The journal for sustainable
)2ekeeping evelopment uss
INSIDE INFORMATION World Vision Award for Development Initiative 1990
dean Frends Congratulations to Zimbabwe Women's Bureau, the winners of our December competition.
We are an independent organisation This is what we do: @
It was a difficult task to choose the finalists. Many entries were technically excellent pictures
of bees and beekeeping. However our judges decided to select winners from those entrants who most closely met the request to provide a picture showing beekeeping and development in action.
Apimondia Gold 1989, Bronze 1993
Bees for Development
Our cover shows
Promote sustainable beekeeping Publish this quarterly journal
e Arrange training courses @ Provide information books, videos, answers to specific enquiries
the first second and third
winners. A selection of other entries the judges felt caught the spirit of the competition are shown on page five.
is where to contact us:
Zimbabwe Women's Bureau will therefore receive the first prize of
Bees for Development Troy, Monmouth NP5 4AB United Kingdom
Honey Filtering System. pag fiv
The second prize winner is Ukiru O'Temgo of
Kenya. The third prize winner is Grace Mande of
Uganda. Congratulations to you all!
IN THIS ISSUE Inside Information
Frames for Top-Bar Hives Debate
News Around the World
Look & Learn Ahead
Editor: Dr Nicola Bradbear
Co-ordinator: Helen Jackson
Zooming in on iraq
Social Sustainability of Beekeeping...12 Bookshelf
Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom
Telephone: (+44) 0 16007 13648 Fax: (+44) 0 16007 16167 E-Mail: 100410.2631 @CompuServe.cCOM
REPRODUCTION Information in B&D
is intended to help beekeepers everywhere. We are happy for items to be reproduced or translated. Please give acknowledgement to B&D and the author of the item you are using, and send us a copy of the reproduced or translated item.
SUBSCRIPTION DEPARTMENT The subscription rate for 12 months (four editions) is 16 by airmail to any address. Past editions are 5 each. Readers in developing countries may pay by Beeswax Barter or Candle Currency (see B&D38 page
SPONSORS Bees for Development is receiving financial support from The Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs DANIDA, towards the production and distribution of -
PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION B&D is published four times every year in March, June, September and December. 4000 copies of each edition are printed and distributed world-wide. COVER
Advertisements and enclosures in B&D reach readers in many countries. Advertisement rates are: Quarter page 50; Half page 100; Full page 200. Enclosures 40 per kilogram. These prices are subject to VAT in the EC.
Ist. Zimbabwe Women's Bureau 2nd. A
hive made from a jerry can,
Ukiru O'Temgo, Kenya
3rd. Grace Mande, Uganda
Beekeeping & Development in 1996.
We are also grateful to Sandoz SPC Ltd and our other sponsors, beekeeping groups and individuals who assist us. We acknowledge this support on behalf of all our readers receiving the journal under sponsorship.
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BEEKEEPING & DEVELOPMENT 39
FACTS ABOUT “A FRAME FOR THE KENYA TOP-BAR HIVE”...
PRACTICAL Z“CXBEEKEEPING 3s
reply to previous articles by
Stanely K Mbobua, Kenya
developing the Ruai frame the idea was not:
to be able to centrifuge honey out of the frames,
to make it easy to move Kenya top-bar hives,
to prevent migratory swarms from building fresh wax combs.
On the contrary the idea is to: @
encourage bees to build fresh wax combs,
leave the hives where they are,
market honey in sections of honeycomb, not as liquid honey.
[am not claiming that this is the best way to do it, but it is the way we are doing it at Ruai!
HOW TO PRODUCE SECTIONS OF COMB HONEY USING THE RUAI
FRAME Time to insert frames - at the start of the honey flow.
Colonies to select - those colonies with at least eight honeycombs. Where to place frames - at the far end of the
COMB PROCESSING AND PACKING
Remove the honey frames and transfer them to catcher boxes. Replace the removed frames with top-bars from the catcher box. Seal the entrances of the catcher box.
Leave the Kenya top-bar hive where it is and transport the honey inside the catcher box.
Beekeeping here is practised mainly by the poorest of the poor. If you use strong words like ‘fiddling’ you may threaten this group of innovators. This category of ‘have nots’ may, if threatened, slip easily to the more dangerous level of ‘expect not to have’.”
Wrap the sections with self-clinging clear food wrap. This film should be crystal clear and cling tightly to seal in comb freshness and flavour. We place the sealed combs in triangular olive wood containers then seal them further with food wrap. We label them. We are thus able to have an appetisingly fresh and attractive product for our customers.
COMB HONEY PRODUCTION WITH THE KENYA TOP-BAR FRAME L rT
Kenya top-bar frame
HARVESTING AND TRANSPORTING
have read the articles by Mark Luckhurst (B&D35) and Bernhard Clauss (B&D36) with concern. am in charge of beekeeping extension in the district where Ruai is situated. “|
three frames and fill them with capped honey in two weeks.
Unlike suspended combs and the Nightingale frame*, the comb will be attractively filled at the margins and around the wires. During slicing of the comb relatively little damage is done to the comb.
You should end up with three triangular sections of about 14 x 22 x 22 cm, each weighing about 600 g. Dry the comb sections by suspending them on some clean nylon
hive away from the entrance.
Position ~ Six honeycombs after the brood, and at least two places before the end of the hive. Bees will reduce comb building in other areas and quickly build combs on the
Mr Mbobua, Beekeeping Officer for Laikipia
Place the frame flat on a tray. Slice the comb along both sides of the wires, then all along the wooden frame leaving at least 0.5 cm of comb with the wire and wooden frame.
