Bees for Development Journal Edition 44 - September 1997

Page 1





dear Prends A SPECIAL WELCOME to


quick and efficient way for all involved with beekeeping and development to share their ideas and problems with one another. And this edition shows how. You will see an urgent message from

Montserrat beekeepers following the recent eruption of their volcano. There are the findings from a workshop of East African beekeepers. Latest details from the Asian Apicultural

Association, practical beekeeping from Ecuador, a honey recipe from Peru, and all the latest books and best videos.

Bees for Development too. We offer another important addition to the service we provide: our new web site. Read all about this on page 16.

And we have new faces at

Bees for Development. Introductions on page 13. New friends are always welcome.


Letters to


2-3 4


The subscription rate for 12 months is 16 or 35SUS by airmail to any address world-wide.

A subscription form is printed Books to Buy. Past editions are


PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION Four editions are published each year and 5000 copies of each edition are printed and distributed world-wide. English and French editions available from this edition onwards.

Advertisements and enclosures in B&D reach readers in many countries. Examples of our advertising rates for two-colour advertisements are: quarter page 65,

full page 200.


250 g violet corn (or





New Faces

Candle Currency .13








Evryone enjoys honey! See pages 8 and 9 TWO


We are grateful to all the beekeeping groups and

individuals who assist us. We need more sponsors! - please contact us if you can help. Contact details page 16






Urgent News After our appeal in B&D42 we must report further distressing news from Cynthia Williams, President of Montserrat Beekeepers’ Association. She has informed us that beekeepers have lost all their equipment and consequently their business following further volcanic eruptions in

Put the corn and pineapple skin in a cooking pot with 1'/ litres of water and bring them to

the boil. Simmer for one hour. Strain, add the lemon juice, the spices and honey to taste. Dice the apple into small cubes and add to the mixture. Cool for two hours then enjoy. Even better if resisted for one or two days!

The corn can be subsequently added to a salad, soup or stew so this is a very economical recipe! Recipe given to Sabine in Germany by Maria

B&D by




sticks to taste

from Peru. Sent to

Production and distribution of the French edition of B&D is sponsored by API-Promo-GTZ.


one apple


Zoom in on Benin

Bees for Development acknowledges CTA, The Netherlands for providing sponsorship.


small green ones)





one lemon (or preferably three

cloves and 2 or 3 cinnamon

Look & Learn Ahead

The French edition of B&D is translated by Ms Valérie Petey.


skin of one pineapple


Nicola Bradbear



sweet corn)

News from Njiro


All uncredited photographs


Chicha Morado is Peruvian Spanish for violet corn, probably originating from Quechua. This is a typical Peruvian juice drink made from violet corn (chicha morado).


Beeswax Barter


Readers in developing countries may pay by Beeswax Barter or Candle Currency (see page 13).

Trees Bees Use

Ten Reasons Why





Practical Beekeeping



But there is hot news from

News Around the World

Information in B&D is intended to help beekeepers everywhere. If you wish to reproduce or translate any item, please acknowledge B&D and the author of the item you are using. Send us a copy of your item.


B&D provides a

Inside Information


Co-ordinator: Helen Jackson

first time.


For further information on full colour and cover prices request our rate card.

Editor: Dr Nicola Bradbear

readers receiving the French edition, and discovering Beekeeping & Development for the



Elea .

Jenny Bryne-Daniel.

June. If you would like to help donations can be sent to Barclays Bank in Montserrat, Account number 30 40 143 318.

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO The Tobago Apicultural Society has been active recently. Positively treated to a second showing of the video African honeybees: how to handle them in top-bar hives by Bernhard Clauss. Hopefully one of our members will try the top-bar hive here in Tobago (it may well be me!). We have

A Bees for Development publication


not had any evidence that the Africanized bees are in Tobago so far, but we are preparing just in case they get here.

a contract to supply Bee Health products to Asia, part of the deal included a 16 million move into the Japanese health care market.

Our biggest concern however is an outbreak of Varroa in Trinidad. Varroa was officially found there in July 1996. Reports are that it is widespread throughout Trinidad. Apistan strips are being used by some beekeepers.

Jan is a long term believer in the benefits of natural health care. “Thanks to the qualities of propolis I have stayed clear of colds and remained fit and healthy, which is vital to

The Society wrote to the Tobago Agricultural Division seeking to have existing legislation restricting the movement of bees between the two islands strengthened. We have distributed literature on bee disease identification and control. I would like to get a good video on the subject. Any help or reference in that area would be welcomed.

Jan is currently involved in furthering Bee Health's interests overseas including the American, Asian and European markets.

Gladstone Solomon


support my hectic schedule”, she explains.

Correspondent in Tobago

See Books te Buy for how to get your copy of “African honeybees”.

A good new book on honeybee diseases and pests is reviewed in Bookshelf, page 14.


Source: Bee Health Ltd

Women’s Apiary The UWA (United Women’s Apiary) is an association of industrious women owning 50 hives in an apiary in Luwero District. As a means of recovering from the ravages of the 1980-1986 liberation war, these women keep bees, and refine honey and beeswax for sale and home consumption.

Reacting to the daily demand for information on beekeeping from intending beekeepers, UWA embarked on staging three-day training courses on “The Principles and Practices of Beekeeping”. The first course in January this year attracted



Need to know more about propolis? Read B&D4?2 page 3!

GRENADA Turn an old outboard motor into a new honey extractor The lack of appropriate and affordable honey extraction equipment has been identified as a significant factor holding back development of beekeeping in the eastern Caribbean.



