Bees for Development Journal Edition 66 - March 2003

Page 1




thy Sg,



ot oe

Ty >

thy gh




Bay “Wat

Pk aa

if FS

“ +


we me



oe ph pel ~— »





Bees for Development Journal


dean piesds In

BID Journal we seek to provide you with:

- Information about low-cost and sustainable beekeeping methods that work well —

COVER PICTURE: A swarm arrives at the right place! Beenpro, one of ICIMOD’s National Partner organisations, promoting the use of Apis cerana in Nepal (more on ICIMOD on page 7)

Details of organisations to help you make contacts in your nation or region



News of global issues affecting beekeeping - for example diseases and predators spreading worldwide, trade issues, new legislation


Awareness of the great value of apiculture, its importance for rural livelihoods and its role in maintaining biodiversity — Updates from projects worldwide —

Dates of meetings, events and courses

Ideas for new ways of beekeeping, new approaches to projects

Reviews of all the best new books, videos and CDs

Understanding of the role of beekeeping in other countries and situations Pride in this fantastic and diverse field!

We are particularly keen for beekeepers who have no access to other bee news or information to receive BfD Journal. If you know of people in this situation, then encourage them to contact us to request a sponsored subscription - this opportunity is only available to beekeepers in developing countries.

Meanwhile, for those of you with access to the internet, take a look at our new website Here you will find the opportunity fo join debates underway at our message forums, read about our work and events, support Bees for Development Trust, stop off at our Store to buy all your beekeeping books, videos and CDs, and even download this Journal! Have fun, and let us know how you get on.

Nita Bradhea Bees for Development helps people in poor countries to create livelihoods involving bees, in ways that are sustainable and environmentally beneficial. As far as possible we assist beekeepers and projects in

developing countries without charging a fee. For those living elsewhere we make a reasonable charge. Bees for Development Journal is published quarterly by Bees for Development and has readers in over 130 countries. Editor Nicola Bradbear PhD Co-ordinator Helen Jackson BSc Bees for Development gratefully acknowledges the support of V Kann Rasmussen Foundation for assistance to enable the production of this edition of the Journal.

Subscription One year's subscription (four editions) costs UKE20 (€30, US$30) including airmail delivery. If you are financially able to do so, to receive BfD Journal you must pay the annual subscription. !f you cannot pay your subscription, then write to us and we will endeavour to help you. Ways to pay are shown on page 15 or you can subscribe on our website. Generous discounts are available for multiple subscriptions of ten or more.

Readers in developing countries may pay their

litle later... the swarm is collected by Mr Aniruddha Shukla


And finally —


in this issue... Inside information


Practical beekeeping


Your letters


Zoom in on


Project news from ICIMOD


Finding Funding


Look & Learn Ahead


Notice Board




News around the World



subscriptions by Beeswax Barter or Candle Currency: details on page 16 of BIDJ 61.

Bees for Development

Copyright If you are working in developing countries you are welcome to translate and reproduce any items we publish. Please acknowledge BfD Journal, provide our contact details in full and send us a copy of what

you publish. Bees for Development Trust raises funds to provide information to beekeepers in developing countries. For readers living in remote areas and with few resources, BfD Journal is often the only source of beekeeping news and information. Financial support to sponsor subscriptions is urgently needed: please assist if you can by contacting The Trust's Charity Registration Number is 1078803. Bank details: Bees for Development Trust (Account 85299 Code 40-52-40) at CafCash Ltd

UK residents can send donations as CAF cheques or Gift Aid or via 'Give as you Earn' We are grateful to all the individuals, beekeeping associations, groups and companies who have provided sponsorship.


Troy, Monmouth, NP25 4AB, UK

Phone Fax

+44 (0)16007 13648 +44 (0)16007 16167

E-mail Web


Bees for Development Journal


Better beekeeping in

top-bar IVES We welcome Pam Gregory as a regular contributor to BfD Journal. In this, the first of several articles that will look at top-bar hives, Pam explains how to get the best out of them. Pam discusses theories that underpin movable-comb beekeeping and how honeycomb is shaped.


sophisticated. They are based on the vital concept of the bee space. The bee space is at the very heart of the bee's biological

programming. Combs are built in a regular manner with clear spaces between them so the bees are able to pass freely around the nest. All the combs are built with the same spacing between them. This space is precise and

In northern races of Apis mellifera the bee space is accepted as ranging between 7 and 9 mm. In smaller, tropical bees the space is correspondingly less. In practice it is the distance needed for two worker bees to pass comfortably back-toback between the comb faces. Knowing this can help when working out hive

design specifications. In particular it is essential knowledge to work out the top-bar dimensions. It cannot be emphasised enough that accurately sized top-bars are the key to successful movable-comb beekeeping. If the top-bar size is right the bees will oblige by building one comb from each top-bar. The correct size will vary slightly from place to place depending on the local bee type and ideally should be determined experimentally by measuring local bees and comb. However, in general it is fairly safe to use a top-bar width of 32 mm for African Apis mellifera honeybees, 35 mm for northern Apis mellifera honeybees and 29 mm for the Asian hive bee Apis cerana (although Apis cerana varies greatly in size

Movable-comb technology

The use of a top-bar hive - a form of movable-comb hive - opens up exciting new opportunities for beekeeping management in many parts of the world. Top-bar hives are offen promoted as the best way of keeping bees in developing countries; especially by governments or college-educated trainers keen to promote new and seemingly modern ideas for development. However, when visiting practical beekeepers have noticed the everyday reality is that these hives do not always work well because the people using them have not properly understood either their power or their limitations. This can lead to poor use of the technology, disappointment or failure and sometimes the abandonment of a |

promising technique.

The importance of bee space

Although top-bar hives can often look crude, especially if they are made of simple, local materials, the ideas underpinning them are actually very

the bees maintain it carefully. If the bee space is exceeded the bees will fill it with comb (known as brace comb). This simple observation, made so long ago, allowed the development of both movable-comb frame hives and movable-comb top-bar hives.

Bees' comb built within a frame


Bees for Development Journal


throughout the region where it occurs, as does Apis mellifera). Notice that this spacing is not the same as the bee space but incorporates both the bee space and the width of the comb to give a measurement that goes from the centre of the first comb to the centre of the next one.