Kenya top-bar frame with capped honey
Packed comb honey from one
Kenya top-bar frame
You can barely get two such combs from one suspended (frame-less) comb
*Jim Nightingale invented a method of using bamboo sticks to support the comb built from a top-bar
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In September bark hive beekeepers harvest bitter Euphorbia honey and then prepare their bark hives to harvest sweet Acacia mellifera honey in October. Then there is mixed flora honey, locally called “grass” honey, in December. If you are lucky there is even a further crop in January.
The consistent market for fresh, white comb acacia honey by some commercial ranchers has motivated beekeepers to produce these combs. In farmers’ search for sources of income, brood renewal in these bark hives is regular, and the crop higher per year than from Kenya top-bar hives.
MARKETING The Ruai Club motivates beekeepers to produce honey of excellent quality by offering attractive prices to compete with external honey brands. This has been done consistently since 1977. The price for comb honey is double the price of liquid honey, and triple the price of crude honey.
EXTENSION Bark hive beekeepers here are teaching us an impressive lesson. In an area with a lot of Euphorbia candelabrum and Acacia mellifera some innovation is required to harvest both bitter and sweet honeys from the same hive.
Our Beekeeping Department is keen to introduce this technique to Kenya top-bar hives by means of the Ruai frame. Worker bees hatching from new, white combs are bigger bodied and more active.
We have staged a number of field demonstrations and tours at Ruai and in Ewaso area, to allow bark hive beekeepers and Kenya top-bar hive beekeepers to meet with one another.
THE RUAI FRAME IS THEREFORE PART OF OUR SEARCH FOR MORE ATTRACTIVE MARKETING- IT IS OUR GATEWAY TO EXTENSION AND DEVELOPMENT
THIRD ASIAN APICULTURAL ASSOCIATION CONFERENCE a\hF'Cu,, 6-10 October 1996 saa. Ho Chi Minh 2%
Renson wa fa
24 T AAAs
Museum, Hanoi, Vietnam
Conference subjects include Biology of Asian bees Beekeeping development programmes Beekeeping management and economics Melliferous flora and bee pollination Bee product marketing: the Asian perspective
Further details are available from The Organizing Committee of the Third AAA Conference Mrs Nguyen Thu Hang, Bee Research & Development Centre, Lang ha, Dong da, Hanoi, Vietnam Fax: 84 435 2725/84 435 1103 Steven Riley,
Beekeeping & Development is proud to be the official newsletter of AAA
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A GOOD WAY TO WORK A HONEY EXT PACS? This is Mr Wilson, a beekeeper living in the rainforest of Ecuador, near the border with Colombia. Mr Wilson keeps his Africanized bees in Langstroth frame hives, which he makes himself. He has also made his own honey extractor seen here.
The frames spin backwards and forwards as the pull cord winds in and out with each pull reversing the direction of the spin with each pull. No need to take the frames out to reverse them! It is simple and effective. There is little effort involved, and no cogs to wear out!
This extractor consists of a drum with the frame holder inside. The frame holder is supported on a length of metal rod, which is in fact a piece of concrete reinforcing rod. This tod sticks up well above the top of the extractor. A piece of cord is wound around the top of the rod. Pulling the cord spins the frames, so that the honey flies out of the combs.
Mr Wilson with
his innovative honey
SEE SOMETHING'S BUZZING IN YOUR BRAIN - WHAT IS IT?
YES, I'D HEARD THAT NOWADAYS YOU'RE A PROFESSIONAL
HEE! HEE! HEE! DON'T MAKE ME LAUGH TIZO!
BEEKEEPER, SO WHY ONLY NOW ARE YOU THINKING OF THIS? I'M
JUST SITTING HERE
|WHY ARE YOU LAUGHING AT
THINKING HOW TO APPROACH THE BEES
AND GET TO THE HONEY.
REALLY BELIEVE IN THESE BEES?
OW-OW, I'M DYING, HELP! THESE BEES ARE KILLING ME.
I$ THAT? LOOK MY FRIEND, YOU ARE
WITH THE EXPERT, SO WHY
ARE YOU WORRYING?
WHAT ARE YOU ASKING
HA HA, AND YOU WERE THE ONE THAT LAUGHED! WHAT DID YOU
THINK? THE BEES ARE YOUR RELATIVES OR SOMETHING? JUST HOW FOOLISH CAN
A Bees for Development public auion
NITRO ANZ. Akuy
OTHER PEOPLE BE?
BEEKEEPING & DEVELOPMENT 39
NEPAL First Honey Festival Many beekeeping projects are providing training and equipment for rural people in Nepal to help them improve their economic status. These efforts alone are not sufficient to raise living standards without a proper market for bee products. An event was needed to publicise sustainable beekeeping practices and honey production. A three-day Festival was held in September 1995 in Kathmandu. Technical support was provided by the Government's Beekeeping Section, and the Fair was organised by Himalayan Bee Concern. Financial support came from FAO, ICIMOD and IUCN.
Honey for sale at the first ever Nepalese Honey Festival
The objectives were: ® To help provide better market possibilities for honey and other hive products, locally and for export. ®
To provide information to beekeepers and consumers.
Forty-eight beekeepers from 12 districts brought honey and beeswax for sale. Honey was sold for Rs270 (USS5) per kilogram. ICIMOD showed
beekeeping equipment and provided information. Other exhibitors sold beekeeping equipment, publications and other hive products. Talks were given about bees and how to care for them.
Plenty of information
There were many activities over three days video demonstrations, quizzes, competitions and honey quality tests. There were children’s events including singing, dancing, poems about honeybees, and the crowning of a Honey Prince and Princess.
The Festival was the first of its kind in Nepal. We declare it was a great success. Beekeepers are very happy to have sold their honey for a good price. Soni Basnet
In West Kalimantan there is a remote and unique wetland area which is the site of an ODA-funded tropical forest management programme uniting local communities, visitors, and experts in the care of a very precious resource.
