Bees for Development Journal Edition 30 - March 1994

Page 1

“= Beekeeping ei

@ development MARCH 1994


















INSIDE INFORMATION dear Inevrds Bees for Development created much interest at


launch at the three day National Honey Show held in London last November. Our stand displayed lowtechnology beekeeping methods and some of the

traditional techniques used in Africa and Asia.

Of course

World Vision Award for Development Initiative 1990

we were preaching to the converted.

Beekeepers are well aware of the importance of

maintaining a good environment for bees, and of the benefits which beekeeping can bring. British and other

European beekeepers attending the Show were keen to know more about the craft in other countries and of

our work in providing information.

We were very pleased by

Apimonida Cold 1989, Bronze 1993

the encouragement we

received, with both individuals and beekeeping groups

pledging their support for Bees for Development. Bees for Development makes Kensington Town Hall.

Contact us at:


Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, United Kingdom. Telephone:



44 (0)600 713648

Fax: 44 (0)600 716167


a stand in






_€fdevelopment AFRICAN f




Editor: Dr Nicola Bradbear Co-ordinator: Helen Jackson

Published by Bees for Development. Four editions of Beekeeping & Development are published every year in March, June, September and December.



4000 copies of Beekeeping & Development are printed and distributed to individual subscribers and beekeeping projects







COVER PICTURE A large pot for honey in a village in

Central Gambia, West Africa. The pot


resting upside-down in the picture.

30 years ago there were many hives in trees around the village and this pot was often filled with honey after the harvest. In recent times there has been just one

hive in use and only 10-15 litres of honey have been harvested each year.

Now The Gambia Beekeepers’ Co-operative has started local training, and perhaps next season the container will again be filled with honey! OLE HERTZ


ADVERTISEMENTS Advertisements in

Beekeeping & Development

reach readers in many countries. Various sizes of advertisements are available. Write to us for rates.

HOW TO SUBSCRIBE Details are given on page sixteen.




Beekeepers living in financially poor and remote areas of the world receive Beekeeping & Development without payment through the generosity of sponsors. We are grateful to beekeeping groups and individuals worldwide who are supporting us.

We maintain an active network of people interested in this type of beekeeping and you are welcome to join by subscribing and contributing to this journal.


All items are written by Nicola Bradbear unless stated otherwise. We ask you to send us a copy of the reproduced or translated item.

We are interested to hear about techniques you have found useful, events and activities, and news of concern to other readers.

REPRODUCTION AND TRANSLATION Items appearing in Beekeeping & Development are intended to help as many people as possible. We are therefore happy for these to eproduced or translated but please give acknowledgement of Beekeeping & lopment and the author of the item you


The journal has been sponsored, in part, by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. We have also received sponsorship from CTA, The Netheriands. Beekeeping & Development's production is assisted by World Vision UK. Beekeeping & Development is the official newsletter of the Asian Apicultural







Freitas, Brazil



Finding the queen: not always as easy as in this picture!

It is not necessary or recommended to

search for the queen every time a hive is opened. However, sometimes it is necessary to find her and anyone who has searched through 50,000 worker bees knows how difficult, timeconsuming and stressful it can sometimes be to both beekeepers and bees. Such situations are even worse when the bees are African or Africanized races which are resless and shw a low threshold for stinging. In


whre Africanized honybees have

imposed the develpment of completely new anagement techniques, eekeepers have quick and safe method to find the queen without disturbing the colony too much. The method is based on the unique odour each colony has, and the intolerance a queen shows to others.

This is how it works. when a beekeeper needs to find the queen of a certain colony A, he or she goes first to another queenright colony B and removes one frame from its brood chamber This frame is checked quickly for the presence of queen If she is present, the frame is carefully replaced and another frame is chosen. The frame (without queen) is shaken to remove all the adult bees It is then taken to colony A which is carefully opened using a little smoke and with as little a

disturbance to the bees as possible. One frame is taken out of the brood chamber checked for the presence of the queen, and if she is not there, the bees shaken off. The frame from colony B is now introduced into the central area of colony A’s brood chamber replacing the frame which was removed from the hive. After that, colony A is closed and the beekeeper waits for three to five minutes before reopening it. By this time, if the beekeeper worked well and did not disturb too much or oversmoke the colony (smoke may mask the odour in the

frame introduced from colony B), the queen will have detected the odour of colony B inside her own colony and will be on the recentlyintroduced frame, searching for the presence

of another queen. Knowing that, the beekeeper can reopen colony A and go straight to that frame to find the queen.