Comb shapes Now let us look at the very particular way honeycombs are shaped if the bees have a free choice. Combs are only attached at the top and not at the edges, which taper to become very thin with a slightly ribbed reinforcement along the edge. This special form is called a catenary curve and describes the wide topped, gentle "U" shape of natural comb (see right). This applies to comb from all species of honeybees. The sloping sides of the standard designs of top-bar hives attempt to reflect this natural catenary shape. This is important as it allows the bee space rule to be observed all down the side of the hive where the comb is built in its natural form, without the constraining influence of a frame. Where a curved comb is built in a square box there is always the possibility that the bees will attach the comb to the side of the box because the bee space has become too large. Precise measurement needed It is ideal if beekeepers are able to make their own equipment. This is especially important in areas where beekeeping is being used as a means of improving poor people's livelihoods. If beekeepers make their own top-bar hives it allows

them to experiment with the technology at little cost or risk. In practical terms, however, the hardest part is to cut accurate top-bars for the hive. In the absence of a ruler, this can be aided by finding a standard measure so that the top-bar width can be easily checked. An ingenious idea (shown to me in Cameroon) was to use an old rectangular 9V battery. The width of this was exactly 32 mm and it formed a useful measuring tool. If these batteries are not available look around for another common item that is the same size as the width of the top-bar. For instance, have found a soda or beer bottle top measures 30 mm and with the thickness of a pencil line drawn on either side gives a 32 mm width quite easily with no need for rulers. |




Comb built from a fop-bar showing the catenary curve shape

Yenenew Bezabih demonstrates how to make top-bars in Fleket, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Top-bar hives are an efficient beekeeping tool because they allow the same flexibility of management as a frame hive. It is the potential for sophisticated management combined with low costs that makes the top-bar hive ideal in many situations. Top-bar hives can help to improve yields and simplify harvesting without the need for the complicated equipment that has become essential for beekeeping in industrialised countries. There is no management activity that can be done using a frame hive that cannot be done in a top-bar hive, although slightly different techniques may be needed. However, the underlying ideas behind the use of top-bar hives need to be thoroughly understood. It is also most important that beekeepers are quite clear about what exactly they want to achieve before abandoning other tried and tested local and traditional techniques.

Further information Web forum Working with top-bar hives forums.shtml

Gladstone Solomon. All other photographs


Bees for Development

Video: How

to manage the African bee top-bar hives. Price 22.90 €34.40 (Code VIDO5) How to order? See page 15


Previous articles A frame for the top-bar hive BfD Journal 35 Don't fiddle with the top-bar hive

BD Journal 36

Facts about "a frame for the top-bar hive" BfD Journal 39

Queen rearing in top-bar hives BfD Journal 33 Successful harvesting from top-bar hives BfD Journal 49

Sugar feeding using a top-bar feeder BID Journal 38 Top-bar hives in the USA BD Journal 58


Bees for Development Journal

Your letters Quality standards for honey

Elephants! enjoyed BfDJ 65 with its surprising front page. The article about deterring elephants with bees is very useful. thought should remind everyone that research carried out on the Bees for Development/Niiro Wildlife Research Centre ‘Sustainable beekeeping for Africa’ project in Tanzania found that elephant dung makes the best smoker fuel! (See BfDJ 41 A bee smoker appropriate for African conditions) |

would like to draw your attention to the compositional and quality standards imposed by the European Union. These standards are very similar to those of the Codex Alimentarius Commission's Worldwide Standard for Honey and the requirements of all the major importing countries. |

Please see the European Union Council Directive 2001/110/EC of 20 December 2001, on honey*. Its provisions have to be brought into the national law of each EU member state by August 2003.

Any honey intended for import by an EU country must comply with the definition given in the Directive and must be free of non-honey syrups. The beekeeper must ensure the hive is free of any syrups used in feeding before honey is harvested from the hive.

Residues of antibiotic drugs in honey are illegal and must not be present. Antibiotics must not be used in bee husbandry unless a sufficiently long withdrawal period is used to ensure that no residues occur in the honey.

Some anti-Varroa drugs are permitted in honey, namely formic acid, lactic acid, thymol, menthol, mixed oils, flumethrin and fluvalinate without limit, coumaphos up to a limit of 100 parts per billion and amitraz up to 200 parts per billion. You will no doubt be aware of any differences from your own national legislation. Importers and packers in the UK have to meet the stringent standards imposed by their customers and the enforcement authorities. The Honey Association wishes to work closely with beekeepers to ensure honey of a high quality is achieved by producers. Any technical query about the EU requirements may be addressed to me at the addresses below.



Ole Heriz, Denmark

Back to skeps? Why not keep bees in one or two skeps, the picturesque hives that were once the backbone of beekeeping in the UK? Historically skeps are made from straw, making them expensive and time consuming to create. Why not a skep of modern materials? can see a skep moulded from polypropylene (the material used to make disposable tea and coffee cups). Using the traditional shape, which is ideal for bees, the hives would have good insulation and be waterproof. The new model could be moulded from a well made straw skep, left white or coloured like straw. An entrance hole is needed of course and why nof slots at suitable spacings to take sheets of foundation to give the new occupants a good start? Perhaps modern houses could be designed with a row of bee boles to accommodate these modern

ewpe gy


skeps? Frank Buckley, UK

ABOVE Frank Buckley BELOW Skeps made from willow

Peter Martin, Technical Advisor The Honey Association (UK), Secretary, International Honey Commission 32 West Avenue, Hayes UB3 2EY, UK

E-mail *

The EU's Council Directive is at eur-lex (select official journal and then enter the reference for the Directive, published 12.1.2002, L series, L10/47 to L10/52.) or downloads.htm


Send letters for publication to the Edifor of BfD Journal (address on page 2)


Bees for Development Journal






Honey sales generate an appreciable income for these villagers, helping them to meet their daily needs particularly in the dry season. Some succeed in using this income to pay school fees, to build and repair their houses, or to plant cashew and mango orchards. Traditional beekeeping methods are spreading while 'modern' (frame hive) beekeeping is in the process of disappearing in the areas where it was introduced in the last two decades.

Projects to develop beekeeping are financed by donors or the lvoirian government. The accent is put on shortterm training for school leavers in rural areas. Although more than 2,000 young villagers have been trained most have neither the land nor the means to acquire even basic beekeeping equipment. Therefore, it is difficult to assess if these projects have had any real impact on the development of beekeeping in the country.

ANAC] (National Association of Beekeepers in Céte d'Ivoire) offers services to help traditional beekeepers upgrade their techniques and skills to improve the quality of the honey.