Fourteen new beekeepers attended a second course in March. Further courses are planned for later in 1997.

Buying a honey extractor is an important step forward 4 Aoney of an extractor for any beekeeper. An imported extractor can easily cost more than the total of all other expenses a small-scale beekeeper has to face in

Participants pay for their accommodation, tuition and meals. This unfortunately proves to be too expensive for some interested people. It would help us if there was a “good Samaritan” who could offer to meet some of the expenses so that even the very poor can take part in these important courses.

starting up.

Editor: If you can help you can contact Olivia Makumbi

(Chairperson), c/o Bees for Development.

UNITED KINGDOM Bee Health Chairwoman, Jan Fletcher, was awarded an OBE medal in June 1997 for services to industry.

Recently Jan has been instrumental in clinching

A Bees for Development publication

Using easily available, inexpensive or free-for-the-hauling components, the tinkering genius displayed by most beekeepers could produce a hand- or power-cranked fourframe tangential extractor, capable of spinning at a speed of at least 200 rpm. The main component of the hand-cranked model is the foot gear of a junked outboard engine, together with its prop-shaft which must be at least 66 cm long. The crank could be fashioned in a variety of styles, from an iron rod welded to the propeller stem, to more sophisticated versions. A basket to contain the frame can be easily made with two identical wooden frames and 60 mm wire mesh. The basket shaft spins in a floor flange mounted exactly in the centre of the bottom of a metal rubbish bin or plastic drum.

A pipe

is necessary to allow the extracted honey to flow out.

A simpler, more efficient extractor can also be built, spinning the basket with an electric hand drill attached to the shaft. Jorge Murillo Yepes,

B&D’s Correspondent

in Grenada



by Ramiro In



A NATURAL TERMITE REPELLENT Velastegui and Giovanni Onore, Ecuador

Rainer Krell

suggested a number of ways to prevent termite ants attacking hives. Now Giovanni Onore

shares details of a natural method, using extract from lupin seeds, to make wooden hives


In the tropics, at altitudes from sea level to

Lupin seeds

1500m, one of the most common and serious problems that beekeepers face is the destruction of hives by harmful agents like termites. Termites need cellulose as a main part of their diet and therefore search for wood sources. The termites penetrate the hive walls and eat the wooden structures. They cause great and irreversible damage.

boiled and then soaked in water for five to six days to eliminate the poisonous and bitter substances.

Mr Berni Loor is a beekeeper in Ecuador’s Manabi Province, near the Pacific Coast. Using

his own knowledge and the experience of other beekeepers in the region, he has discovered a very efficient and cheap method to prevent this problem. He uses a home-made repellent using chemicals extracted from the seeds of the plant Lupinus mutabilis. This is locally known as “choco”, and grows in the tropical and temperate regions of the highlands of the Andes, from Colombia to Bolivia. The seeds of this plant are rich in protein, and therefore our people have always used them as part of their diet. According to De

METHOD The repellent is made from the water in which the “choco” seeds were boiled. This cooking water is mixed with one spoonful of liquid soap per litre. It is not yet known which chemical, or group of chemicals, from the seeds of these plants are responsible for the action against the termites. It is probably the toxic alkaloids that are present in a high proportion.

Before they are used, hive boxes and frames are washed thoroughly with this mixture. They are then soaked in the same liquid for at least two days to allow the ingredients to penetrate into the wood. After the hive boxes have been treated with the compound, they are dried out completely in the open air. The active ingredients impregnate the wooden surfaces, forming a long-lasting barrier that repels intruding insects.


Lucca & Zalles writing in Yesid & Correa (1992), the “choco” seeds, prior to being eaten are

Reference YESID,H; CORREA,] E (1992)

Especies vegetales promisorias de los Paises del Convenio Andrés Bello.

Editora Guadalupe Ltda, Santafé de Bogota, DC, Colombia

Lupinus mutabilis






Dear Editor B&D42 you printed

an article about introducing Australia to Céte d'Ivoire in bees from European


Africa. think your condemnation of such attempts introduction of bees was not strong enough! |

hope that all the imported colonies have been kille by the African bees. If not, can you tell us if the foreign expert is quite satisfied with their honey production and pollination? How can US Aid support such a crazy idea?


would be pleased if at the Apimondia Congress in Antwerp you tell leaders of organisations to campaign against the introduction of European bees to Africa. Brother Adam said that Africa was a “reserve of genes for the future”. 1

In Cameroon we have no European or American foulbrood or Varroa. If these diseases have been introduced into Céte d'Ivoire then they will soon also be in Cameroon.


envne sevnsvsevevesdneeasoeeoa


Apis mellifera adansonii here in West and Central Africa is quite

capable of producing plenty of honey! What the experts must do is select, as we did in Europe, but of course this takes a long time. It is more fun to carry hundreds of bee hives by ship and plane using other people’s money. Thank you for hearing my call in the name of African bee farmers. You and I know that importation of bees is not a good thing and we must protest as much as possible to ensure this experience is not renewed. ;



Yours in anger

André Romet Mr Romet

is working with the Non-Governmental

Organisation ADEID in

Bafoussam, Cameroon

Note from the Editor: American foulbrood was recently identified in two apiaries in North West Province of Cameroon by Alan Morley, working for BESO. A Bees for Development publication




Tree St John’s Wort Hypericum revolutum by Reinhard

Fichtl, Germany Habitat

A characteristic tree of upper Afromontane rain forests and evergreen bushland. The tree is often deliberately left on farmland and found from 2300-4000 m, especially along the upper tree limit. Hypericum revolutum is often associated with Hagenia-Schefflera forest and Erica arborea. It grows where rainfall ranges between 1000 and 1800 mm per year.