This technique works well when beekeepers become practised at it. It can be used to find the queens of both colonies at the same time by Introducing into colony B the frame removed from colony A and vice-versa, The method is also suitable foruseinany movable-frame hive or top-bar hive. It is important that beekeepers know about the health status of the colonies involved in the manipulations to prevent the spread of diseases within their apiaries.





Inside Information



Practical Beckeeping:


African Beekeepers Meet


Apis mellifera





Apis cerana




News around the World


Value Added




Free Information


Look and Learn Ahead



| Zooming in on India Bookshelf





Beeswax Barter

Candie Currency



16 16 16








In December 1993 beekeepers from Benin, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania and The Gambia joined Ghanaians for the second in this series of West African meetings.

That the Seminar took place at all was a triumph for the members of Ghana Beekeepers Association who organised it without government support: friends in The Netherlands provided funding for printing publicity information, and a last minute appeal to IFS in Sweden brought essential funding to enable the Seminar to go ahead. Abun Botanic Gardens near Accra, venue for the Seminar

Over 100 government personnel, local chiefs and other dignitaries attended the opening ceremony, held in the shade of the majestic trees of Aburi Botanic Gardens. After the dancing and speeches ended the 56 Seminar Participants got down to beekeeping debate, which took place in English and French languages. Although the title of the Seminar mentions bee research, few of the participants are employed as bee researchers, although many, like beekeepers everywhere, are keen to test and try new methods. The Seminar’s sub-

title, Beekeeping development in West Africa provides a more accurate description of the type of discussion.

Brather Anthony Addai displays a veil made in Ghana

Traditwnal dances at


Opening Ceremony

The 28 papers that were presented generated plenty of lively discussion, particularly concerning the continuing debate between those keen on top-bar hives and those who favour frame hives There have been quite a few beekeeping projects in Ghana, and they have enjoyed varying levels of success. There was criticism of those projects which simply ‘dump hives’ without providing sufficient technical support to new beekeepers Another point concerned the selection of beneficiaries for beekeeping projects. it seems that too often not enough care is taken to ensure that

those who are given hives are people who have desire to work with bees

a real

Some of the problems faced by beekeepers in West Africa are common to beekeepers everywhere: lack of understanding by governments and by the general public of the importance and value of bees. In Ghana it seems that as more and more of the large trees are felled and native habitat is destroyed, bees are short of nesting sites and resort to nesting in houses and other man-made constructions. Bees are therefore increasingly perceived as a nuisance. There are even commercial bee killers who are paid to destroy colonies using insecticides .

The only answer is to do, as beekeepers in Ghana and West Africa are doing, to organise themselves and to lobby on behalf of the bees. Meetings such as these do much to focus attention on the value of bees: and the Ghana Beekeepers Association deserve congratulation for achieving it!

Beekeepers in Ghana have good experience of the native honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii. and can obtain worthwhile honey yields from colonies of this bee, but nobody can really claim to have found a way to ‘manage’ it Indeed Stephen Adijare, one of the most skilled and experienced beekeepers in Ghana, titled his paper ‘Queen rearing in Ghana - an unworkable proposition’.

Exhibition An exhibition displayed honey collected from different regions of Ghana, some of the

commodities which can be made with Ghanaian honey and wax, locally made beekeeping clothing, and various items of equipment. It is very useful to have this kind of display at meetings. inevitably some nonbeekeepers turn up to find out more, and it is very useful to have equipment such as smokers and hives, and products of beekeeping, to explain the processes involved.

WABA turns into BAWA During the week there was more discussion about the regional grouping for West African beekeepers, formed two years ago at the first of these Seminars held in The Gambia. The Constitution was discussed, and various decisions taken, including a change of title: the new name is the Beekeepers Association of West Africa, or BAWA.






