Bees for Development Journal Edition 43 - June 1997

Page 1





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One hundred years



IN THIS Practical Beekeeping.



Practical Beekeeping





News Around the World

Why Bother Beekeeping? Letters to






Project Outline...


B&D goes Bi-lingual.


Notice Board




Look & Learn Ahead Bookshelf





Zooming in on


Inside Information



14 15

In 1897, 650 beekeeping enthusiasts met in Belgium for the first

What is Apimondia? Apimondia represents the interests of beekeeping world-wide, and all aspects of beekeeping will be represented at the Congress.



research and technology.

Congress events

Congress please contact: APIMONDIA, General Secretariat, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 101, 1-00186 Rome, Italy Fax: (+39) 6685 2286 E-mail:

If you would like information about Antwerp City and camping accommodation: Antwerp City Tourist Office, Grote Markt 15, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium Tel:(+32) 3232 0103 Fax: (+32) 3231 1937 E-mail: WEB site:

COVER PICTURE: Our cover shows bee hives in Albania, wrapped up well against the harsh

winds of February 1997




The Congress provides an opportunity for people who share the same interests to meet. It allows us to learn more about our subject, and hear the latest news in information,

If you would like further information about the


will be






Congress International Congress of Beekeeping. S25 held within Antwerp %. One hundred years on, in September ba \ Zoological Gardens. -1997 this year, Belgium will celebrate the This Zoo was w' founded in 1843, and Centenary Congress. This time 5 4 Q/ thousands of beekeeping enthusiasts Zl amazingly, occupies will participate, travelling to Belgium \% a site of over seven hectares in the heart of from every part of the world. We hope <P “vs the City of Antwerp. that YOU will be among them! NTesmmus

What is



Plenary Sessions and Symposia (ie presentation of information and discussions); Apiexpo (bee traders from many countries selling their products); Social events (receptions, folklore events, concert, banquet); Technical visits (visiting beekeepers and sightseeing); Competitions; Slide sessions; Film shows; Meetings of various groups; Formulation of resolutions concerning our industry;

Special displays. Of particular interest to B&D readers is the Apimondia Commission for Beekeeping for Rural Development. There are opportunities for people to make formal and informal presentations about their } projects, and to discuss their work with others. |

Congress partcipants will therefore enjoy free access to the Zoo with its collection of animals and magnificent gardens: considered amongst the best in the world. This year a new penguin house has been opened, with 17 species of penguins, and sea otters. The Zoo is one minute’s walk from Antwerp’s central railway station. 30 minutes by train or bus from Brussels airport.


Sponsorship Apimondia does not have financial means to support the participation of delegates at the Congress. If you have unique information to share at the Congress, then a funding organisation may be willing to contribute towards the cost of your participation. Write a short proposal explaining reasons for your attendance at the Congress, and costs involved, and submit it to possible funding |

organisations in your country.

Bees for Development We will be there of course. For this Congress we are joining forces with other organisations from Europe to make a special display. This will emphasise the important role of

beekeeping in rural development world-wide. B&D readers will feel at home here! _ |

A busy week - see you there!

One whole session wil] be devoted to information about the exploitation of

President of the Apimondia

Apis dorsata.

Rural Development

Standing Commission for Beekeeping for



Protecting hives against term by




Rainer K

in almost all tropical and subtropical areas. Termites destroy wooden structures in houses as well as our beekeeping equipment.

TERMITE ANTS are present

It does not matter to termites whether bee boxes are empty or full of bees. Having spent considerable money on your timber hive - in no country are they cheap anymore ~ you expect to use them for at least 5-10 years, and longer if you paint them regularly. When termites are present it is common to find painted hive walls apparently intact, but when

you touch them your fingers go right through. Even frames may be reduced to paper-thin shells that crumble upon touch.

Well, you might say, must have abandoned my hives for quite a while for this to have happened. You are probably right for most areas, but have seen this happen in less than a couple of months. 1


Signs to watch for The typical signs of termite activity are visible earth channels. Destroying these earth channels will not solve the problem. Using pesticides around the apiary is in no beekeepers interest and would, like relocating hives, be only a temporary solution. Termiteresistant }umber is expensive and is not widely available. Like treated lumber, its use for hive boxes and bottom boards is sometimes inadvisable, because of natural pesticides or feeding deterrents contained in the wood. However, there are gentle, non-toxic and non-destructive ways of dealing with termites.

All termites live in dark cavities and are shy to daylight. Thus, most of their food exploration and foraging activities take place during the night. Once a good food source has been found, an earthen tunnel is built to protect the forager ants if no internal (subterranean or inside wood) access is available. These tunnels allow access to the food, in this case your hive boxes, aiso during daylight hours.

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impossible) for termites to build their tunnels around sharp edges such as the edge of a metal sheet. Access is prevented if a metal sheet is placed between the equipment and the soil or other access routes. Of course there must be no alternative access caused by the metal edge touching a hive stand, or if the interior of the wooden hive stand posts are in direct contact with the hive.

Figure shows a single hive stand equipped with different types of anti-termite metal shields. A, B, C and D are alternative solutions. The edges of the metal sheets should always be bent slightly downwards to avoid any possibility of touching hive equipment and to prevent accumulation of rain water. Any old metal sheet, roofing, galvanised sheets, aluminium (soda cans) or tin cans will do the job. Even sturdy plastic |


1. Single hive stands with metal shields against termites (A) and (B) and tins cans around the base (C) or top (D} of stand posts. If

metal cans in (C) are filled with water or oil, and kept clean they will also prevent access by ants.




FIGURE 2. Multiple hive stands modified to alfow installation of metal shields against termites. In case

of the water bath no further termite protection would be


if vertical posts are as on the left but without a water bath, metal

sheets can also be fixed between post and horizontal support as in Figure 1{A) or 1(D).

