeepers in developing countries worldwide. Please encourage your friends and colleagues to help. Donations – at – at our website – by cheque or CAF cheque If you pay tax in the UK, all donations you make to Bees for Development Trust are eligible for Gift Aid. This means a further 28p for every £1 donated. We can send you a Gift Aid form or please download one at Beesfor Development Trust UK Charity Number 1078803


How a Bishop became a Beekeeper . . 6 Beekeeping in the rainforest of Nicaragua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Beekeeping in Greenland . . . . . . . . . . 8 News around the World . . . . . . . . . . 10 American foulbrood . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Look and Learn Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Notice Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Bookshelf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

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APIMONDIA CONGRESS, DUBLIN 2005 Dublin, the capital city of Ireland, became the capital city for bees during the last week of August, as the Apimondia Congress took place. All aspects of the apiculture sector were represented as beekeepers, researchers, government staff, the international honey trade, and experts on every aspect of bees, met in Dublin. The work of Apimondia is divided between seven Standing Commissions, and one of these is Beekeeping for Rural Development. This Commission organised one morning where papers were presented from around the world, and three days of practical workshops. The latter were a new feature for Apimondia and proved highly popular. Demonstrations by skilled practitioners telling their trade secrets, for example of good hive making, soap making and candle making - kept the full attention of the audiences. The Congress was attended by 3,500 people, with 101 countries represented. This was the largest international Congress to have been staged in Dublin, and was much enjoyed and appreciated by all who participated. The closing ceremony featured the voting procedure for the Congress in 2009, with France succeeding in their bid to host the event. Friday saw thousands of delegates head off on organised tours to experience the Irish countryside and visit Irish beekeepers in their natural environment.

ApiExpo featured 120 stands and displays from companies and organisations from 30 different countries


Resolutions passed by the Apimondia Congress include:

Honey Trade Workshop

Establishment of a new Working Group The Eastern and Southern African representatives at Apimondia 2005 Dublin have resolved to start a regional forum aimed at promoting honey trade in Africa, under the auspices of the Apimondia Standing Commission Beekeeping for Rural Development.

Bees forr Development organised a Honey Trade Workshop for two days prior to the Apimondia Congress (Jury's Ballsbridge Hotel Dublin 19-20 August 2005). The Workshop was organised as part of our DFID/BLCF Project on African Honey, and arranged in cooperation with two of Apimondia's Standing Commissions: Beekeeping For Rural Development, and Beekeeping Technology and Equipment. The main purpose of the Workshop was to enable more producer groups to become eligible for honey export to the EU. Speakers - from 18 different countries - included those from producer groups already on the EU's list of 'third countries', those hoping to join soon, and honey importers and buyers.

The Group have set up an interim Steering Committee that will facilitate the organisation of a meeting to be held in Uganda in May 2006. This meeting will formalise the operations and functions of the Working Group. Increasing honey trade opportunities for small-sscale African beekeepers It is recognised that the beekeeping sector holds potential for creating sustainable incomes for Africa's rural beekeepers, but this potential is hardly tapped because these producers do not have access to infrastructure and organisational systems to allow them to reach the niche/speciality markets their products would otherwise reach, especially in the EU. To open new market opportunities for these beekeepers, a resolution is hereby made for the Fairtrade Labelling Organisation (FLO) to take cognisance of the situation in Africa, and put in place a system of recognising and registering small-scale private sector firms that are linking the producers to buyers in the fair trade market. A detailed proposal on how these firms will address the principle guidelines of FLO will be submitted to FLO for action.

Honey tasting during the BfD Honey Trade Workshop 3

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New honeybee health research award A new award to promote research into honeybee health was launched at the Apimondia Congress by Vita (Europe) Ltd, the honeybee health and mite control specialists. Valued at up to €10,000, the award will be made on a regular basis to help fund new honeybee health research. Any individual or organisation can apply. President Viktor Yuschenko of Ukraine, a life-long beekeeper, has agreed to become the Award's Patron.

Kristin Lassen and Ebrima Jammeh

"This award is designed to stimulate new research into any of the diseases that affect honeybees," explained Jeremy Owen, Sales Director of Vita. "We will be especially, but not exclusively, interested in naturally-based treatments that are really effective since that is clearly a priority for many beekeepers across the globe."

In B fDJ 75 Joyothi Ravishankar from India explained his method for the construction of cement hives. Now Kristin Lassen and Ebrima Jammeh describe the concrete hives they developed during the collaboration of the Danish Beekeepers' Association (DBF) and several Gambian beekeepers' associations from 1992 to 2003.

Owen continued: "We are naturally thrilled that President Yuschenko has agreed to become the Award's patron. As a beekeeper and a president, he fully understands the significance of a healthy honeybee population to national economies."

The purpose of the work was to develop Gambian beekeeping using wooden top-bar hives. However, a constant problem faced by new beekeepers was the high price of wood, which limited possibilities to make more hives. We tried to solve this problem in various ways. The concrete hive was one such attempt.

Amongst the diseases and pests of particular interest to Vita are those which as yet have no known effective controls: the small hive beetle which is spreading globally and almost established a foothold in Europe last year; chalkbrood which seems to be increasing in prevalence in certain areas; and the long-established problems of Varroa and foulbrood.

Pros and Cons In The Gambia the price of a concrete hive is about 15% that of a wooden hive. Apart from the lower price, the concrete hive lasts longer and requires less maintenance than its wooden counterpart, which is susceptible to cracking and rotting. Fewer cracks and holes in a hive help the bees keep out pests and, according to the President of the Sifoe Kafo Farm, Manjiki Jabang, they have less problems with wax moth in the concrete hives compared to the wooden hives. PHOTOS © KIRSTEN LARSEN UNLESS OTHERWISE INDICATED

The inaugural winner of the Vita prize is Dr Alexandros Papachristoforou of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece for his ongoing work on chalkbrood control. As a fungal brood disease, chalkbrood can debilitate colonies and is especially serious in certain parts of the world. As yet, the incidence and extent of chalkbrood is not fully understood and until now there has been no effective treatment. Papachristoforou is discovering that both a new bacterial product CBB and Apiguard can be very effective and is undertaking further work to establish the conditions for its maximum efficacy. Application details for the next award are at

