Bees for Development Journal Edition 32 - September 1994

Page 1

Beekeeping

development SEPTEMBER 1994

LATEST ON LAUSANNE 1995 FAIR TRADE FOR HONEY

NUMBER 32


BEEKEEPING

&

DEVELOPENT 2

INSIDE INFORMATION |

Qeav Fieuds Bees for Development

is

dedicate

to

Within the pages of this edition of Beekeeping & Development you

providing help

World

Visin Award fo

nitiative

to beekeepers

will find your copy of The Pocket Pollen Pocket Guide helps a

Colour Guide. This Development

beekeeper to identify the pollen types that bees are

990 t

collecting. The pollen colours are arranged in order

according

to the

appearance of pollen throughout

the season The colours are only a guide. within

background rather than white, since in practice we

Colour Guide. He

see pollen

against the background of the

This Pocket Guide was produced by Stephen Hardy for beekeepers in the United Kingdom.

Obviously the plants

Inside Information

2

Practical Beekeeping

3

4

Harmony or conflict?

bees forage on in the

We are very grateful

to

Stephen Hardy for

The Pocket Pollen

has produced it after

15 years of fascination with bees combined with an interest in computers and printing producing very accurate colours in print in this way is a

difficult and skilled process.

UK are

different from those in your country. However. this is the first such Guide that we have seen, and we

NiSla trradhear

BEEKEEPING & DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHED BY: BEES FOR DEVELOPMENT, TROY, MONMOUTH, NP5 4AB, UNITED KINGDOM

Apis mellifera and Apis cerana |

where possible substituting the names of your plants producing pollen af similar colour?

enabling us to bring you

hive or in combs, which are often shades of brown.

INTHISISSUE|

can help in identifying the plants on which bees are foraging. Perhaps you could modify the guide to your own locality, using the colours shown, but

every plant species there are variatians in colour. The 68 pollen colours are shown against a coloured

usually

Apimondia Gold 1989, Bronze 1993

believe it will be of interest 1o beekeepers everywhere. You could use it when teaching, to lead discussion of pollen and how bees collect it, and how observation of pollen loads at the hive

|

Letters to Bees for 8

Development.

|

News Around the World

10

is an active beekeeping network linking people interested in bees and appropriate beekeeping Contact us if you have information to share, or if you need information We welcome your contributions for publication in this journal

|

Zooming in on Guatemala

..

13

|

14

Bookshelf Beeswax

Back issues are available at

Please use the payment methads as shawn in Bookshelf, page 15

Bees for Development

Notices

|

Editor Dr Nicola Bradbear Co-ordinator Helen Jackson

Barter...

16

REPRODUCTION

Beekeepi levelopment

*

Fee

Information published in Beekeeping & Development is intended to help beekeepers everywhere We are happy for items to be reproduced or translated but please give acknowledgement to Beekeeping & Development and the author of the item you are using All items are written by Nicola Bradbear unless stated otherwise Please send us a copy of the reproduced or translated item

ADVERTISEMENTS AND ENCLOSURES Advertisements and enclosures

in

Beekeeping & Development reach many readers in many countries

|

CERANA

V

The rates are Quarter page 50, Half page 90, Full page 160 Enclosures 20 per kilogram.

MELLIFERA + FLORA

LATEST ON LAUSANNE FAIR TRADE FOR HON! t

COVER PICTURE Husband and wife Peekeepers it Zambia

s

North Western Province These beekeepers are carrying two of their hives The hives are made in the traditional style from cylinders bark, the end walls are made with woven

of

fibres The miombo woodland

im

which these

beekepeers live and work provides rich nectar sources for bees Picture kindly provided by

Ss,

5

00 (USS10}1 each

PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION Four editions of Beekeeping & published every year

Development are

Publication months are March, lune. September and December 4000 copies of Beereepina & Development are printed and distributed world-wide

SPONSORS Beekeepers who are financially poor and living in remote areas of the world receive Beekeeping & Development without payment through the generosity of sponsors

The journal has been sponsored in part, by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. We have also received sponsorship from CTA. The Netherlands Beekeeping & Development's production is assisted by World Vision UK

We are gratetul to these sponsors and many beekeeping groups and individuals world-wide who are supporting us

SUBSCRIPTIONS

We need more sponsors Please contact us direct.

The rates for

Beekeeping & Develapment 1s the official newsletter of the Asian Apicultural Association

12

months ttour editions) are.

or USS35 to any address outside the UK {includes airmail postage}

16

32

to a UK address

Please see also page

16

Readers in developing countries may pay by Beeswax Barter or Candie Currency.

CONTACT US AT: Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom Telephone: 44 (0)1600 713648 Fax: 44 (0)1600 716167

Bernhard Clauss

A

Bees for Development publication

L

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BEEKEEPING

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32

HONEYBEE COLONY DEVELOPMENT AND THE FLOWERING CALENDAR by

Steven Liseki and Simplis Boniphace, Tanzania

INTRODUCTION

CONCLUSIONS

Beekeeping in much of Tanzania, as in many other developing countries, is done by the “let alone method”. This means that beekeepers site their hives and leave them unattended until the harvesting period. They use various indicators to determine when it is time to harvest. In Tanzania typical harvest indicators are: Field crops such as millet start to ripen. 1.

The flowering periods of 13 melliferous plants have been recorded as shown on the chart. For example, it can be seen that between January and February to provide bees with forage it is best to site hives near to blooming Acacia polyacantha and

;

The rainy season ends and the dry season starts. 3. Dead drone honeybees are found at the hive entrances.

2.

The intensity of sound made by foraging bees decreases. 5. The activity of foragers at the hive entrance significantly decreases or stops

4,

altogether. Of course these indicators are not perfect and they can result in harvesting starting too early, causing unripe honey to be

harvested.

FLOWERING CALENDARS Flowering calendars can make it easier to plan various beekeeping management operations such as the siting of hives near to particular crops and deciding the best time for honey harvest. The calendar shown here is based on our recordings of dates when bee plants flowered in one area. The full opening of the first few buds was taken as the date of first flowering, and the withering of flowers and start of fruit formation was taken as the end

Following the item on making in a bee fodder calendar Nepal (Beekeeping & are Development 31) . we pleased to now publish this from floral calendar Tanzania.

Grewia $icolour.