Wooden stands If you use wooden hive stands, they too are

subject to termite destruction. As an alternative to method C of Figure |, placing tar around the whole base which touches the soil, including the tip or cut end, will retard termite attack and may even repel some ant species for a while. However, termites will eventually build their tunnels across the tarred surface to reach your hive boxes. This type of treatment is also not completely environmentallyfriendly as toxic portions of the tar will seep into the soil. Termite-resistant lumber or cement posts would be the better choice.


sheets can be used temporarily, but they are hard to bend and often deteriorate with exposure to sunlight. Except for C, the sheets or cans must be fixed in place with a nail. This is the same principle as used to protect wooden houses against termites where metal sheets are placed on top of the foundation walls or posts. Figure 2 shows a modification of already existing wooden, concrete or metal hive stands common in many Central and South American countries where movable-frame hives are used. If metal sheets cannot be placed on vertical posts, small blocks with a properly attached metal shield can be placed on top of the horizontal supports. FIGURE 3. Hive suspension by wire for horizontal type hives. Left



Hanging your hives on wires gives an effective protection against termites as well as against most ants (frequent greasing will be necessary for ant protection), but is expensive in many rural areas and not always the most stable solution, especially for vertical, movable-frame hives. It is more practical for horizontal-type hives (Figure 3), but still makes management of the bees difficult.




A better alternative is to build hives out of the many available materials that termites do not like, for example, bamboo, palm leaves and trunks, and mud. During a decade of keeping colonies on old car tyres not a single termite attack destroyed equipment placed on tyres.

None of these protective methods works against the most ferocious and most effective tropical insect enemy of honeybees - the army, soldier or red ant, as they are called in different countries. Frequent checks, and a circle of two metre radius around each hive completely cleared of vegetation, are about the only suggestions available. An anecdotal suggestion by a beekeeper in Malawi was to attach the suspension wires for the hive support at least three metres above the ground: it had worked for him. Since have observed army ants foraging on trees as high as five or six metres this method is probably not completely attack proof, but will certainly reduce the risk of invasion. |

Since most of the suggested termite protectors do not keep ants away, do not relax your ant control. But once the metal sheets are installed, you will at least not have to worry about termites carrying away your boxes, piece by piece.

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Rosemary Mngazija

GLOVES ARE ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT for beginner beekeepers and when bees are very vicious. The best bee glove is one which does not allow stings to go through and which allows you to work in a confident way. We can categorise bee gloves according to how they are made: @


Gloves made of cloth (the glove is coated with rubber).


® Gloves made of leather. @ Gloves made of plastic. Leather gloves last for a long time, but they are difficult to get and to sew, and also the leather is expensive. Plastic gloves are the cheapest, and you can get them easily. They are also simple to sew and the material can be purchased at low-cost. Here in Tanzania plastic tubes are available in the shops and from these we make useful, low-cost gloves.

Cut the size of the gloves you want by placing your hand on the sheet. Then cut out the shape, leaving enough to make a hem (about 20 mm all round).

After that join the seams. There are different ways of joining - you can sew the pieces together (you will need about two metres of thread), or by joining with heat (we use a beeswax candle).



The Asian Apicultural Association (AAA) assists with communication and exchange of information between beekeepers and bee scientists in Asia. AAA administrative headquarters are in Japan. Networking between countries is also assisted by AAA Representatives (Chapters) throughout Asia. Membership costs USS20 per year. You can send your payment directly to the AAA Office, Honeybee Science Research Center, Tamagawa University, Machida, Tokyo, 194, Japan. Fax: (+81) 427 398 685. Or you can join AAA by contacting your local representative. Names and addresses of local representatives can be found in B&D40

page ten.

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Glove seams can be joined by melting using a candle

Rosemary Mngazija is a researcher Njiro Wildlife Research Centre

(NWRC), Tanzania. NWRC and

The plastic glove is cheap because you can buy one metre of plastic tube for 300TSH (USS0.50) and from it you can make two or three gloves. Leather gloves cost about 3000 TSH (USS5) each.

This is an example of how we can make simple beekeeping equipment that is not at all costly for the beekeeper. Welcome

to the

Plastic Bee Glove Users’ Club!!

Conference Objectives @ To exchange scientific information on Asian bees #

To highlight beekeeping practices and science unique to Asia


To define the importance of bee products in Asia


To stress the importance of beekeeping for a diversified environment

Bees for Development are co-operating on a three-year project

“Sustainable Beekeeping for Africa” funded by the United Kingdom

DFID. Editor's Note: The UK's new Labour Government has :*

renamed the former ODA as the Department. International Development, DFID.




Kathmandu, Nepal

Conference Themes @


Biology of Asian bees Management of Asian bees and Apis mellifera in Asia


Beekeeping products and marketing


Beekeeping development programmes

For further details: contact Mr K K Shrestha, Conference Secretary (address in Look Ahead page 11)

B&D is the official newsletter of the Asian Apicultural Association



CAMEROON Bum- the anti-bee tree The Nso and Kom people call the tree Bum. The scientific name is still to be determined. It has a straight, lean, hard, trunk and leaves. Bums grow slowly and blossom only after nine years. The nectar is believed to be extremely dangerous to bees.

So every nine years bee farmers in areas where Bums grow are sure to experience some losses arising from the complete extinction of colonies, and heavily reduced honey production. Recently beekeepers in Boyo Division reported that they went to their hives and found no bee activity at the hive entrances. They thought the bees had absconded. However, upon opening the hives to clean them, they were alarmed to find all the bees lying dead in the hives. When the bum tree flowers die they fall off and the fallen seeds germinate. The unfriendly bee tree seedlings begin to grow again, and will flower after another nine years. Reports collected aso from bee farmers in experienced the Anyajua area who claim that bees died as a offer OF you result of sucking NOWEBA any advice? nectar from Bum are still speculative. Nevertheless, a good number of older people who have practised beekeeping since childhood are firmly convinced that bees die as a result of sucking nectar from this deadly tree.