Trade of honeybee products Almost all honey produced in the country is harvested by traditional beekeepers and honey hunters. Women traders, operating in the informal sector, have ‘developed networks for collecting locallyproduced agricultural products. They take the honey and other produce to the large urban centres for sale.

Capita city: Yamoussoukro |

Climate and vegetation The climate


humid tropical in the southern half and sub-humid in the north. The annual average temperature is 26°C. There are two distinct vegetation zones: the southern half of the country is dense humid forest while the northern half is characterised by open forest and

savannah. Size 322,500 km2 Population Fifteen million of whom 46% are less than 15 years old. Economy Cote d'lvoire's economy is essentially agricultural with the principal export being cash crops of bananas, coffee, cocoa, cotton, palm oil, rubber and pineapple. Crude. oil and timber are also exported. Main imports are manufactured goods, rice and wheat.



2ae 4

The price to the producers varies between CFA400-1000 per litre (€0.61-1.42, US$0.66-1.53) and is sold to the consumer for CFA1500-2500

(€2.14-3.57, US$2.30-3.85). ANACI estimates that about 150 tonnes of honey are sold annually. Honey is consumed almost entirely for its therapeutic qualities. Beeswax is used primarily by brass workers and batik artists.

Research Selective but limited studies are undertaken by different local organisations. There have been pollen analyses, information gathered on traditional beekeepers and their knowledge base, production (honey and wax), microbiology and trials to determine the impact of bees on coffee and onion production.

Top-bar with honeycomb

4 we) 2 a

Beekeeping Honey hunting is practised throughout the country, while beekeeping is a longstanding agricultural activity in villages in the northern and central savannah regions. Many crops are grown in the northern regions that are favourable to beekeeping (including cashew, cotton, maize, mango, marrow, onion, sorghum rice and teak), in addition to their use to farmers for food and to sell. Few insecticides are used.



Honeybees Bees, honey and beeswax are present in traditonal lvoirian pharmacopeioa, customs, rites and beliefs. The honeyproducing bees of Céte d'lvoire are the honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii and stingless bees. In 1994, more than 300 colonies of Apis mellifera (of European origin) were imported from Australia. See BIDJ 42 for the outcome of this action.

Pests and diseases The honeybee's principal enemies are ants, lizards and moths. Colonies are not offered any treatment against diseases.


Céte d'Ivoire is on the West African coast situated between Ghana and Liberia facing the Gulf of Guinea.

Beekeeping equipment Local manufacture of basic beekeeping equipment exists but is not well developed. Hives, whether frame, topbar or traditional (of tree bark and reeds), are all produced in Céte d'lvoire. 6

A beekeeper and his hives



hives are preferred to frame hives

Conclusion Future economic and environmental benefits from lvoirian beekeeping will depend for the most part on traditional beekeepers, how the trade in hive products is organised, scientific research (ethology of the African bees, pollination of cultivated plants and the quality of the products) and above all on the quality of management of development projects. Thanks to Virginie Palmeri, President of ANAC] for providing this information. Further reading Almost... out of bees in Africa BfD Journal 42

ae etme




Bees for Development Journal


COLLECTIVE WISDOM ON INDIGENOUS HONEYBEES This is the ninth article in the series bringing news about the work of the Austrian Government funded beekeeping project at ICIMOD in Kathmandu, Nepal. ICIMOD and Austroprojekt GmbH in Vienna, Austria jointly manage the project. In BfDJ 65 we described our approaches to recruiting the media in the fight to conserve indigenous honeybees. Here is some news about how we are collecting information about indigenous knowledge and practices.

One of the major challenges in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalayas (HKH) is to turn the vicious cycle of poverty, environmental degradation, and lack of access into a virtuous cycle of hope, sustainable development, and equitable access. Many approaches are being used in the region to achieve this. ICIMOD's indigenous honeybee project is concerned with the special aspect of honeybees and the roles they play in maintaining floral biodiversity and crop productivity and in income generation particularly for subsistence farmers in poorly accessible areas. The project uses an approach that combines the tools of community empowerment with the conservation and genetic improvement of indigenous bee species and streamlining the marketing of bee products. The aim is to help communities reap financial benefits from an indigenous resource whilst preserving bee species that will contribute in the long-term to ensuring ‘pollination of crops and maintenance of plant biodiversity. Himalayan honeybees are little understood elements of mountain biodiversity, yet they play an important role in mountain livelihoods and cultures in addition to their critical role in pollination. Increasingly, however, traditional values and practices are being replaced by modern aspirations and approaches. The change in the HKH region is rapid, within a single generation ways of life that have been maintained for centuries are being lost. The ICIMOD bee project is searching for the collective wisdom on indigenous honeybees handed down over

@ IcImMOD Faroog Ahmad, Uma Partap, Surendra R Joshi and Min B Gurung

generations, and information about the role of bees in strengthening mountain communities, to promote understanding of the role of bees in indigenous societies as well as to ensure that the wealth of indigenous knowledge is not lost to future generations. As a part of this process, a meeting was held with partners and regional professionals to initiate thought provoking discussions and facilitate exchange of information with a view to long-term collaboration in studies of bees and indigenous knowledge and wisdom, and in activities to preserve these indigenous species. The discussions focused on the following: — Sharing country specific technical (systematic) information on wild bees — Population distribution and nesting areas and the role of wild honeybees in rural livelihoods —

Information on honey hunting communities, tools, spirituality, traditions, and honey markets

Floral dimensions and the importance of pollination related to wild bees Analysis of existing policies related to the indigenous honeybees in the region, and interventions required to conserve them and associated ecosystems, including suggestions for evolving a supportive policy environment



Irresponsible pesticide use and its implications for bee species Constraints and opportunities in dealing with issues related to the promotion and conservation of wild bees

Development of a gender-related perspective based on regional information Preparation of an inventory of institutions and individuals associated with bees.