The chart also shows that the “build up” period in this area will be between March and June when the majority of plants are in bloom. This is therefore the time to divide colonies, check for queen cells (reproductive swarming might occur), and (if frame hives are being used) increase the number of

) PRACTICAL EEKEEPING

supers The best harvesting period in this area should be between October and November, before the start of the dearth period when few plants are flowering. This is the time when feeding of bees is advised to prevent absconding, and to ensure the colony remains strong enough for the forthcoming season

Another way to follow variations in honeybee colonies is to place bee hives on scales and study their seasonal weight changes. The weather is recorded daily and the flowering periods are recorded throughout the year. This allows understanding of the relationships between the weather, the flowering of melliferous plants and colony development.

of flowering

FLOWERING PERIOD PLANTS

jAN

F B

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

|

AUGUST

SEPT

OcT

NOV

DEC

Acacia polyacantha Grewia bicolor

Acacia nilotica Acacia brevispica Acacia senegal Cordia abyssinica

Clausena anisata Rhus natalensis Pterolobium stelatum

Vernonia exertifolia Coffea arabica

Acacia seyal Acacia nubica

A

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BEEKEEPIN

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32

O ARMONY APIS ME

Apis mellifera colonies in a

coconut

plantation, although longan

AN

honey is in fact the main honey

APIS CEI SOUTHERN

source in the

area.

ONQTAN

transportation which does not fit Vietnam's present economy In 1992 our survey of 23 households in four provinces revealed the beekeeping pattern:

THE BEEKEEPING SITUATION species of honeybee native to Vietnam. According to Mulder (1) there are four main methods of beekeeping with Apis cerana

1s a

Apis cerana in Vietnam: 1.

Traditional family beekeeping using log hives, sedenary (the hives are not moved around to different locations).

2.

Family beekeeping using frame hives, less than 15 colonies and sedentary.

Family beekeeping with frame hives: 15 colonies and migratory beekeeping is practised, but over short distances and with limited transport. 4. Group beekeeping, over 50 colonies and intensive, migratory beekeeping. Most Apis cerana beekeepers in southern Vietnam fit into categories 2 and 3. To practise beekeeping according to category 4 requires extensive investment and 3.

more than

BEE COMBS Vietnam (like elsewhere in Asia) beekeepers often buy and sell honeybee colonies. The sizes of the colonies can be very different: an In

|

|

0%

Category

|

Category

2

17%

Category

3

74%

Category

4

9%

Apis mellifera (the European honeybee} and its related beekeeping techniques were

introduced successfully into Vietnam in the 1960s. Binh and Tan (2) reported that there were 500-600 professional Apis mellifera beekeepers in the provinces of Dong nai, Lam dong, the Central Highlands and the fruit orchards in the Mekong Delta In 1992, 1200 tonnes of honey were exported. Apis mellifera is only kept according to category 4, that is intensive, migratory beekeeping with more than 50 colonies.

FLOWER SUPPLIES The central coastal plains and the Mekong Delta are abundant in coconut and areca nut plantations, providing pollen and nectar for Apis cerana nearly all year round. The provinces bordering eastern Ho Chi Minh City and the Central Highlands have plenty Students of the University visit an

Apis mellifera colony usually consists of between one and

Apis mellifera apiary |

combs. and an Apis cerana colony usually has between one and six combs. The unit for sale therefore is the thee camh’ rather than the 10

there are in a colony, the higher the price.

Vietnamese beekeepers therefore do not pay attention to the number of colonies, but the number of ‘bee combs’. This is

especially true for Apis mellifera.

FOUR

a

Le

ane

|

ee

net a A

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BEEKEEPING

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32

R CONFLICT? -LLIFERA

|

ND

TABLE ECONOMIC EFFIC IENCY OF APIS MELLIFERA AND APIS CERANA 1

|

RANA IN N VIETNAM by Nguyen

Pham Thanh Binh

Apis cerana

beekeeping system

beekeeping system

(for 870. combs)

(50 colonies)

AMOUNT

AMOUNT

INDICATORS

uss

USS

Quang Tan and Pham Thanh Binh

of coffee and rubber plantations. Lam dong province has tea plantations. The provinces of Dong nai, Song be, and the Mekong Delta are well-known for their fruit orchards of durian, longan, rambutan and water plum.

All these crops are ideal for Apis cerana and also for industrial-scale beekeeping with Apis mellifera.

ECONOMIC EFFICIENCIES OF THE TWO BEEKEEPING

SYSTEMS

Research on Apis cerana beekeeping was carried out on 23 households in 1991-1992: one household could on average manage 50 colonies of Apis cerana. Research on the characteristics and economic efficiency of Apis mellifera beekeeping in Southern Vietnam was carried out using data from 22 apiaries in the season 1989-1990. One beekeeper could on average manage 870 combs of Apis mellifera (see ‘bee combs’). The results are shown in Table 1.

Production costs: equipment

168

(12%)

45

(22%)

bee feeds

498

(37%)

23°

{11%)

transportation

100

(7%)

18

(9%)

labour

378

{27%}

120

(58%}

capital interest

236

(17%)

0

(0%)

1,380

(100%)

206

(100%)

honey

1,368

(89%)

566

(93%)

pollen

60

(4%)

0

(0%}

royal jelly

28

(2%}

0

(0%)

wax

31

(2%)

14

(2%}

bee combs

48

(3%}

32

(5%)

1,535

(100%)

612

(100%)

Total Gross production values:

Total Profit? Income?

Production cost per

The results show why many people prefer Apis cerana to Apis mellifera beekeeping. Apis cerana beekeeping is shown to be more economic than Apis mellifera beekeeping. From Figure (overleaf) we

155

406

533

526

unit®

-

per kilogram of honey

0.37

0.20

-

per bee comb

1.44

0.27

11

297

0.1]

1.97

0.38

2.56

Total production value Total production cost

DISCUSSION 1.

Apis mellifera

Profit

Total production cost Income

Total production cost

|

calculate that 100 Apis cerana colonies (capital investment US$410) would provide the same income as keeping 1,742 Apis mellifera bee combs (capital investment US$2,763). Therefore beekeeping with 100 Apis cerana colonies is better economically than beekeeping with 1,742 Apis mellifera combs (about 175 colonies).

*

2.

An Apis cerana beekeeper can begin with only a few colonies. Even under low input conditions these can be developed to 100 colonies. With Apis mellifera, it is not feasible to have a low input and a small number of colonies because there will not be sufficient income to cover

Annual honey

yield__

38

kg

gp per

colon of,10 combs

18.2

kg

gp per of

5

colon combs

10. Management capa city per labourer 870 combs

50 colonies

300-4000 combs

12-100 colonies

Average Range

Profit = total production ralue - total production cost Income = profit + labour 20st

Production cost per unit vas calculated according to the formula,

production cost per kg

h

mey=

Total production cost

X+Y where

X=

where

Y=

total amount of honey harvested

value of othe r products equivalent to Ykg honey using the exchange ratio at the time of surve y.

overheads.