Distribution Occurring in Burundi, Cameroon, Comoro Islands, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire and Zambia.

Also found in south-west Saudi Arabia and Yemen.


Hypericum revolutum

Names Curry Tree

Family Guttiferae (also known as Clusiaceae with Hypericaceae sometimes given as a separate

Apicultural value Honeybees collect copious amounts of pollen and abundant nectar from the flowers. This tree is an important honey source at high altitudes. Because of its prolonged flowering time this tree is important for bee colony development. The rich pollen and nectar supplies can stimulate brood rearing even if only one or two trees are flowering.

Recommended for planting to increase honey production.

The wood is dark red-brown, fairly hard but flexible. It is popular for making poles in house construction. The wood is also used to make the yoke of the local ox-plough and it is commonly used as firewood.

Practical notes Not an easy tree to grow. Propagation can be done from root suckers and cuttings, but seed germination seems to be very poor. It is a forest pioneer in plant succession and

ecologically important.


Description Slender tree or shrub, reaching a height of 12 m and a trunk diameter of 24 cm. The crown of the tree is open with an irregular outline and the branchlets often drooping.

Bark: scaly and often roughly longitudinally fissured, dark brown and corky.

Leaves: opposite, pale green, narrowly elliptic to lance-shaped up to 3 cm long; produced in dense clusters on short shoots; the leaves give off a distinct smell of curry when crushed.

Flowers: terminal and solitary, large and about 6 cm in diameter.


Fruits: woody capsules, containing very many

FICHTL,R; ADDI,A (1994) Honeybee flora of Ethiopia. Margraf Verlag,

minute black seeds.

Weikersheim, Germany.

Flowering: all year round with individual trees being covered in blossoms at different times. A Bees fer Development publication

The marvellous yellow flower of Hypericum revolutum







NEWS FROM NJIRO FIRST EAST AFRICA WORKSHOP ON BEEKEEPING DEVELOPMENT B&D is pleased to publish the Recommendations from this important workshop held at Njiro Wildlife Research Centre, Tanzania, in May 1997. Over 50 participants enjoyed a fruitful three days looking at problems and solutions facing the beekeeping sector. Here are their Recommendations:

Technical Recommendations 1.

Meetings and workshops often pass resolutions for future action. How to turn these “good resolutions” into action?

Bees for Development is happy to print resolutions here so that they reach a very wide audience.

Hives, equipment and management methods must be developed to favour the involvement of women in the beekeeping

Njiro Wildlife Research Centre and Bees for Development are co-operating on a three-year project “Sustainable Beekeeping for Africa” funded by the United Kingdom DFID. The UK’s new Labour Government has renamed the former ODA as the Department For International Development, DFID.


People should be encouraged to practise Api-Agro-Forestry.


People living around national parks and forest reserves should be allowed to

practise environmentally-friendly beekeeping in these areas.

sector. 2.

Beekeeping research must focus on appropriate technology for:

Recommendations on Training and Extension

e simple hives; e@



suitable methods to ensure hives can be kept near to homes and farms;

appropriate clothing:

e processing of valuable bee products;




lonies to stay in methods to encourage colonies hives instead of migrating or absconding.

Environmental Recommendations 1.



The public must be educated on the proper ways of conserving and managing forests which are vital for the production of bee

products. Governments should encourage people to plant and grow trees. They should recommend tree species that are fast growing and suitable bee plants.

beekeeping. Demonstration centres need to be organised close to target groups. Training must be practical and demanddriven.


Training must be gender insensitive.

Beekeepers should form national societies to unite with common cause and voice to: a


Thanks to all the organisations who sponsored individuals to participate including Forum Syd (Sweden) and UWESO (Uganda). Within Tanzania: Beekeeping Training Institute, Tabora; Heifer Project; KIRDEP, Kondoa; LAMP, District Council Babati; Ministry of National Resources & Tourism; Olmontonyi Forestry Training Institute; Tabora Beekeepers’ Co-operative Society; Tanzania Environmental Action Association; and Tanzania Tree Planting Foundation.


Governments should show real commitment . : in supporting the development of

Market Recommendations

Workshop Sponsors

all our resources,




G: we tap

Establish a solid link between extension

agents and target groups ie beekeepers. 2. Introduce appropriate technology to target

improve information about the market situation for bee products;

improve distribution and sale of bee products; create competition with imported products; develop quality and diversification of local

bee products; e increase the price level for bee products.

am quite

sure, we can be again the richest country in the world, which we were, suppose, at one time. We can repeat


the phenomenon if we cease to be idle and profitably occupy the idle hours of the millions. All we need is to

be industrious not like


machine, but

like the honeybee.

