Bees for Development Journal Edition 64 - September 2002

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colonies is a good source of income for these beekeepers and it was




to the

of the colony to potential buyers. The bees are quite gentle and remain calm



250-300 Birr (US$ 30-35) nearly equivalent ranges from

The beekeeper opens one end of the hive to show the population strength




their colonies in small, local hives to induce reproductive swarming by

per colony sold in the market.

Fe nd :

beekeepers specialise in multiplication and selling of honeybees by keeping

for the emerging new swarms. Multiplication and selling of bee



areas where




honey production is not attractive,


price of one head of cattle. The Municipality collects a tax of one Birr




may take up to two days, over distances of 60 km. During the peak selling season at Inticho, about

attacking the crowd.

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for hours in their hives without

sale on one market day. The price of a well-established colony in a local hive



Some beekeepers carry colonies on their heads to market: the journeys

300 honeybee colonies are offered for



many farmers beekeeping is good business providing a high proportion of their annual income. Particularly in northern parts of the country,

local beekeeping methods are well developed. In this area a fascinating aspect of traditional beekeeping is the practice of selling honeybee colonies like other domestic animals in the local market place.





Ethiopian farming communities beekeeping seems as ancient as the history of the country, and forms an integral part of the life style. For In

means of over-crowding. During swarming periods, beekeepers and their families keep continuous watch

observed that many young people are very attracted to and involved in this

activity. The money from colony selling

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Bees for Development Post Phone E-mail Web

Troy, Monmouth, NP25 4AB, UK

+44 (0)16007 13648

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Bees for Development Journal 64


is utilised by beekeepers to purchase food, clothes, and other family needs. Some beekeepers use the money to pay government land tax.

Factors contributing to the development of honeybee marketing in the area could be the scarcity of natural forests and wild colonies, and the low swarming tendency of bees in the area. It has been reported

that some colonies may

10-15 years without reproductive swarming. Even if swarming does occur, the chance of escaping from the hands of the owners and going to someone else’s bait hive is very low. As a result, catching swarms with bait live for

hives is unlikely, which makes it difficult to get started in beekeeping or to expand existing stock. All this creates a high demand and a good price for honeybee colonies,

and this is a useful, alternative source of income for beekeepers living at subsistence level.

A Bees for Development publication

Bees for Development Journal 64

TINGKU - A TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT TECHNIQI by Soesilawati Hadisoesilo, Forest and Nature Conservation Research and Development, Indonesia The giant honeybee Apis dorsata is one of Indonesia’s indigenous honeybee species. It is distributed widely over the Indonesian archipelagoes excluding the Mollucas and West Papua. Attempts to manage Apis dorsata in ways used for the cavity-nesting honeybees always fail.! However, in some parts of Indonesia local techniques are used to manage Apis dorsata colonies so that honey harvest is easier. This technique is similar to ‘rafter beekeeping’ in Vietnam. In the Poso District of Sulawesi this technique is called tingku, in the islands of Bangka and Belitung it is called sunggau, and at Sentarum Lake this technique is called tikung.

TRADITIONAL HONEY COLLECTION FROM APIS DORSATA BINGHAMI North Pamona sub-district is one of the largest honey producing areas in Sulawesi. Collection from Apis dorsata binghami is from nests hanging under branches of big trees, which are mostly located in primary forest away from villages. The height of the nest is 10-20 m above the ground. Although nobody owns the tree where the bees nest and therefore anyone could harvest any nest, a mark is sometimes made on a tree to signify ownership.

HOW TO MAKE A TINGKU A tingku is made of a roughly planed wood plank, or a tree trunk. The lengths of the planks vary between 2.0 and 3.5 m, with

widths of 10-25 cm, or 10-20 cm diameter for tree trunks. According to the honey collectors, wood 3-10 cm thick is strong enough

Harvesting takes place in the day and involves one to four people, without ceremony. One person climbs the tree and drives the bees off the nest using a traditional smoker. Once the bees have left the nest, the entire comb is cut and squeezed to extract the honey. This collection method is dangerous and the long distance from the villages means the honey collectors have to stay out overnight.

to support the honeybees’ nest.

Apis dorsata binghami does not appear to be selective concerning the type of wood for its nesting site, however, because a tingku is permanently built, honey collectors prefer to make a tingku from strong wood such as kayu kondongio

(Dysoxylum densiflorum), kayu kolahi (Fagraea fragrans) or kayu ampuni (Cycas sp) which last for 10-20 years. Some honey collectors use the branch of

WHAT IS A TINGKU? In Poso saw 66 tingku in five villages. My observations were at the start of the flowering season when only six tingku were occupied, 33 had been occupied previously, and 27 tingku were empty. interviewed 17 honey collectors. |

Pterocarpus indicus for making a tingku because this branch will sprout, grow and become



a livi living


A tingku can be defined as a man-made micro-habitat or nest support for Apis dorsata binghami, designed to make honey harvest easier for the honey hunter. It is the only traditional management tool for Apis dorsata that is erected without any support from poles on the ground or branches of trees, as with rafter, sunggau, or tikung techniques. The technology originated at the village of Kelei in the 1930s and has since spread to five neighbouring villages. Oo

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Bees for Development Journal 64


MISHRA,R C; DOGRA,G S; GUPTA,P R (1977) An attempt to domesticate rock bee Apis dorsata F. Indian Bee Journal 36 (1-4): 21.