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BEEKEEPING

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3.

Beekeeping with Apis cerana has fewer risks than with Apis mellifera. Under bad conditions such as disease outbreak, bad weather or poor forage, Apis cerana beekeepers lose nothing or much smaller investment capital than Apis mellifera beekeepers. Apis cerana can be kept at all levels: from small-scale to large-scale, from extensive to intensive.

generated from royal jelly production and this is being practised increasingly in Apis mellifera apiaries. The interest charged by banks or beekeeping companies in Vietnam was very high (3-4% per month). Annual interest costs could be as much as 17.1% of the total production cost for the Apis mellifera system (see Table 1).

However, beekeeping with Apis mellifera is still popular for other reasons The number of colonies (or combs) which can be managed by one labourer is higher for Apis mellifera than for Apis cerana beekeeping. For Apis cerana, a worker could manage at most 100 colonies. The maximum capital investment would be USS410 yielding maximum income of USS1,051 per year

CONCLUSIONS Apis cerana colonies can survive anywhere in southern Vietnam because they are native to the area Apis mellifera colonies need to be kept in suitable forage areas

and require considerable management and investment Apis cerana colonies are commonly kept in the coconut and areca nut areas of the

a

Mekong Delta and the centra! coastal provinces. Apis mellifera colonies are to be found in Dong nai and Lam dong provinces and the Central Highlands which are considered better for Apis mellifera than the coconut area.

By comparison ore beekeeper using

standardised, quick methods could manage about 300 colonies of Apis mellifera. With investment capital of USS4,761 these could provide an income of USS1,809 per year. Therefore until methods are found for one worker to manage more Apis cerana colonies, some people will still prefer Apis mellifera.

REFERENCES. Mulder,V (1989)

Needs for

a national programme of applied beckeeping research.

Seminar Paper, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Binh.P T; Tan.N Q (1992)

-

Royal jelly can be produced with Apis mellifera beekeeping, but not with Apis cerana. In 1989/1990 only a little royal

jelly was produced so the economic efficiency of the Apis mellifera system was low. According to research (3) the production cost of one kilogram of royal jelly was USS16-20. Therefore in other years additional income could be

2

Only during the honey flow can both bee species be moved to rubber plantations or longan and rambutan orchards at the same time. This is why there is now no fierce competition between the two species for flower supplies. An Apis mellifera beekeeper is usually a full-time professional whereas for an Apis cerana beekeeper, the activities can remain optional. One beekeeper working full time can become rich with Apis mellifera, while another can obtain a useful sideline income with Apis cerana.

Nuoi ong Y Apis mellifera o mien Nam Viet nam va hiew

Xuat ban Nong nghiep Viet nam.

qua kinh te. Nha

(Beekeeping with Apis mellifera in Southern Vietnam

and its economic efficiencies.

Vietnam National Agricultural Publishing House}.

Binh,P T, Tan,N Q (1994)

FIGURE

|!

THE LINEAR RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE INCOME AND THE INVESTMENT CAPITAL OF THE TWO BEEKEEPING SYSTEMS

Income (USD)

as many as

18

|

Ne

1742 combs At most (100 colonies) 4p

Nuoi eng noi dia Apis cerana mien Nam Viet nam va hieu

o

Xuat ban Nong nghiep Viet nam.

qua Rink te Nha

(Beekeeping with Apis cerana in Southern Vietnam and its economic efficiencies.

0

Vietnam National

Agricultural Publishing

House).

Notes:

-

410

2763

4762

ree uso)

(1) A. corana (2) A. melfifera

Ee

SIX

A

Bees for Development publication


-——

BEER

EPPING

&

DEX EROGNME NT

a

oa,

Pes

Family level, frame-hive beekeeping wilt Apis cerana Mast families have less than 15 colomes, which usually remam al one site Hiroughout

te

year

Large-scale, professional beekeeping with There are al least 50

Apis mellifera

meN

TAN

colonies al each site and they are moved from one location to anather during the year

RECOMMENDATIONS We must consider what will happen when poor people try Apis mellifera beekeeping. When there is little forage available (the dearth season} the two bee species will fight if beekeepers do not have sugar to feed the bees Asa rule, Apis mellifera will win and kill or chase away the Apis cerana from the area. After that, Apis mellifera will be unable to survive in a strange environment of scattered forage.

1

FIGURE

Apis cerana beekeeping may decrease but Apis mellifera beekeeping can never take its place This is a serious ecological and

environmental danger 2

Beekeeping with Apis cerana should be encouraged for rural households with low investment capacity. Apis mellifera should be introduced to beekeeping organisations or individuals who can invest larger sums per labourer

FIGURE

2

PRODUCTION COSTS FOR APIS MELLIFERA SYSTEMS

4

PRODUCTION VALUES FOR APIS MELLIFERA SYSTEMS POLLEN

CAPITAL INTEREST 17% LABOUR 27%

4%

HONEY 89%°

|

WAA 4% ROY AL JELLY

2%

BEE COMBS

'

3%

EQUIPMENT 12%

TRANSPORT 7% BEE FEEDS

FIGURE

37%

FIGURE

3

5 |

PRODUCTION COSTS FOR APIS CERANA SYSTEMS

PRODUCTION VALUES FOR APIS CERANA SYSTEMS BEE COMBS

. EQUIPMENT 22%

LABOUR 58%

BEE FEEDS

11%

5%

WAX 2%

HONEY 93%

TRANSPORT 9%

A

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BEEKEEPING

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FAIR TRADE FOR HONEY INITIATIVES FOR the fair trading of honey Europe have been developed and agreed by two Fair Trading Organisations: The Max Havelaar Foundation and TransFair International. in

Ten Latin American beekeeping organisations have been approved as suppliers for these Trade Initiatives.

MORE INFORMATION FOR

EXPORTERS HONEY AND BEESWAX Available from

CBI. Trade Promotion Section, PO Bex 30009, 3001 DA Rotterdam, Netherlands.

A new (but undated} edition of the publication previously reviewed in Beekeeping &

This 90 page booklet has much about the European, especially Dutch, Development 20.

*

:

The criteria require that the trade must benefit small-scale producer members of democratic and politically independent organisations, which are also open to new members. Production should be sustainable and all efforts toward diversification and reduction of dependence on a single crop is encouraged: the maximum honey crop that can be taken from any one organisation is four tonnes.