Stingless bees

Termite ants cause great problems for West African beekeepers. Termites do not bother the bees, they simply eat their hives! Although there are some hard woods which offer resistance, these are very expensive. Beekeepers have to be vigilant: wooden hives on wooden stands are at great risk from termites and ideally should be visited daily to sweep away any termite earth channels.

Brother Anthony Addai is a Franciscan friar who is President of The Ghana Beekeepers Association He has made some extremely valuable and interesting observations of stingless bees in Ghana. He has recognised 6 different species of stingless bees in Ghana, one of which seems at least as prolific honey

Siaka Manga, from The Gambia, caused quite a stir at the Seminar by relating his method for preventing termite damage The method involves the use of salt: watch this space for further details!

Wawa Wawa wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon) is widely available in Ghana, and wawa boards are relatively cheap. However the wood is soft and readily attacked by termites. Kwame Aidoo has found that by brushing the boards with molten beeswax they can be rendered termite proof.


producer as Apis mellifera adansonii. Perhaps it is with these species that the future of

beekeeping in West Africa lies? Honey from stingless bees is highly valued by Ghanaians for its medicinal properties

Next Seminar The third in this series of Seminars will take place in Benin, in 1995.


Ideas for low-technology hives.

On the

left a

clay hive, on the right a top-bar hive made from the (hollow) upper part from an old palm trunk.

Nicola Bradbear atten ded the Second West African Bee Research seminar with funding from the Overseas Develop nent Administration, UK.

The Proceedings of the First Seminar are now available: see page 14.


Tanzanian and Ugandan delegates

meet outside

the Conference venue.


A total of

35 papers were presented, covering low cost methods of small-scale processing of honey, ‘apiagroforestry’, the role of NGOs in beekeeping development and appropriate

beekeeping equipment.

According to our correspondent Matthew Kawa: ‘The meet was very rich in beekeeping information. The experts learnt a lot from the local experts (traditional beekeepers) and they were equally pollinated by the paper presentations, the video shows, posters, photo exhibition, corridor and tea



This meeting took place largely as


result of

Session in full swing Masai ladies listen attentively


The wide range of participants required simultaneous translation between English, Kiswahili and Kimasai.

the efforts of Mr A Y Kimishua, Co-ordinator of Arusha Beekeepers Association, and he and his team also deserve congratulation for the successful meeting they have brought about


In October Arusha beekeepers held their first Conference, which attracted around 100 people from all walks of life, but with a shared interest in bees: mostly local beekeepers and farmers but also from Ghana, Uganda and Zanzibar.


APIS MELLIFERA VERSUS APIS ERANA IN THE NORTH OF THAILAND H Pechhacker and N Juntawong Improvements in beekeeping must always consider local bee species, races and

ecotypes. Observations in the north of Thailand show what happens when an exotic bee is introduced.




The area around Chiang Mai is used for intensive agriculture Besides rice and

One possible reason is direct competition between Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. For

vegetables the large orchards growing litchi, longan and mango provide the important crops

example in mating and for bee fodder Another reason is the importation of diseases (brood

in this area. Litchi and longan orchards

particularly need insect pollination and longan

diseases, tracheal mites and viral diseases} by

is a very important plant for honey production in this region. A lot of longan honey is

the introduced bee.

exported to Taiwan and Japan.

These two paints may play an important role in this region - for example chalkbrood and

was to this region that the first successful imports of Apis mellifera were made. Since 1985

the area.


sacbrood diseases can be found throughout

we have observed the relationship between the local bee Apis cerana and the introduced

there economic competition? No, because the local beekeepers are still providing nesting sites for Apis cerana by offering empty Is

Apis mellifera.