Experts in apiculture from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan (see box) met for two days

Kathmandu, in January 2003. They ‘discussed these issues and developed a framework for carrying out studies on indigenous honeybees and associated communities in the HKH region. The participants shared existing country specific information and study methodologies and agreed time-line charts for the studies. in


a mT


News Project Information from ICIMOD


The old and the new; traditional honey hunter from Kaski District, Nepal. Title illustration from The Himalayan cliff bee Apis laboriosa and the honey hunters of Nepal reviewed in Bookshelf on page 14

Participants from outside

ICIMOD Jagadish Chandra Saha, Project Director, Beekeeping Project, Bangladesh Small and Cottage. Industries Corporation, Dhaka,

Bangladesh Khundkar Shariful Islam, Mymonsing Agriculture University, Bangladesh Dhan Raj Ghalay, Post Harvest Unit, Department of Research and Development Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Paro, Bhutan

Tan Ken, Eastern Bee Research Institute, Kunming, China Desh Raj and S K Chauhan, Ch Sarwan Kumar HP Agricultural University, Palampur, India U Maung Maung Sein, Deputy

Director, Beekeeping Department, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries,

Myanmar Siddique Munawar, Senior Scientific Officer, Honeybee Research Institute, NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan

Jaya Kumar KC, Chief, Bee

Development Section, HMG Nepal Ram Prasad Gurung, President, BEENPRO, Kaski, Nepal


Bees for Development Journal



Funding Finding a


project proposal

Success in finding funding depends not just on the value of your idea, but also on the quality of your proposal.

A clear proposal, which displays well thought-out and realistic plans, can be your key to success. Different projects require different approaches but the format given here provides a good starting point, although some funding organisations will ask you to complete their own forms. This outline will not guarantee you success in locating funding; however it will help to ensure that your proposal has as good a chance as any other. Good luck!

Proposal title

The title should provide a clear statement of your aim and should not be too long.

Other details State for whom the proposal is intended, and by whom it is submitted. Give your name and your address or that of your organisation. It is a good idea to provide separately some additional information about your organisation and its activities.

State the date of application. If-you are applying for funding as an individual attach a brief CV* and the names and addresses. of referees - make sure they are aware of your proposal and agree to their name being used. *

CV or Curriculum vitae is Latin meaning ‘the course of one's life’. A CV clearly and systematically states your personal details, your education and employment history and other relevant information. All details should be itemised with suitable headings and dates in chronological order.


Work plan Show a timetable of events for the project activities. Remember that beekeeping is a seasonal activity. Be realistic about how long it will take to complete activities and achieve the project objectives.

Inputs required Summarise here all the resources you will need. For example, number of persons and the skills needed, transport, workshop facilities and the time required.

Administration You must explain the system that you will use to ensure smooth administration of the project, and who will be accountable for

any funding.

Outputs This is a concluding paragraph. You can mention likely 'spin-offs' in addition to your main objectives, and any documentation that will arise from the project. If you are successful in obtaining funding then it is important that you prepare reports as required by the donors and acknowledge their support.

Budget For each resource list the costs involved. If your project extends over more than one year, provide an annual total in addition to the total project budget. Your budget can be shown in local currency but provide a current (and dated) exchange rate to a widely known currency, preferably that used by the organisation for whom you are preparing the proposal.

More hints —

your proposal is several pages in length, it is good to summarise it at the beginning - not more than four or five sentences. If

Introduction Give the background to your proposal and summarise the current situation. For example, is this a continuation of previous work, or is it intended to address a new problem facing beekeepers?

Project goal

Nicola Bradbear

Find out about the organisation that you are contacting. What are their criteria for funding projects? Before you spend a lot of time and effort, ensure that the intended donor organisation is at least willing to consider the type of application you are preparing.

Number the various sections of your proposal.

None of the statements in your proposal should be repeated in different sections.

This is the overall aim of the Project. Try to state the goal in just one or two sentences.

Make sure that you clearly separate objectives from activities. For example: (1) Improve honey marketing.


(2) Making labels for selling honey.

The objectives are the matters that must be achieved to arrive at your aim stated in the title. You are likely to have several objectives, but each one must be stated in a single sentence.

(3) Increase consumer awareness

List your objectives one after another - do not them present strung together in a paragraph. If you need to explain more about the objectives and why they are important

(1) and (3) are objectives while (2) and (4} are activities by which the objectives will be attained.

of honey.

(4) Teaching how to process honey and beeswax.

Be specific.

Unless it is absolutely impossible, present a typed proposal. Use standard size office paper and print only on one side of the paper.

Accurately and carefully describe the activities and methods you will use to achieve each objective.

Check the final document very carefully for spelling or other typographical errors.

You must give details here: a statement such as ‘increase number of bee colonies' does not provide enough detail.

Be ready to prepare several drafts of your proposal until you arrive at a version with no errors.

then list them again, adding a few sentences of explanation for

each one.



Bees for Development Journal

If you are preparing a proposal for an organisation where many employees use a language different from your own, try to present a translation of your proposal, or at least a translation of the summary.

If you are preparing a proposal in a language that is difficult for you, try to have it checked by someone who knows the language well.


any project proposal it is good to state what inputs you, your organisation or another donor are also providing towards the project. These need not always be financial inputs; they could be in terms of labour, access to facilities or the provision of suitable apiary sites. In

And lastly... Try to keep your proposal as concise as possible. The shorter it is the more chance it has of being read!

Explaining beekeeping No grant-providing organisation can be familiar with every activity for which they provide funding and beekeeping is a subject that is often unfamiliar to people in offices! You will need to emphasise the importance and value of beekeeping. However do not just copy information from a standard text try to give local facts for example:

Which people in your community practise beekeeping? What are the local products of beekeeping or honey hunting? Which local crops or habitats require honeybee pollination? How will your project benefit your community? Too often beekeeping project proposals list all the benefits of beekeeping, some of which may not be appropriate to the local situation. For example, do not suggest royal jelly production if your beekeeping methods and markets are not appropriate for this product.



COSTA RICA APIMONDIA Symposium on tropical beekeeping: research and development for pollination and conservation

INDIA International Workshop: Sustainable Beekeeping Development and All India Honey Festival (Apiexhi 2003)

22-25 February 2004

APIMONDIA Symposium: diagnosis of bee diseases 7-8 October 2004, Freiburg Further details:

6-10 October 2003, Bangalore

Further details:

Further details:

CYPRUS Economic reserves of beekeeping industry 11-14 May 2003, Limassol

PHILIPPINES 7th Asian Apicultural Association Conference 23-27 February 2004, Los Bafios


AHEAD ARGENTINA Control de calidad de miel, propoleos y cera (Quality control of honey, propolis and wax)

12-16 May 2003, Santiago del Estero

Further details:


Further details:

ETHIOPIA 4th Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Beekeepers’ Association 9-12 June 2003, Addis Ababa

Further details:

GERMANY International Congress: bee products and apitherapy

28 March - 2 April 2003, Passau Further details:

Further details: on page 16


XXXVI APIMONDIA International Apicultural Congress

24-29 August 2003, Ljubljana

Further details: on page 16

SPAIN XXIil Feria Apicola de Castilla La Mancha (XXII Beekeeping Fair) 13-16 March 2003, Guadalajara Further details: José Luis Herguedas de Miguel, Juan Diges Antén 25 - 2° C 19003 Guadalajara, Spain

International Conference: rural livelihoods, forests and biodiversity

UK British Beekeepers’ Association’ Convention 26 April 2002, Stoneleigh


Visit the Bees for Development stand!