DUN can

Another factor that could lead to such extinction of a bee colony is that bees near coffee farms may suffer from poisonous pesticide sprays, and these kill bees instantly.

Plans are underway for NOWEBA (North West Bee Farmers’ Association) to investigate why the bees collect nectar from the Bum flower that kills them. We need help for this project. Source: Honey News, 1996

GRENADA At the beginning of 1997 beekeeping in Grenada was in a sorry state due to the devastation wrought by the Varroa mite. estimate that 80% of the wild bee population had succumbed, as well as 60% of kept bees. All my colonies had perished, the last one in November 1996. Five of the twelve commercial beekeepers on the {sland have been out of production for the last three seasons. |

BUT, Mother Nature has a soft spot for us and the good news is that in January 1997 the beekeeper with most colonies decided to try the methods described in American Bee Journal using a beeswax based cream with some 3% wintergreen oil (after pondering for some months the photocopies of the article had given to him). At about 0500 hours one February morning was awakened by the overexcited gentleman who even without greeting or apology for this unearthly interruption of my dreams told me “Jorge, I tried your thing and now I am picking dead mites by the handful!” At the time he had 99 hives, but the initial trial was made on four of the colonies considered beyond hope. |


following couple of days he went ahead and treated all his bees, with the same results. Now two more beekeepers have replicated the experience and we have good reason to believe that there is after all a future for beekeeping as a viable commercial endeavour in Grenada. In the

HAITI An apiary of approximately 80 hives in the village of Balan. The trees provide light shade and the 30 m’ site is enclosed by a thorn hedge.

We have also made two trials using locally produced nutmeg essential oil (instead of oil of wintergreen). Again the bottom boards were littered with dead Varroa after 24 hours!

So, as you can imagine, the hitherto crestfallen Grenadian beekeepers have now big feathers in their caps. The hives are made from clay, or formed from stones. Many are left open at one end, as shown here.

Source: Paul Latham


Meanwhile officials of the Ministry of Agriculture continue to debate (since my first report of April 1994) whether the Varroa

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for Development publication


, :





March. The trophy for “The Best Bottle of Honey” was awarded to Michael Chilliane. This caused an international stir, as the media descended to propagate the news.







Michael Chilliane keeps bees in an assortment of top-bar hives and Langstroth hives without frames. Before the Rand Show, Mr Chilliane was not well-respected in his community and never realised much cash for his honey. He was always exploited due to his lack of self-esteem. Having entered his honey in the Show, he found instant fame. He is now able to charge 15 times more for his honey. He has appeared on television and in the press This has elevated him to a seat of honour within

“oD problem is to be dealt with by the Pest Management Unit or the Veterinary Division! recent meeting with representatives of the Organisation of American States, The Inter-American Institute for Co-operation on Agriculture, the Director of the Produce Chemist Laboratory and a big shot of the In a

the community.

Ministry of Trade, three of us beekeepers reported the situation. We hoped that they would see our wagon useful enough for them to jump on, and start some action concerning a beekeeping division of the Ministry of Agriculture (or similar) in order to bring our industry up to its rightful place in the agricultural sciences. Our report seems to have been well received by the gentlemen.


Previously he was never assured of land ownership as land belongs to the tribal chiefs. He was always subservient to the chief who could at any time order him off the land. For this reason he never built permanent dwelling on his property. It was very easy to dismantle and move somewhere else. a

He is now equal to a chief and is assured that his home will never be lost. He may not always be a beekeeper, but his accomplishment has been a life changing experience for Michael Chilliane who is now on the road to eminence. And all because we believed that beekeeping development has a

Although local honey production has been dismal in the last three years we can now smile with some confidence, and I hope to be able to contribute my own little bit once restart my Sweet Maria Apiary in action in its |

new location. Jorge Murillo Yepes is


place in Shows.

Correspondent in



A regional workshop, organised and sponsored by API-Promo/GTZ (Germany) was held in Nyeri, Kenya in March 1997. Thirty beekeeping advisors and trainers from eight countries discussed means of promoting

The Apis Family Ltd was founded in 1994 and is situated in the northern part of Uganda in Nebbi District. We have 20 hives on the farm. In December 1996 we held a three-day seminar demonstrating honey products and marketing, and how to use top bar hives. Our picture (below) shows a lesson in progress.

beekeeping as an “instrument for sustainable resource management and income diversification in

East Africa’.

The Proceedings of the workshop are available from

API-Promo/GTZ, Wehistr 4a, 29221 Celle, Germany

SOUTH AFRICA Beekeeping changes your life! Professor Raymond Borneck judged the honey and meads exhibited at the Rand Show in

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water storage tower. About 50 colonies are visible in this photograph. Is this a record? Mr Dhungana also writes “Apis dorsata is a seasonal dweller on this tank from August to April. After April where they go is unknown to me”.

The Apis Family Seminar was provided with information materials by

The workshop proved to be an appropriate and efficient platform for the exchange and collection of information. Surely networking in the beekeeping industry within the region will be strengthened and will profit from the workshop. OCHOUN UTHUMA EMIRIOUS


Mr Dhungana, a student from Nepal has sent this photograph of Apis dorsata colonies nesting on a

Eddy Lear




Bees for Development see Notice

Board page 11 for details.





Horst Wendorf

is a


sociologist who has worked with beekeeping projects in Zambia for

eight years. In the North Western Province, beekeepers (using bark hives) have been helped to improve their honey

processing and get their products on to the international market.