The size of the holes must match the dimensions of a top-bar hive

Alexandros Papachristoforou (left) receives the Vita-Europe inaugural award from Max Watkins, at Apimondia 2005

The holes are dug 4

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The bottom of the hive is smeared with concrete. Notice the white stick, which is placed temporarily to make the hive entrance

The sides are plastered with concrete

Using concrete instead of wood for hives reduces problems with termites, bush fires, and hive theft (for the wood), all commonly experienced by Gambian beekeepers. Also the heavier concrete hives are less likely to be knocked over by animals. One disadvantage of the concrete hive is the weight, which makes it difficult to move and transfer. In addition it can be hard to dig the hole in the ground for the mould (especially during the dry season) and one needs access to cement that cannot be reused. It works! The first concrete hives were made in 1997. According to Manjiki Jabang, the honeybees seemed to enjoy equally the concrete and wooden hives. No research on the measurement of temperature and humidity inside the two types of hives has been made, but in a hot climate it is important to place all hives in the shade. By July 2005, Sifoe Kafo Farm had seven colonised concrete hives, with some of the colonies dating back to 1997.

The hives are left to dry

How to make a concrete hive For three hives you will need: 50 kg cement plus 1 wheelbarrow of sand plus ½ wheelbarrow of gravel and water to mix A hole is dug in the ground the same size and shape as a top-bar hive The bottom and sides are plastered with a 3-4 cm layer of concrete, except for the hive entrance The concrete is left drying for about 7 days. The drying process should not be too fast otherwise this can make the concrete brittle. Eventually a piece of cardboard may be placed on top of the hive to reduce the rate of water evaporation When the concrete is dry, the soil is dug away and the hive is lifted to its standing position, for example on some concrete blocks The hive is fitted with top-bars with a guiding line of beeswax. A lid is put on the hive to keep out rain and dust. Painting is optional.


The dried and dug out hives are placed on blocks, and painted

The hive needs a lid to keep out rain and dust 5

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THE BISHOP WHO BECAME A BEEKEEPER Reverend and beekeeper, Kristian R Skovmose, Denmark Bishop Denham encouraging people to become beekeepers, while the author makes notes for his research

Heading towards Numan I was ready to go at once, and set off in October 2004. My expectations were to visit LCCN and to do research on beekeeping. Communication between Denmark and Nigeria, not at least Numan, can be very slow, and arriving in Nigeria I was not sure of the programme ahead. When I met Archbishop Nemuel Babba and some of the other Bishops in Jos State, I was told Bishop Denham would not be attending a Bishops' meeting, because he was awaiting my arrival in Numan. Bees more important than Bishops? Finally I arrived in Numan and was warmly welcomed. There followed some intense days meeting beekeepers, other people, and not least the defensive Nigerian bees. Beekeeping for women too Our research started with a visit to Bille village. A group of 50 women welcomed us singing and playing in the local church. I was introduced as the Danish Beekeeping Expert and asked to speak to the group. I made sure to emphasise the great environmental and income-generating potential of beekeeping.

"Once upon a time. . . ." as every good fairy tale begins, including those told by the famous Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen. Here in Denmark and worldwide the 200th year of his birth is being celebrated. My story of how the Bishop became a beekeeper begins the same way.

Beekeepers' Association. She impressed him by telling how beekeeping has great potential as an income-generating and environmentgentle activity in developing areas of Africa. Three months later we received a letter from Bishop Denham. With the headline Application to become beekeepers, he encouraged me to visit, research, and give advice on the potential for beekeeping in his area. Locally made clay pot hive


Once upon a time a group of Danish Reverends from the Lutheran Church of Denmark, in co-operation with 'Theological Pedagogical Centre', Loegumkloster and the Danish Mission Society and Sudan Mission, travelled to Nigeria. They went to visit The Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria (LCCN), which was founded by the Danish Doctor Niels Broennum in 1913. One of the Danish Reverends was my wife the Reverend Pia Skovmose Jensen. She had the pleasure of meeting Denham D Abba, the Bishop of LCCN, Todi Diocese in Adamawa State. During the evening she told the Bishop about my 25 years' experience as a beekeeper, and several years as a board member and president of The Danish 6

While addressing the women, encouraging them to become beekeepers and explaining the widespread benefits of beekeeping, again and again they started clapping their hands, deeply impressed by the potential, which until then was unknown to them. This first meeting was soon followed by facing the villagers in Terre and Dakusung. Assembled in the shade of a big tree in the village square, men, women, children, Muslims and Christians, were encouraged to start keeping bees. More field trips were arranged to face the Nigerian bees in the Adamawa State area and to further research the potential. Honey hunting is well known, but bees have

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also been kept over the centuries in various locally-made hives. I was introduced to bee colonies hanging in trees, established in hollow trees, in dried calabashes, log hives, straw hives and clay pots (see below left) all local styles of hives well-known in Africa and other places. I was surprised to find no modern hives such as top-bar hives or perhaps frame (Langstroth) hives. As I was told later, the reason is to be found in the fact that no beekeeping teaching has been done recently in the area. Somehow it seems that inviting me might have started pioneering activities towards beekeeping. Seminar The local visits and field trips were followed by a one-day seminar on beekeeping, which was held at the headquarters of Todi Diocese in Bali. One of the main reasons for going into beekeeping development is, as Bishop Denham described, because in this part of Nigeria many young people manage to go to school and graduate from primary and even secondary school. Very few are able to go to university and there is a great lack of companies to employ them. This means that several hang out as unemployed, becoming a

Nigerian beekeeper visits Denmark

burden for their families to house and feed, some start using drugs, and others become criminals. As part of more small-scale activities, beekeeping can stand up against this situation, encouraging people to be active and to generate income. More than 110 women and men from all districts covering most parishes inside the Diocese gathered at this first beekeeping seminar. All the benefits of beekeeping were lined up. Attention was drawn to the beekeepers' equipment: clothing, smoker, etc. The importance of producing high quality honey by careful harvesting, transport and processing was pointed out. Modern hives such as top-bar hives, which can be made locally, were introduced, while showing the benefits in managing bees and collecting honey. At the end of the day the participants were told to consider establishing a local beekeepers' association.