Bees thrive on a range of forest flowers, providing substantial quantities of honey for sale outside the reserve. Honey and the sale of other forest
products have traditionally provided villagers in the 38 communities of the reserve with a reliable, sustainable income. Building on an established custom of “hukum adat”, which allows each village to govern its own resources, the forest management programme will encourage new ventures such as improved marketing and packaging of honey. Source: British Overseas Development July 1995
BRAZIL The new Brazilian Propolis Association aims to promote the production and trade of propolis and its by-products, for both domestic and international markets. The Association will: @
Help develop methods for collecting and processing propolis.
Establish standards for quality control.
Promote the sale and use of propolis.
Introduce quality labelling.
The Brazilian Propolis Association is established by companies involved with the production and export of propolis and its by-products, duly registered with the Brazilian Agriculture Ministry or The Department of Foreign Commerce. Beatriz Pamplona, Association Committee Member
INDIA Century Foundation is new non-governmental and non-profit organisation working for sustainable natural resource management and rural development. a
The major objective of the Trust is to promote awareness of beekeeping practice for various benefits in rural areas of Karnataka State, India, with other objectives like biodiversity studies, conservation of medicinal plants, and sustainable forest and agriculture development programmes. For more information about Century Foundation activities you may contact Dr V Sivaram or Dr Anita Menon,
Century Foundation, 3391 13th Main, HAL IInd Stage, Bangalore 560 008, India
TANZANIA For the last three years Tabora Beekeepers’ Co-operative has had a poor harvest. In the 1995/96 season it was so bad that we were only able to collect 10,556 kg of honey - a quantity not enough to fill a container.
We hope it will be a good season ths year so that we can supply our customers in Europe.
Correspondent in Tanzania
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BEEKEEPING & DEVELOPMENT 39
LOOK AHEAD AUSTRALIA World Heritage Tropical Forests Conference 2-6 September 1996, Cairns Further details from: World Heritage Forest Conference Secretariat, PO Box 1280, Milton, 4064 Old, Australia Fax: 617 3369 1512
BELGIUM APIMONDIA International Apicultural Congress 1-6 September 1997, Antwerp
Further details from: APIMONDIA, General Secretariat, Corso Vittorio Emanuele I! 101, I-00186 Rome, Italy
Fax: 39 6685 2286
APIMONDIA International Apicultural Congress 13-2! September 1999, Vancouver Further details from: APIMONDIA, General Secretariat, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 101, 1-00186 Rome, Italy Fax: 39 6685 2286
Tropical Bees: Management and Diversity 12-17 August 1996, San José Further details from: IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff,
First International Arab Apicultural Congress 17-20 August 1996, American University, Beirut Further details from: The Organizing Committee, PO Box 90, 1404 Beirut, Lebanon Fax: 961 890085
SOUTH AFRICA APIMONDIA International Apicultural Congress 13-18 September 2001 Further details from: APIMONDIA, General Secretariat, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 101, 1-00186 Rome, Italy Fax: 39 6685 2286
UNITED KINGDOM Plants for Food and Medicine 1-6 July 1996, London
Further details from: The Linnean Society, Burlington
House, Piccadilly, London W1V OLQ, United Kingdom Fax: (+44) 0 171 287 9364
VIETNAM Third Asian Apicultural Association Conference 6-10 October 1996, Hanoi Further details from: Third AAA Conference, Mrs Nguyen Thu Hang, Bee Research and Development Centre, Lang ha, Dong da, Hanoi, Vietnam Fax: 84 435 2725
CFI 3DY, United Kingdom CUBA International Symposium on Honey Flora and Pollination 21-24 August 1996, Havana City Further details from: Adolfo M Pérez, Estacién Experimental Apfcola, El Cano Arroyo Arenas, La Lisa, Habana 19190, Cuba Fax: 537 33 5787/5086
DENMARK Organic Agriculture 11-15 August 1996, Copenhagen Further details from: IFOAM 96, Blegdamsvej 41, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
GERMANY Third Symposium on Apiculture 22-26 August 1996, Jena Further details from: Dr Ursula Horn, Friedrich Schiller Universitat, Am Steiger 3, D07743 Jena/Thtringen, Germany Fax: 36 41 635 382
Training in Tropical Beekeeping Short courses in November 1996, February and May 1997, Njiro Wildlife Research Centre Further details from: Njiro Wildlife Research Centre, PO Box 661, Arusha, Tanzania Fax: +255 (0) 57 8242 or from Bees for Development
UNITED KINGDOM AND TANZANIA
Beekeeping in Rural Development September - October 1996, University of Wales Cardiff, United Kingdom and Njiro Wildlife Research Centre, Tanzania 1
Further details from: Glynis Hudson, Continuing Education Facilitator, University of Wales Cardiff, 51 Park Place, Cardiff CFl 3AT, United Kingdom Fax: (+44) 0 1222 874560 UNITED KINGDOM
Further details from: Morna Stoakley, Drumlin, Craigerne Lane, Peebles EH45 0HQ, United Kingdom Tel/Fax: (+44) 0 1721 720097
Courses at University of Edinburgh Tropical Forest Management 27 June - 20 September 1996 Participatory Rural Appraisal Techniques 8-12 July 1996 Further details from: Catherine Bancroft, Univ Ed Technologies Ltd, 16 Buccleuch Place, Edinburgh EH8 9LN, United Kingdom Fax: (+44) 0 131 650 3474
XXth International Congress of Entomology 25-31 August 1996, Florence Further details from: The Organising Secretariat, Via A la Moarmora 24, 50121, Florence, Italy
Magister Scientiarum en Recursos Naturales Renovables - Produccién Animal Integral
IRELAND British Isles Bee Breeders’ Association Conference 6-9 September 1996, Co Kilkenny
Fax: 55 500 1912
World Food Summit 13-17 November 1996, Rome Further details from: World Food Summit Secretariat,
FAO Headquarters, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy Fax: 396 5225 5249
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Further details from: Programa de Produccién Animal UNELLEZ, Mesa de Cavacas 3323, Guanare, Edo Portuguesa, Venezuela Fax: 57 68157
For your event or Notice to appear here, send advance details to Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth NP5 4AB, United Kingdom Fax: (+44) 0 16007 16167
NOTICE BOARD MUSEUMS A Guide Book
Beekeeping Museums is being published in time for the Centenary Apimondia Congress in Belgium next year. If you know of a Beekeeping Museum that should be included, send full details as soon as
possible to: Professor O Van Laere, Dekokerlaan 13, B-9940 Evergem, Belgium Fax: 32 9 253 9163
A countrywide network of farmers who use organic methods has been established in Ghana. It is hoped to set up an information centre to serve Ghana and West Africa. Advice from: Henry Doubleday
Ryton Organic Gardens, Ryton-on-Dunsmore, Coventry CV8 3LG, United Kingdom
PLANNING A MEETING? If you are planning a beekeepers’ workshop then Bees for Development may provide you with past editions of B&D and other material for use by participants. Send (at least three months ahead of the date) details of your workshop and likely numbers of participants.