They have been encouraged to form an Association and become

decision-making participants in an established marketing company. In Copperbelt Province there is

limited tradition in beekeeping and

increasing woodland depletion. Here

top-bar hive beekeeping has been introduced as an alternative to excessive honey hunting. In this

article Horst argues that this, together with good marketing of diverse products, provides a way


This article continues a debate from



Constructing a top-bar hive


“MAKE MONEY FROM BEESWAX AND HONEY” is the motto of the Forestry Department in Zambia. Indeed, a great number of small-scale farmers in the vast woodlands of Zambia follow this approach. But this is not new. For many generations honey hunting, (the collection of honey from wild bees’ nests), and bark hive beekeeping have been part of village life. The Portuguese influence during the pre-colonial period gave honey production a great boost, because a good market for beeswax was created. Beeswax became one of the most important commodities for trading and cash income. Export figures have never again reached the same levels they enjoyed during the colonial period.

Only a small quantity of honey is eaten by the beekeeper's family. Most is used for brewing the honey beer “mbote’ used in celebrations, for barter, and paying for help with agriculture. Beekeeping plays a vital role in the social, cultural and economic environment of the rural population, as Eleanor Fisher described in B&D39.

“Honey Province” The North Western Province emerged as the “Honey Province” of Zambia, because of its historical tradition of beeswax trade, its close proximity to Angola, its remoteness, and its vast “untouched” miombo woodlands. However, tremendous changes in the lifestyles of the people have happened because of intervention from outside.

First it was the penetrating money economy, which created a commodity market. Then the mines in the Copperbelt made Zambia one of the most urbanised countries in Africa with 50% of the population living in towns. The labour migration to the mine areas deprived the rural areas of male-dominated economic activities. The population concentrated along the new roads, leaving the former basis of their livelihood as a remote area The introduction of schools prevented children from participating in hunting and

gathering techniques. Economic opportunities created an atmosphere of dedication to “modern life’, with desire for jobs and consumer goods.

New influences Beekeeping was also subject to new influences. The erosion of traditional values has led to theft

becoming the main problem for beekeepers. This was inconceivable when “magic” protected bee hives in remote locations. The custom of practising beekeeping in camps is on the decline (if it has not already disappeared) No wild animals are left to hunt, and with increasing mobilisation and communication, people tend to participate in other social or economic activities



Young people in particular are unwilling to continue conventional activities and would rather wait for any other opportunity to make money. areas where


population pressure leads to large settlements with more intensive agriculture and other strains on natural resources, the basis for bark hive beekeeping diminishes, as the big and straight trees that were used for bark hives disappear.

These are just a few examples of the way in which Zambia is affected by the world market, by impacts of the Structural Adjustment Programme, declining prices of raw materials like copper, and many other factors.

Labour intensive The local method of using bark hives can only be sustainable as long as no radical changes emerge in the social, cultural and economic environment. However, the technology has not been altered by the people themselves, in spite of the transformations happening. The bark hive method requires a high input of labour and the economic result is usually poor Although beekeepers are used to working without protective clothing many hives are not cropped because of the defensiveness of bees. Most of the hives are placed far from the beekeepers’ homes, at distances ranging from 6 to 30 km. Usually only one 20 litre honey container can be carried back to the village for marketing. All these constraints mean that many beekeepers do not harvest and supervise their hives regularly. A Bees for Development publication





Sealing the cracks

Honey does not play such a big role in the food self-sufficiency of the local people but ts rather an income source for them, predominately through the brewing of honey beer Marketing of honey from bark hives, which is often attempted in development projects, faces various problems Millions of dollars have been spent in training small-scale beekeepers in improved cropping techniques Certainly the share of marketable honey has increased during the pertod

Organic Honey

The honey which exported to the

organic grade market in Europe reprocessed with



sophisticated machinery After 17 years of support from donors the annual quantity of honey purchased 1s about 100 tonnes, and the profits of the established company are not

really encouraging not amazing because to clean honey locally in bulk 1s too expensive if sophisticated machinery has to be imported Experiences in the Copperbelt project have shown that without this massive donor support approximately 20% of the purchased honey can be sold as table honey



The quality demanded by customers abroad is therefore restrictive to exports With the emergence of liberalised economies in many southern African countries and stiff competition in the regions’ markets, more customers become aware of quality standards On the shelves of Zambian supermarkets, table honey from commercial beekeepers in South Africa competes with locally collected honey The price paid to farmers for such honey rarely exceeds 0 25 USS per kilogram

Mass poverty On the other hand the overall economic situation for small-scale farmers in Zambia looks bleak Mass poverty in the rural areas is on the increase Food production is on the

decrease coinciding with high population growth Other indicator standards health, education, and nutrition, are falling Under A Bees for Development publication

these circumstances what role have development projects to play?

Frame hives The results of projects which intended to introduce modern beekeeping technologies, particularly frame hives, are not encouraging Constraints given are usually trainers do not have the necessary knowledge, equipment has to be imported, honey yields are too low, investment is higher than output, the target group is not interested, technology is too difficult and complex

Ready except for top-bars, cover, roof and bees

The discouraging results experienced in many beekeeping projects fortified some experts to revitalise local ways of beekeeping and to condemn the introduction of modern ways There is certainly a need to maintain people’s diversified livelihood strategies where “traditional” beekeeping plays a vital part in identity and culture Where the local way of beekeeping Is practised intensively, and the ecological conditions are still favourable, top-bar hive beekeeping or any alternative technology has little chance to be adopted

Offer alternatives The reason for this 1s not the desire by the majority of farmers to stick to their local way of beekeeping, but rather the constraints mentioned above prevent them from changing So why not leave those people who wish to maintain their local way but offer alternatives to those who want to change, or have never done any beekeeping?