Whilst preparing my visit I was kindly put in touch with the National Secretary General of the Federation of Beekeepers' Associations of Nigeria, Mr Aniefok U Ekpo, by the Danish company Swienty. Although we did not meet in Nigeria, half a year later Mr Ekpo visited Denmark. This gave the opportunity to share important information and to introduce him to the well established Danish Beekeepers' Association. The beekeeping sector was presented by visiting professional beekeepers and queen breeders, companies working at national and international levels, local school apiaries and more. Future At the personal, local and national levels, relations between beekeeping in Denmark and Nigeria have developed up during the last few years. Obviously the foundations towards further collaboration have been laid, and it has become clear that beekeepers cooperating across borders have a high potential to develop the sector. This can help in the fight against poverty with great benefits for people and the environment.

Finally I appointed Bishop Denham 'Beekeeper', handing over a beekeeper's hat and information. Both objectives of my visit were successful, and since then relations have been strengthened further. The next big step may be a beekeeping development project.

Beekeeping as a sustainable use of the rainforest in Nicaragua

Do your bees make propolis?

Ole Hertz, Denmark For the last three years, the Danish NGO Nepenthes has been working with a DANIDA-ssupported project concerning the environmental awareness among young, local people. The work is in co-operation with the Nicaraguan NGO Fundacion del Rio (FdR). This organisation has its main office in San Carlos on the south-east coast of Lake Nicaragua.

Beekeeping with honeybees is a small part of the project, but there has been great interest to learn the business. Previously, there was no beekeeping in the area, except for a few beekeepers with stingless bees. A log hive


FdR own part of one of the rainforest-covered Solitiname Islands in the Lake. A main activity has been the construction of El Quebrachio Rainforest Centre, 50 km east of San Juan. The Centre is situated in the forest buffer zone of the Indio Maiz Forest Reserve, part of the Central American forest corridor. Here classes of children and teachers from the 48 schools spend a few days learning about the forest and how it can be used in sustainable ways. There are footpaths through the forest where medicinal plants, spices and other useful forest products are demonstrated.

The hives for honeybees had to be transported 250 km: there were no honeybee beekeepers found close to the rainforest centre

with stingless bees has been established, and it is the intention to involve other local beekeepers in training with stingless bees. The first hives and honeybees had to be transported 250 km by car, canoe and horse to the Centre. One colony of Africanised bees was also brought. Beekeeping training has taken place at the Centre, and a Nicaraguan professional beekeeper has been engaged to give regular training. The first exhibition of beekeeping products made by one of the youth groups has taken place with great success.

Nepenthes are at 7

We would like to test it and possibly buy it from you. James Fearnley of BeeVital is a leading world authority on the nature of propolis & its medicinal properties, he is author of Bee Propolis-Natural Healing from the Hive retailing at £7.99 plus p&p. A major research project has been started by BeeVital and we would like your help. If you are interested in finding out whether your propolis is suitable for medicinal use and learning about sustainable ways of harvesting & using propolis please send a sample (50g) to: BeeVital, Brereton Lodge, Goathland, Whitby, North Yorkshire YO22 5JR, UK Tel: ++44 (0) 1947 896037 Fax: ++44 (0) 1947 896482 Email:

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transition from forest through copse to heath when moving from inland to the outer coast.

The apiary at the Narsarsuaq Arboretum

This project started in 1998 as an investigation into the possibility of keeping honeybees in South Greenland, and continued for four years. There were two reasons why the project was needed: to create new income-ggenerating activities among the poorest sheep farmers; and to create new genetic reserves of Black bees. Black bees in Denmark threatened The Black bee Apis mellifera mellifera has been protected by law on the Island of Laesø. The Island was the only place remaining in Denmark with this race of honeybees. However, as described in BfDJ 74, the Danish Government has spoiled that protection by changing the law so that other races of bees are now permitted on Laesø Island. This is against what Denmark had signed for at the Rio Conference in 1992 and against advice from scientists. Since the law of bee protection was introduced for Laesø there had always been a few local beekeepers trying to spoil the protective work, and there was interest to establish a more secure genetic reserve. South Greenland was a potential location for this new genetic reserve if beekeeping was possible there, and if local people were interested. A minimum of 200 colonies are needed to create an effective reserve. There are no indigenous honeybees or solitary bees in Greenland, although two species of bumblebees are present. This means that no other races of honeybees could mix with the Black bees, and since bumblebees and honeybees have no diseases or parasites in common, there was no risk of introducing new pathogens for the indigenous bees.

Honeybees would not be able to survive and spread out of control in Greenland in the same way as rabbits or sparrows did when introduced to Australia, so it should not be irresponsible to try beekeeping in Greenland. The Black bees belong to a unique race of honeybees, with special genetic abilities, which must be protected as part of nature's diversity, and to be able to breed from them in the future. Conditions for beekeeping Most people associate Greenland with snow and ice, but that is not the whole story. Greenland is so large that if it were placed at the top of Europe, it would stretch from Norway to North Africa. The southern part of Greenland is on the same latitude as Oslo and Stockholm. The climate in South Greenland is arctic, but it can be temperate near to some of the fjords. This means that the mean temperature for the warmest month is above +10°C, with some days more than +20°C. The mean temperature for the coldest month is -3°C. The winter temperature is no problem for bees. In Finland, for example, there is beekeeping north of the polar circle where the winter temperature can be -30 to -40°C, and there is beekeeping in Alaska and Siberia. The critical point is whether the temperature during the summer months is high enough for the bees to fly. In South Greenland the land around the deep fjords seems to be excellent for beekeeping, but the archipelago along the outer coast is not so good. That is due to both its climate and vegetation. The vegetation inland can be forest of hairy white birch and northern willow, with most trees 4-5 m high. There is a gradual 8