TREE AID Tree Aid supports village communities in Africa working to reverse environmental degredation and poverty with projects protecting existing trees and planting and tending new trees. Contact: Tree Aid, 28 Hobbs, Lane, Bristol, BS1 5ED, United Kingdom
ALTERNATIVE TRADE The International Federation for Alternative Trade will hold a series of regional meetings in 1996 to encourage new members and networking. For details contact: IFAT Secretariat,
PO Box 500, Akron, PA 17501 0500, USA
IAQ Country Iraq consists of two regions: the Government of Iraq composed of 15 governorates, and
The North with three governorates.
Population Mr Shoaa and Mr Saad
in their apiary in
an apricot orchard near Baghdad
(FAO) Programme for Emergency Assistance to Iraq.
Iraq is bordered by Iran, Kuwait, Jordan, The Gulf of Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Turkey. The main topographical features are the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, which flow from Turkey and Syria in the north to the Gulf in the south. The plains surrounding the rivers are fertile. To the north and north-east are mountains, to the west is desert.
Frame hive beekeeping becomes well-established, highly dependent on importation of equipment. 90% of honeybee colonies lost.
Extent of beekeeping ‘Every farmer a beekeeper’ Over 500 000 traditional hives.
Varroa jacobsoni has severe impact:
Many traditional beekeepers give up.
Gulf war: frame hives widely Number of frame hives broken up, and colonies remaining is less than 500. plundered, beekeeping impossible. UN sanctions introduced. After the Gulf war beekeepers endeavour to redevelop their beekeeping. Apistan was available initially and effective against
7,000 frame hives made locally and colonies re-established.
Before the Gulf War, oi! accounted for 95% of Iraq's export earnings.
However since the UN embargo was imposed in 1990, most trade has been forbidden between Iraq and UN Member States. Iraq now is in a very bad economic situation. Yet before the Gulf War Iraq was a prosperous country, with first-class medical facilities and 22 universities Today the situation is very different. Malnutrition is widespread and famine is
only just being prevented. There are severe shortages of food, seeds, fertilisers, equipment, spare parts and essential medicines.
Beekeeping situation All of the above has had
This article was written by Nicola Bradbear who visited Iraq in December 1995 as part of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization
First appearance of ‘crawling bees’ in spring 1994.
More than 30,000 colonies of honeybees in frame hives.
Reappearance of ‘crawling bees’ in spring 1995, more severe.
Numbers considerably reduced from previous year.
implications for Iraq’s bees and beekeepers. Since Iraq must now endeavour to become self-sufficient in food production, there is great need for local honey, and for good crop pollination. Yet the beekeepers face many problems, with serious losses of their bees.
Honeybee species and races The indigenous honeybee is Apis
syriaca. Honeybees have been introduced from many countries during the 1970s and 1980s:
they range in size and colour, and do not collect much propolis. The bees are fairly gentle to work with and not highly defensive. In northern Iraq some of the traditional hives contain dark bees which use much propolis around the entrance to their nests: these may be indigenous bees. Apis florea is reported recently to be in eastern Iraq (B&D 24). It is not known whether
Apis florea has naturally increased its distribution westwards, or whether this
represents an introduction by man, as has happened in the Sudan.
Plants for bees Iraq has in the past had plant resources to support good levels of beekeeping. Many of the major Iraqi food crops provide useful pollen and/or nectar for bees. These include: dates, maize, coffee, pulses, oil seeds, fruits, vegetables and spices.
Beekeeping has become harder during the five years of UN sanctions because of the change in agriculture which has taken place: monocultural agriculture has largely replaced mixed farming.
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The “crawling bee
syndrome”. Apiary floors are covered with dead or dying bees.
Frame hive beekeeping is used in and around Baghdad and by all members of the Iraqi Beekeepers’
traditional hives are lower, the low cost of traditional beekeeping can make these methods, on a small-scale, more economical than frame hive
During the 1970s and 1980s beekeepers using frame hives depended entirely on the importation of equipment, and bees were also m
imported. UN sanctions ended this
possibility. Now, fag
five years later, it is possible to buy locally-made frame
hives, smokers and hive tools. The one fundamental item which cannot be made in Iraq is west of Beekeepers al Falluja, fuves in foundation - the beeswax their keep Baghdad, citrus orchards embossed, beeswax sheet which bees use as a ‘foundation’ from which to build their comb. Although this is a simple item to make, the necessary embossed rollers or presses are not available in Iraq. Beekeepers in Iraq had been accustomed to
importing all the foundation they needed. The nature of frame hive beekeeping means that the beeswax comb is recycled: bees are able to put their effort into honey production rather than rebuilding their wax comb each year. Normal beekeeping practice is to replace some of the brood combs every year such that none become too old. However the lack of foundation has meant that beekeepers in Iraq have been forced to continuously reuse the same combs. This inevitably leads to a build up of old combs containing high levels of disease. This poor sanitation may have led in part to the current ‘disease crisis’.