2. SAKAGAMI,S F; MATSUMURA,T, ITO,K (1980) Apis laboriosa in Himalaya, the little known world’s largest honeybee (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Insect Matsumunara 19: 47-77.

3. OTIS,G W; HADISOESILO,S (1990) Honey bee survey of South Sulawesi. Journa/ Penelitian Kehutanan 4 (1): 1-3. 4. CRANE,E (1990) Bees and beekeeping: science, practice and world resources. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press; Ithaca, USA; p 274.


5. TAN,N Q; CHINH,P H; THAI,P H; MULDER,V (1997) Rafter beekeeping with


driven off the nest. Smoking is done from behind the tingku. After the bees have left, all

A tingku is usually erected in secondary forest or in a plantation or garden, where there is plenty of bee forage. The area is hilly and the

the comb is cut and the honey sections are squeezed to extract the honey, which is then

steep slope 0.5-1.0


tingku is inserted into a deep, so that the length of the tingku above the ground is 1.5-2.5 m. Both sides of the tingku are covered with leaves and small twigs to avoid disturbance from animals, but the front (in front of the upper end) must be wide open.

the tingku is 1.0-2.0 m above the ground this is high enough for the bees to build a nest that If

strained. One nest can yield 2-20 kg honey, depending on the availability of bee forage.

DISCUSSION in front of

An open space tingku, sunggau, tikung and rafter appears very important in managing Apis dorsata — the bees need a free pathway to leave and enter the nest. An open

To attract bees to build a nest, some honey

space is necessary for a nesting site of Apis dorsata.* The occupation rate for rafters is higher in a very large open space than in smaller spaces. With tingku, the open space in front of a tingku is usually very large because it

collectors smear beeswax or honey underneath the tingku plank, where a nest will be built.

is erected on a slope, but open space might not be the only factor that affects the occupation

To test the strength of a tingku, a honey collector will hang on it with his full body weight.

rate for tingku. The Pamona study determined the occupation rate for tingku to be only 50%.


The finished nest in tingku lies close to the ground, because tingku are inserted in sloping land. Therefore the effect of strong winds that might influence the direction of the nest in nature does not apply to tingku.® This could be one reason why the honey collectors are not

does not touch the ground or slope. The preferred slope of a tingku to the horizontal for

Apis dorsata binghami ranges between 0-30°.

Because a tingku is permanent, it can be erected at anytime of year but it must be monitored afterwards, particularly when the flowering season starts. When a tingku is monitored, the areas under and in front of the tingku are cleaned. If a tingku is occupied, further monitoring is carried out four weeks !ater at which time, if the comb near the upper end of the tingku is swollen, it means that the honey is ready to be harvested.

HOW TO HARVEST HONEY There are two honey seasons a year: September to December and February to April. Honey is harvested during the day. Because it is very easy to harvest honey from a tingku, a honey collector usually harvests honey by himseif and on a fine day can harvest up to ten colonies.

Using a smoker made of dried bamboo, which has been split, and pounded and wrapped with coconut or other palm leaves, the bees are

more specific about the direction of tingku. Several other factors may affect the occupation rate for tingku: since tingku are usually erected in secondary forest the absence of tall trees, which would be the natural place for Apis dorsata to build nests, might influence the occupation rate of tingku. The availability of bee

forage would be another important factor. More research needs to be done to answer

these questions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS thank The Nature Conservancy for supporting this survey and allowing me to use the data for this article, and Duncan Neville for assistance with editing the language.

Apis dorsata: some factors affecting the occupation of rafters by bees. Journal of Apicultural Research 36 (1): 49-54.




Marketing honey and beeswax from Apis dorsata in West Kalimantan (Wickham et a/) BADJ 61 (2001) Traditional honey and wax collection from

Apis dorsata in West Kalimantan (Wickham et a/) BADJ 59 (2001) Honey hunters of the Sundarbans (Burgett) B/DJ 56 (2000) Honey hunters of the Nilgiris: the road to sustainability (Roy et al) BYDJ 45 (1997)

Raftering: a traditional technique for honey and wax production from Apis dorsata in Vietnam (Chinh et af) BfDJ 36 (1995)

FURTHER READING Honey hunters and beekeepers of Tamil Nadu (Code K305) (Nath et a/ 2001) Price 13.65 Traditional honey and wax collection with Apis dorsata in the Upper Kapuas Lake Region, West Kalimantan. In: Procs 3rd Asian

Apicultural Association Conference (Mulder & Heri 2001) Book price 21.70 (Code MO10) The world history of beekeeping and honey hunting (Crane, 1999) Price 90 (Code C320)

VIDEOS Honey hunters of the Blue Mountains (2000) Price 28.90 (Code VID20) also available on CD Rom 22.80 (VID20A)

Nepal - the high mountain home of the honeybee (1999) Price 14.70 (Code VID11)

Rafter beekeeping in Vietnam (1995) Price 25 (Code VIDO2)


All of the above articles, books and videos are available from Bees for Development.