The table shows the numbers of Apis cerana colonies present in the same apiaries in 1985,

traditional hives as they did 1000 years ago. Traditional hives are now never occupied by

1988 and 1992. The dramatic reduction in the

Apis cerana.

number of Apis cerana colonies can be seen. Dr W Ritter has informed us that he also found


a big reduction of Apis cerana

beekeeper of this region said “No swarms come anymore - and if swarm comes, A


colonies in the

will abscond again very soon”.


north of Thailand between 1985 and 1988. At

Because of the decline of Apis cerana colonies in many regions of Asia, Apis cerana is an

the same time the number of Apis mellifera colonies has multiplied several times. There is

endangered species. The smaller the native population of Apis cerana in any area, the higher

now a highly developed Apis mellifera bee

industry in the area, producing royal jelly and

the danger for this bee because of its mating behaviour



Traditional beekeeping as part of the farming systems will be lost in areas with a high density of Apis mellifera beekeeping As Professor Verma says, “Apis mellifera is bee only for the rich men”, because Apis mellifera



beekeeping in Asia involves continous treatment against the tropical bee mites and needs very high technical standards None of this is possible for poor farmers.

This means that beekeeping for home use in many regions of Asia will be lost According to Professor Verma, “Apis cerana is the bee for the poor man in Asia”, and this poor man will be much poorer than before

When the Apis cerana population is destroyed a native and well-adapted pollinator for both

native and agricultural plants will be lost The results for native plant biodiversity and the pollination of agricultural crops cannot be


Is Apis mellifera

effectively as Apis cerana?


able to pollinate as


Figure 8 2



Apis mellifera

All possible efforts must be made to improve the economical value of the native bee

orchards ds with many Naat with many




colonies colonies 0



Apis cerana better management of this bee,

selection, and better marketing. Protection by law alone is not enough



All interested and committed organisations, institutions or private beekeepers should co-


INASP is the International Network for the Availability of Scientific Periodicas. It is a co-operative network of donors of recipient institutions aiming


operate towards optimal success. Therefore all the different ecotypes of Apis cerana of all Asia

to support existing programmes involving the distribution, publication, exchange and donation of books, journals and related materials.

should be compared for their economical value for beekeeping under different conditions.

Write for details


INASP, PO Box 2564, London, W5 IZD, UK


One special aspect connected with Apis mellifera which has to be mentioned is the introduction




of better beekeeping technology to Asia. The technical level of Apis cerana beekeeping


remains the same as it has always been, and it could be compared to the level of Apis mellifera

The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy informs people about foreign and national USA agricultural trade policies Inter-America Trade Monitor is a summary (available in both English and Spanish] of the most recent developments in trade negotiations, debt and economic restructuring in the Americas with special attention to agricultural issues.


beekeeping more than 100 years ago. It is still hard, but not quite hopeless task and this work must be done In Asia a

Contact: IATP, 1313 Fifth Street

SE, Suite 303, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414-1546, USA

Apis mellifera cannot be the only future of


beekeeping i

Apiary Y ear















Number OF



Apis cerana

(see Figure 1)


. .

or a just market?

Global Exchange, 2017 Mission Street, Rm 303, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA

Pamphlet available from:







Use Notice Board to let everyone know about your items for sale, job vacancies, your journal, or any special announcements. The cost is reasonable.

colonies> between 1985 and

1992 in the north of Thailand. The traditional hives were continuously avatlable in the same place for bees


introduces the issues of free and fair trade.



The same situation can be foundinahigh number of small-scale Apis cerana apiaries


Free Trade vs Fair Trade: do we want just a market







Number of Apis cerana colonies




|. _ |



Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NPS 4AB, UK.







An initiative to develop beekeeping in Burkina Faso began in the early 1980s with local, UNDP and FAO

funding. Following a government request to FAO the “Intensification of Beekeeping” project was launched


Blanca Rigau, UN Volunteer from Spain, is responsible for extension in women's groups. She spends much time travelling to introduce bee products






-4 and modern processing


techniques to rural women. There are now ten women’s Spreading the light in Burkina Faso

groups producing honey and honey wine, and processing wax into candles and soap Source.