One solution has been found 1n diversifying bee products for the local market The support programme in the Copperbelt region has shown ways a dual approach can work Honey from bark hives is mainly brewed into bottled wine under commercial conditions, beeswax candles are made for the gift industry The emphasis is put on training farmers in top-bar hive beekeeping, to deliver top-class, quality honey to the supermarkets and gain much more money for their honey



the roof

Completed and occupied




PROJECT OUTLINE A polien atlas of East African honey


The Honeybee flora of Ethiopia published in 1994 has become a best selling publication. It describes an extensive collection of flowers from Ethiopia and neighbouring countries. These flowers have now been analysed further. The pollen grains from 400 of these honeybee flowers have been extracted and prepared for different microscopic analyses (light microscope, contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope). The shape and microstructure of each pollen grain will be documented photographically with a descriptive text.


B&D41 read |

from Njiro about a bee smoker appropriate f African conditions. However have been informed that some honey buyers are not interested in buying smoked honey and instead they demand to buy honey which has not been collected using smoke. Since these people have the money which we are looking for, we tend to say yes to them. We know very well that by gathering honey without the use of a smoker many bees die because they are taken by surprise without a warning. A beekeeper who loves his bees will become so sad seeing so many dead bees in his comb honey.



Justin Madaha, Manager, Tabora Beekeepers’ Co-operative Society Lid, and B&D's

for melissopalynologists (who analyse the pollen grains in honey to determine its botanical origin), palynologists (botanists who study changes in vegetation via pollen grains) and other interested readers. It

will be useful to show which

plants are used by honeybees. For example the spectra of pollen grains in honey, or stored in honeybee colonies, reveals the importance of different plants for bees. We (myself and the other authors of this supplementary volume) are now looking for sponsors to make this project possible. API-Promo/GTZ and Olympus have offered some support but further assistance is needed. Dr Werner von der Ohe, Germany


Let us know if you would prefer to be reading B&D in French! We will send you the French edition instead of the The new French edition of B&D will be sponsored by API-Promo/GTZ

VApiculture et son Développement Le prochain numéro de B&D (numéro 44) sera publié séparément en anglais et en francais.

Faites-nous savoir si vous voudriez lire B&D en francais. Nous vous enverrons alors l’édition francaise au lieu de la version anglaise.


Lédition francaise de B&D sera kes.

offerte par API-Promo/GTZ.


Correspondent in Tanzania

Dear Mr Madaha

We have read your response to our article about research on appropriate smokers. We are also aware that honey buyers from Europe request very clean honey that does not have a smoky taste. We agree with you that we beekeepers should be more concerned about our environment in the future, rather than quick profits from honey sales today. There is however a solution to both the environmental and the business problems. The solution is INFORMATION! 1.

We have to continue our struggle to inform our fellow beekeepers about the need to use a nice, cold and white smoke from a good smoker rather then using open fires or dangerous torches that give a bad smell and cause forest fires. We should also inform them how to make cheap, protective clothing and how to harvest clean honey without dirt or dead bees.


English one.


Honeybee flora of Ethiopia in


The next edition of B&D (number 44) will be published in separate French and English editions.

Even if beekeeper accepts the method of harvesting without using the smoker, honey may still be smoke-flavoured because of bush fires. This is due to “Early burning of the forest” to allow dry grass to burn without causing serious damage to the forest and at the same time to provide green grass for the beasts.

Which is Which to follow? MONEY OR

goes bilingual


We are planning to publish a supplementary volume to the

co-operation with the authors Reinhard Ficht! and Admasu Adi, and the publisher Margraf Verlag. The volume is intended



Dear Editor


We should also direct information to the honey buyers in Europe and elsewhere about African honeys. We should explain to them that the honey from African forests and woodlands is free from pesticides and pollution. We should tell them that the miombo woodlands produce a nice honey with a “wild” taste that resembles the taste of smoke. Finally we should explain that the African honeys are many times richer in enzymes, pollen, proteins and minerals compared to honey from other big honey exporter nations.

The buyers of honey should be aware that buying honey from a poor country means support for a healthy trade between rich and poor that does not conflict with conservation efforts.

Good luck with your promotional efforts! Bérje Svensson and RS O Koisianga, Nijiro Wildlife Research Centre, Tanzania

PS: Remember that Europeans love the flavour of smoked food.

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NOTICE BOARD SEEDS WANTED Tesfaye Ayele would like sample seeds of Julbernardia globiflora.

Can anyone help him? Write to. Tesfaye Ayele, PO Box 1385, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

SEEDS OFFERED The New Forests Project provides tree seeds, information and training materials free of charge to groups world-wide who are interested in starting reforestation projects with fast-growing, nitrogen-fixing trees. Provide an environmental description of your area: elevation, rainfall, seasons, temperatures, soil characteristics, and tree use (fuelwood, lumber, forage, soil conservation, soil enhancement, etc).

ora reforestation packet available from: Felicia Ruiz, Co-ordinator, World Seed Program, The New Forests Project, 73! Eighth Street, SE, Washington DC 20003, USA

More information

Fax: (+1) 202 546 4784

BEEKEEPER WANTED APNET, the African Peace Network are organising a beekeeping workshop in November 1997. Assistance is required from a volunteer beekeeper for one month to assist bee farmers. APNET will provide food and accommodation and cover local travel costs. If you are interested write to:

Mensah Akrong, APNET Inc, PO Box 2647, Dansoman, Accra, Ghana

GUARANTEES OFFERED The RAFAD Foundation provides international guarantees to facilitate access to local bank credit, in local currency, to development organisations with proven economic viability.