Current beekeeping Traditional styles of hives are still used in some areas. Some hives are baskets woven from willow, and kept inside buildings during the winter. Other hives are made from clay and permanently housed inside clay bee houses, with their entrances opening to the outside. This arrangement makes beekeeping very convenient for the beekeeper, protects the bees from winter cold and summer heat, and is almost without cost In the 1970s there were hundreds of thousands of colonies housed in this way in northern Iraq. Although honey yields from
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Pesticides Many beekeepers believe their honeybee populations are seriously harmed by the pesticides used extensively in Iraq.
Diseases Honeybee diseases are common and widespread. The new emergence of ‘crawling bee syndrome’ in spring 1994 and 1995 has caused severe weakening and
loss of honey production.
‘Crawling bee syndrome’ “A new pathological condition affecting honeybees in Iraq, hindering colony build-up, reducing honey production, and decreasing colony reproduction. Ultimately death of a lot of colonies. It was first noted in spring 1994. Beekeepers complained of crawling bees. It continued for six to eight weeks but ended as beekeepers collected their honey crop and forgot about it. In early 1995 the condition reappeared and continued until 10 April, more severely than in 1994. The chief complaint was crawling bees all over apiaries. Thousands of crawling bees spreading their wings with swollen abdomens. Crawlers go out in the morning and at different times, but a striking phenomenon are hundreds of young bees falling to the ground and unable to return home. They aggregate together having lost their sting reflex. Then after a while they craw] everywhere.
Some of the diseased bees have distended abdomens: squeezing the abdomen a greenish faecal material appears with paraldehyde
ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT SITUATION IN IRAQ PRESENCE OF MANY HONEYBEE
LACK OF ACCESS TO TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE BY BEEKEEPERS
NON-AVAILABILITY OF EFFECTIVE
TREATMENTS POOR POLLINATION
STRESSED DISEASED [HERBICIDES |————» HONEYBEE ~-® HONEYBEE COLONIES COLONIES OVERCROWDING OF HONEYBEE COLONIES
TL NO CLEAN FOUNDATION
[—Sopzace OF HONEY
OVER TREATMENT WITH CHEMICALS IN ATTEMPTS TO CONTROL VARROA JACOBSONI SHORTAGE OF BEESWAX
APPEAL Iraqi Beekeepers’ Association This self-help organisation was formed in 1991. The current membership is approximately 300 people. The Association arranges weekly meetings, publishes a newsletter and provides training, both for beginners and existing
Beekeepers in Iraq need current beekeeping journals and technical information. They also need foundation making equipment
(standard European Apis mellifera size). If you can help please contact:
The Iraqi Beekeepers’ Association, Mr Quassim Abdul Ameer Al-Mudhafar, President, PO Box 5034, Al Resheed Post, Al-Hussor Square, Baghdad, Iraq. or
c/o Bees for Development
aroma. Diluting it with normal saline you see under the microscope undigested pollen with a heavy growth of bacteria. You notice spores of Nosema apis. Culturing the bacteria and staining with gram stain you find gram negative bacilli. On opening the first segment of the thorax you notice a clear fluid comes out. Some of the samples are a creamy or pus-like fluid with a fermented aroma,” Source: Iraqi Beekeepers’ Association.
Brenda Ball at IACR-Rothamsted in the United Kingdom is currently examining samples of Iraqi bees to determine which viruses, if any, are present.
The symptoms of ‘crawling bee syndrome’ also resemble the symptoms of diseases caused by Acarapis woodi, Nosema apis and foul brood, all of which are also present. It seems that most beekeepers in Iraq have bees showing the ‘crawling bee syndrome’, but there could be confusion between this and the other diseases present.
Colonies are heavily infested with Varroa jacobsoni. This mite caused the loss of an estimated 90% of colonies after it was first detected in Iraq in the mid 1980s. Many beekeepers, especially those using traditional hives, lost all their colonies and have not resumed beekeeping. This is because they lack medicines and technical knowledge to control Varroa jacobsoni. In 1987
beekeepers used Folbex VA to control
Varroa jacobsoni. Subsequently Mavrik and
Inside the bee houses, hives are wrapped well
against the winter cold
Apistan became available and have been widely used. Beekeepers are now using whatever they can get in an effort to control Varroa jacobsoni: all supplies are out of date. It is impossible for anyone to use the correct dosage of fresh drugs. Lack of technical information is a serious constraint. Understanding of the science of Varroa jacobsoni is moving rapidly and the UN sanctions have meant that Iraqi beekeepers have been isolated from opportunities to follow international research in this field. Nosema apis
The bees show symptoms of Nosema apis, but the treatment for this protozoon, the antibiotic Fumagillin, is not available.
hives inside bee houses in north-west
Many beekeepers report that their bees show symptoms of European foul brood disease. Oxytetracycline is the normal remedy: beekeepers in Iraq are forced to treat bees with a veterinary product intended for hens which contains this antibiotic.
A priest hives
at the north-east city of Kirkuk, with home-made
Chalk brood This fungus, Ascophaera apis, has recently been recorded for the first time in lraq by Ibrahim Al-jboory.