26-30 May 2003, Bonn Further details:

Further details:


Beekeeping short courses May, June, July, September 2003, Molo Further details:

UNITED KINGDOM/TANZANIA Beekeeping in Rural Development Training Course Further details from Bees for Development

UK Forest and Certification Training Programme 7-11 July 2003, Oxford Further details:

MEETING INFORMATION If you want notice of your conference, workshop or meeting to be included here send details to Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP25 4AB, UK E-mail


Bees for Development Journal




NOTICE BOARD HONEY FOR SALE APMAG honey producers are looking for buyers for their top quality honey.

"Nous sommes réunies & une association des producteurs de miel. Les apiculteurs de cette association produisent 6000 litres de miel par campagne. Nous cherchons un client potentiel pour acheter notre production. La qualités de notre miel est bonne". N'fa Camara, GRAT, BP 2502, Bamako, Mali Tel/Fax (+223) 221 4341

Organic honey producers in northwest Tanzania are looking for distributors in the UK and continental Europe for first quality product. Pollution free environment collection. Air free glass packaging. Kapetfu, PO Box 22m Karagwe, Tanzania E-mail

The Scottish Beekeepers' Association has deposited the famous Moir Rare Book Collection in the National Library of Scotland for 50 years, ensuring public access to one of the finest collections of bee literature in the world. The Collection comprises 233 beekeeping volumes collected by John William Moir born in Edinburgh in 1851. Moir began beekeeping in Malawi and on his return to Scotland was one of the original members of the Scottish Beekeepers' Association. His books were bequeathed to the Association on his death in 1940. E-mail



FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, supports beekeeping projects in developing countries. For projects with budgets under US$10,000 beekeepers' groups and associations may apply for small project funding from the TeleFood Special Fund. Request documents should include a brief description of the project's objectives, the proposed food production or incomegenerating activities, the work plan, the number of participants, a detailed list of inputs with cost estimates and the reporting arrangements. Submit your request to the office of FAO or UNDP in

your country.

10 Quay Road, Charlestown, PL25 3NX, UK, for your new and second-hand books. Tel +44 (0)172 676 844 or

MEETING INFORMATION Bees for Development helps projects in developing countries with copies of BID Journal (in English or French) and other information for use at training courses and workshops. We must receive notice and number of participants at least three months ahead of the meeting. Organisations with some resources available can order a Workshop Box for 50 per 25 participants, including surface mail delivery. See ways to pay on page 15.

Applications for projects with budgets

BEE CRAFT A full colour monthly beekeeping magazine for beginners and experts alike covering ail aspects of beekeeping in the UK and Ireland. Free sample copy on request, 18.00 (UK), €36 (Ireland), US$51 (USA) for 12 issues (all other currencies on request). Credit cards accepted.

over US$10,000 must be submitted through a Government Ministry.

See How to write a proposal? See page 8


COMPETITION The Third International Apiculture Photography Competition is on! Deadline for submissions 30 April 2003. Details of entry requirements and prizes at

Full range beekeeping equipment suppliers jars, packaging, filling


Friendly holidays run in co-operation with our overseas partners - part of our work to raise awareness of beekeeping in


SWrenity*. world-wide export

development. South India November 2003 Tobago & Trinidad 8-17 March 2004

Details from Bees for Development and on our website

STOP PRESS! Bees for Development goes multilingual Our website can now be read

in English, French, German, Portuguese or Spanish. Visit and choose your language!

ADVERTISING BfD Journal offers a unique chance to reach beekeepers in over 100 countries. Other sizes Quarter page, two-colour advertisements cost 65; full page 200. available. Contact us for our rate card at the address on page 9. Notice Board items 0.50 per word. Enclosures also accepted. Banners on BfD's website - advertise to thousands. See for details.

(Charges are subject to VAT in EC countries)

Swienty A/S, Hortoftvej 16, 6400 Sonderborg, Denmark Phone +45 74 48 69 69 Fax +45 74 48 80 01 e-mail: 10


Bees for Development Journal


in.1992 to encourage friendly exchange of was established

information between beekeepers and bee scientists in Asia.

Dr Vinod K Mattu Department of Bio-Sciences, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 Prof

C C Reddy

Individual Membership of AAA is US$20 per year. Institutional Membership is US$100 per year

Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi, Bangalore 560 056 E-mail

If you live in Asia join AAA by contacting your local Representative listed below.

INDONESIA Dr M Chandra Widjaja

If you live outside Asia send payment directly to the AAA Office, Honeybee

Science Research Center, Tamagawa University, Machida-Shi, Tokyo 194 8610,

Japan E-mail|p/sisetu/gakujutu/ho ney/aaa/aaa-eng.htm

AAA Country Representatives AUSTRALIA Mr Linton Briggs The Federal Council of Australian Apiarists Associations, RMB 1030, Glen Rowan, Victoria 3675

National Beekeeping Center, Perum Perhutani, JI Gatot Subroto Senayan, PO Box 19/KT WB, Jakarta 10270 E-mail ISRAEL Prof Yaacov Lensky The Triwaks Bee Research Center, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, PO Box 12, Rehovot, 76 100 E-mail

KOREA Prof Kun-Suk Woo Institute of Korea Beekeeping Science, College of Agriculture & Life Science,

Seoul National University, Suwon 440 744 E-mail


BANGLADESH Mr Md Nurul Islam Bangladesh Institute of Apiculture: BCA 23/12 Khilji Rd, Shyamoli,

Mohammadpur, Dhaka 1207 (c/o Dr Md Hannan E-mail

Dr Alamgir Mati Bangladesh Apicultural Association, 30/1 Shantinagar, Dhaka 1217 Fax (+880) 283 5367

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Dr Kassim Hajidaud Department of Biology, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong 3186