Quality is most important and all honey must meet the FEC quality standards. For the

THE NETHERLANDS: OTHER MAJOR MARKETS IN: EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

Source.

The Network April-lune [994

Producers This Fairtrade Mark

Fairtrade is independent

verification by

Fairtrade Foundation, an organisation set up by Oxfam and other agencies. Any manufacturers the

markelindg a product in the UK that originates in a developing country can apply for the right to use the Mark. It is a guarantee to the consumer that the

producers have been paid a fairer price, and work in safe and decent conditions, with respect for the local

environment

TRADE FOR WEST AFRICA WEST AFRICA has flush vegetation and ideal conditions for beekeeping, but > this activity has not been organised and

exploited to its fullest capacity. Honey and other products are produced but the quantities produced are either low

& SURVEY OF

-:

the initial stages it would help the West African industry if both honey and wax are pooled or all production is sent via a central In

body, aware of the marketing of bee products. This would help ensure a distinct

market or fail to meet the strict

market niche for the West African product and ensure that supplies are at levels that will allow big honey users to stock our

requirements of the overseas market

unique products.

place. This is a pity as beekeeping has to be one of the cheapest industries to set up and run. A shift in attitudes to beekeeping has started to take root in some West African countries

Dr Douglas Beoku-Betts

in terms of

HONEY AND: BEESWAX

ND

following an investigation into the costs of production by Latin American beekeepers. No Asian or African organisations are currently registered with the scheme.

The first “Fair Trade” marked honey was launched in Switzerland in November 1993 under the Max Havelaar label. Three licence holders expect to sell 400 tonnes of honey in their first year of trading. Starting in 1995 honey will be sold in Germany under the TransFair label.

markets for honey and beeswax. Data up to 199] is provided. Details are given of market supply and demand. the trade structure, market access, and how to find a buyer. There is valuable information here, which is otherwise not easy to obtain.

The Appendices give addresses of importers and refiners of honey in The Netherlands and Germany, and of beeswax importers and refiners in The Netherlands,

season ending December 1993 the price was set at USS1450 per tonne. This price will be reviewed annually. It was determined

This is

requirements of the export

welcome sign but goods produced must have solid and reliable a

lf you are a West African beekeeper

interested in collaborating with others contact Dr Beoku-Betts, c/o Bees for Development,

Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB,

United Kingdom.

outlets.

FIGHT

A

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APIMONDIA CONGRESS 1995 The APIMONDIA Congress is the premier event in the international beekeeping calendar. APIMONDIA is the International Federation of Beekeepers’ Associations Every two years APLMONDIA organises a major Congress. It is the largest international event in the beekeeping calendar. It is attended by beekeepers from every part of the warid The next APIMONDIA Congress will take place in the Palais de Beaulieu, Lausanne, Switzerland between the 15 and 19 August 1995. During the Congress week, Switzerland will become the world cenre of beekeeping

journal, the mast relevant sector is the Apimondia Commission for Beekeeping in Developing Countries Indeed, the President of the Commission is Dr Nicola Bradbear, the Editor of Beekeeping & Development

At the Lausanne Congress, there will be fresh emphasis on this aspect of beekeeping, with discussions, paper presentations, poster displays and

exhibits informed and vigorous debate help to advance beekeeping in developing countries. Start planning your presentation for the Congress now. You could present a paper, or provide a display about your

beekeeping work

The theme for APIMONDIA ‘95 will be “Beekeeper meets Beekeeper” and the Swiss organisers are expecting several

For further details of the Congress and how to participate, write to

thousand Congress participants. The APIMONDIA Congress covers all aspects of apiculture. but for readers of this

ie

i

.

'

\ NY

an

a

FSSA

1995

vssy

7’)

APIMONDIA, XXXIV Congress 1995, Corso Vittorio Emanuele li, 101, 1-00186 Rome, Italy.

Fax: 39 6 6852286.

A CHANCE TO HELP As mentioned in Beekeeping & Development 27, The Organisation for the Conservation and Protection of Bees in Sri Lanka {TOCOPBS) is a low-input beekeeping organisation in Monaragala District. About 400 villagers in remote areas practise beekeeping with help from our project.

*

Do you have advice for Mr Sunil and the TOCOPBS Organisation? If so, share it with everyone by means of these pages. Send your comments to The Editor of Beekeeping & Development.

1

This is our low-input beekeeping organisation's flag. The emblem on our flag is a honeycomb surrounding

i

a plan of Monaraaala District in

which our activities are promoted.

A

bee colony is shown in a

flowering garden. The grain beside the emblem stands for prosperity.

Due to the high price of equipment, beekeeping was being neglected in those areas. But now they have received help to overcome the problem.

Our quarterly magazine is distributed free of charge throughout Monaragala District and local donors help us with its publication. TOCOPBS is a non-profit organisation and instructors, field officers and other workers are all volunteers.

Recently we obtained four acres of land from the Government to build our low-input beekeeping centre beside the Kirindy River. But we lack funds to start the Centre. We kindly request well-wishers and NonGovernment Organisations to help us,’

SR

A

Sunil, TOCOPBS Eco-Farm

Bees for Development publication

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BEERKERPING

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AUSTRALIA With the advent of the Asian honeybee Apis cerana on the northern most islands in

@

CHRIS

TAME‘:

Torres Strait, the Australian Honeybee Research and Development Council has been asked to fund a project to isolate the Nasanov pheromone from Apis cerana. If this is possible, then the Australian Quarantine and Inspections Service could use it in their monitoring programme in an attempt to minimise the southern movement of Derek Sherratt (see Namibia).

Apis cerana. Honeybee Research and Development Council Update

ce

bl ANE

BENIN

Committee of the Benin National Beekeepers Association.

Following the recommendation of the Beekeepers’ Association of West Africa that each member country should form, revive or consolidate their national beekeeping association, the Benin National Beekeepers’ Association is born. The first Beekeeping Training Seminar has been held in Bohicon, in the central region of Benin. Traditional and modern beekeepers, technical officers from different extension services, university teachers and business persons were invited by the Minister for Rural Development to participate in the Seminar on beekeeping

development. Displays prepared by Mr Soude C Flavien, a private beekeeper, and Mr Kokoye S Jean from the beekeeping project of Atacora (partly financed by GTZ) gave a beautiful insight for the audience, as well as being

educational. Everyone participated in a study tour to a private apiary at Tobé in the Banté District, 200 km from Cotonou. Fruitful discussions and exchange of ideas and experience enhanced the quality of the Seminar. In the same way the field trip benefited the participants and encouraged them to promote the beekeeping industry.