Northern willow is an especially good nectar producer and it is the main bee plant in the inner areas. Other plants of interest for beekeeping are purple saxifrage, broad-leafed willow-herb, angelica, common harebell, lacerate dandelion and arctic thyme. In total there are 500 species of plants in Greenland. It seems that the arctic plants produce more nectar compared with temperate plants, maybe because they are competing for the pollinating insects. Climate and vegetation are no problem for beekeeping, but areas with too many sheep can be so heavily grassed that few flowering plants remain. The peoples' interest The main income in Greenland comes from fisheries and the fishing industry. However, in South Greenland 60 households make a living from sheep farming, potato and sugar beet growing. Some of these families have a very low surplus of money, and are in need of supplementary income. Beekeeping has been tried before: in 1951 six colonies were given as a gift from Danish beekeepers to Greenland farmers. Four colonies survived for three years but two died in the first winter because they were not fed. The project Our project started by collecting experiences of 'arctic beekeeping' from beekeepers in northern Finland. Twenty nuclei of bees were made in Laesø, each with about 1.5 kg bees. These were sent in small net boxes on a pallet by air to Greenland, where all the equipment had already arrived by ship and had been collected by Greenland project participants. In the sheep farming village Qasiarsuq, the bees were transferred to hives and fed. After combs had been built, the bees were distributed to apiaries in the mountains and along the coast in eight different places. The first summer was very bad with a lot of rain and wind, but it was possible to harvest some honey and 18 colonies were prepared for the winter, each fed with 20 kg sugar. Nine colonies survived. The next spring the weather was even worse and the bees had to wait nine months before they could breed again. The first years gave the experience that it was essential that the colonies were strong before the winter. The next winters were also bad with too many dead colonies, but during the project period it was found that a beekeeper had illegally imported queens from the USA to Laesø, and introduced the tracheal mite Acarapis spp. This could be the reason

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Beekeeping is an income-ggenerating activity There are now 19 colonies of Black bees in South Greenland. Three sheep farming households are involved in beekeeping and a research apiary has been established in the Narsarsuaq Arboretum which has 120,000 trees from around the world. This apiary now belongs to the Consultants for Agriculture and Sheep Farming and our plan is that it will produce colonies for new beekeepers. The queens would come by post from Laesø. During the last three winters there have been no winter losses except one colony. In the autumn it was taken by a flooded river and found later by a fisherman, several kilometres away. When he opened the box a lot of bees flew out and he realised what it was. He called the beekeeper who took the colony home, but it did not survive the winter.

Eskild Paviassen with a nice honeycomb

for the poor winter survival rate both in Laesø and Greenland. We had to treat against the mites by biological means and later imported ten extra nuclei of bees. A three-day workshop took place in Upernaviarsuk Farming Research Station and smaller meetings were held in schools. A beekeeping handbook was translated to Greenlandic. During the sheep farmers' annual meetings, small exhibitions were arranged showing wax and honey products prepared by Greenland beekeepers. It was very important for the success of the project that the local people were interested to participate. Usually most people in Greenland are afraid of all insects - even flies, but bees turned out not to be a problem. Over 20 people wanted to become beekeepers.

arrangement also creates an air space underneath the hives, which is an advantage if the hives are covered in snow during the winter. We also tried breeding queens and getting them to mate with drones. It was possible. The pollinatory effect of the honeybee introduction should have been measured during the project, but it was not possible to see any distinct sign because of the enormous area of blooming vegetation. The bees just fly out and disappear until they return with their heavy loads.

Unfortunately due to the first years of heavy winter loss in both Laesø and Greenland, it was difficult to produce enough new colonies for all those interested to start beekeeping, but we hope to solve that in the future. Slowly we learned where the optimum places for bees were to be found. There is no doubt that the inner fjord areas are best if not crowded with too many sheep. Special arrangements had to be made to secure the hives against the very strong storms coming from inland ice from time to time. The solution was to site the apiaries in the most protected places and to secure the hives on pallets covered by heavy stones. This

Eskild Paviassen with his new vehicle 9

The best hives situated among willow herb have each produced 70-80 kg of honey. In the beginning the honey was sold in 40g glass jars at a price of UK£4 each. Now because of greater production, the honey is sold at a price of UK£4-5 for 120g jar. There are no problems in selling the very tasty and liquid honey. Income from beekeeping is now the main source for two sheep farming households. In the same period that this project was running, an association of beekeepers in Iceland was created with about 16 members, and it has been possible to exchange experiences with them. The project has been supported financially by the Velux Foundation, The South Greenland Municipalities, The Gene Resource Council and the Greenland Home Rule Government. Currency counter at time of going to press £1 = €1.45 = $1.75 £ = UK Pound; € = Euro; $ = US dollar

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NEWS AROUND THE WORLD BURKINO FASO Stimulating policy dialogue about Africa's dry forests The three-year project, funded by the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), aims to determine the best ways to alleviate poverty in the communities that rely on dry forests, without jeopardising the forests themselves. Under the leadership of Swedish forester Daniel Tiveau, CIFOR has opened a project office in Burkina Faso's capital, Ouagadougou: "In the past decade, world attention has tended to concentrate on the destruction of tropical rainforest, even though world-wide degradation and conversion of dry forests is far more advanced than that of wet forests," says Tiveau. Dry forests also occupy more area than wet forests. They exist in all developing regions of the world, but are most prominent in Africa. In fact the wide variety of dry forests in Africa - from the desert margin scrub through to closed woodlands and deciduous forests support the majority of the people and livestock of all the continent's ecosystems. The resources drawn from these forests are intricately interwoven with all aspects of the locals' lives and the national economy, in ways that are not always considered in either local or national planning. Dry forests provide construction material for farm structures and homes for millions. They also provide the bulk of dry-season fodder for vast livestock populations, without which this sub-sector would often not be viable. "They provide fuelwood for domestic and rural industry uses, including drying major agricultural crops and fish. They actually protect the water and soil resource base for agriculture, yet they are seen as far less important than agriculture because they do not produce timber of great monetary value," Tiveau said. Many species have medicinal value, bark for curing diarrhoea, roots used for treating malaria and the leaves of species such as the baobab can be used for human food. Most villagers appreciate the forest's myriad uses and avoid harvesting many species for fuelwood. They use traditional axes and their cutting methods encourage the vegetative reproduction that maintains the resource. But the pressures of increasing population, overgrazing, clearing for agriculture and ongoing droughts may be increasing the rate of desertification. The challenge is to find ways to both preserve the resource, and use it better. One option might be to develop the honey industry. But while the honey industry has been very successful in Zambia, and