CHINA Prof Zhang Fu-Xing

Apiculture Science Association of China, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 E-mail

INDIA Central Bee Research & Training Institute Khadi & Village Industries Commission, 1153 Ganeshkhind Road Pune 411016 Fax (+91) 212 326 827

Dr M Hj Muid Plant Protection Department, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, 43400 Serdang,

Selangor Fax (+60) 3948 3745

NEPAL Mr AN Shukla

ICIMOD, GPO Box 3226, Kathmandu, Nepal E-mail NEW ZEALAND Mr Cliff van Eaton Apiculture Scientist, Horticulture Research NZ Ltd, East Street Private Bag 3123, Hamilton E-mail

PHILIPPINES Dr Cleofas R Cervancia Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Bafios, College, Laguna E-mail

SAUDI ARABIA Mr Jassim Mohammed Al Mughrubi PO Box 42332, Riyadh 11541, Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Training Department, Riyadh E-mail SRI LANKA Dr R W K Punchihewa

THISABI, Bingu Thakshana (Bee Technology), 15 Waidya Road, Dehiwala, E-mail

TAIWAN (CHINA) Dr Chun Yen Lin Taiwan Apicultural and Seri-cultural Experiment Station, 261 Kuannan, Kung-Kuan, Miaoli Fax (+886) 3722 1277

THAILAND Mr Somnuk Boongird Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Ramkhamhaeng Road, Bangkok 10240 TURKEY Dr Osman Kaftanoglu Department of Animal Science, Cukurova University, Adana 01330 E-mail VIETNAM Mr Dinh Quyet Tam Vietnam Beekeepers’ Association, Lang ha, Dong da, Hanoi E-mail

BfD Journal is proud to be the Official Newsletter of AAA

OMAN Mr Keith E Ferguson PO Box 2037, SEEB


PAKISTAN Dr Nasreen Muzaffar Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, NARC, PO NIH, Islamabad E-mail




I" Ocia\\


Bees for Development Journal





More assistance please! Spurred on and encouraged by BfD Journal and the Workshop Box we received from Bees for Development, we want to make beekeeping our priority activity. We manage our own hives and we have also a shared apiary and the land on which to build a processing centre. We are in the process of forming an association of beekeeping groups affiliated to our own, with the aim of exporting honey. To be more effective, we have split our group into two: The Bambui Teachers' Association and The Bambui Organic Farmers Common Initiative Group.

The Apimondia Apitherapy Commission held a symposium in Havana in October

We held our first one-day seminar in Bambui in September 2002 with 60 participants attending. We hope to organise more seminars in other villages in our Province to enlist at least 3,000 beekeepers, but we face difficulties. The first seminar cost much money, time, energy and travelling. Most people trekked to the venue, some arrived late and few had anything to eat. We are thinking hard how we can organise seminars in other villages that are far from Bambui. In this respect we would appreciate assistance.

knowledge of apitherapy. Participants studied biology, pharmacy and medicine, and were able to learn in depth about apitherapy. The friendly atmosphere of this international gathering led to many interesting discussions.

Nwunfor Peter Muma, Bambui Teachers Association, Bamenda

2002. Over 180 people from 14 different countries took part, with 53 Cuban health institutions represented. Six invited experts worked alongside five Cuban experts to pass on their

you can help the Bambui beekeepers please contact them c/o Bees for Development

Roch Domerego Apimondia Standing Commission for Apitherapy




Assistance needed in Morona Santiago Asociacién de Trabajadores Agropecuarios Santa Isabel de Macas wants to help 15 families to start

beekeeping as an income-yielding undertaking based on, but not destructive to, the environment. Someone earning an income from beekeeping quickly becomes an advocate for forest preservation. Beekeeping also lessens the likelihood of bush fires started by honey hunters when they smoke wild colonies. Apiculture is an activity that is recognised by the local culture. Our idea is to build


a business and to sell honey locally and regionally, ensuring a fair price for the beekeepers as well as increasing crop production especially coffee, cocoa, lemon and orange.

Our project will help the families involved and also the 15,000 inhabitants of Macas, the capital of Morona Santiago Province Any assistance would be gratefully received. Danilo Tayopanta Project Director

A viable venture The Centre for Development of Humanity held a five-day workshop for 100 participants with the theme Making beekeeping a viable venture. Participants from two community-based groups heard about the value and practice of beekeeping: species and races of bees; the first season; honey harvesting and processing wax.

you would like to help please contact the Association c/o Bees for Development If

Robert N Kpontsu Nickliz Foundation Hohoe



Honey Care Africa, based in Nairobi, has won an Equator Initiative Award. They received a US$30,000 prize, a certificate and trophy, awarded at the Earth Summit

Near East Foundation

French beekeepers report the deaths of millions of bees as a result of pesticide spraying on farmland. 4,000 colonies in southwest France and hundreds more in Brittany have been destroyed. Beekeepers are losing honey and witnessing their bees suffering painful deaths. 20,000 plant species in France are dependent upon bees for their survival so this catastrophe will have environmental as well as financial implications. The beekeepers' anger has resulted in a series of lawsuits. In the southwest a criminal inquiry led to the managers of two local firms being charged on suspicion of importing black market Spanish pesticides. The judge in charge believes he is on the trail of an illegal pesticide trade. Not all beekeepers share his view: some blame the authorised pesticide Gaucho, whilst others say the problem is the multitude of different pesticides used by farmers.


The Times, 2002

January 2003

Johannesburg in 2002. The Equator Initiative Awards, sponsored by UNDP in partnership with the Government of


Canada, IUCN, Nature Conservancy and others, honour community projects that represent outstanding efforts to reduce poverty through the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Honey Care Africa's business model enables local farmers to become beekeepers via a small-scale financing programme. As prize winners Honey Care Africa will be involved in a 2003 campaign to improve community-based knowledge, as well as help transfer their successful environmentally-friendly business practices at the national and international level. HISD

Linkages Update




mF af

A team of beekeepers inspect a honeycomb at one of NEF's agricultural projects in Morocco, where apprentices learn beekeeping.

Bees for Development Journal



For over 20 years, NEF's beekeeping programmes have helped entrepreneurs in Morocco, Sudan, and Swaziland make hives, research bees, understand the relationships between environmental protection and increased production, and adopt marketing techniques to improve their business.

NIGERIA Beekeeping in Kaduna State

There are over 20,000 beekeepers in Morocco and honey is an important product, with most sold locally. Jasmine, lavender and orange blossom are a few of the many speciality honeys produced, reflecting the rich variety of North Africa's

flowering plants.