ETHIOPIA Honeybees - a morphometric study A study has been conducted by Ayalew Kassaye to classify Ethiopian honeybees. The sample size covers 75% of the land area of Ethiopia. No samples were taken from the northern “regions due to instability in these areas. Classification of honeybees was done by standard procedures. 41 morphometric characters per worker bee and 19 characters per drone were investigated according to Ruttner's method. Honeybees from Ethiopia

were compared with the honeybees of tropical Africa, the Middle East, and with some subspecies from Europe. Five distinctly

separate groups of honeybees were found, representing different ecological areas of the country. Apis mellifera litorea was found in Gambella while Apis mellifera monticola was found in the highland areas of the Bale Region. The yellow bee found in the eastern escarpment of the country resembled Apis mellifera jemenitica.

Honeybees from the western part of the country differ from the honeybee races of East Africa in many respects, and are thus proposed to be named Apis mellifera abyssinica. Lowland honeybees of Ethiopia resembled Apis mellifera adansonii but not Apis mellifera scutellata of East Africa

The Tobago Apicultural Society Newsletter Volume |, Number is now available! |

Contact: Gladstone Solomon, c/o Botanic Station, Scarborough, Tobago, West Indies


Work to identify subspecies of honeybees is still going on at the Centre of Bee Research and Training at Holeta. Source: Ethiopian Beekeeping Newsletter,



No 2







NEVIS is now a year since fire destroyed the Nevis Beehouse. The generosity of beekeepers locally and world-wide responding to the Nevis Beehouse Appeal means that new Beehouse is very likely in 1994, although further donations are always welcome: Nevis Beehouse Appeal, Gingerland PO, Charlestown, NEVI KN2, St Kitts & Nevis, West Indies. It


For more information on Beekeeping. The Nevis Way, see Bookshelf.

PAKISTAN The introduction of the European honeybee has resulted in a marked increase in honey production in Pakistan. There are now more than 27,000 colonies of Apis mellifera in all the provinces and Azad Kashmir, producing over 500 tonnes of honey annually The overall production of honey by all three local honeybee species (Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis florea) and Apis mellifera is about 1000 tonnes per annum.

Although Pakistan could be self-sufficient in honey, honey is also imported from Australia, Canada, China, Dubai, Germany, The Netherlands, Singapore, the UK and the USA: 182.5 tonnes were imported in 1990/91. Women beekeepers

PARC has made concerted efforts to train beekeepers in modern practices and to encourage beekeeping as an incomegenerating activity for small farmers and landless families. PARC has collaborated with the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme to set up a beekeeping unit at Gilgit. More recently a women’s beekeeping unit has started in collaboration with the Planning and Development Department, NWFP, and the International Labour Organisation. PARC







Beekeeping Research and Development Centre

THE WORLD serves as a resource centre for training and extension activities and has established an active unit at Timergarah, Dir, from where the first women’s beekeeping NGO in Pakistan operates. The lady beekeepers in Dir harvested more than 500 kg of honey during May and

sold at Timergarah after processing and packing under PARC supervision. Two further centres are being set up at Ouch and Sadbar Clay. These centres will have 60 women trainers for further assistance in the remote areas of Malakand. PARC is thus providing technical assistance and playing a pivotal rote to develop beekeeping as a cottage industry for rural communities. June 1993

It is

Source: Nasreen Muzaffar, Director of the National

Agricultural Research Centre

UGANDA The Uganda Beekeepers’ Association held their second Annual Beekeeping Workshop in September 1993 in Kampala. The theme for the Workshop was product development and export marketing for honey and beeswax. The Minister of Agriculture, Mrs Victoria Sekitoleko, officiated at the opening ceremony. She is a great supporter of beekeeping in

Uganda Source: Geraldine Nsubuga


Spanish for |

Venezuelan beekeepers. It contains original articles and translations of relevant articles which have appeared elsewhere.


3 we

For more information contact. Ec Elda Briceno de Barrios, Coordinacién Técnica Mérida, Corporacién de Los Andes, Apdo 94, Mérida,


The National Bee Research Centre was established in Hanoi ten years ago and in 1992 the former Technical Department of the Central Honey Bee Agency was incorporated to form the National Bee Research and Development Centre.

The Centre receives government funding for applied research and extension programmes. Activities include research into Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera, honeybee management and training for beginners, extension workers and more advanced beekeepers. Topical courses on sacbrood contro! and queen rearing are also organised.