Mahatma Gandhi


A Bees for Development publication


NOTICE BOARD SMOKER SALE Smokers for sale from Friends of Bee Enterprise as described in B&D41. Orders from all countries welcome. Contact: Friends of Bee Enterprise,

PO Box M592, Kumasi, Ghana >



se ae

lam a qualified beekeeper with extensive experience and very interested in beekeeping technology. would like to obtain beekeeping work experience in an English speaking country. Please write to: Alexander Popravko, Muitines 9-12, Vilnius 2006, Lithuania |




Mr Linton Briggs, The Federal Council of Australian Apiarists’ Association,


Dr Alamgir Mati, Bangladesh Apicultural Association,

PMB 1030, Glen Rowan, Victoria 3675

Further details from: Sara Oldfield, WCMC, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL,

United Kingdom

Bangladesh Institute of Apiculture, 23/12 Khilji Road, Shyamoli, Mohammadpur, Dhaka 1207 Dr Kassim Hajidaud, Department of Biology, Universiti Brunei Darrussalam, Gadong 3186 Professor G H Yang, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Xiangshan, Beijing Dr Wei-Yi Wang, Hangzhou Pollen Co Ltd, 5 Baoling Road, Shan, Hangzhou Central Bee Research Institute, Khadi & Village Industries Commission, 1153 Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411 016




Dr Vinod K Mattu, Department of Bio-Sciences, Himachal Pradesh



TROPICAL BIOLOGY Training for graduate biologists from

Europe and tropical countries to work together and build links for research and conservation in the tropics. Write to: Dr Rosie Trevelyan, Tropical Biology Association, School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, United Kingdom

BENEFIT FROM B&D Support your event with past editions of Send details of the likely number of participants and the meeting at least three months ahead of the date.

B&D and other material.

Classified advertisements in Notice Board cost 5.00 for up to 30 words plus 0.50 for each additional word


30/1 Shantinagar,

Dhaka 1217

The World Conservation Monitoring Centre is developing a database on tree species. Includes information on conservation, status, threats, ecology and uses of trees.

The AAA Membership fee is 20USS per year. If you live in one Socia® of the countries listed below you can join AAA by contacting your local representative. People in other countries send 20USS directly to the AAA Office, c/o Honeybee Science Research Center, Tamagawa University, Machida-Shi, Tokyo, 194 Japan. Fax +81 427 39 8854

10 Quay Road, Charlestown,




The Asian Apicultural Association (AAA) was formed in 1992 to encourage the friendly exchange of information between beekeepers and bee scientists in Asia. AAA administrative headquarters are in Japan. Many countries throughout Asia also have local AAA Representatives (Chapters).

Bee Books New and Old publishers and distributors of books are moving to St Austell, Cornwall PL25 3NX, United Kingdom





TAIWAN (China)



B&D is

University, Shimla 171 005 Dr C C Reddy, Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, Jnaha Bharati, Bangalore 560 056 Dr M Chandra Widjaja, National Beekeeping Center, Perum Perhutani, Jl Gatot Subroto-Senayan, PO Box 19/KT WB, Jakarta 10270 Dr Kun-Suk Woo, Institute of Korea Beekeeping Science, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Suwon 440 744 Mr Hae-Woon Chung, Korea Beekeeping Association, 301 Sambo Bidg, Chonglo 6-Ga, Chonglo-Ku, Seoul, 110 126 Mr Woo-Suk Ahn, Cheju Branch, Korean Beekeeping Association, Sambo, 2-dong 1024, Cheju, 690 032 Dr M Hj Muid, Plant Protection Department, Agricultural University of Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Mr K K Shrestha, Co-ordinator, Beekeeping Project, ICIMOD, PO Box 3226, Kathmandu Mr Cliff van Eaton, National Apiculture Business Unit, MAF Quality Management, Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries, Private Bag, Tauranga Mr Keith E Ferguson, PO Box 2037, SEEB Ill Dr Nasreen Muzaffar, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, NARC, PO NIH, Islamabad Dr Cleofas R Cervancia, Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture UP Los Banos, College, Laguna Mr Jassim M Al Mughrabi, PO Box 42332, Riyadh 11541, Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Training Department, Riyadh Dr R W K Punchihewa, Honeybee Research Facility, Horticulture Station, Ministry of Agriculture, Kananwila, Horana Dr Chun-yen Lin, Taiwan Apicultural & Sericultural Experiment Station, 261 Kuan-nan, Kung-Kuan, Miaoli Mr Somnuk Boongird, Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Science, Ram Kham Kaeng University, Ram Kham Kaeng, Bangkok 10240 Dr Osman Kaftanoglu, Department of Animal Science, Cukurova University Adana 01330 Mr Din Quyet Tam, Director, VINAPI, Phuong mai, Dongda, Hanoi

proud to have been adopted as the magazine of the Asian Apicultural


AAA organises international conferences every two years. In 1998 the Fourth AAA Conference will be held in Nepal. Details are available from the Conference Secretary, Mr K K Shrestha: his address is shown above. A Bees for Development publication



Beekeeping does not use up land needed for crops. Bees collect where they can, so wild, cultivated and wasteland — reas all have value for beekeeping.


Beekeeping is possible even for people with few resources. Bees are obtained from the wild. Equipment can be made locally. Bees do not need the beekeeper to feed them.


Beeswax generates income. It makes candles and soap, and is used in crafts like batik and lost-wax casting.

Honey generates income. People everywhere like honey.

2 =

Bees pollinate cultivated crops and wild plants.




beekeeping sustains the environment, pollinates crops and gives people income /


ail fave Value VOCACopiilg.




AB, United Kingdom

Bees for Development 1997

Phone +44 (0)16007 13648 Fax +44 (0)1G6007 16167 World Wide Web

rorks to promote understanding of th vital rol of beekeepin

Bees for Development

Beekeeping generates income without destroying habitat.


Bees can be kept by people of all ages. Bees do not need daily care and beekeeping can be done when other work allows.

Beekeepers have a financial reason to conserve the environment: ensuring that flowers are available and bees are protected.

Other local traders benefit by making hives and equipment, and from using and selling the products.


Nectar and pollen are not used by other livestock: only bees harvest these resources. So there is no competition with other crops.