APICULTURAL ASSOCIATION CONFERENCE As we go to press the Second AAA Conference will be taking place in

Yogyakarta, Indonesia. News and pictures of the Conference will be in the next edition of Beekeeping & Development.

At the end of the Seminar, the beekeepers elected the Executive Committee of the Benin National Beekeepers’ Association which will be a non-government body, as soon as its constitution is registered in the Ministry of Home Affairs. Soude C Flavien

Mr Kwame Aidoo of the Beekeeping

Development Unit, Saltpond, explained to participants some of his findings on top-bar hive design, and hives built with cheap and locally available materials were exhibited. Mr John Yeboah, a World Vision Agricultural Extension Officer, emphasised the need for groups to manage their colonies in apiaries of several hives rather than the existing practice where hives are scattered over a wide area. The World Vision Beekeeping Project started two years ago with eight farming communities. Group members were given basic training in beekeeping and then equipped with a minimum of six hives and equipment. Members of each group are entitled to two-thirds of the harvest and one third is used to support other development activities within the community. All input for the project is provided by World Vision International as assistance to the communities. It was reported that effective monitoring and supervision have led to a successful take-off of this project. Kwame Aidoo - Beekeeping &

Development's

Ghana Correspondent

GRENADA Varroa has arrived in Grenada. Two months ago found varroa'mites infesting colonies in the biggest Grenadian apiary. This explains the dramatic decrease in honey yields we experienced in 1993 and so far in 1994. This decrease could possibly be the result of viruses of which varroa acts as a vector. No great colony mortality has been reported yet, but some of us are expecting a change in this respect also. |

it really feels like a “paradise lost” -

GHANA

keep you posted.

A two-day Workshop for farmers was organised at Goamoa Mampong in April 1994. The participants came from World Vision International sponsored beekeeping projects in eight farming communities in the Central Region. Each project was represented by three members who would act as facilitators of the knowledge acquired at the Workshop.

jorge Murillo Yepes

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will

Beekeeping & Development's Caribbean Correspondent -

NAMIBIA WATCH OUT! Reading this journal can change your life! Reading through Beekeeping & Development last December, Derek Sherratt saw the advert for

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Bees for Development publication


BEEKEEPIN

THE WORLD

GC

Q

yy

f

beekeeper in Namibia. He successfully applied for the post and, after intensive training at Bees for Development, has recently started working there with VSO (Voluntary Service Overseas). a

Derek will be working within the Namibian Directorate of Forestry. Beekeeping will provide people in rural areas with new ways to earn money. Derek’s work will include rural appraisals and the establishment of

demonstration apiaries. Like all regular VSO postings, this is a twoyear post. Accommodation and an allowance are based on the local wage. Good luck in your new job Derek!

Anyone interested in finding out more about VSO should contact: Enquiries, VSO, 317 Putney Bridge Road, London SW15 2PN, United Kingdom.

NEPAL Beekeeping development in Nepal seems to be moving quickly, due to projects and the enthusiasm of individual beekeepers. Apis mellifera (the honeybee introduced from Europe] is being used to an increasing extent by beekeepers with access to the necessary technical and financial resources. The beekeeping project named BETRESP {Beekeeping Training and Extension Support Project) is now in its seventh year, having been underway since 1987. The project is a joint activity between His Majesty's Government of Nepal and The Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV). After August 1994 SNV assistance will be phased out. A strategy workshop was held at the start of this final year to clearly focus the

project's activities.

BETRESP

NIGERIA The Beekeepers’ Association of Nigeria was founded

pssoctatig,

on 1} May 1993 in Ibadan. The Association has

model apiaries in

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Bees for Development publication

Agodi Gardens in Ibadan and at the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology in Ogbomoso. These are open to the public and are used for training. It is hoped to establish apiaries in other parts of the country. The University will house the headquarters of the Association where there is a library and office. The Association will provide training. Information on bees, beekeeping and the environment will be disseminated through a quarterly journal. Dr M O Akanbi, Beekeepers’ Association

of Nigeria

RWANDA AND ZAIRE Action pour le developpement social economique et culturel au sud-KIVU is a non-profit making organisation trying to organise development activities in Rwanda and Zaire. The goal is to better the conditions of misery of the people, and help the poorest to find ways of survival.

This

is the

wall of

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DEVELOPMENT 32

house in Nepal. There is

colony of Apis cerana inside the wall: the bees can be seen at the

a hive

containing

a

hive entrance. The piece of metal hanging from a rope near the hive entrance is to produce noise to frighten pine martens. Wall hives offer good protection against pine martens and other predators.

If you can help, please contact us at our temporary address: ADeSEC-KIVU, Box 20038, Nairobi, Kenya.

Nalunva Kajabika.

TANZANIA The 1993 harvest has been poor because of drought. The lack of nectar for the bees means that only 71 tonnes of honey have been collected compared to our target of 364 tonnes. However reports from our Members indicate that we can expect to have a better harvest in 1994. Justin Madaha, Tabora Beekeepers’ Co-operative

URUGUAY The Sociedad Apicola Uruguaya was formed in 1934 with a basic objective of teaching and increasing the knowledge of apiculture to increase honey production, popularising the benefits of honey consumption at a national level and increasing exports of all hive products on to the international market. The Association now runs courses for beekeepers and extensionists on wax, pollination and bee pathology. Members meet one Thursday of every month to analyse different beekeeping subjects and compare notes on individual experiences. On Fridays the Association organises a laboratory course to study honey and wax. The Society wants to develop a national apiary to attain standards of quality for exportation. To do this we need laboratory facilities and to achieve this we ask for your

collaboration. Sociedad Apicola Uruguaya

Nectar and pollen plants of China by Xu Wanlin (reviewed in Beekeeping & Development 29).

Since announcing the

|

requction In price OF INS book (from 42.00 to 13.00) we have been inundated with orders. We have ordered more stocks from China, and apologise to all those customers who have had to wait for their copy.

ELEVEN


BEEREEPENSG S DEN

EL

OPMENT

bo

LOOK AHEAD CANADA Seventh International Pollination Symposium 1996 Further details

fram, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Lethbridge Research Station Lethbridge. Alberta. TI] 4B1. Canada

Fax: 403 382 3156

CUBA Meeting on pollination to be organised under the auspices of APIMONDIA 1996 Further details to

be

announced in Beekeeping &

Development

DENMARK 1995,

Copenhagen Further details from. Secretariat of the World Summit for Social Development. DPCSD. Room S-3060A, New York, NY 10017, USA Fax.