RAFAD Foundation, CP 117 Rue de Varembé |, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland Fax: (+41) 22 734 70 83






Conserve the European Dark Bee Second International Conference 27-30 August 1997, See, Tyrol

APIMONDIA International Apicultural Congress 13-18 September 2001, Sun City

Further details from: Nils Drivdal, Kvelland,

Further details from: APIMONDIA,

General Secretariat, Corso Vittorio Emanuele I} 101, 1-00186 Rome, Italy Fax: (+39) 6685 2286

N-4400 Flekkefjord, Norway Fax: (+47) 38 32 44 56



Visit the

APIMONDIA : International Apicultural Congress

Bees for Develo evelopmen

The Royal Show - International Agricultural Exhibition

30 June - 3 July 1997,

National Agricultural Showground, Stoneleigh

1-6 September 1997, Antwerp See page two of this edition

Visit the-3 Bees for

RASE, National Agricultural

Further details from:


Deve pm

Centre, Stoneleigh Park, Warwickshire CR8 2LZ Fax: (+44) 1203 696900

APIMONDIA International Apicultural Congress 13-21 September 1999, Vancouver

Further details from. APIMONDIA, General Secretariat, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 101,

National Honey Show 27-29 November, 1997, London Further details from:

1-00186 Rome, Italy Fax: (+39) 6685 2286

Rev F Capener, Baldric Road Folkestone CT20 2NR


Visit the Bees for


International Conference on Medicinal Plants



16-20 February 1998, Bangalore Further details from: Global Initiative for Traditional Systems of Health, Department

Forest Products for Sustainable Forestry 7-12 July 1997, Washington

of Dermatology, The Churchill, Headington, Oxford OX3 7L], United Kingdom Fax: (+44) 1865 228274

Further details from: WSU



Fourth Asian Apicultural Association Conference

IX Venezuelan Congress of Zootechnical Science


Institutes, Washington Fax: (+1) 509 335 0945

22-27 March 1998, Kathmandu

25-28 November 1997, Maracaibo

Further details from: Mr K K Shrestha,

XV Reunién ALPA, Omar Araujo Febres, Chairman, Apartado 15205, Maracaibo, ZU 4005 Fax: (+58) 61 596183 Further details from:

Conference Secretary, AAA Conference, ICIMOD, PO Box 3226, Kathmandu Fax: (+977)



524 509


newsletter on agroforestry, fruit trees and tree crops for Kenya and the region. Subscription information available from:

Miti Ni Maendeleo: circulation, ICRAF, PO Box 47051, Nairobi, Kenya

SUPPORT SUPPLIED Bees for Development will support your event with past editions of B&D and other material. Send us details of the meeting, and how many participants, at least three months ahead of the date

A Bees for Development publication



Training in Beekeeping

Beekeeping in Rural Development

Two year training courses commencing in July

17 November - 13 December 1997, Cardiff University and Niiro Wildlife Research Centre, Tanzania

Further details from:

Further details from: Ms Glynis Hudson,

The Principal, Forestry Training Institute,

Professional Development Centre, 51 Park Place, Cardiff University of Wales Cardiff, CF1 3AT, United Kingdom Fax: (+44) 1222 874560


PO Box 943, Arusha Fax: (+255) 57 227)



well in advance.





Sixty years with bees by Donald Sims B&D


Bridge, United Kingdom (1997) 282 pages. Paperback. Available

Available from

Bees for Development

price 14.00


Bees Dona1a


Marston House. Yeovil. United Kinadam

Donald Sims is clearly an expert beekeeper. In this new book he passes on all those skills and stories from sixty years of beekeeping. He is also a very tidy and methodical beekeeper we can detect this from the pictures of his apiaries and - most revealing - his bee box full of tools. All the contents smoker, hammer, pencil, etc are ready for action.


by Ted

Northern Bee Books, Hebd en



Guide to bees and honey


The book is highly readable with colour pictures and good line drawings. Every aspect of smallscale, frame hive beekeeping as

practised in Europe is covered. There is a usefully comprehensive index. The best way to learn beekeeping is to accompany a skilled and competent beekeeper. This book provides the next best thing: companion in written form. It might well become a classic amongst beekeeping texts. a

A read-about, fold-out, and pop-up BEE David Hawcock and Lee Montgomery


USA (1994). Bees for

Random House Inc, New York,

Hardback. Available from Development price 5.00

The title says it all. A neat little book from the “Bouncing Bugs” series introducing bees. Features fold out to reveal the inside of a bee, or the inside of a hive. Finally the piece de la resistance: when the covers are folded back, up pops a whole, threedimensional bee! d

Wonderful for children of all ages

(1997 4th edition). 272 pages. Paperback.

This is the new edition of a beekeeping text that has proved enduringly popular and valuable. It provides a reliable, comprehensive introduction for those wishi begin beekeeping with European bees and equipment

materials needed for batik. It gives instructions and practical advice for a number of batik works, wall hangings and clothing. These will appeal to both beginners and more experienced workers.

The art of batik: flowers and landscapes

The new edition contains information about Varroa disease and treatment currently permitted in the United

Mary Taylor


Tunbridge Wells, United Kingdom

There are many photographs and illustrations making this book excellent value for money.

Introduction to batik by Heather Griffin and Margaret Hone Search Press, Tunbridge Wells, United Kingdom (1995 reprint). 48 pages.

Paperback. Available from

Bees for Development price 7.00 Batik is an ancient craft, at least 2000 years old. It has evolved around the principle that wax and water do not mix, therefore an area of fabric covered with wax will not accept dye. Starting with white fabric, hot wax is applied to the areas to be kept white, and then the fabric is dyed for the first time. The fabric is then waxed in those areas that are to be kept in this first colour, and the process repeated with a second colour. Wax and dyeing is continued in this way until the picture is built up, and finally all the wax is removed §

This useful book describes the equipment and



Bees for Development

price 12.00


Search Press,

(1995). 80 pages. Paperback.