SOUTH AFRICA Badger friendly honey When the giant Woolworths chain discovered that some beekeeping methods in South Africa were further threatening the already endangered honey badger, they launched a ‘badger friendly’ range of honey. This has proved to be a commercial and environmental success. The National Beekeepers’ Association has adopted a badger friendly code of practice whilst promoting responsible beekeeping practice. Johan Ferreira, Head of Food Technology at Woolworths says, "The project quickly gained momentum. Although it has cost us both time and money it brought about a change in the industry, significant media interest and an entirely unexpected 50% increase in the sale of our honey’. Source: NWFP-Digest-L No 12/02

a) $-O Fadare

Pili aegamterintn

An early article (written in 1927) claims that Zaria people who make up today's Kaduna State were probably the originators of beekeeping in Nigeria. In northern Kaduna State traditional straw hives are hung in trees, whilst in southern areas basket, clay and pot hives are used. The honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii is indigenous.

Current beekeeping training includes construction of top-bar and frame hives, baiting and capturing swarms, dividing colonies and transfer of wild colonies, the use of honey extractors and presses, and the use of protective clothing and smokers.

A survey in 2000 revealed that the majority of beekeepers in Kaduna State are men under 40 years old. Women play an active role in the processing and marketing of honey. All respondents are engaged in other farming enterprises and/or occupations in addition to beekeeping and own an average of eight hives.

Beekeepers using top-bar or frame hives harvest 12 kg of honey annually. Annual average beeswax production per hive is kg. In the survey, honey sold for N300 (€2.7, US$3.0) per kg and beeswax for N65 (€0.58, US$0.65) per kg. The total value of bee products per annum per hive was N3,631 (€22.7, US$36.3). All 1

products are marketed locally, with limited export.

UK Biological control to the rescue Varroa destructor was discovered in the UK in 1992. Current control measures rely on chemical pesticides, but with resistance to approved pyrethroid acaracides now reported in some areas, alternative, more eco-friendly forms of management are urgently required. Biological control technologies have the potential to revolutionise pest management strategies by moving them away from synthetic pesticides. Biological control exploits the natural enemies of pests. Because no natural enemies have been found causing population decline of Varroa in honeybee colonies, little work has been done on biological control. However, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs have commissioned

The average rate of return on investment (Net Farm Income + Total Cost) of 166% suggests honey production using top-bar or frame hives is profitable. Given the high return per colony it is surprising that beekeepers have not fully utilised their apiaries. Constraints to increased honey production include: vandalism, inadequate knowledge of queen rearing, indiscriminate bush fires, lack of known government policy and the effects of pests, especially wax moth.

S O Fadare, Ikeja '

Horticulture Research International and Rothamsted Research to move their research into a second phase, which will examine the effects of selected fungi on Varroa populations, coupled with studies of fungal ecophysiology and ecological risk assessment. HRI Press Release,


December 2002

VIETNAM Vietnamese beekeepers reported a record honey production in 2001. The total honey crop was estimated at 13,500 tonnes, with about 11,300 tonnes exported. All the beekeepers are very happy to have had such a good crop at a profitable price, and that the Vietnamese media reported on this good outcome! Dinh Quyet Tam, President, Vietnam Beekeepers' Association



Bees for Development Journal



Book Shelf The Himalayan cliff bee Apis laboriosa and the honey hunters of Kaski Faroog Ahmad, Surendra Raj Joshi and Min Bahadur Gurung 2003 52 pages 16.80 (€25.20) Code A175 Regular readers of BfD Journal are aware that ICIMOD based in Kathmandu, Ow Nepal is undertaking a long-term project on indigenous honeybees (see page 7). One very important project objective is to understand more about the honeybee Apis laboriosa and its exploitation by Himalayan communities. Here are the first results of a study of Apis laboriosa in Kaski - the District in central Nepal whose main town is the popular tourist destination of Pokhara. Interviews with local honey hunters revealed that 26 cliffs in the District are sites for Apis laboriosa colonies: these sites were surveyed between September 2000 and August 2001, and the results are here presented. For each of the sites is given GPS data, number of Apis laboriosa nests, vegetation type, bee flora and other local details. Apis laboriosa is a migratory species and a calendar for the approximate time of year when the bees arrive and depart is shown, as well as the time of hunting of these nests.

This is followed by more information about honey hunting: the methods and equipment used, traditional beliefs, and weight of honey harvested - around three tonnes for this District during the survey. Finally there is discussion of social and economic aspects of the honey hunters, and consideration of honey hunting events as entertainment for tourists. Issues identified by the study and possibly leading to a decline in the populations of Apis laboriosa include: the transfer of ownership of bee cliffs from communities to the Forest Department; continued loss of biodiversity; and tourism tempting honey hunters to perform outside the usual season. This new text is elegantly presented, and raises important issues on which the project is continuing with further research.



Celle's melissopalynological collection - Africa


Katharina von der Ohe, Reinhard Fichtl and Werner von der Ohe 2003 234 pages 124.80 (€187.20)

Code O110

A ring binder containing 200 data sheets, each giving pictures and morphological details of pollen from plant species collected predominantly in Eritrea and Ethiopia, but also in Malawi, Mauritius, Zambia, Zanzibar and Zimbabwe. Many of the plants, for example species of Azadirachta, coconut, Commelina, Eucalyptus, Grevillea, Moringa, Plectranthus, silk cotton, Syzygium, and Zizyphus, are common in other regions of the world. addition there is much useful supporting information explaining how the pollen pictures were produced, the terminology used to describe pollen grains' shape, a glossary of palynological terms, references and indices organised according to pollen grain outline (angular/circular/oval etc), aperture type, exine type, plant family and name. A useful reference work for people working on pollen identification and honey analysis. In

The little book of bees Karl Weiss 2003 106 pages Hardcover 19.20

(€28.80} Code W360 A beautifully presented book. It provides a thoughtful,

precise and readable text that will be appreciated by anyone more about the many different kinds of bees, of which the best known honeybees and bumblebees De . are but a tiny minority. Karl Weiss's first six chapters describe concisely bees' place within the animal kingdom, what insects are, what is special about solitary and social bees, what ‘social' means in this context, and discussion of solitary bees, social bees, bumblebees and stingless bees. Chapter seven then approaches ‘the summit of social insect life’, the genus Apis - the honeybees. The final chapter gives details of how to provide nests for wild bee species, followed by a useful bibliography and index. Illustrated with excellent line drawings.

wanting to learn





CD ROM Bee plants of Bas Congo and southern Tanzania Paul Latham

2003 22.80



(€34.20) Code VID25


Paul Latham's two books Beekeeping and some honeybee SOUTHERN TANZANIA plants in Umalila, southern Tanzania and Some honeybee plants of Bas-Congo Province, DR Congo including almost 200 marvellous photographs are now available on one CD Rom.