OTHER CONSTRAINTS Lack of sites for bees The lack of suitable sites for bees means that beekeepers are forced to keep many colonies at each site: this leads to further stresses for colonies through competition for food resources, and increased likelihood of diseases being spread rapidly. Lack of bees There is currently a shortage of honeybee colonies available. This is because of the problems with disease, and also because it is no longer possible to bring supplies from mountainous areas of Iraq where bees were formerly abundant.
Honey Current honey production from frame hives averages about 7 kg per colony per year. However beekeepers with good sites for their bees and who manage their colonies well can exceptionally harvest up to 50 kg per year per colony. Current retail price per kilogram is 12000 Iraqi Dinar (4.6USS), although inflation changes the price every month.
Government policy and support Apiculture falls within the Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Abu Ghraib, Baghdad.
College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad Iraq has skilled entomologists but the severe shortage of resources means that support is not available to alleviate the problems of beekeepers.
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BEERKEEPING & DEVELOPMENT
USE OF TOBACCO SMOKE AGAINST PARASITIC MITE SYNDROME by Dr
Dhafer Behnam, Iraq
The pathological condition that has appeared in Iraqi apiaries recently has caused large losses in honeybee colonies, dwindling populations and decreasing honey
production. It is perhaps
Dr Shimanuki as The Parasitic Mite
trial has been carried out on two
apiaries, one with 50 colonies and the other with 30 colonies using tobacco leaves burned in the smokers.
EXPERIMENTAL TRIAL In
Spring 1995 colonies showed some delay
in their build up. A lot of crawling bees had been seen in front of the hives and on the
ground. Hives in two apiaries were treated with tobacco leaves. 15-20 g of leaves were
burned in the smoker with the material used for making smoke. It was used during routine examinations every week or as needed, in March, April and May. These colonies were shown to have greater populations and to yield more honey compared with two control hives kept near the apiary of 50 colonies. In the apiary with 30 colonies there were another 45 colonies which were not treated with tobacco smoke. 'SHIMANUKI,H; CALDERONE,N W; Knox, D
early August there was a check up and comparison between the colonies that had been treated with tobacco smoke and those which had not. There was a great difference in honeybee populations; those which had been treated being more populous. The bees were more active in foraging and collecting nectar.
CONCLUSION Whatever the disease, believe that tobacco smoke had beneficial effect on the colonies. We know that nicotine in tobacco smoke has some anaesthetic effect on insects in general, and it might have some lethal effect on mites and therefore some beneficial effect against the condition. |
We believe now that the immune system of the bees is in some way diminished. By using tobacco smoke we are either hitting the primary target, or we might be curing a secondary pathogen. In either case we are helping our bees to get better!
A (1994) Parasitic mite syndrome: the symptoms
American Bee Journal
?HunG,A C F; Abams J; SHIMANUKI,H (1995) Bee Parasitic Mite Syndrome (II) The Varroa mite and role of viruses. American Bee Journal 135: 702-704
BEES AS ARTISTS! by I
Thamir Selman, Iraq
started beekeeping in Baghdad as a hobby in Since then, because of my full admiration for
the bees, a persistent question comes to my mind: whether it is possible to add a new function to bees in addition to their honey and wax
was ready to be taken out of the hive. To date I have produced forty very fine and most attractive
sculptures such as human heads and vases. The question which now arises concerns the ability of the worker bees to find a new art school for wax carving, and whether wax carvers will appear in the future!
production? l asked myself, “Would it be possible to train bees to be artists by making sculptures of natural wax in the hive?”
Method of work In the beginning bought a strong colony with a huge number of young worker bees. put in wax foundation designed like the sculpture wished to create. i |
started work by making daily visits tothe hive to check the development of the wax shaping, and by using a large knife and a light brush, I carried out the necessary work of adding and removing in order to get the required shape.
After months of hard labour on the part of myself and the worker bees, the sculpture
A Bees for Development publication
Despite their many problems, Iraqi beekeepers have not lost their sense of humour! Here is Mr Selman
with his bees’ excellent creation:
THE SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF BEEKEEPING by
Eleanor Fisher, United Kingdom
Eleanor Fisher is an anthropologist who has undertaken eighteen months of ethnographic research in
Ugalla Game Reserve, Tabora Region, Tanzania. During this time she lived in the beekeeping camp of the Chairman of the Tabora Beekeepers’ Co-operative Society. In this article she questions whether it is
necessarily best to change existing beekeeping tehcnology.
In B&D37 Horst Wendorf discussed successes and failures associated with a project introducing top-bar hive beekeeping in Zambia. He stated that “bark hive beekeeping and honey gathering are methods which cannot be developed further due to limitations regarding quality, yields and workloads”. Furthermore he considered these methods destructive and difficult to sustain due to deforestation.
However, by focusing on the need for development through intervention it is possible to miss a very important feature of local beekeeping. Local methods using bark or log hives are socially, culturally and economically sustainable, and need not depend on external assistance. (1 am not able to comment on honey gathering.) For people who live with harsh economic realities, who are familiar with the failures of development projects, the importance of self-sufficiency cannot be over-emphasised.
Kasontwa ‘B' beekeeping camp
No-one would wish to deny the value of positive change in people's lives. However one must question the extent to which a radical change in beekeeping methods will really assist people or environments. If technological intervention is necessary it should be carried out with extreme care.
Honey produced at Kasontwa ‘B’ being poured into a drum for transportation
Drawing on research from south Tabora Region, Tanzania, want to focus on the sustainability of beekeeping from a social perspective. This is often over-looked although such consideration can lead to constructive insights covering ecological sustainability. |
The practices I focus on are ‘local’ ways of beekeeping, not a ‘traditional system’. Beekeeping has been created and recreated over the years, incorporating many changes. What is important is its continued relevance in the lives of people who regard it as a valuable means of survival.