UNITED KINGDOM National Honey Show

CANADA APIMONDIA International Apicultural Congress


“stayelopmneat |

Baldric Road, Folkestone

Further details from: APIMONDIA, General Secretariat, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 101, 1-00186 Rome, Italy Fax +39 6685 2286



25-28 November 1997, Maracaibo XV Reunién ALPA, Omar Araujo Febres, Chairman, Apartado 15205, Maracaibo, ZU 4005, Venezuela Fax +58 61 596183

International Conference on Medicinal Plants


Bees for


27-29 November, 1997, London Further details from: Rev Francis Capener, CT20 2NR, United Kingdom

13-21 September 1999, Vancouver

Visit the


IX Venezuelan Congress of Zootechnical Science Further details from:

16-20 February 1998, Bangalore Further details from: Global Initiative for Traditional Systems of Health,

Department of Dermatology, The Churchill, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LI, United Kingdom Fax +44 1865 228274

LEARN AHEAD NETHERLANDS Honeybee Husbandry, Honey Analysis and Bee Product Manufacturing for Developing Countries May 1998, North East Netherlands

NEPAL Fourth Asian Apicultural Association Conference 22-27 March 1998, Kathmandu K K Shrestha, Conference Secretary, AAA Conference, ICIMOD, PO Box 3226, Kathmandu, Nepal Fax +977 524 509

Further details from: Marieke Mutsaers, Trichilia ABC, Noordermeerweg 65cd

Further details from: Mr

8313 PX, Netherlands Fax +31 527 262 598

UNITED KINGDOM/TANZANIA Beekeeping in Rural Development



SOUTH AFRICA APIMONDIA International Apicultural Congress 13-18 September 2001, Sun City Further details from: APIMONDIA, General Secretariat, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 101, 1-00186 Rome, Italy Fax +39 6685 2286


16 November - 13 December 1997, Cardiff University and Njiro Wildlife Research Centre, Tanzania Further details from: Ms Glynis Hudson, Professional Development Centre, 51 Park Place, Cardiff University of Wales, Cardiff, CF1 3AT, United Kingdom Fax +44 1222 874560

WHY VISIT LONDON FOR THE NATIONAL HONEY SHOW? Kensington Town Hall 27-29 November 1997



to hear the best lectures

to enter the best range of classes


to learn the best techniques for beekeeping



to see the best exhibits of honey and wax

Apit erap

to see the best books to find the best bargains

Edited by Avshalom Mizrahi, The /sraeli College of Complementary Medicine, Tel Avs'y, Israel and Yaakov Lensky, Triwaks Bee Research Center, Hebrew University, Rehovot, 'srael

There is an increasing world-wide interest in bee products in such areas as: nutr| ition, medicine (conventional, complementary and folk), cosmetics and much more. E: idence exists of the scientific and clinical uses of bee products and its health benefit

NEW FROM PLENUM A book that brings together the knowledge and research of physicists, practitioners scientists, herbalists, physiologists, nutritionists, microbiologists, cosmeticians, and beekeepers to contribute to the applications of bee products This is a truly insightful book which deepens our understanding of the wonder of be products and what they can do for us.

0-306-45502-1/1997/284np/i /$89.50 US & Canada/$107.40 (65.09)


to subscribe to the best beekeeping magazines to experience the best Honey Show on earth

to meet best friends You are very welcome as an exhibitor or a visitor Schedules available from Rev Francis Capener,

To order single or bulk order copies please write quoting reference “Develop” and senqito: Dahlla Hussein, Plenum Publishing Company Lid., New Loom House, 101 Back Churcl Lane, London E1 1LU, UK, or call +44 171 264 1910, Fax: +44 171 264 1919.


Baldric Close, Folkestone CT20 2NR, UK



& Development WHEN

RESPONDING TO ADVERTISEMENTS A Bees for Development publication




ZOOM IN ON... Frame hives including Dadant, the “FranceCongo” hive, and Langstroth hives are used only in a few apiaries. Their distribution is limited to abbeys and some white people.

Vegetation Semi-arid savannah (trees and bushes) in the North. Humid tropical forests and grass savannah in the Central and Southern areas. Deforestation is obvious everywhere due to the

Equipment Hive tools, protective clothing, smokers and veils are made in Benin by local craftspeople. Electric centrifuges and other such equipment are not commonly found.

expansion of arable farming. There are only a few patches left along the rivers and in reserves with dense tropical forest.

Agriculture About 75% of the population earn a living from agriculture. Subsistence crops include cassava, maize, sorghum and yam. Cash crops include


coffee, cotton, palm oil and peanuts. In addition avocado, beans, coconuts, guava, mango, millet, papaya, pineapples, and many other fruits and vegetables are grown.

Vandalism and theft of combs from frame hives often occurs when hives are in the bush or on farms. Beekeeping is only a minor incomegenerating activity. People are often not aware of the potential and value of the industry in terms of pollination and natural conservation


Number of beekeepers


The honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii is found everywhere in Benin. The bees are quite defensive and are feared by many people. Hives are usually kept out in the bush, not within villages. The swarming season is be September-October, although colonies can the year. caught easily throughout


Honey production November to April: this is the best time for honey production. The total annual honey harvest is unknown. Most of the harvested honey still comes from honey hunting.