How to order? see page 14

A Bees for Development publication


Reserve is a new kind of community-based protected area. The idea was created in 1999 as part of the Government of Tanzania’s Beekeeping Policy to protect bees and to further develop village-based A Bee

beekeeping. ADAP has been working in Tanzania since September 2001 on a programme to support the establishment and management of a Bee Reserve in Inyonga, Tarafa, in southwestern Tanzania. The forests of Inyonga area are some of the least disturbed, wild ecosystems in Africa. They are located between the protected areas of Katavi National Park, Rukwa-Lukwati Game Reserve and Ugalla Game Reserve, yet are still unprotected. Beekeeping has a tradition in the area and presents numerous advantages compared with other Natural Resources Management (NRM) activities. Beekeeping is environmentally friendly and contributes directly to the protection of the whole ecosystem by ensuring the long-term protection of the forests, whilst generating income for local communities, and, it relies on local knowledge and skills. Goldapis, Tanzanian company that is marketing bee products, has been very active in the Inyonga area for the last six years. Through seminars in





villages, Goldapis have managed to improve honey quality, and achieved honey export from Inyonga to the European Union. This has consequently raised the price for good quality honey



in the region and has helped in the development of the

beekeeping sector.

Recent trends show that human pressure on natural resources is increasing due to both immigration (5.8%, the highest rate in the country) and the lack of alternatives for those who contribute to the degradation of the environment by deforestation for tobacco cultivation and poaching for bush meat. The recent extension of protected areas has led to serious

conflicts between beekeepers and organisations in charge of the management of national parks and game reserves. To address these issues, in May

2002 ADAP organised


workshop in Mpanda, Rukwa District. The workshop informed about the project purposes, as well as allowing a general exchange of views between all the stakeholders concerned with beekeeping in the area. Among the participants were the Director of the National Beekeeping Division, Dominic Kihwele; representatives of the Wildlife Division; TANAPA (Tanzania National Parks); regional (district) and local governments (Tarafa and villages); beekeepers, and representatives of


herd cl pane Cerne Park. With astonishing landscape and wildlife, the area of Inyonga is one of the last wild ecosystems in Africa, now facing serious threats


international organisations including Africare, GTZ (Germany), Swissaid and private companies including Goldapis Ltd and Cullman & Hurt (trophy hunting).

The Hon Mr Mpinda, Deputy Minister of the local government opened the workshop and expressed his wholehearted support for a project that would assist beekeeping development in a way that benefited local producers and preserved the environment. The first day included the presentation of papers on NRM and beekeeping questions. For the second two days participants were divided into groups and worked with SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) methodology to identify key issues for the beekeeping sector.

The workshop was held in Swahili, and sometimes in local languages including Konongo and Sukuma. This encouraged the participation of the elders and was part of the reason for the workshop’s success. During three days, an animated debate took place on how to integrate beekeeping with other NRM activities. The workshop was able to establish bridges between stakeholders who never communicated before, and participation was far greater than anticipated. Feedback showed that both the villagers and the beekeepers were happy to be fully involved in the process. The Wildlife Division, TANAPA, GTZ and the trophy hunting companies showed a collaborative attitude in the workshop, and this will probably permit the legal return of beekeeping to protected and game management areas. These results show the importance of keeping the bottom-up, participative approach that ADAP had initiated and planned.

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The main issues identified were: * The resolution of conflict over access to resources. *

The need for diffusion of information about the laws and rules of management of land and natural resources.

An improved collaboration and communication between officials and villagers. *

An improvement in the quality of the beekeeping techniques.


Collaborative planning of NRM in the area.

Difficulties confronting the development of beekeeping are: * The isolation of the area and the transport problem. The lack of resources and skills to implement NRM plans.

The mistrust that sometimes exists between villagers and officials. *

The changes in climate that can greatly affect honey production.

Another area that was identified was the need for professionalism in beekeeping in order to increase honey and wax production and quality while decreasing impact on the environment. The introduction of modern hives, made from local materials to limit their cost, has been identified as one

way of achieving these goals. Poverty was identified as one of the main obstacles to the long-term conservation of natural resources in the area since it forces people to continue non-sustainable practices to maintain

their daily existence. Economic alternatives to poaching and deforestation for tobacco cultivation must be found; the development of beekeeping activities and ecotourism present opportunities to create employment and generate income for local communities without increasing the pressure on the ecosystem.

The project assisted by ADAP is now underway.