could possibly be further developed in Burkina Faso, the team knows circumstances vary across Africa. "Differences in vegetation affect the prospects of an industry like honey, but there are also big differences in development" Tiveau said. "Burkina Faso, for instance, still has virtually no electricity outside the main cities." Options such as eco-tourism could also be considered, but again, West African drylands have a lot less wildlife than southern Africa. "There is really no bush in western Africa without villages" Tiveau said. "You only have to drive for a couple of minutes and you will see a village, and they are all desperate for resources. They will also look for solutions completely outside the forests. For example, until two or three years ago, the price of propane gas for cooking fuel was subsidised in Burkina Faso. When the subsidy ended, most people, even in the cities, went back to wood for fuel, increasing the pressure on the dry forests once again." Whatever options they explore, the team will be very wary of past pitfalls. "Most of the ideas in the past have been 'technical fixes' that did not work, like the many donors who began huge fuelwood planting projects during the 'Sahelian' drought of the late 1970s and 80s, which coincided with the energy crisis," Tiveau said. "The land is simply too dry and the seedlings died. The efforts should have been concentrated on protecting the naturallyregenerated dry forests."

CIFOR News Online

LEBANON A story of hens, bees, herbs and landmines is part of an initiative by the World Rehabilitation Fund (WRF), an American non-profit humanitarian organisation with a base in Lebanon. With funding from USAID and the Leahy War Victims Fund (LWVF), the project consists of agricultural production and food processing programmes, including the production of free-range eggs, honey and medicinal herbs, under the brand name 'B Balady'. The farm projects are complementary to the WRF's General Mine Action de-mining programme. With the help of the volunteerbased Development Co-operative in Jezzine, which takes care of the processing and marketing of the final products, these projects aim to help landmine survivors to become self-reliant. From the clucking of hens, buzzing of bees to growing herbs, whatever the landmine survivor chooses to do, they all seem to agree 10

on one thing: it feels good to feel useful. Fouad Habib was given 15 hives. "I love bees, and thank them every day for giving some meaning to my life," says Fouad Habib, who must travel to hospital every 15 days because of complications from a landmine injury to his legs and abdomen. "Before this I felt useless". Two different kinds of honey are produced dark and light. Wax is extracted, and some 70 different beeswax figures are produced, from angels to pine cones to Santa Claus. Fouad Habib visits his bees twice a day, early in the morning and later in the afternoon, and says he has learned many things about the insects. "Sadly, when we first approached the survivors or victims of landmines, they did not believe us," says Gilbert Aoun, Project Manager. "They have been interviewed so many times by the media, they pose and smile for pictures and then nothing ever comes out of it. They were fed up." According to local organisations, there are about 365 landmine survivors in the Jezzine area, but due to limited funds only 127 survivors are being helped. "It is difficult assessing who needs assistance. We analyse it on a social, economic and technical basis and give it to the ones with the greatest need. But it is really hard, for they all need help," says Aoun. When the project was first implemented in 2001, US$2.5 million (€2.1 million) was allotted for a three-year period by WRF, USAID and LVWF. Contracts were signed at the end of 2004 providing funding for an additional 18 months. "There is no help from the local government, so we are glad to have had this help from outside. There is still so much need and so little help for the survivors of landmines," says Aoun.

Special to The Daily Star, by Rym Ghazal

SOCOTRA (Yemen) World's most coveted honey When two French beekeepers, husband and wife Thierry and Camille Sergent, heard rumours about a mythical wild honey gathered on a tiny island somewhere in the Indian Ocean, they knew adventure was beckoning. Famous throughout the Arabicspeaking world for its alleged virtues as a medicine and an aphrodisiac, the honey in question sells for upwards of €150 (US$180)

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incense tree, the Dortenia fig, the juju berry, and sandragon, a 'honey bush' that takes centuries to mature.

Socotra bees produce special honey

per kg. It is even mentioned in the Koran. The trail led to the forgotten island of Socotra, 350 km off the coast of Yemen, and the Sergents were both enthralled and appalled at what they found. The golden nectar was there, and unlike anything they had ever tasted: a heady distillation of the island's unique and densely diverse flora. What shocked them was the way the honey was collected and the destruction of the ecosystem that produced the island's only source of cash income. "There is no sustainable apiculture here," said Camille. "The inhabitants scramble up the granite cliffs with bare feet and hands, sometimes risking their lives, to collect this wild honey which they sell for €15 (US$18) per kg only to be resold for €150 (US$180) in the Emirates," she said. Even worse, the island's 80,000 inhabitants failed to prevent roaming and ravenous goats from devouring the tender shoots of Socotra's 850 plant species, one of the richest floral ecosystems in the world: Boswellia the

countries of the old Soviet Union. In South America its use is meticulously controlled.

Portal Apicola

The French beekeepers decided to try to save Socotra's flora, and offered to teach the island's inhabitants how to keep bees and harvest honey. With seed money from the French Embassy in Yemen, the couple have made three trips to Socotra in the last 18 months, to train the men and women of the Bedouin tribes living there. They brought 200 hives and protective clothing, and taught 15 men how to use them. In a more delicate operation, Camille - born in Lebanon and an Arabic speaker - convinced the men to let the women take care of the equipment and the beeswax. As they wait for the first harvest of the sandragon honey, the Sergents are preparing the next phase of their adventure. "With an additional €200,000 (US$240,000) already pledged, we hope to launch a cooperative business in 2006," Camille said.

Agence France Presse (AFP) June 2005

SPAIN Insecticide annihilates 1,300 bee colonies Malathion appears to have been the cause of death for 1,300 colonies of bees in Salamanca, following tests carried out in areas next to fumigated areas by the Leasehold Delegation of Alava. The pesticide is also highly toxic for fish and other marine species, and moderately toxic for birds. This insecticide that the EU wishes to make illegal, is already on the list of banned substances in India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the


New website open for viewing The Beesfor Development website has been redesigned and updated and now carries more than one hundred pages of information covering many aspects of sustainable beekeeping. There is also information about Beesfor Development Trust, news, up-coming events, how you can take action, and of course the Beesfor Development Store.