Beekeeping Honey hunting is still common as many colonies live in tree cavities or termite mounds. Nests are also found under large baobab branches or on the ceilings of houses in towns. These colonies are exploited by local people with fire and axes. Calabashes, clay pots, gourds, hollowed-out tree trunks and palm stems are all used as hives for beekeeping. A unique way of constructing hives is found in the Somba Land. Hives made of clay are built directly into the forks of trees (between the stems and branches) and look like closed waterpots. Top-bar hives are made of cement, clay and wood. There are also cylindrical hives made out of iron sheets and insulated with a layer of

Beekeeping potential is great bees fly 365 are There the of of 365 out year. days There is available. always flowering plants not enough honey produced to supply the demand. Supermarkets still import large quantities of honey from Europe.

Honey price The honey market is strong. One litre of good honey costs 2,400 CFA Franc (4.5US$). Honey jars are difficult to obtain so most honey is sold in recycled whisky bottles.

Honeybee diseases, pests and predators No diseases have been reported.



Size 112,600 km? Former name Dahomey Location West Africa. Neighbours are (clockwise) from the west, Togo, Burkina Faso, Niger and Nigeria.

Population 5,000,000 people. There are about 65 ethnic groups. GNP 380USS per capita Currency CFA Franc. 1USS = 570 CFA

Beekeeping Association





National Association of Beekeepers in Benin (ANAB), PO Box 1254, Cotonou. ANAB is a member of the West African Beekeepers’


Training Available at the private beekeeping centre CIAT (Centre Intégré d’Apiculture Tropical), PO Box 662, Parakou. There is also a private honey production centre in Tobe near Bassila.


A traditional style of hive

A Bees for Development publication

There is no project devoted to beekeeping alone in Benin, but about ten development projects have included beekeeping as a component in their activities in the past five to ten years. Research activities are only carried out by individuals dedicated to knowing more about bees.

Thanks to Werner Lohr of API-Promo, and Sariki Yanntanou for providing the information for this article.




cope Prsfesonal!

eehing Cquipent






in uncapping technology. slowly rotating cylinder leaves cappings

unfragmented and easily filtered. Practically

2 banks of chains, driven by 2 motors, uncap both sides of any type of frame at

silent. Ideal for hollow combs. Two people

can work easily.

the same time. Single phase

230 V.

MATOPERCULETTE Professional horizontal uncapping machine. 2 banks of chains uncap both sides of any type

of frame at

All stainless

the same time.

Easy to clean.

Simple to use. Light work for one operator to push then

pull frames past the chains.


Delivered with feet. Electronic speed control adjusts uncapping speed.

Ered for security and Health











steel tanks diameters

steel radial cage. Entire transparent

cover lifts on a

uncapping loading, automatically, uncapped frames in stainless




800 mm stainless steel tank and cage for 24 frames, One fixed half cover and one

easy access. Security cut-off, Electronic speed control adjusts times and speeds for acceleration, extraction, reversing and electronic

fransparent opening half cover fitted with security cut-off. Electronic speed control

single Line with a capacity of 6 tons of honey in an 8 hours day with 2 persons, including : - Professional vertical machine Quattromel

Patented Equipment

800, 1000 or

1250 mm. Stainless



steel baskets on a conveyor belt. Supermel extractor with an horizontal axe capacity 8 stainless steel baskets (or 8 supers).

adjusts times and speeds for acceleration, extraction, reversing and electronic braking.

Adjustable legs. 36 frame version available.


Renowned throughout Europe as the major manufacturer for quality honey processing.

Same specification as the Radialmatic but with reversible cage for 6, 8, 10, 12 or 16 baskets.

Automatic control with the option of programmable



Takes both cappings and honey straight from the

The baffle tank is the core of the honey house. It

speeds up the initial filtration. The heat thins

the honey so that the smallest impurities, which







quickly to the surface. The baffles hold back the scurn and only let clean

honey into the final comptartment of the tank. Three models


mm diameter basket.

Single phase 230 V. motor. includes one nylon filter bag.



Tough and efficient. Ideal for filtering

and drying cappings. Exists in 800 and 1000 mm diameter.

HONEY FILLING LINE Professional honey filling ligne

uncapping machine or by a pump suitable for honey with cappings. Collects the dried cappings in four easily


removable, perforated stainless steel baskets. Processes the cappings from 3 to 6 tones of honey in an 8 hour day



Tél. 00 33 2 38 46 88 00

Fax 00 33 2 38 59 28 28 WEB site internet htip://ourworld, compuserve,com/homepages/Apiservices/thoma_f:him

CONTACT: Steele & Brodie, Beehive Works, Kilmany Road, Wormit, Newport-on-Toy, Fife DDé 8PG Tal


01382 541728

Fax : 01382 543022

E-mail : steele&

600 kgs of honey/hour automatic


uncapping machine.

86, rue Abbé Thomas 45450 Fay-aux-loges

For our full catalogue, information sheets on specific products, prices and quotations in the UK



and only needs emptying two or three times.

All our equipment meets the latest EC standards an for security Health & Safety


extractor. Dries cappings perfectly. Filters honey without emulsification. Can also be loaded directly from an

filling machine,


Publications Services Your orders for books and videos will now be looked after by Mrs Rita Neale-Edwards who has taken over from Nina Gibson as Publications Manager. Rita is looking forward to corresponding with our regular and new customers, and will be happy to answer any queries you may have.

Bees for Development would like to take this opportunity to offer huge bouquet of thanks to Nina for all her help and service during her time as our Publications Manager. On behalf of Bees for Development and all our customers we wish her well and success in the future. a



. . .



Nina asked us to say that she is sorry to have to leave us, but intends to keep contact with us all in the Her message to Rita future. is “Good Luck”! ;

Information Services A warm welcome also to Mrs Carol Pirie who joined our staff recently. Carol wilt be helping to respond to the mountain of enquiries arriving daily at Bees for Development, and is the person to write to with your requests for workshop materials.