EXPLANATION! ADAP Association for the Development of Protected Areas is an NGO based in Geneva, Switzerland that supports

community-based Natural Resources Management in Africa. For more information see A Bees for Development publication





adagascar has an area of 582,000 km? and a human 12.8 million, 80% of whom live in rural areas. MELLIFEROUS FLORA Primary forest sources are numerous and give SEYCHELLES


an assortment of honey: Da/bergia sp, Homalium sp, Rhus sp, and Weinmannia sp.

Secondary sources include Macarenga sp, Psiadia altissima and Ziziphus sp. Trees and cultivated shrubs: Cocos nucifera, Coffea sp and Nephelium litchi.


HONEYBEE DISEASES AND PESTS No serious diseases or major predators are apparent, although Nosema and Varroa sp were both strongly indicated in August 1998.


ange of regional to altitude and exposure

1986 FAO (the Food and Agriculture

Organization of the UN) funded a 12-month project for apiculture development to increase honey production. The apiculture project currently underway in the Biosphere of Mananara Nord is described right.

SECTOR SUPPORT forestation (dense humid



bush formations

Popes, mangrove swamps

Subsistence crops ndnut, maize, manioc, rice ash crops are cocoa, Ine and sunflowers.


Apiculture Dr Gabrielle Andriantsafara Divisional Head of Apiculture Bee Breeding Centre, Ampandrianomby

Bee behaviour and study of melliferous plants Dr Z Ramamonjisoa Ralataharisoa, Botanical Laboratory, Science Faculty, BP 906 Antananarivo

APICULTURE IN THE BIOSPHERE OF MANANARA NORD RESERVATION This Reservation of 140,000 ha is situated on the east coast of Madagascar. The climate is humid and tropica! and the Reservation represents an important example of humid forest. Many kinds of lemurs live here, notably the Aye-aye (Daubetonia madagascariensis).

Honey is collected by honey gatherers and also by beekeepers using traditional hives. Honey

gathering can be a problem if the hunters cut down 100 year old trees to harvest the honey. In local beekeeping the hives are made from the hollow trunks of the Traveller’s tree

Ravenala madagascariensis, or from giant bamboo canes. Swarms of Apis mellifera unicolor are abundant. Annual production is

2-5 litres

of honey per hive, according to the time of harvest. Harvesting takes place between November and March.

Honey is eaten in the home or sold. Price per litre ranges from 2500-5000 Fr mg (US$ 0.5-1) depending on the season. Bush traders take charge of honey collection

and it is sent to Tamatave, the administrative centre of the Province. Research carried out

among focal people, and pollen analysis of the honey, reveals abundant nectar sources: cultivated species (beans, cocoa, coffee and lychee), naturally occurring species Mimosa pudica and Scopsaria dulcis, and forest species including Ochrocarpos sp and Weinmannia sp. Wax is rarely saved.

is widespread on the

ascarines (Mauritius and

As honey collection is one of the causes of pressure on the park and bordering forests, the apiculture project has decided that popularising a better model of beekeeping

h local-style hives. ome popular in various Ambositra (high ‘a

could prove a beneficial alternative. This involves teaching the techniques for

producing honey on site so that dependence

Nord on the east coast.

on collecting honey from the forests may be

avoided. Project leaders have given training to include swarm collection through to honey


extraction and the construction of improved hives. The Langstroth hive has been

rs’ groups and Bh

national federation.

promoted since 1990 to achieve a better harvest and to make the harvesting process

DUCTION number of harvests varies

ailable to the bees.

200 field workers who own between one and five hives are beginning to use this hive, producing an average of 10 litres of honey per hive. The project

easier. Over

joney are harvested per

A local hive made from bamboo: the bee colony can be seen inside

lave focussed on Albania, Argentina, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Cape Verde, ga, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana, India, lraq, Jamaica, Jordan, a New Guinea, Philippines, Rodrigues, Sierra Leone, Solomon islands, Suriname, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen. on this list, then why not send us some information?

research station is based at Antanambe and has a centre for teaching and demonstrating beekeeping techniques.

Thanks to Ramamonjisoa Ralalaharisoa for providing this information and iflustrations, and to Sue Platt for translation.





by Faroog Ahmad, Uma Partap, Surendra R Joshi and Min B Gurung More news of the work of the beekeeping project at ICIMOD in Kathmandu, Nepal, funded by the Austrian Government and jointly managed by ICIMOD and Austroprojekt GmbH in Vienna, Austria. Last time we told you about the successes in reviving Apis cerana beekeeping in mountain areas of India and Pakistan. Here we

explain how short-sighted beekeeping development interventions squeeze the space for indigenous pollinator resources, and have impact on traditional honey harvesting systems and the livelihoods of local people. Mirpur and other adjoining valleys in northern Pakistan provide good nesting habitats for Apis dorsata. This

honeybee species makes regular stopovers in these valleys during its migration because of the abundance of nectar flowing from Acacia, Adhatoda and Bombax spp.