Available from

Bees for Development price 11.00 This book also gives excellent detailed instruction on how to do batik. Stepby-step guides show how to complete a flower picture. Mary Taylor also produces complex landscape pictures in batik and this book shows many excellent examples - and illustrates, picture by picture, how some of them were achieved. Very inspiring!

Natural pest and disease control by Henry Elwell and Anita Maas Natural Farming Network, Zimbabwe (1995) 128 pages. Paperback. Available from

Bees for Development price 12.00 A systematic compilation of natural ways to control plant pests and disease. Part gives four steps to re-establishing the Natural Order, to prevent pests and diseases. Part II gives natural ways to control pests and diseases. Part III gives remedies to protect field crops, and Part IV deals with protecting stored seed and grain. |

A Bees for Development publication








Development of training materials in agriculture: a course manual Anthony Youdeowei and Joseph Kwarteng

Reviewed in

SHELF The book is primarily intended for East and Southern Africa, but its recommendations are of interest far beyond this region. Pests like aphids, whitefly, slugs and snails occur everywhere! The text is in English, =| with plant names -z. .

atin, English,

hona, Ndebele, etswana, hinyanja and

Kiswahili. The book was blished with lant Protection assistance IO Improvement Programme of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. It is included in our list because natural ways of controlling pests and diseases cause less harm to


now available at 20.00

Tropical bees and the environment Makhdzir Mardan, Abdullah Sipat, Kamaruddin, Mohd Yusoff, Ruth Kiew and Mohd Mathieu Abdullah

edited by

Reviewed in


now available at 25.00

Secrets of the beehive E H Thorne

(Beehives) Ltd, Wragby, United Kingdom. Available from Bees for Development price 5.00 for 2

Teach children about bees! They will enjoy

colouring in these pictures, and then making them into an information wheel chart. As the lower wheel is rotated, different aspects of life within the colony come into view. Good fun!

rime Getting Started E H Thorne




Ltd, Wragby, United Kingdom VHS. Running time 35 minutes. Available from

Bees for Development price 18.00 including airmail postage and packing

Rebecca and Nathan are beginning beekeeping. This video follows them buying their frame hive and installing a six-frame nucleus of bees. The video shows the main events of their first beekeeping season, introducing items of equipment, showing how to light a smoker, simple colony inspection, feeding bees, marking the queen. At the end of summer the first super is harvested - using an electric honey MGs Loe extractor. Useful


bees and their environment.

Ordering is Easy All our prices include postage and packing costs. If you want to place a large order, then we can provide a quote for payment in UK or USS.

Overseas orders are sent by surface mail. If your order is urgent then add 25% to the total order value and we will dispatch it by air mail. All videos are always sent air mail at no extra cost.


for introducing

non-beekeepers to frame hive beekeeping with European bees.


BY FAX: (+44) 0 16007 16167 BY PHONE: (+44) 0 16007 13648 BY POST: Nina Gibson, Publication Sales Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom BY E-MAIL:

Ways to Pay Credit cards Access, JCB, Mastercard


or Visa accepted.

We need to know your card number, card expiry date, name on card Cheque, Eurocheque or Bank draft in UK

Bank transfer Account number: 10167967 Sort code: 20-00-85 Barclays Bank plc, PO Box 29, Monmouth, NP5 3YG, United Kingdom Post Office Giro transfer Account number: 4222067 Payments to Bees for Development Please make sure that we do not have to pay bank charges on your payment Our current titles in Books to Buy are also published on the World Wide Web

A Bees for Development publication




Where is Albania..? Eastern Europe with coastline on the Adriatic and lonian seas. Borders with Greece, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia In

Size 28,748 km’


How many people live there? Three million

Recent history r too much of its history Albania has been us d as a pawn in other countries’ games of ch ss. Nevertheless, Albanians have never be len subdued and retain their own language an id strong cultural identity. The end of

co Immunism has brought a period of tre mendous change. Some of this has been on

ac atastrophic scale with Albania losing her vit lal resources, including people.

Currency Lek Main agriculture Farming systems have broken down following decollectivisation. Main crops include maize, pulses, sunflowers, fruits and vegetables.

What is it like? ADRIATIC SEA

Much of the country is wild and mountainous. Sadly the extensive forests that used to cover these mountains have been cleared in recent years.


A traditional style wooden hive

Honey is harvested from combs soon after it is stored by bees and supering {adding further boxes) is not always practised because equipment is in short supply.

Honey production Between 800 and 1000 tonnes per annum.

Honey production - per colony Traditional hives yield 5-10 kg of honey per year, and also some wax. Annual honey harvests from frame hives can be over 30 kg per colony. one beekeeper claims yields of 70 kg. 12 kg per colony per year can be assumed as a typical annual harvest.

Marketing Beekeepers do not have access to containers or labels, and have little possibility to market honey well. The Bulgarian and Romanian honey on sale in Albania is attractively packaged and sells at a lower price than local honey.

There is great scope to assist Albanian beekeepers by making the material for marketing available.

Number of beekeepers About 5000 Number of honeybee colonies? 85,000

Any honeybee pests and diseases? Albanian beekeepers all control Varroa jacobsoni mites using fluvalinate, either in the form of impregnated strips placed in the hive, or ina more concentrated liquid form.

Bee forage

A market has developed selling strips at

What is the climate? Temperate Which honeybees? Apis mellifera

The herbaceous plants and woody perennials found in the mountains are known for their excellence for beekeeping, and forage for bees is therefore good.