Do look at: 11

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THE SPREAD AND CONTROL OF AMERICAN FOULBROOD Henrik Hansen and Camilla J Brødsgaard, Denmark American foulbrood (AFB) is a serious disease of honeybee brood. The disease is caused by the spore-fforming bacterium Paenibacillus larrvae larrvae. The spores can survive for many years in scales (from diseased dead brood), hive products and equipment, and they are resistant to heat and chemicals. Normally, colonies with clinical symptoms of AFB in capped brood cells will die if treatment is not carried out (Hansen & Brødsgaard, 1997). Spread

Only a few attempts have been made to find sub-clinical spore levels of the disease in subSaharan African bee colonies. We have examined honeys from Burundi collected in 1990 and 1991 and from The Gambia in 1999 but did not find contamination with Paenibacillus larvae larvae spores. Fries and Raina (2003) made a survey of honey samples from Kenya, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Neither contamination with foulbrood spores in the honey nor clinical symptoms of AFB in the bee colonies was found. The only report of the disease in South Africa is by Davison et al (1999) who mentioned that Wolfgang Ritter identified one sample from South African bee colonies as AFB - following this, honeys were examined for Paenibacillus larvae larvae . No Paenibacillus larvae larvae were found in this survey and it was concluded that AFB was not present in South Africa. In 2001, we sampled South African honeys and in 2002, we sampled honeys from The Gambia and Guinea Bissau. In two of the South African honeys and in one sample from Guinea Bissau we found contamination with Paenibacillus larvae larvae (Hansen et al, 2003). Several studies by us and other authors report that colonies without clinical symptoms of AFB may contain honey contaminated with its spores. Our field experiments with inoculation of Paenibacillus larvae larvae spores have also shown that infected colonies may eliminate the

Photos © Henrik Hansen and Camilla J Brødsgaard

Recently AFB has been reported world-wide where Apis mellifera honeybees are kept, except in sub-Saharan Africa (Matheson, 1996). During the past decade there has been an increase in the number of AFB cases in Europe and the disease has given serious problems in many other parts of the world. Checking a comb for American foulbrood in Pakistan

infections and that no simple correlation exists between the number of spores in the honey and the first visible signs of AFB in capped brood cells. Therefore, our study (Hansen et al, 2003) only indicates the presence of Paenibacillus larvae larvae spores in subSaharan African bee colonies, and not that colonies with clinical symptoms of AFB are present. The European honeybee is able to survive infection with AFB if the colonies are treated by the shaking method - see page 13 (Brødsgaard & Hansen, 1999). The African subspecies of the honeybee, Apis mellifera scutellata, is known to abscond from the hive more frequently when disturbed than other subspecies of Apis mellifera. This behavioural trait may act as a 'self-disinfection' by the colonies infected by Paenibacillus larvae larvae, resulting in a very low infection pressure in general, and extremely rare development of clinical symptoms. In many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, wax moth Galleria mellonella, is a serious pest which destroys huge amounts of wax combs in store rooms and in hives from absconded colonies. This activity by wax moths will also result in a decrease in the general infection pressure. In a study from Zimbabwe (Fries & Raina, 2003) it was demonstrated that a considerable proportion of the investigated bee colonies had 12

a very effective hygienic behaviour. This could be important in eliminating AFB if Paenibacillus larvae larvae spores are present in the colonies. Prevention In general, it is very important to implement a management strategy which aims at preventing AFB. Clinical symptoms of the disease can be prevented by using the following management rules: – Do not feed colonies contaminated honey or pollen – Replace combs regularly – Thoroughly clean used equipment – Re-queen colonies with queens from tolerant colonies – Feed colonies when there is no nectar flow – Place colonies in a suitable environment – Make an early and accurate disease diagnosis. Control The disease should be controlled in areas where honeybee colonies have clinical symptoms. On the basis of the spread and ecology of AFB it may be concluded that an eradication of the pathogen is only a realistic possibility in special cases, for example small,

Beesfor Development Journal 76

isolated areas. Normally, the control should ensure that the pathogens are reduced to a level at which they do not provoke further clinical symptoms of the disease. The control can be carried out using antibiotics or management techniques.

melting, and the use of queens from tolerant colonies, the pathogen is reduced to a level at which it does not provoke further clinical symptoms of the diseases. The method is labour-intensive but saves the bee colonies (Hansen & Brødsgaard, 2002).


In recent years, essential oils (Albo et al, 2003) and biological control (inhibitory bacterium, Max Watkins, Vita Europe, pers comm) for AFB control have been tested in laboratory studies with success. These methods can be used provided that they do not leave residues or harm the bees. The efficacy is not yet fully documented in full-size colonies.

In many areas of the world, AFB is controlled by antibiotics. However, residues of oxytetracycline have been found in honey from the brood nest of colonies fed antibiotic extender patties. Furthermore, strains of Paenibacillus larvae larvae may develop resistance to sulfathiazole and oxytetracycline after continuous use of the drugs (Morse & Shimanuki, 1990). At the moment, resistance of Paenibacillus larvae larvae to antibiotics has been documented in Poland, South America, UK and the USA. Furthermore, there are indications of resistance in Iran and Pakistan. These antibiotics are also used in treatment of human bacterial infections, and therefore this method of AFB control is not advisable. Management techniques A commonly used method is to burn diseased colonies and equipment. However, this method is unacceptable to many beekeepers because the destruction is costly. The shaking method is an effective method to control AFB. The method involves transferring the adult bees to a disease-free hive without drawn combs and destroying the brood combs of the infected colony. The contaminated honey in the honey stomach of the transferred bees is then consumed while the bees build new combs.