Historically these stopovers provided enormous quantities of wild honey for local communities: these bees were always linked to people’s livelihoods and socio-cultural events. Recently, the number of colonies of European Apis mellifera honeybees has been steadily increasing in these areas.

According to recent reports, more than 7,000 colonies of Apis mellifera are brought by beekeepers to these valleys every year. The Department of Agriculture and other associated development bodies are content with this situation: honey is being produced and pollination services provided.

This means that the floral resources were sufficient for the colonies of Apis dorsata. With an increase in the number of bees from migratory colonies of Apis mellifera exploiting the same resources, the honey collected from wild bees


The logic behind the farmer’s statement opens up a new vista of understanding concerning the introduction of exotic species, and competition between different species for the use of limited natural resources. The farmer’s wisdom also emphasises the short-sightedness of agricultural planners and executing agencies, who exclude local voices from their planning and execution processes. The voice of this farmer further tells us how fragile development interventions can be, and how faulty may be the success stories narrated by

While visiting this area a local farmer questioned the whole process of beekeeping development by making a simple statement: “Please don’t steal our honey!” The statement came as a great blow to some people and highlights the wisdom accumulated among the farming communities about nature, its conservation and sustainability. When the farmer was asked to explain “Who steals the honey?” and “What are the sources of information?” his explanation was very simple and straightforward:

““Your bees steal our honey. Before your bees were brought to our area we harvested large quantities of honey from our Apis dorsata nests”.

different development agencies. This needs to be taken care of, especially in the foothills of Nepal and other countries of

the Hindu-Kush Himalayan region where the numbers of Apis mellifera colonies are increasing and where decline of indigenous honeybee Apis dorsata and Apis laboriosa

populations has been recorded by this project. Farmers’ comments help us to evaluate our understanding of agrobiodiversity and the compulsions of planning

development interventions. One cannot underestimate the importance of people's voices, indigenous knowledge and best practices that must be considered and mainstreamed.” into policy formulation and beyond.

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Bees for Development Journal 64







The only Beekeeping Association in Bhutan was formed by a group of farmers

Following on from their successful training workshop reported in BADJ 62 BOBEEFAG

involved in beekeeping in 1997. A Swiss

are hoping to hold a workshop on apitherapy and bee products in November

person working in Bumthang introduced the European honeybee Apis mellifera to Bhutan in 1986. A few colonies were also

purchased from a private apiary in India and used on a private basis. When the small venture proved to be successful, a

this year. Financial support is required as well as a volunteer to assist with teaching. If

you are interested to help please

contact Samuel Lyonga Mbake c/o Bees for Development.

beekeeping development programme was

A major source

of additional income for women

The Supportive Women’s Organisation (SWO) has a membership of over

500 women trained


beekeeping. The

organisation gives special emphasis to

helping women working as subsistence farmers. The UK DFID and German

Development Service (DED) have supported 100 women in two districts in the eastern area of Ghana. These women

worked out and named as

can now benefit from additional income

‘The Beekeeping Association of Bhutan’ (BEKAB). This is an independent NGO

from honey sales. One beneficiary,


Mercy Addo has this to say:


aiming to be self-supporting. It is based in Bumthang, in the east-central region of


have six children and my husband, with

no land of his own, has been practising

the Kingdom and currently has a group of 30 farmers as members.

crop sharing: life was very difficult for us.

At this stage, being a young organisation and having a mandate to train new

hives by SWO. The yield was so good

Two years ago

es sire

key to the success of the industry. This is because the Association does not have

funds to pay for the honey produced and bought from the members, which is increasing every year. BEKAB has also to buy essential packaging materials like

was provided with two

(28 litres of honey) that was able to pay |

beekeepers and provide them with colonies, it cannot meet the costs of its

activities. Currently BEKAB is facing problems in marketing honey, which is a


my children’s school fees for one year”.

SWO says:


“If we give a women four hives she can

Asociacion Regional de Apicultura

children, pay their school fees and ensure a better diet for all.”

has been offering training to medium and

small-scale beekeepers to help them solve technical and economical problems facing them in the coffee zone Eje Cafetero, an

obtain enough income to look after her

Mrs Christina Hall (Ex-Director of SWO)

has organised a National Beekeeping

honey jars and lids. Therefore, we are

excellent area for beekeeping. Helping these

looking forward to being able to help

Programme for women as a source of employment. SWO is inviting interested

groups and providing the opportunity for

honey export in a sustainable manner to

partners to support women beekeepers

processing honey, propolis and wax helps

an outside country.

them to care for the mountains and

Beekeeping has the potential to become a lucrative enterprise for the small-scale

vegetation and helps them to be peaceful

farmers with limited land holdings and other assets. BEKAB’s long-term objective

Jose Alrejo Velasco



Christina Hall

and nice people!

is to promote a sustainable beekeeping

industry in the country and thereby improve the crop pollination by bees, and raise the income of the rural population by increased crop production and honey



Varroa sp has been identified by the UK National Bee Unit in a sample of bees

Chairman, The Beekeeping Association of Bhutan, Bumthang




in the Guyana interior.