Beekeeping is mainly done by men, although some women have been drawn to the occupation. Log and bark hives are hung in the miombo woodlands in localities know as ‘camps’. Because these camps are 50 to 200 km from beekeepers’ homes, groups of men travel and live together through the harvesting season. An established beekeeper may own 500-1500 hives distributed between different locations.
Extensive parts of the so-called ‘natural’ woodlands in western Tanzania were inhabited until people were resettled elsewhere during the sleeping sickness epidemics between 1925 and 1940. It is in these areas that beekeepers return to hang their bee hives. Beekeeping camps are used over several generations. For example, along the Ugalla River, many camps were ‘opened’ in the late 1920s and continue to be used by people TWELVE
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whose families lived there before resettlement for (1925-1927). In camps used solely also are fishing, (there beekeeping purposes are sure timber people camps) and hunting, that productivity has not declined over time.
Like honey hunting, beekeeping is an inherited includes occupation. The idea of inheritance the passing on of bee hives, knowledge, skill and experience, and conveys a sense of this livelihood being transmitted within a person's with no family family and clan. Some people tradition do begin beekeeping. This is like particularly the case where a co-operative Society Co-operative Tabora Beekeepers’ the are operates. However, ‘new’ beekeepers to and many prefer number, in few relatively of in years work as assistants, or give up hardship.
The number of people in a beekeeping camp varies between six and fifteen, depending levels of wealth, upon individual preferences, centre of the the At and the age of the camp. skilled six to one of group is a core in life. They beekeepers, each well established fellow often and are friends, neighbours, will attract Co-operative members. Each - usually sons, nephews, or apprentices the skills and grandsons. These men learn start to make hives of their own, whilst to the labouring for the beekeeper. In addition of a beekeepers and apprentices, group labourers will work at the camp. Their numbers vary according to how good or bad are usually productivity is in a season. They unmarried and without property (bee hives, a in farm, a house), or they may be beekeepers need of extra income.
Close ties of co-operation also exist between camps within a locality. Beekeepers organise themselves in order to get transport and to also be found in carry produce. Assistance can tobacco and sickness times of hunger, shortage! The camp and forest is a place where men - friends, relatives, neighbours for It is a focus after year. come together year education and aspirations, identity and lifestyle. Beekeepers prefer to work in camps where there are few people. Given that the method is land (tree) extensive, this is connected to ecological factors, like the number of trees suitable for hive hanging. But social factors and individual personalities also limit the number of people working in an area.
Beekeeper shareholders of Tabora Beekeepers’ Co-operative. From left to
right [top] Wazee Henricko Saleh, Rajabu Juma, Richard Mbogo, Peter Kasimila, Patrick Manimba, [bottom| Abuide Manimba, Lucas Martin
The Tabora Beekeepers’ Co-operative Society in Tanzania is testimony to the fact that individual beekeepers can produce large quantities of organic grade honey which is sold on international markets. New technology may not be needed to improve quality: the outcome of local methods is not necessarily an inferior product.
Arguably the greatest assistance the Co-operative provides for beekeepers is the provision of transport and a market for their products. Furthermore, those who encourage high productivity in beekeeping should not forget the need for people to have diversified livelihood strategies. Where people are poor, with small risk margins, encouragement for beekeepers to put ‘all their eggs in one basket’ may have negative as well as positive outcomes. have drawn on information which is geographically specific and obviously too limited to act as a basis for wider generalisation. However when it is argued that beekeeping technologies need to be developed, it is important to remember that intervention produces socio-cultural and economic implications for the people concerned.
Stanley Adriano making bark rope for hive hanging
When contemplating intervention, full consideration must be given to the way that skills, knowledge and practices are learnt and transmitted. We must also take into account the part local beekeeping plays in people’s livelihood strategies, their lifestyles and identity, and the community's cultural survival. Thanks
Mr Justin Madaha,
Co-operative Society, Mzee Lucas
All these factors must be taken into account when considering the ecological sustainability
Martin, Chairman of the Co-operative, and the beekeeper shareholders for
facilitating this research.
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The natural history of pollination by Michael Proctor, Peter Yeo and Andraur I ack Harper Collins Publishers, London, United Kingdom (1996) 479 pages. Paperback. Available from
Bees for Development price 20.49 Pollination ecology is a dynamic field of research, with much activity during the last 25 years or so. This book draws together information on pollination biology, giving a comprehensive introduction to the subject. Pollination studies help our understanding of how plants and social insects evolved. In turn this contributes to current ecological and evolutionary theories.
VIDEO Bees, beekeeping and ecological agriculture produced by Agriculture Man Ecology
This is an important new text giving a world-wide look at pollination. Of course bees are not the only pollinators: birds, bats, butterflies, mice and possums are also discussed. The book is beautifully illustrated with black and white line drawings and photographs, and 45 colour photographs. These help to show how size, shape, positioning, conspicuousness, guide marks and food supply are all important indicators of how a flower will be pollinated.
ETC-Consultants India Pvt Ltd
Programme, Bangalore, India (1995) Running time 23 minutes.
VHS. Available from Bees for Development price 15.65 Interesting facts about Indian bees and the management of Apis cerana. The video explains the basics of beekeeping, the role of bees in ecology and how bees and trees can be incorporated into a farming system. Information on the damage caused by pesticides, improved crop yields due to honeybee pollination, and the benefits of beekeeping to landless people. From the video “Bees, beekeeping and ecological agriculture” produced by the AME Programme
A PRACTICAL C ‘AFRICAN BEEKEEPERS
already be familiar to readers of this journal! However a few mistakes have crept in, for example, confusion between methods for top-bar hives and frame hives, and while several different types of hives are described, there are not quite enough practical details for readers to get started. This would be a nice book to accompany students who are also attending a practical beekeeping course.