Beekeepers in developing countries (only!) may pay their subscription in pure beeswax or with pure beeswax candles. Since candles are of higher value than beeswax, only 2 kg of candles are needed to buy one subscription, and the lower weight of candles will also give savings in postage costs.

The rates are: kg beeswax or 2 kg candles to pay one subscription. 25 kg beeswax or 10 kg candles to pay ten subscriptions to one address. 5

These are the conditions for paying in beeswax or candles: 1.

2. 3.


5. 6.

Beeswax must be reasonably clean and of good quality. It must be presented in solid form and not as scraps of wax or pieces of comb. Candles must be of saleable quality. from Beeswax from any species of Apis will be accepted as long as the name of the species . which it is collected is stated. Inside the parcel state your name and address, the weight and origin of the beeswax, and the number of subscriptions you are paying. On the outside of the parcel state “BEESWAX RAW (OR CANDLES) FOR BEES FOR DEVELOPMENT" and the weight in kilograms. Any parcel containing comb, very dirty wax or otherwise unusable wax will be destroyed on arrival at Bees for Development. It will not be returned and will not be accepted for barter.

Beeswax is valuable! Save ail your scraps of beeswax. Only simple processing is needed to make these beautiful cakes of pure, golden beeswax.

Arrangements for costs of carriage of beeswax or candles are the responsibility of the sender and Bees for Development will not be responsible for any postage or other costs whatsoever

“Le Terrier”, F-24420 Coulaures - FRANCE (France) Tel.: - Mobile: - Fax: (International) phone: +33, Mobile: + - Fax: + E-mail: WEB Internet:


PARTIES CONCERNED Relative government ministries and administrations U.N.O. agencies and the European Community N.G.O. specializing in rural development Public and private agricultural establishments Beekeeping co-operatives, companies or individuals Training institutes, manufacturers, etc..

ACTIVITIES Feasibility studies, project supervision and evaluation Comprehensive supervision of beekeeping development plans Market studies, technological know-how Help in establishing co-operatives, laboratories, extraction and processing plants, queen rearing, mating or instrumental insemination stations Creation of software and Internet WEB servers, audio-visual material, promotional material or press articles, seminars, translations, etc... Testing of new equipment and technologies

A Bees for Development publication





The World Guide






World Institute Kingdom (1997) 624 pages. Paperback. Available

Bees for Development price 32.00 Bees for Development's copy of The World


Guide is already an indispensable part of our office library. We

VHS. Running

Available from Bees for

Development price 20.00 including airmail postage and |

extremely useful guide for anyone interested in

packing Mr Eric Milner has made an

extensive study of honeybee morphometry and its lace in bee

as _


method of



"shop ed by Res Eric \tine


issues, figures and facts about every




The major part of the book provides a profile of 217 countries of the world, giving information on population, languages, etc. There are plenty of statistics, ranging from a country’s external debt to the number of telephones per 100 inhabitants. There are profiles of issues - environment, society, the state. There is a concise account of each country’s development through history up to

workshop covering the reasons for bee breeding


Honey bee diseases and pests

Queen rearing

edited by

BIBBA, Derby, United Kingdom (1988) VHS. Running time 105

Cynthia Scott-Dupree

Canadian Association of Professional Apiculturalists, Guelph, Canada (1996 2nd edition) 26 pages.

minutes. Available from Bees for Development price 20.00 including airmail postage and

Paperback. Available from

Bees for Development

price 6.00

Most beekeepers do not want to know more than they need to about honeybee disease. But these days the control ’_. of disease has

packing This video is ideal for both beginner and experienced beekeepers. It n Rearmg consists of six demonstrations of: colony assessment; 4 starter colonies; larval transfer; finisher colonies; making up nuclei; and queen praiinogentens introduction.



programmes, 2G Provides ifOrmation on




“become an unavoidable part of honeybee management. This book provides just what most beekeepers want: a very short and _





Bee Products: properties, ‘applications, and apitherapy


was filmed at

simple morphometric techniques to allow accurate identification of the various European honeybee races. A video for the dedicated enthusiast.


This is an excellent, readable publication that will be of real help to beekeepers

development, international

The Honeybee's breeding FINgerprint This video

Moos 7

have to contend with. The twenty six pages of text and excellent colour pictures will help you to readily diagnose any of the usual problems affecting honeybees. Up to date advice is given on how to control the problem, and if possible how to prevent it in the future. Varroa control and treatment is of course included. Colony abnormalities like chilled brood, dysentery and pesticide poisoning are also well covered.

thought you also would like to know about this wonderful book. It is an

BIBBA, Derby, United Kingdom. time 90 minutes.



New Internationalist Publications, London, United

The honeybee’s fingerprint: simple methods of distinguishing honeybee races

straightforward guide to all the diseases and pests that we

Avshalom Mizrahi and Yaacov Lensky edited by

Plenum Press, London, United Kingdom (1997) 284 pages. Hardback. Available from

Bees for Development price 65.00 Bee products are those materials that humans harvest from bees’ nests. These include not only honey and beeswax, but also propolis, venom and royal jelly.

At Bees for Development we are often asked to suggest books that discuss these products ina scientific way. At last we can recommend this new publication discussing the chemical

composition, pharmacological effects and other properties of bee products. Bee Products has 31 chapters. The first is an introduction by Dr Eva Crane into the importance of bee products to humans. This is followed by 30 chapters each by a different expert discussing particular aspects of honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly or venom. This book will be of value to those interested in scientific approaches to the use of bee products for health treatments.