David Wainwright, UK

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Bees for Development Journal 64





In spite of the strong practical evidence about the failure of Apis mellifera in the

Western Ghats, the provincial Karnataka and Kerala governments are in favour of propagating exotic bees in this region. There exists a strong nexus between officials,

training consultants and the apiaries in northern India who want to sell

Earlier this year Bicolandia Bee Raisers Association organised a Strategic Planning

Workshop attended by government agencies, NGOs and individuals from different provinces of the Bicol Region. The following action points

were agreed: *

Apis mellifera colonies. Hundreds of colonies are being introduced into the tropical forest regions and they meet with failure. But the officials are not willing to learn from the mistake and the reality.

The Save Honeybees Campaign has drafted a Public Interest Litigation petition to be filed in the High Court of Karnataka seeking the intervention of the Judiciary to stop the

Circulation of information through the publication of journals in local languages and at affordable costs.


Encouragement of government sectors to activate support for the development of the beekeeping industry, together with inducing

banking institutions to support beekeeping activities in the remote barangays. Establishing research and training for improved production, particularly in the extraction of

further introduction of exotic honeybees in the province. As a starting point the advocate has

pollen and propolis to maximise the benefit of

given notice to the Government Department responsible for beekeeping to provide clarification as to why they should not be

of poor families.

taken to court for misleading the beekeepers and the people.

the meantime there is some good news: indigenous Apis cerana has developed

beekeeping and supplement the basics needs

Issue 3 was considered the most urgent because it involves the battle

against poverty for families A Workshop Box

living in the rural barrios.

supplied by Bees for Development assisted


us with the meeting.

resistance to Thai Sacbrood disease, and

Raul G Barrameda, President, Bicolandia Bee Raisers Association

there are reports of the revival of beekeeping activity from Kodagu and other regions in

the Western Ghats.

Pandurang Hegde

Ed: Find out how Bees for Development can

assist you with information for your meetings. See page 12

NIGERIA HELP FOR RESEARCHERS unknown why the hymenopterous insect Nomia sp ‘hangs around’ the male plants in sugar cane fields, especially during flowering. Researchers from the Nationa! Cereals Research Institute have It is

observed this curious behaviour during hybridisation of the flowering plant from September to November.

Early in the morning the flowers open up to let fertile pollen grains escape. At dawn the insects begin to hover around the male plants as if they know they have the dehisced anthers (the male part of the flower) full or almost full of fertile pollen grains. Insect numbers decrease when the flowers close again. This had led researchers to conclude the way these pollinators behave reveals the presence of male the plants have over 60% of fertile pollen plants of sugarcane: the insects only behave in this way once less than 10% of fertile pollen (female). with with not and plants (when they are considered male)

Researchers are studying the anthers to determine the factor responsible for this behaviour, since male in the laboratory. parents can now be easily distinguished, and this means less time spent

Source: Coraf Action No 21

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Bees for Development Journal 64



During a recent visit to St Helena met with beekeeper Stedson Stroud who featured on the cover of BFDJ 38. helped Stedson with his hives that are located just below |


Emperor Napoleon's tomb, in a valley with plenty of banana, hibiscus, paw paw and many wild flowers. There are 250 hives on St Helena, impressive for a land area of only

122 km’. The

main honey flow is in December. The bees are Varroa-free and the honey is chemical-free and marketed in plastic containers.

The honey sells well on the local market.


is an

umbrella organisation for 19 beekeeping groups. The Association has 325 members who between them own 1103 local-style

hives. Each group has 10-29 members (men and women), with an elected committee of seven. Honey is harvested three times a

year in March-April, June and August-September. Enthusiasm within the groups is always high. The aims of the Association are: Protecting the environment through beekeeping. *

Improving the living standards of group members and the health of the people of Parabongo sub-county through the consumption of honey.

John Kinross, UK

The problems faced by the Association include the absence of good quality containers for honey storage, lack of transport for moving honey to market, and a reliable honey market. Too much insecurity raises the poverty level within the groups. The Association would welcome any assistance.

David M Okidi, Chairman, Parabongo Beekeepers’ Association NEBBI DISTRICT HONEY BEEKEEPERS’ ASSOCIATION is concerned with encouraging beekeeping by providing technical

knowledge and skills to local farmers. The Association carries out its work by initially training workshop participants to become trainers. The Association records show 1518 bee farmers (men, women and young people) each owning an average of five hives. Annual honey production in Nebbi District is 95 tonnes, with a maximum yield of 31 kg from top-bar hive colonies and 10 kg from local hives. The vegetation is rich in bee forage inciuding trees Albizia saman, Cordia alliodora, Tectona grandis and also avocado, banana, cashew, coffee, guava and mango.

The Association is seeking funding to produce more hives, for honey storage containers and transport. Contact Nebbi Beekeepers c/o Bees for Development.