Bee pollen: properties, collection, preservation and consumption by
Seyed Javad Saadatmand
Available from Seyed Javad Saadatmand, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology,
PO Box 15815-3538, Tehran 15819, ran
A new, two hundred page paperback in Arabic, all about pollen. The purpose of pollen for plants, how it is gathered by bees, its identification, how it is harvested by beekeepers, and its use in apitherapy.
First aid for bee and wasp stings by
Apitronic Services, Richmond, Canada (1995) 32 pages. Paperback. Available from
Bees for Development price 7.50
Honey: a practical manual for African community
beekeepers edited by Similola Towry-Coker The Participatory Development Resource Centre for Africa section of United Nations Volunteers, Harare,
Zimbabwe (1995) 52 pages. Paperback. In English and French. Available from Bees for Development
This is a smartly produced book with a worthwhile aim: to provide a practical manual for African community beekeepers. The layout is excellent, the pictures are very good and clear, and the text is presented in an easy to read style. Some of the information will
An introduction to the stinging insects of North America. A clear explanation of stings and their effects, removing a sting, providing first aid to insect stings and bites, precautions, allergy tests, immunotherapy, sting treatments, home remedies, first aid for pets, benefits of insectvenoms. A neat g for beekeepers to keep handy.
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help, a cash deposit can be made by bank transfer to: Zagrebatka banka, Filijala ZapreSi, Ulica Bana J Jelacica 1, 10290, ZapreSi, Croatia. Bank office number: 013900. Foreign currency account number: (14) 2551105856 Please state “Fund raising for kidney transplantation”.
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the Greck literally means DEFENDER OF THE CITY. Collected from tree: resinous substance is worked on in the hive to produc this largely the hive against infection. Intruders into the hive too large. plue with which they seal up to death then are ceated in propolis and can then remall are first
of infection, perfecily preserved for years preveating danger:
Propolis is the Bee Colo
external immune system.
man asa natural medicine since Egyptian times. Over the last ft “Propolis has been used by antibiotic - antivg medical research has shown that propolis and scientific has éars modern and analgesic properties and is now-used to trea ~Anti-fangal anti-inflammatory antiseptic ~ asthana - skin complaints and fungal infections. illnesses like arthritis
If you can
and plants by the bees, )
Unfortunately, for the past two years Professor Sulimanovié has suffered from renal insufficiency. Professor Ruttner has arranged for him to join a waiting list for kidney transplant in Austria. A fund has been established to pay the cost of the operation and it is hoped that the international beekeeping community will contribute.
We cannot be responsible for books lost in transit. We can arrange insurance if required, at additional cost. We do all we can to maintain prices, but they are occasionally changed by publishers.
Professor Duro Sulimanovi is well-known and respected for his contribution to apiculture in Croatia and internationally. He has published much work on beekeeping technology and bee pathology.
black sticky stuff that bees seal up thejr nest with. In modern timose4 “Propolis is that brown and it is gow worth collecting and propolis is often thrown away. But Hines have changed iv “Selling added value te the honey crop
have done more than any other company in the last three years the word They ate offering to buy propolis frome around
LTD. in the UK BEEHEALTH “rediscover” PROPOLIS.
46 help the
HOW TO COLLECT IT
frame hives, you can collect propolis either by scraping it from the frame-o holes which the beus fill with propolis aga! fnserting screens in the hive- containing small AL the end of the season the screen is removed. There is to standard
Hf you use
‘aeal the hive,
sraditional hives: perbaps you can invent one! ‘harvesting propolis from
For further information contact James Fearnley at:
EE HEALTH LYD. 1, Racecourse Road, East Ayto “
Searborough, North Yorkshire YOI3 SHT: STEL..01723,86400: "AX: 01723 B62455,
Opportunities for Beekeeping Instructors to work overseas
Each year, almost 1,000 skilled men and women leave the UK to work with communities in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and the Caribbean. They are VSO volunteers. In most cases, returning volunteers say they wouldn’t have missed the experience - for the world.
Opportunities for Beekeepers currently exist in Namibia, Ghana and Kenya
In these countries, qualified and/or experienced beekeepers are required to offer beekeeping education and training to school leavers and the unemployed, and to implement their own beekeeping projects at community level for income generation.
Beekeeping Coordinator required for Baraka College, Kenya: to assist in the development of beekeeping at the college and surrounding area. Requirements: a professional qualification with a specialisation in beekeeping plus experience preferably at management level. Beekeeper required in Namibia: to share skills with farmers in the formerly disadvantaged communal areas and also work with the government to assess the potential of beekeeping to contribute to rural livelihoods. Requirements: experience of beekeeping essential but no formal qualifications are required.
Beekeeping Instructor required in Ghana:
to provide Beekeeping training to the youth to enable them to earn a living through beekeeping. Requirements: minimum two years experience as beekeeper instructor. Apart from qualifications and/or experience, it is essential to have the right personal qualities. These include cultural sensitivity, commitment, resilience - and a sense of humour. You should be aged between 20-70, without dependant children, able to spend up to two years overseas working for a modest living allowance and have unrestricted right of re-entry into the UK. For further details and an application form, please send a brief summary of your qualifications and work experience to: Atha Murphy, VSO Enquiries Unit, 317 Putney Bridge Road, London, SW15 2PN. Or call: 0181-780 1331
Beekeeping & Development is published quarterly by Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom Telephone: +(44) 0 16007 13648 Fax: +(44) 0 16007 16167 E-Mail: 100410.2631@CompuServe.COM Environmentally friendly paper
Bees for Development ISSN 0256 4424