Flowering period There are many different periods of nectar flow throughout the country, and beekeepers are able to provide ten months of forage for bees by moving them from one area to another as forage comes successively into flower.

Beekeeping equipment Traditional beekeeping. Traditional styles of hives include wooden boxes and baskets.

Frame hive beekeeping Most beekeepers in Albania keep between 11 and 30 colonies in frame hives, similar in design to the Langstroth hive. A small amount of equipment is made in Albania but most is imported from Italy and neighbouring countries. It is difficult to obtain the


embossed beeswax sheets known as foundation. Some beekeepers have the presses necessary to make this foundation, but lack of co-ordination means that these are not accessible throughout the country.


relatively high price and this in turn encourages beekeepers to misuse them in a way that will encourage fast development of mite resistance. The cost of buying these strips is one of the major recurrent costs for beekeepers, making their work less economic than it could be. Chalkbrood is a serious disease for bees in Albania, but it need not be so. Hives are often over-insulated in winter, with little ventilation, and these are just the conditions to encourage chalkbrood. Technical assistance could help to alleviate this problem. American foulbrood is also present.

Other problems for beekeepers The presence of the many pesticides used extensively in Albania.

Projects Since 1992 several organisations have offered assistance to beekeeping in Albania. These include FAO, GTZ, VOCA and The Plunkett Foundation (see next page). A Bees for Development publication


INSIDE INFORMATION EDITORIAL OFFICE Editor. Dr Nicola Bradbear Co-ordinator: Helen Jackson







Bees for Development

SUBSCRIPTION DEPARTMENT An apiary of frame hives (front) and traditional hives (rear)

Beekeepers’ Association The Rural Associations Support Programme (RASP) is being supported by The Plunkett Foundation to assist development of the Albania Beekeepers’ Association. Recently the first edition of new magazine Bleta & Shendeti (Bees & Health) was published. Further details from RASP, Kutia Postare 2415/1, Tirané, Albania. The Beekeepers’ Association is providing extension support to beekeepers through regional meetings and distribution of the magazine. a

Government support Until recently there existed Government Station near Tirané with responsibility for Apiculture and Sericulture. This Station merged with the Veterinarian Research Institute in December 1996. a

At the Agriculture University of Tirané students studying animal production receive lectures in apiculture.

More information http://www. Bees and their keepers in Tirané


The subscription rate for 12 months is 16 or 35USS by airmail to any address


A subscription form is printed in Books to Buy. Past editions are each. Readers in developing

countries may pay by Beeswax Barter or Candle Currency (see

B&D38 page


\V 13).

PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION Four editions are published each year and 4000 copies of each edition are printed and

distributed world-wide.

ADVERTISEMENTS Advertisements and enclosures in B&D reach readers in many countries The rates for two-colour advertisements are: sixth page 35, quarter page 60, half page 125; full page 250 Colour and cover prices on request. Classified advertisments appear in Notice Board and cost 5 for up to 30 words, plus 1 for each further 10 words. Enclosures 50 per kilogram. Prices subject to VAT in EC countries.

REPRODUCTION Information in B&D is intended to help beekeepers everywhere. If you wish to reproduce or translate any item, please acknowledge B&D and the author of the item you are using. Send us a copy of your item.


There are plenty of ways for you to contact B&D, this edition’s contributors and other readers

Letters will be

published in B&D only with your permission

By post

Bees for Development Troy, Monmouth NP5 4AB

United Kingdom

By e-mail By fax +44 (0) 16007 16167

By phone 4 (0) 16007 1364834

Bees for Development has received financial support from The Secretariat for the Environment and Sustainable Development, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Denmark, towards the production and distribution of Beekeeping & Development. Bees for Development acknowledges CTA (the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation), The Netherlands for providing sponsorship. We are grateful to Novartis Ltd and all the beekeeping groups and individuals who assist us.

Acknowledgements Information in this feature was kindly provided by Dr Selim Dedej, Adriatik Likcani and Dr Kristaq

Thomo and many beekeepers in Albania.

A Bees for Development publication




& Development WHEN


BILL JONES PICKS THE WINNERS! Helen is holding a basket full of correct entries to our competition in B&D41.

The correct answer: gait 0 od

Gaia was the ancient Greek

Goddess of the Earth.

The three lucky winners of the Atlas of Eartheare are:

Samuel Taye, Nazareth, Ethiopia

PN Ravindran, International Institute of Spices Research,

India James Yaw Peh, Sampa, Ghana

Mr Bill Jones is a supporter of Bees for Development


longterm; effective in just 6 weeks

Kensington Town Hall, 27-29 November 1997 @

to see the best exhibits of honey and wax


to hear the best lectures to enter the best range of classes

r no


to learn the best techniques for beekeeping


to see the best books


to buy the best honey and wax processing equipment


to find the best bargains


to subscribe to the best beekeeping magazines


to experience the best Honey Show on earth


to meet best friends You will be very welcome as an exhibitor or a visitor Schedules will be availabie in August from


safe for beekeepers

residue honey

Not safe for varroa!

a LTD SANDOZ SPECIALITY PEST CONTROL is pleased to support Beekeeping & Development


More information on APISTAN is available from: SANDOZ SPECIALITY PEST CONTROL LIMITED SGS House, 217 - 221 London Road Camberley, Surrey GU15 3EY, England Tel. 00 44 1276 25425 Fax. 00 44 1276 25769

Rev Francis Capener, Baldric Close, Folkestone CT20 2NR, UK

who will also answer any special queries




f Beekeeping & Development is published quarterly by Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom Telephone: +44 (0) 16007 13648 Fax: +44 (0) 16007 16167 E-Mail: Environmentally friendly paper

Bees for Development ISSN 0256 4424