BEENET ASIA, Plant Protection Department. Faculty of Agriculture. Universiti Pertanian Malaysia. 43400 Serdang. Selangor, Malaysia Fax 003 948 2507

SWITZERLAND The XXXIV International Apicultural Congress - APIMONDIA 15-19 August 1995, Lausanne Further details from: APIMONDIA Secretary General, Corso Vittorio Emanuele W101,

1-00186 Rome. Italy Fax. 396 685 2286.

1212 963 1010

Symposium on honeybee mating stations on islands, to be organised under the auspices of APIMONDIA April 1995 to be

ditnounced

it Beekeeping

Enterprise Africa: Pan African Marketing Conference 3-5 October 1994

Raising awareness of the marketing concept among Africans. governmental organisations and educational establishments Futher details from MCA International, 65-67 London Road, Alderley Edge, Cheshire SK9O 7DY, UK

GERMANY

Further details

13-16 March 1995, Serdang Further details from- Secretariat,

THE GAMBIA

The United Nations World Summit for Social Development 6-12 March

MALAYSIA Tropical Bees and the Environment

&

Development

ISRAEL

UK National Honey Show 24-26 November 1994, Landon Come and meet us at the Bees for Development stand Further details fram: Rev F Capener, Honorary Secretary, National Honey Show, Baldric Road, Folkestone, CT20 2NR, UK |

Bee Products: Properties, Applications and Apitherapy

LEARN AHEAD

26-30 May 1996, Tel Aviv Further detuils from, Dan Knassim Ltd, POB 57005. Tel Aviv 61570. Israel Fax 972 356] 2303

KENYA

ITALY

Agroforestry Research for Development

XXth International Congress of Entomology 25-3 August 1996 Florence

October-1} November 1994, Nairobi Further details fram: Training Co-ordinator, October 1994 Training Course, ICRAF Training Programme, PO Box 30677. Nairobi. Kenya. Fax 254 252 1001

Further details from The Organising Secretariat,

Via

Ala Moarmora

24,

50121.

Florence. italy

KENYA January

- 3

Beekeeping Training

February 1995, Nairobi

20-23 September 1994

Further details from

lohn Njoroge, Kenya Institute of Organic Farming. PO Box 34972, Nairobi. Kenya Fax: 254 2 581 178

if you want details of your event here, send details to

to

appear

Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB. UK

The New Forests Project is a direct action programme established in 1982 to curb deforestation in developing countries. In the last ten years farmers in 3000 villages in over 100 developing countries have been assisted with tree-planting projects. For further information please contact:

Stuart Conway, Director, The New Forests Project, 731 Eighth Street, SE, Washington DC 20003, USA OFC CFCC HHL AS EASY AS ABC

ESS

The African Books Collective is self-help initiative by African

a

publishers to promote their books in Europe. North America and Commonwealth countries outside Africa. Their catalogue “Agriculture, Biotechnology and Environmental Studies” is available free of charge. Write to: African Books Collective Ltd, The Jam Factory, 27 Park End Street, Oxford OX] THU, UK

RAINFOREST RIGHTS The Rainforest Action Network aims

PERU

Organic Farming Training Workshop 16

24

PREVENTING DEFORESTATION

Further details fram: Valle Grande Instituto Rural, Apartado 70, Cafiete, Peru. Fax: 5134 912 261

UK Diploma in Apiculture University of Wales College of Cardiff. Further details fram: Diploma in Apiculture, University of Wales College of Cardiff. PO Box 915, Cardiff CFE 3TL.. UK Fax: 44 222 874305

to save the world’s rainforests and support the rights of indigenous people. It works on an international scale with other environmental and human rights associations on major campaigns to protect rainforests.

Camilla Fox, Rainforest Action Network, 450 Sansome, Suite 700, San Francisco CA 94111, USA. For details write to.

eee

Fax: 44 (0)!600 716167

STUDY TOUR ey,

Learning about bees at Valle Grande, Peru

e02cee

Dr David De long of the University of Sao Paulo will lead a beekeeping tour of Brazil from Il January 1995. For details contact: Global Nature Tours, PO Box 555, Upper Marlboro, MD 20773-0555, USA.

Fax: 1301 627 9754.

eeeaeeaoeeede020202080088800

IT’S A BOY! Congratulations to Bérje and Eva Svensson on the arrival of their new baby. Karl Niklas in Nairobi in May 1994, weighing in at 7.5 Ibs. Best wishes to you all from Bees for Development. |

{

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TWELVE

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Bees for Development publication


ZOOMING IN GUATEMALA Guatemala straddles Central America, sharing borders with Mexico, Belize, Honduras and El Salvador, and has coasts on both the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

Geography Guatemala is

mountainous country, and A string of volcanoes rises forested. heavily above the southern highlands along the Pacific, and three of these are still active. El Petén is an area of undulating tableland in north-west Guatemala. It is covered by inaccessible, hardwood forest. This area covers about one third of the national territory and yet is home to only about a

40,000 people.

Agriculture

Coffee is Guatemala’s major export product. accounting for one third of foreign earnings. Other major export crops are bananas," cardamom, cotton and sugar cane.

Bees Stingless bees are the native honey-

producing bees of Guatemala. Maya people kept them in the hives, and stingless bees are still kept in this way. No honeybees are native to Guatemala. The exact date when European honeybees were first introduced to Guatemala is not documented, although it may have been several centuries ago. Between 1830 and 1860 many Germans settled in Guatemala to establish coffee farms. and may have brought honeybees with them. Africanized honeybees were first reported in Guatemala in an area bordering Honduras in May 1986.

Beekeeping

Guatemala is the only Central American country where beekeeping developed commercially before 1900. Early beekeeping with Apis mellifera was practised in log hives, and concentrated on the central highlands between the old colonial capital of Antigua and the Lago de Amatitlan. At this time large quantities of honey were marketed in Antigua. Indian groups were the main consumers, fermenting it into mead. At the start of this century a commercial beekeeper arrived in Guatemala from Germany and started larger-scale beekeeping. The original goal was to improve coffee yields by pollination. Although coffee production did not increase, honey production was excellent. Gradually beekeeping took over from coffee production on some farms, and by the 1930s, Guatemala was annually exporting over [000 tannes of honey. The arrival of the Africanized bees in 1986 had a severe effect on the existing

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Bees for Development publication

Guatemalan beekeeping industry, and has reduced the numbers of practising beekeepers. There are currently about 200,000 honeybee colonies in frame hives. Most are in apiaries of less than 10 colonies, as shown: Apiaries with less than 10 colonies 46% of 10-50 colonies 34% Apiaries of over 50 colonies 20% Apiaries There are two forms of beekeeping: Domestic, where several hives are kept close to the house and the honey produced is for the family, and Commercial, when beekeeping may be as the primary, secondary or side-line income source.