Ochowun Emirious Othuma, Chairman, Nebbi District Beekeepers

USA USA Security has been tight everywhere since September 11 2001, but nowhere more it seems than on ships belonging to Carnival Cruise Lines. The company delayed a sailing from Miami after a group tried to board with 160 bottles of bees. The passengers’ explanations that they intended to use the bees for medicinal purposes failed to convince the security guards.

The Daily Express, 2002 @®

A Bees for Development publication

Bees for Development Journal 64

D THE WORLD ZAMBIA CHAWANA MULTI-PURPOSE CO-OPERATIVE Chawana Multi-Purpose Co-operative are seeking a volunteer to help them expand their honey industry following the near completion of their purpose-built honey factory pictured right. The Co-operative obtained a part grant to construct the building and have contributed income from their honey sales to achieve this advanced state.

would like to help Chairman Paul Chipoya and the Co-operative please contact them c/o Bees fer Development. If you

ZIMBABWE KUTSUNGIRIRA BEEKEEPING CLUB Beekeeping is like any other business enterprise — without proper skills and knowledge it is not likely to succeed. have personally witnessed this. Although we had been keeping bees as Kutsungirira Beekeeping Club (KBC) for more than four years the project was not expanding. The bees absconded and we had very small honey yields. A proportion of hives were not even occupied and to make matters worse some colonies in the apiary were too defensive and difficult to handle. |

As a founder of KBC was assigned the task of finding solutions to these problems. A solution came to me when I read in Bees for Development Journal that Baraka Agricultural College in Kenya offers courses in beekeeping. Thanks to financial assistance from the DOEN Foundation in The Netherlands was able to attend one of the courses. It was there that discovered that beekeeping is like any business enterprise requiring good skills |



and knowledge. All the problems had were solved with the guidance of tutors. In addition met beekeepers from Kenya, Somalia and Uganda with whom shared information on beekeeping. Now am a confident beekeeper with information at my fingertips. want my fellow club members to have more information and skills and offer them training so that we can turn our project into commercial enterprise. |







In the first six months of 2002, KBC members harvested 55 litres of honey. This is a small harvest due to drought. With the food shortages in the country, the little honey harvested played a vital role in the lives of beekeepers who ate honey in place of meali-meal. A few teaspoonfuls of honey is enough for a person to go for a day until supper. Some families also use honey as relish during their meal times.

Because of the high demand for honey, the few families who offer their honey for sale had no stocks left. 300 ml jar sold for Zim$200 (US$3.75) and families bought meali-meal with the income. A

KBC Members also use honey in cough mixture as this is now very expensive to buy especially during winter when many people are affected by flu. The local community recognises the importance of honey: the evidence is the number of people who request this medicine. Beeswax has been used although in small quantities. Not all the hives were harvested because many combs were almost empty. Beeswax candles are used in households no longer buying paraffin. Non beekeepers are impressed by the candles which they have never seen before. The desire to learn about beekeeping and agro-forestry is greatly increasing in local villages and surrounding communities. This is evident from the numbers of peopie from near and far who visit KBC to obtain information.

Michael Hlungwani, KBC Chairperson and Trainer of KBC wearing locally: Asam


Ed: Information on courses and workshops can be found in Look Ahead on page 14 A Bees for Development publication


Bees for Development Journal 64



Intermiod 2002 3" Exhibition and Conference on Beekeeping


11-15 September 2002, Moscow Further details from:

APIMONDIA Symposium: on Tropical beekeeping: research and development for pollination and conservation

NOTE NEW DATES 22-25 February 2004 Further details from: |

COTE D'IVOIRE SARA 2002 (Interational Exhibition of Agriculture and Animal Resources) 22-30 November, Abidjan

SLOVENIA XXXVIII APIMONDIA International Apicultural Congress 24-29 August 2003, Ljubljana Further details from:


Further details from:

GERMANY APIMONDIA Symposium: Prevention of residues in honey

14-16 November 2002, Londo Further details from: [Visit the Bees for Development stand!]


Staying Poor: Chronic Poverty and Development Policy

10-11 October 2002, Celle Further details from:



April 2003, University of Manchester

Further details from:

2nd European Scientific Apicultural Conference

and 1st Intemational Apicultural Symposium _ 11-14 September 2002, Balatonlelle and Géddlié Further details from:




International Workshop on Sustainable Beekeeping Development and All India Honey

Propoleos: Cosecha, Control de Calidad y Elaboracion de Subproductos

Festival (Apiexhi


Further details from:

12-14 September 2002, Santiago del Estero Further details from:



VIN" ICPBR International Symposium on Hazards

Non Timber Forest Products Network Workshop 2-5 September 2002, Paro

15-19 January 2003, Bangalore

of Pesticides to Bees 4-6 September 2002, University

of Bologna Further details from: cporrini@entom.agrsci.unibo. it


Further details from:

CUBA APIMONDIA International Apitherapy Course 14-18 October 2002, Havana

16-20 September 2002, Kingston Further details from:

Further details from:




Establishment of Certified Organic Management

Systems of Production, Processing and Marketing

Symposium on Stakeholders of the Giant

16-25 September 2002, Aurangabad


Further details from:

March 2003, Pedu Lake


Further details from:



Short Course

3-9 November 2002, Baraka College Further details from:

7" Asian Apicultural Association Conference 23-27 February, 2004, Los Bafhos


Further details from:

Cardiff University and Nijiro Wildlife Research Centre

Further details from: Bees for Development

If you want notice of your conference, workshop or meeting to be included here send details to

Bees for Development Post Phone E-mail Web

Troy, Monmouth, NP25 4AB, UK

+44 (0)16007 13648



A Bees for Development publication

Bees for Development Journal 64


CD Rom

Beekeeping for dummies

Mediterranean melissopalynology

Howland Blackiston


edited by Roberta Galarius and Matteo Ricciardelli D’Albore in

2002 303 pages Paperback

collaboration with Giancarlo Ricciardelli D’Albore


Astitute Zooprofilattico Sperimentale

Available from Bees for Development

e 1

del’ Umbria

e delle

Mediterranean Melissopalynology


Available soon from



Bees for Development Price to be announced

This CD provides a wealth of



S ‘D) IMMIE. :

Although it does not say so, this book


describes beekeeping only as it is known and practised in North America.



information about the honey

pollens, and the honey produced


melissopalynology (the study of the botanical and geographical origins of honey according to its pollen content). Very useful is the Pollen Atlas: here you can select a plant species (according to Latin name, English or

a lot of

information about

in Langstroth hives, in a

fresh and upbeat style, interspersed with

Tennant cartoons and eight pages of


A Reference for the Rest of Us!

colour pictures. It could be just the book

from them. The CD includes

introductions to palynology (the science of pollens) and



plants in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, their

Code B100

Price 26.80


to get new beekeepers motivated, if they enjoy the ‘for dummies’ style

and have access to the materials described. Page

is a ‘cheat sheet’,


intended as a tear-out checklist for quick reference during the spring

start-up. Yet already on page


the beekeeper is encouraged to give

preventative doses of the antibiotic furnagillin (against possible

are botanical notes, colour illustrations plus flowering time, distribution

Nosema), pollen substitute, sugar syrup, Apistan to control Varroa, menthol to control tracheal mites, and the antibiotic terramycin to

and other information, palynological features (pictures of pollen grains

prevent foulbrood. This is hardly low-input beekeeping, and there is no

Italian common names). For each of over

200 species described there

and descriptions) and information about the honey produced from this

mention of alternatives. There are three top ten lists: ‘Ten fun things to

species. The search facility enables you to enter the characteristics of honey (for example the colour or taste) or features of the pollen it

do with bees’ (such as making products from beeswax, planting a

garden for bees and building your own hive); ‘Ten frequently asked

contains, and to search for the likely botanical origin. There is also a glossary of terms, and an extensive bibliography.

questions about bee behaviour’; and ‘My ten favourite honey recipes’. Appendix A: ‘Helpful Resources’ lists many international websites,

A very useful and information-packed CD

organisations, bee journal and magazines, but as is so often the case, the one you are reading now is not mentioned. Why is that?




GOT YOUR COPY YET? Strengthening Livelihoods: Exploring the Role of Beekeeping in Development edited by Nicola Bradbear, Eleanor Fisher and Helen Jackson 2002 122 pages Paperback Available from Bees for Development Price

Code B480


A new look at apiculture as an important part of rural life worldwide. Small-scale beekeeping contributes significantly to livelinood security, yet the practice of beekeeping is underplayed in official policy and planning. This book challenges the marginalisation of beekeeping in rural

development and asks whether a sustainable livelihoods approach can offer


way forward.

Chapters are written by beekeeping development practitioners, development experts, and social scientists. Case studies are presented from around the world, including Cameroon, Ethiopia,

The Caribbean, Central America, India, Tanzania and Zambia. A comprehensive glossary of apiculture and development terminology, and a full index make this a useful new text that can assist everyone involved with beekeeping development. Produced in a modern format with

abundant illustrations, this is a highly readable and informative new contribution to the field of apicultural development.

The book was published with financial support from the DFID Livestock Production Programme

A Bees for Development publication


Th E


14- 16 November 2002


Ken: ington Town Hall, London Thr ee-day lecture programme with inte rnational speakers ° Tra e exhibits Bee keeping organisations

Cor petitive classes Frie nds to meet and make °* and of course, the largest honey shor in the world Schexc ules available from: Honor: ry General Secretary, Rev H F Capener, Baldric Road, Folkestone, Kent CT20 2NR UK E-mail Tel/Fax +44 (0) 1303 254579 |



Bees for Development Journal is published quarterly by Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP25 4AB, UK Telephone


(0) 16007 13648

Printed on environmentally friendly paper.

E-mail (SSN 1477-6588

Web Bess for Development 2002