Conclusion AFB is reported world-wide except for subSaharan Africa. Recently, we found subSaharan honeys contaminated with the foulbrood bacterium. However, this finding only indicates the presence of Paenibacillus larvae larvae in sub-Saharan African bee colonies. Until now, there is no indication that AFB is established in these bee colonies. Many years' experience and research have shown that effective control of AFB without the use of veterinary drugs is possible. Therefore, to avoid residues in bee products and resistance of the pathogen, control measurements without veterinary drugs should be implemented in the management plans for all beekeepers. It is our experience that the same plans may be implemented for hobby, semi-commercial, and commercial beekeepers. For sustainable beekeeping it is very important

to educate beekeepers in control strategies for AFB and bee diseases in general, which prevent drug or pesticide residues. Honeybee tolerance should be included in the strategies. Therefore, breeding programmes should include a test for hygienic behaviour on promising bee strains. REFERENCES ALBO, G N. et al (2003) Evaluation of some essential oils for the control and prevention of American Foulbrood disease in honeybees. Apidologie 34 (5): 417-428. BRØDSGAARD C. J., HANSEN H. (1999) Prevention and control of American foulbrood without use of antibiotics. Proc. 36th Int. Api. Congr. Vancouver, 47-48. DAVISON S. [et al (1999) Bee Diseases in South Africa I: EFB, AFB, chalkbrood and bee viruses. South African Bee Journal 71, 84-87. FRIES, I., RAINA, S. (2003) American foulbrood and African bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 96, 1641-1646. HANSEN, H., BRØDSGAARD, C. J. (1997) Der Verlauf der Amerikanischen (Bösartigen) Faulbrut in künstlich infizierten Völkern. Allgemeine Deutsche Imkerzeitung / die biene 3, 11-14. HANSEN, H., BRØDSGAARD, C. J. (2002) Control of American foulbrood by the shaking method. Apiacta, 4pp. HANSEN, et al (2003) A scientific note on the presence of Paenibacillus larvae larvae spores in sub-Saharan African honey. Apidologie 34, 471-472. MATHESON A. (1996) World bee health update 1996. Bee World 77, 45-51. MORSE, R., SHIMANUKI, H., Summary of control methods. In: (Ed. Morse, R. A.) Honey Bee, Pests, Predators, and Diseases. Cornell University Press, Ithaca 19.

The bees from colonies with clinical symptoms of AFB can also be shaken into a screened box and kept there for several hours at outdoor temperature, or a few days in a cool cellar, to ensure the consumption of the contaminated honey. After 3-4 days, the bees are shaken on to frames with new foundation. If the nectar flow is poor the colonies can be fed sugar syrup immediately after they are shaken on to this new foundation. In Denmark we have used another variation of the method where the adult bees are shaken on to frames fitted with strips of wax. The shaking method should be combined with decontamination of used equipment (Brødsgaard & Hansen, 1999) and comb melting from diseased colonies and store rooms. A certain tolerance of the honeybees against Paenibacillus larvae larvae is necessary. Therefore, if the colony has a poor tolerance against AFB it is very important to requeen the colony with a queen from a tolerant strain. By using the shaking method in combination with decontamination, comb

Clinical symptoms of American foulbrood can be prevented by regularly replacing used combs with new foundation 13

Beesfor Development Journal 76

LOOK AHEAD AUSTRALIA 8th Asian Apicultural Association Conference 20-24 March 2006, Perth Further details page 16 APIMONDIA 40th International Apicultural Congress 9-13 September 2007, Melbourne Further details BRAZIL XVI Congresso Brasileiro de Apicultura XVI Brazilian Beekeeping Congress May 2006, CBA, Sergipe Further details BULGARIA IV International Specialised Exhibition Apiculture 10-12 February 2006, Pleven Further details CZECH REPUBLIC EURBEE Second European Conference of Apidology 10-14 September 2006, Prague Further details

LOOK AHEAD / LEARN AHEAD / NOTICE BOARD EL SALVADOR IV Seminario y Taller Mesoamericano sobre abejas sin aguijon IV Central American Seminar and Workshop on Stingless Bees 5-8 December 2005, Chalatenango Further details

9th International Symposium ICPBR: hazards of pesticides to bees 12-14 October 2005, York Further details National Honey Show 20-22 October 2005 RAF Hendon, near London Further details

INDIA International Beekeeping Congress 13-18 November, 2005, Bangalore Further details

Bees for Development Trust Day 4 March 2006, Monmouth Further details

RUSSIA Third European Congress on Social Insects 22-27 August 2005, St Petersburg Further details Kipyatkov/iussi/2005/firstann.htm

USA XV International Congress of the IUSSI 30 July - 5 August 2006, Washington Further details IUSSI2006.html

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO 4th Caribbean Beekeeping Congress 14-18 November 2005 Port of Spain, Trinidad Further details page 16


UK Scottish Beekeepers Autumn Convention 24 September 2005, Bathgate Further details

CANADA Intensive Apitherapy Course - Level 1 19-21 November 2005, Toronto (Mississauga) Further details

If you want notice of your conference, workshop or meeting to be included here send details to BeesforDevelopment, Troy, Monmouth, NP25 4AB, UK. E mail

NOTICE BOARD NOTICE BOARD MARATHON WOMAN Stalwart supporter Sue Tonelli says: "I am running the Lake Vyrnwy half-marathon on behalf of BeesforDevelopment Trust. Please help me reach my target". Donations can be made at or SUCCESS WITH IFS International Foundation for Science (IFS) announces 117 grants approved in the first half of 2005. 65% were allocated to researchers based in low income countries with vulnerable scientific infrastructures. Out of 600 applications received, nearly one in five proposals were approved for grants. Next session deadline 30 December 2005 see PROJECT SUPPORT FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, supports beekeeping projects in developing countries. Beekeepers' groups and associations may apply for small project funding (less than US$10,000) from the TeleFood Special Fund. Request documents should include a brief description of the project's objectives, the proposed food production or income-generating activities, the work plan, the number of participants, a detailed list of inputs with cost estimates and the reporting arrangements. Submit your request to the office of FAO or UNDP in your country. Applications for projects with budgets over US$10,000 must be submitted through a Government Ministry. See Remember to tell Bf D the outcome of your application BEE CRAFT A full colour monthly magazine for beginners and experts alike covering all aspects of beekeeping in the UK and Ireland. FREE SAMPLE COPY on request, £20 for 12 issues. Credit cards accepted. Contact BEE BOOKS NEW AND OLD The Weaven, Little Dewchurch, Hereford HR2 6PP, UK, for your new and second-hand books. Telephone +44 (0)1432 840529 or 14