Honey yield Honey yield per colony per year ranges from 7.5 kg to 55 kg, with an average of 30 kg. Total national production is between 3500-4000 T annually. 80% is exported. Honey export Year Value in USS 1982 2,867,300 1987 2,174,000 1988 1989

&

DEVELOPMENT

32

USA

MEXICO

El! Petén

BELIZE Gulf of Honduras}

GUATEMALA

Guatemala

Sy.

Yer,

Meg,e

Ocity EL SALVADOR

Pacific Ocean

1,769,000 1,062,300

Government Department Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganaderia y Alimentaci6n DIGESEPE, Km 22 Carretera al Pacifico, Barcena, Villa Nueva. Beekeepers’ Association Asociacién Nacional de Apicultores, 6A Ave 19-15, Zona |, Anapi. Honeybee diseases American foulbrood has been positively identified. It is likely that most other common diseases are also present. Melliferous vegetation. On the Pacific coast large honey surpluses are obtained from mangrove trees. Coffee is an important nectar source, and bees collect sap from the freshly cut stumps of sugar

HONDURAS

nal ve ~ \S PROGRAMA NACIONAL AFRICANIZADA

A ABEJA

GUATEMALA

cane.

Projects Foreign governments especially Cermany and the USA have assisted with the development of apiculture in Guatemala. Currently the Guatemalan Ministry of Agriculture has a national beekeeping development programme to cope with Africanized honeybees.

sx Saczry &

Equipment Movable-frame hives are produced in Guatemala, but other items of equipment such as smokers and beeswax foundation are imported from the USA.

vid

Population 8.434399 Location

ON...

BEEKEEPING

Solidaridad con un pueblo que se levanta

"THIRTEEN


BEEKEEPING

&

DEVELOPMENT

32

Agrovoc APIMONDIA by arrangement with FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)

published by

Apimondia, Rome, Italy (1992 Second Edition) 798 pages. Paperback.

=

All language versions except Arabic are available from: APIMONDIA, Corso Vittorio Emanuele Il,

BOOK

101, 1-00186 Rome, Italy. The Arabic version is available directly from FAO, Viale delle Terme di

Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Price USS120 for USS10 mailing

each monolingual volume plus

charges. USS580 for the complete AGROVOC thesaurus (5 version volumes) plus USS30 mailing

charges.

»

This is a multilingual agricultural thesaurus to assist with indexing and retrieval of agricultural information. It covers all agricultural sectors including plant and animal protection, primary agricultural products, forestry, fisheries. human nutrition, rural development and the effects of agriculture on the environment. This new edition is available in six language versions: Arabic, English, French, German, Italian and Spanish. Cette publication est accessible en francaise. Esta publication es disponible en espafiola.

The hot-blooded insects: strategies and mechanisms of thermoregulation by Bernd

Heinrich

Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany (1993) 601 pages. Hardback.

Bees for Development Buy) price 90.00.

Available from

Books

WHY BUY BOOKS FROM BEES FOR All profit Bees for Development earns from book sales is used to provide information to beekeepers in developing countries. We are a small organisation and our overheads are kept very low.

Your book orders will now be processed by Mrs Nina Gibson who is working for Bees for Development while Helen jackson takes maternity leave.

FOURTEEN

(see

This book explodes the myth that bees (and all other insects) are cold-blooded animals which cannot regulate their body temperature. The author states “I've come to believe that certain insects are among the most highly evolved organisms on earth with respect to mastering temperature as a variable of the physical environment”.

DEVELOPMENT?

ANOTHER WORKER JOINS THE SWARM!

to

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For example, a large animal such as a human weighing 65 kg would register no measurable temperature increase on stepping from shade to sunshine for several minutes. However, when a 10 mg insect lands in the sun, it can heat up by 10°C in only 10 seconds! Therefore the thermal environment faced by insects is potentially much more severe than it is for us or any other vertebrate animal, and insects have had to evolve sophisticated ways of dealing with this.

Bernd Heinrich discusses the thermoregulation of many other insects in addition to bees It is a highly academic work (and also very expensive}, written in an articulate and readable style.

One of Bernd Heinrich's drawings which add considerably to the text of Hot-blooded insects. This one shows a carpenter bee in flight. The thorax is naked or thinly insulated, and the very large, naked head facing the airstream during forward flight

provides a large area for rapid, convective heat loss.

COMING SHORTLY... Ethiopian honeybee flora: some 500 common herbs, shrubs and trees by Reinhard Fichtl and Admasu Addi

Margraf Verlag, Weikersheim, Germany (1994) 550 pages and 600 colour photographs. Paperback. Available in October from

(see Books

to

Bees for Development

Buy) price 60.00

approximately.

this book about 400 common herbs and shrubs and 100 common trees are described, with full colour, showing part of the rich honeybee flora of Ethiopia. Besides the descriptions of plants and their value to the bees, much emphasis is given to the cultural, traditional and medicinal value of these In

honey plants.

The book is intended for farmers and it will also provide beekeeping and extension personnel with a vital source of pictorial and factual data on nectar- and pollen-producing

plants. This is the first book describing honey plants of Africa.

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Bees for Development publication


BEEKEEPING

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DEVELOPMENT

32

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BOOKS TO BUY ts th € DOORS avatlable for you purchase from Bees for Development. The list is t

Chikka hive: a beekeeping handbook by

Trees and shrubs of the Sahel: their characteristics and uses by

HJ

von Maydell

Maregraf Verlag, Weikersheim, Germany (1990) 525 pages and 493 colour

photographs. Paperback.

Bees for Development (see Buy) price 34.00 An excellent colour field guide for the identification and uses of about 120 trees and shrubs. Packed with information about each species, some of which have a distribution throughout the tropics. Available from

Books

to

Cette publication est accessible en francaise:

Abres et arbustes du Sahel. leur caractéristiques et leur utilisations Available from

Books

to

Reinhard Fichtl

order books or simply write to us

Bees for Development Books te Buy) price 4.50.

Please send payment with your order. Prices include packing and post to any address, by surface mail world-wide, or in the UK. To have your order sent by airmail, please add 25% to the total order cost. We will issue invoices if required, but we cannot dispatch books until payment is received.

listing your requirements.