A Bees for Development publication




EXPLANATION PLEASE! Honeybee morphometry is the will be like the sacbrood diseases found in the

‘European’ honeybee Apis mellifera: a disease whose symptoms appear only when colonies

‘SHELF Breeding queens by Gilles Fert OPIDA, Echauffour, France (1997) 104 pages. Paperback. In French, Italian and Spanish editions also. Available from Bees for Development price

14.00 Mr Fert is an expert beekeeper and breeder of

queens. His book is designed to help those beekeepers who want to rear just a few good queens, as well as those who want to rear more. Individual beekeepers can easily select the best queens from a geen precadegs which to breed their own stock. These queens will be weil suited to their region, and can be used to breed further

replacements. Information is given about mating, marking and caging queens. The production and use of package bees is described. There is a chapter on instrumental insemination, and a useful! bibliography is also included.

The book is clearly written, and very well illustrated. Beekeepers often think that queen rearing is difficult. This book should help to revise their opinion.

Workshop to revive Apis cerana indica

Palni Hills Conservation Council, Tamil Nadu, India (1996) 68 pages. Paperback. Available from Bees for Development price 10.00

This new publication brings articles discussing the Asian hive bee, Apis cerana. For many beekeepers in Asia, Apis cerana beekeeping has suffered from the presence of Thai sacbrood virus disease. This virus has recently caused severe problems in southern India: however authors quoted here consider that the virus has run its course and resistant colonies have arisen. In the future Thai sacbrood in Apis cerana

A Bees for Development publication

The articles discuss the beekeeping in several states of India, as well as Nepal. There are also three . articles relating to beekeeping in East and West Africa.



Managed crop pollination: the missing dimension of mountain agricultural productivity by Uma Partap and Tej Partap ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal (1997) 26 pages. Paperback. Available from Bees for Development price 5.00

This booklet discusses the management of honeybees and other insects for the pollination of different crops. It compares the foraging behaviour of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera in relation to pollination of various fruit crops, and their suitability for crop pollination in different zones. In future there will be a great need for

managing the pollination of crops in mountain areas of Asia. A strong case is made for the conservation and of promotion Apis cerana, as Apis cerana 3


begins foraging at




POLLINATION Missing Dimension {Of Mountain Agricul. tural , i Productivity ,




Mastercard or Visa accepted. We need to know your card number, card expiry date, name on card Cheque, Eurocheque or Bank draft in UK

printed proceedings of an international workshop held in Tamil Nadu, South fe. Ph eee India in June 1996. At the end of the workshop the participants proposed a series of resolutions outlining sensible policy for beekeeping development in India, and these are included.

better pollinator at low temperatures than Apis mellifera. The authors found that in Nepal Apis


Credit cards Access, JCB,

This book is the

is apparently a

study of the shape and size of honeybees. Different races of honeybees vary in their morphometry, for example tongue, wing and leg lengths.

Bank transfer Account number: 10167967 Sort code: 20-00-85 Barclays Bank pic, PO Box 29, Monmouth, NP5 3YG, United Kingdom

Post Office Giro transfer Account number: 4222067 At Bees for Development we receive payments from all over the world. For people paying subscriptions (16 or USS$35), bank charges sometimes cost us half of the money being paid! Please ensure that we do not have to pay bank charges on your payment. If you think we will have to pay bank charges, then add at least 7 to cover.

Prices include Postage Overseas orders are sent by surface mail. If your order is urgent then add 25% to the total order value and we will send it to you by airmail.

All videos and film strips are always sent air mail at no extra cost. There is an order form printed in our book list: Books to Buy. Or just write us a note of what you want. We will deal with your order as soon as we receive it.

You can order through our World-Wide-Web site. If you are placing a large order, then we will provide a pro forma invoice for payment in sterling or USS. We can help you select books for a useful beekeeping library.

FAX +44 (0)16007 16167 PHONE +44 (0)16007 13648 POST Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom



Pastap an



temperatures 5-7°C lower than those that initiate ’, Apis mellifera foraging.




[Outnal fop SUstoinable



Planbee is the name of

meet and exchange news


Bees for Development's

quickly through the

new site on the world-

and Events Diary. Perhaps


the most important

wide Internet.

feature of our new

Bees for Development has

site is that we want it to

always been a network of

be your forum - a place

people working together

where up-to-the minute

throughout the world. And that is

news and events can be

what the Internet is too: a world-wide

Internet at Meet

communications network, that now enables us to do

us on the

our work with more

site will provide a global picture of the efforts we are

all making to promote the concept of sustainable

immediacy than ever before.

beekeeping development.

By moving into the world-wide Internet, not only can

The Internet site is not a replacement for this

Bees for Development begin to do more: but the

journal. We know that many of you have no computer

Internet allows us to achieve something that no

to access the Internet and depend upon B&D's

other medium can - certainly not as easily, as

arrival by post. Planbee is rather an addition to our

quickly, or as

existing activities.

inexpensively. We can


featured. With your help the

meet more often!

Planbee reports on our work throughout the

Through our Internet

beekeeping world, and there are many pages devoted

pages, and those of

to the information materials and publications that

other organisations

can be obtained from Bees for Development.

using this remarkable communications medium, we

can build a more effective platform for our industry, and our point of view.

That is the aim behind our new site at We have planned it so that we can


& Development

is published quarterly by

Bees for Development,

Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom

Telephone +44 (0)16007 13648


Environmentally friendly paper

ISSN 1369 9555

Fax +44 (0)16007 16167

World Wide Web http//

Bees for Development 1997