The results of a project to encourage beekeeping, conservation and the planting of useful bee plants in Bas Congo Province are described. Many plants mentioned are found throughout the humid, tropical regions of Africa and are listed in a botanical index. The conservation and planting of useful bee plants in the southern highlands of Tanzania is also encouraged. Pictures of 74 plant species and their value for bees are explained, as well as-the log hive beekeeping practised in the area. The individual books are still available Tanzania 39.70 (€72.60) Code L105 or Swahili edition L110 DR Congo 48.40 (€72.60) Code L115 14

Bees for Development Journal

Video Shelf

HOW TO ORDER Use the form printed in our 'Books to Buy' catalogue, order on our website, or just send by e-mail, fax or post a note of what you want.

The story of the red mason bee Osmia rufa: pollination partners Osmia Publications Ltd 2003 PAL/VHS Running time 31 minutes 11.95 (€17.95) Code VID26

Of the 255 bee species

Orders are dispatched when we receive payment. We can provide a pro forma invoice. Delivery There are no delivery charges for orders to UK addresses

UK the most common and widespread is the red mason bee Osmia rufa. Nesting in the stems of plants, in wood borings or even nail holes, one of these largely unnoticed bees is said to do the pollinatory work of 120 honeybees.

Female red mason bees live for only 4-6 weeks during which time she builds three or four nests, holding an average of ten cells, each cell containing one developing bee. Mud is used as building material to make and seal individual cells within the nest. The mud is transported from the collection site to the nest as tiny balls, balanced on the ‘horns’ on the top of the female's head. To make one cell requires six trips to the mud collection point. Author Chris O'Toole shows us the progress of a nest in May containing pupated larvae that will be ready to emerge the following spring. An entertaining and clearly explained insight into the life of this valuable insect.

in the

GIFT PACKS - Oxford Bee Company Each of these special packs includes a ‘nesting kit! intended to provide homes for red mason bees that occur throughout Europe and the Mediterranean region (and may be of use for other species in other regions}. This is a brown plastic tube filled with 30 thin cardboard tubes, each with a paper lining (see below). Also included is a brochure giving advice on setting up: place the nest so that it sheltered from wind, in a sunny position, at least 75 cm above the ground. Make your choice from these two packs - each presented attractively in a gift box:

Pack A 30 tube red mason bee nest plus the video The story of the red mason bee Osmia rufa: pollination partners (reviewed above) plus the book Wildflowers for wildlife 24.95 (€36.40) Code VID26A Pack


30 tube red mason bee nest plus the book The red mason bee: taking the sting out of

beekeeping* plus the book Wildflowers for wildlife 15.95 (€23.90) Code O115A *BIDJ 59 reviewed the book The red mason bee. It is available at 5.70 (€8.55) Code O115


Outside the UK we dispatch orders by airmail service for speed and safety. Please add: 10% tor delivery to Europe 25% for delivery outside Europe For orders over 500 (€750) please request a quote for post and insurance costs

Optional insurance cover: orders up to 100 (€150) add 10 (€15); up to 500 (€750) add 15 (€22). We are not responsible for loss or damage in transit unless insurance is paid with order

Ways to Pay 1. Credit card Access, Eurocard, JCB, Mastercard or Visa. We need your card number, card expiry date and name on card 2. 3.

Cheque or bank draft Bank transfer Account number 10167967 Sort code 20-00-85 at Barclays Bank plc, PO Box 29, Monmouth, NP25 3YG, UK

Payment methods 2-3: Payments in currencies other than UKE incur bank transfer and/or exchange charges: please add the equivalent of UKE9 (€13) to your order to cover these. Payments to Bees for Development Prices in €s are estimates based on the approximate exchange rate of 1 = €1.5

AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS If you would like your work featured here, send a copy to the Editor for possible review.

Bees for Development

Phone Fax

+44 (0)16007 13648 +44 (0)16007 16167


Troy, Monmouth, NP25 4AB, UK

E-mail Web




mondia INTERNATIONAL APICULTURE CONGRESS Beekeeping a Way of Living 24-29 August 2003, Ljubljana, Slovenia The 38th congress of APIMONDIA will be held in the very heart of Europe in Slovenia, a country with a long tradition of beekeeping



sr pe

“ty. 08



Selected key-note speakers will review scientific developments for the benefit of beekeepers and bee scientists

Symposia and workshops will give opportunities to discuss specific issues and exchange ideas

Congress Secretariat Mr Gorazd Cad Cankarjev Dom Presernova 10

the world.

SI 1000 Ljubljana Slovenia

~ APIEXPO will feature displays by exhibitors from all over It has always been a goal of APIMONDIA to create friendships between everyone in the beekeeping world






23-27 February 2004, Los Baftos, Philippines Conference Theme

Bees for New Asia You are invited to submit papers and posters on the following topics


Apiculture extension


Bees and environment


Bee biology




Full participant

Accompanying person After 30 December 2003 Full participant

Bee products (including apitherapy) Melliferous flora and pollination

Full papers must be received no later than 1 October 2003

Organised by:

Bees for Development Journal Telephone +44 (0) 16007 13648

A trade fair featuring beekeeping equipment

University of the Philippines Bee Programme

Accompanying person

US$275 US$150 US$300 US$175

The Registration fee covers conference mavenals, snacks. technical visits

Second Circular now available from: Dr Cleofas R Cervancia Institute of Biological Sciences University of the Philippines Los Bafios College, Laguna Philippines E-mail

Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP25 4AB, UK E-mail web

is published quarterly by

Printed on environmentally friendly paper

XS SOciat

Registration fees Until .30 December 2003

Beekeeping technology Bee pests and diseases

Philippines Foundation Inc

World Apiexpo 2004

ISSN 1477-6588

Bees for Development 2003



y 0pe)

and hive products. Companies and equipment makers are invited to participate.

Beekeeping economy




7th Asian Apicultural Association Conference oS