{see

The Chikka hive has been developed in Ethiopia. The hive takes it name from the fermented loamy soil (Chikka) from which it is constructed. The Chikka hive is a top-bar hive: instead of fixing combs to the ceiling of the hive (as in traditional. basket hives}, or building combs inside rectangular, wooden frames (as in frame hives}, the bees attach their combs to the underside of wooden top-bars. (The Chikka hive was described previously in

We cannot be responsible for books lost in transit, but we can arrange insurance, at extra cost. Please ask.

Beekeeping & Development 22).

This new handbook is A5-sized. It contains numerous black and white illustrations which show the stages involved in making and using a Chikka hive. The illustrations begin with collecting suitable soil for making the hive, mixing it with straw, moulding it into blocks, and building the hive. The next stage involves transferring a colony of honeybees into the hive and caring for them. Basic information is given on honey harvesting and dividing colonies. A design for a bee house to contain Chikka hives is

Publications will as far as possible be supplied at the prices quoted,

however these are subject to

alteration. Your order will be processed as soon as it arrives at

Bees for Development. ORDER FAST BY FAX: 44 (0)1600 716167 OR BY ELECTRONIC MAIL: 100410.2631@ CompuServe.COM

WAYS TO PAY

provided.

(1990) 531 pages et 493 photographies en couleur.

Bees for Development

published quarterly and sent free of

charge to readers of this journal. Use the form in Books te Buy to

German Development Service, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (1994) 45 pages. Paperback. Available from

SHELF

W

i

{see

Buy) price 37.00

Access, Mastercard or Visa State card type, card number, expiry date and name and address on card.

Ue

Honeybee pollination of important entomophilous crops by Rafiq Ahmad

Cheques, Eurocheques and banker's drafts in sterling Bank transfer Account number: 10167967. Sort code: 20-00-85

Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan (1993 reprint) 104 pages. Paperback.

The Chikka bee house.

Available from Bees for Development (see

Books

|

Buy) price 7.00. Entomophilous crops are those which benefit from insect pollination. This is not a newly written publication but it is mentioned here because we have received a number of requests to provide a modestly priced text. It lists the main fruit, fodder seed, oilseed and vegetable crops which benefit from insect pollination, and reviews publications describing the pollination of these crops. Useful for people who need to i know the pollination requirements of crops, to

they are growing.

A

Bees for Development publication

{0

ct

BER BY Imp POLLINaTigN ENTO Me OF

°PHrLovs Caan?

chik

Barclays Bank plc, PO Box 29, Monmouth, NP5 3YG, UK. Post Office Giro transfer Account number: 4222067. Please make all payments to

Bees for Development.

que

If you send a cheque or bank draft in USS then please add $20 to cover the cost of

exchange. Send your order by fax or electronic mail shown above, or post to:

Bees for Development, PEVY, WIVIIUVULIE,

United Kingdom.

FIFTEEN


REMEMBER TO MENTION BEEKEEPING & DEVELOPMENT WHEN RESPONDING TO ADVERTISEMENTS

Each subscription payment needs to cover the costs of: printing the journal: bank charges on each subscription payment (even payments by giro and credit card incur significant costs

to Bees for Development); overseas postage, and packing.

All of these costs have increased during the past year and Bees for Development needs to increase the subscription rates to cover them.

August 1994 will therefore be (USS35) for four issues over 12 months. The rate for local (UK) subscribers will be 12.

The new rate from

|

16

One way for you to save on time and postage is by paying your subscription for two or more years at a time. In this way Bees for Development (and perhaps you also) can make savings in ever-escalating bank charges, and you will avoid future subscription increases!

Rates for paying by Beeswax Barter and Candle Currency remain unchanged for the time being. We understand that there are many beekeepers in developing countries who already struggle to pay the current subscription and for whom the higher subscription will be difficult.

yourself in this situation then please let us know at Bees for Development. If you find

Beeswax One subscription Ten subscriptions to one address

16

80

5

Candles

kg

25 kg

2

kg

10 kg

Beekeepers in developing countries (only!) may pay their subscription in pure beeswax or with beeswax candles. We accept candles in payment, and since they are of higher

value than beeswax, only 2 kg of candles are needed to buy one subscription. The lower weight of candles will also give savings in postage costs.

BEESWAX BARTER AND CANDLE CURRENCY Conditions for paying in beeswax or candles: Beeswax must be reasonably clean and of good quality. It must be presented in solid form and not as scraps of wax or pieces of comb. 2. Candies must be of saleable quality 3. Beeswax from any species of Apis wil! be accepted as long as the name of the species from which it is collected is stated. 4. Inside the parcel state your name and address, the weight and origin of the beeswax, and the number of subscriptions you are paying. On the outside of the parcel state "BEESWAX RAW (OR CANDLES) FOR BEES FOR DEVELOPMENT’ and the weight in kilograms. 5. Any parcel containing comb, very dirty wax or otherwise unusable wax will have to be destroyed on arrival at Bees for Development. It cannot be returned and cannot be accepted for barter. Payment in beeswax or candles is only available for subscriptions for Beekeeping & Development to developing countries. Arrangements for costs of carriage of beeswax or candles to Bees for Development are the responsibility of the sender and Bees for Development will not be responsible for any postage or other costs. |.

INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Topical, well-informed, wide-ranging, comprehensive above all, interesting and readable! International Agricultural Development has established itself as a unique magazine that brings you the latest news of issues which affect the developing world. The magazine serves as a lively forum of debate on agricultural development matters; it is a channel though which people can talk to each other across national boundaries about how to increase food output, improve distribution, and create the conditions under which hunger can be overcome.

Regular sections include “Briefing”, with its up-todate news, “Chronicle” which brings you details of the latest agricultural technologies and “Inprint” surveying recently printed books. International Agricultural Development is published bi-monthly, and is available only on subscription, price 30 a year, including postage. To subscribe, complete the slip and send with your remittance to the UK address below.

Editor: John Madeley

Subscription rate: 30 Visa card accepted.

a year, including postage.

Back copies, as available, are including postage.

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wish to subscribe to International Agricultural {or Development and enclose remittance for 30 $60). Or state Visa card number and card expiry date. |

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Beekeeping & Development is published quarterly by Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom. Bees fer Development Telephone: 44 (0)1600 713648 Fax: 44 (0)1600 716167 Electronic Mail: 100410.2631@CompuServe.COM

Environmentally friendly paper.

ISSN 0256 4424