ORDERING FROM Bf D – Use the secure order and payment system at – Send an e mail, fax or post us a note of what you want, with payment details – Use the form printed in our mail order catalogue, Books to Buy – Our terms are payment with order We can provide guidance on the most appropriate titles for your requirements Delivery – Orders are delivered FREE to UK addresses – Outside the UK orders are dispatched by airmail service. Please add: 10% for delivery to Europe 25% for delivery outside Europe BfD is not responsible for loss or damage in transit unless insurance is paid with order Optional insurance cover: up to £100 add £10; up to £500 add £15, to total order cost. Orders over £500: request our quote for delivery costs Ways to Pay 1. Secure payment system on our website store 2. Credit card Electron/ Maestro/ Mastercard/ JCB/ Solo/ Visa. We need card number, name on card, valid from and expiry dates, and card issue number (if given) 3. Cheque or bank draft to Beesfor Development


BOOK SHELF HONEY AND DUST Piers Moore Ede, 2005 295 pages Hard cover £15 (€22.50) Code M560 Suffering from a hit-and-run road accident, Piers Moore Ede was smitten by interest in the gentle craft of beekeeping. As part of his recovery process, he set off (after consulting with Eva Crane) on journeys to seek beekeeping being practised in time-honoured ways. He travels to the Middle East and Asia, visiting beekeepers in Lebanon and Syria, and honey hunters in Nepal and Sri Lanka. Moore Ede brings a fresh, engaging and sensitive account of these activities. He gets to know the people he is with, and manages to convey the importance of bees and honey within their lives. This enjoyable book conveys last minute awareness of the rich apicultural diversity that is all too fast disappearing.

FIRST SYMPOSIUM ON ISSUES CONCERNING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN HONEY 2005 £10 (€15) Code VID33 The Proceedings of a Symposium organised by the Bee Research and Development Centre in Hanoi, and Vietnam Beekeepers' Association, in co-operation with Apimondia. The CD contains the text of 25 papers that usefully cover many aspects of honey trade, legislation, national honey markets, antibiotics, the residues of drugs that may occur in honey, and ways to prevent them. In addition to the 114 pages of proceedings and other documents, are a number of pictures from the event. All together, a very useful and well presented record - the 'next best thing' if you were unable to attend.

PRACTICAL POLLINATION BIOLOGY Amots Dafni, Peter G Kevan and Brian C Husband, 2005 590 pages £43.70 (€65.50) Code D100 A great new text, essential for any researcher working in the field of pollination biology. The first three chapters describe the botanical information required for understanding of pollination. Chapters 4 and 5 describe zoological aspects, and how flowers advertise themselves. Chapters 6 and 7 address the interactions between plants and pollinators, pollinator behaviours and practical aspects of conservation and pollination research. Chapter 8 describes pollination by wind and water, while Chapter 9 describes microclimate and pollination. Finally there is a bibliography with 1400 citations and an index. While three Editors are responsible for this book, other experts in specialist fields have contributed some of the Chapters and Sections, making this an extremely valuable, current and practical text.

THE HONEYBEE PLANTS OF JAPAN Japan Beekeeping Association, Tokyo, 2005 331 pages Hard cover Text in Japanese, £39.60 (€59.40) Code J100 A large, beautiful and heavy book with over 800 colour pictures of the Japanese melliferous flora. While the text is in Japanese, non-Japanese-reading botanists will be able to follow the text as the 514 plant species names are given in Latin, and the place names for each photograph and common plant names are given in English where they exist. Appendices give an index of Latin names, and photos of pollen grains. The book is presented with perfect Japanese style, and would make a wonderful gift for the plant-loving beekeeper.

HOW TO LIGHT A SMOKER This is a film prepared by Ruary Rudd for his presentation How to light a smoker, given during the Beekeeping for Rural Development Workshops at the Apimondia Congress in Dublin. This DVD can be ordered from BfD for £13.50 (€20). Ruary Rudd is kindly donating €5 to BeesforDevelopment Trust for every DVD sold. Code VID34 15

Beesfor Development Journal 76


Beekeepers' Safaris

Fourth Caribbean Beekeeping Congress 14-18 November 2005

We invite you to join one of our Safaris. These are special holidays with a bee theme, which for many people have been experiences of a lifetime. We are planning two trips in 2006:

Hosted by The Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources in collaboration with the Beekeeping Community of Trinidad and Tobago

Tranquil Tobago & Trinidad

Tantalizing Tanzania

13-23 March 2006

6-20 September 2006

In partnership with Gladstone Solomon

In partnership with Njiro Wildlife Research Centre, Arusha

- European and Africanised - honeybees

- African honeybees

- Frame hives and top-bar hives

- Ngorongoro Crater

- Stingless bees

- Lake Manyara

- Mot mots

- Village beekeepers

Further information:

- Scarlet Ibis

- Top-bar hive apiaries

- Taste cocoa bean from the pod

- Markets

- Caribbean cuisine - and Steel bands

- Elephants & Zebras

Phone Fax E-mail or

Further information

- Stingless bees

Under the auspices of the

Apimondia Standing Commission for Beekeeping for Rural Development Venue:

Crowne Plaza Hotel, Port of Spain, Trinidad, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago +(868) 662 5127/1886 +(868) 662 3898 or (868) 645 9963

8TH ASIAN APICULTURAL CONFERENCE Honey for Healthy Humans Asian Apicultural Association was established in 1992 and encourages the exchange of information between bee scientists and beekeepers in Asia.

20-224 March 2006 Perth, Western Australia

Find out more at files/index.shtml Contact E-mail:

Call for papers

- Bee biology

- Bees & the environment

- Bee products - and apitherapy

- Melliferous flora and - pollination

- Beekeeping technology

- Beekeeping economy

- Bee pests and diseases - Apiculture extension Deadline for abstracts 1 December 2005 to If your abstract is accepted you will be eligible for early bird registration rate, providing your payment is received before 15 January 2006


Bees for Development Journal is proud to be the official Newsletter of AAA

Also: Welcome Reception... Scientific papers... Technical and educational tours... Pre and post conference tours... Api-Expo Further information Debrett's Conference & Event Management E-mail Phone (+61) 8 9386 3282 Fax (+61) 8 9386 3292

ISSN 1477-6588

Telephone +44 (0) 16007 13648


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