BRDC wants to co-operate with other research institutes and training centres. Contact BRDC Lang Trung Street, Lang Ha,

“Ee.” t t



Opiet “;

S; .




thig aud ipis corano cerana

5090‘SoS a



Owiet Postage stamps from Vietnam featuring


cerana and Apis dorsata, sent by Tran Duc Ha.


Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam.

OBITUARY Mr Tran Duc Ha passed away on


January 1994

As Director of the National Bee Research Centre in Vietnam since 1984 Mr Tran Duc Ha was the vital force in establishing contacts towards improving beekeeping in Vietnam. His efforts resulted in the National Research and Development Centre described above. In his work he showed a great awareness of, and actively promoted the unique traditions and the diversity of bees and beekeeping in Vietnam. Despite the difficulties, he manoeuvred the Bee Research Centre into an organisation with international activities. Within Vietnam he actively organised local training and extension programmes with the Asian bee Apis cerana.

The speed and the enthusiasm with which he mastered the English language is a remarkable example of his spirit; it was appreciated by the many international researchers he met and opened his field of contacts, and also helped other Vietnamese bee researchers.

VENEZUELA Revista del munapih A new journal


From its start five years ago he was the Vietnamese delegate to the Asian Apicultural Association (AAA), and has been a regular contributor to this journal. Recently at the Apimondia Congress in Beijing he received a bronze medal award for an instructional video production on Vietnam's Apis cerana beekeeping, and was pictured in Beekeeping & Development 29. Mr Ha strongly wished to greet his friends in beekeeping, at home and abroad, to thank them for their contacts, to

encourage them and to wish them good success.

Leaving his wife, his two children and many, many friends he he age of 47. behin he Vincent Mulder

Source: Patricia Vit Olivier






VALUE ADDED PRODI By processing your beekeeping products into other useful items or foods, you add value to them. All goods made with honey and/or beeswax sell for much more than the costs of the raw

etroleum jelly is easy to make and it is ningredient of many other products:*

alt the beeswax in a double boiler.

teaspoon wintergreen essential oil

PROPOLIS GRANULES I: Obtain hive scrapings containing mostly

When stored in a jar and allowed to cool, this glue thickens and can be used as a normal

200°F oven.

paper paste.

container. Stir often to help release the wax. Maintain the heat for at least two hours.

CHAPPED-LIP BALM Petroleum jelly is good for chapped lips but this formula is even better.

Remove the can from the oven and let it cool.

methods exactly, they will work.


difficulty in finding some of the

2: Remove the waxy layer that formed on the surface of the water. Pour off the water and


3. Place the container in a freezer. When the propolis is brittle, chip the granules from the

container. Spread the propolis granules on

White's book contains many such


useful methods and formulas:


further details are given on page 14.





tablespoon honey



hours. Strain the ointment and store it in a

After the air drying period, when cheese has developed a hard, dry rind, it must be protected with wax to prevent mould and further drying.

tightly sealed tin or wide-mouth jar.

13 2

oz beeswax oz vegetable shortening

Step I:






teaspoon propolis granules teaspoon lanolin tablespoons mineral oil

a.can in boiling water. Stir until it cools

to see the


temperature is maintained.

tablespoon beeswax

A few drops of wintergreen essential oil Melt th ldo 61 bole by gridi ts

Combine the ingredients and heat them to 240°F in an oven. Use an oven thermometer and check it often


the mixture until it cools.

oz beeswax

Stop all bleeding, apply the herbal ointment and a bandage. Repeat the treatment daily for three days.


tablespoon lanolin

6 oz fat or oil

Place ingredients in a 200°F oven for three

¥ teaspoon petroleum jelly


Melt the wax, lanolin and petroleum jelly in a double boiler. Add the honey and essential oil. Essential oils of peppermint, eucalyptus,



teaspoon honey

3-4 drops essential oil

dry. Store them in a sealed container.

(The fat or oil can be cocoa butter, lanolin, mineral oil or vegetable

2% oz vegetable shortening

tablespoon petroleum jelly


wintergreen and camphor slightly num6 painful


Gremlins crept in at the printers! Please note the following: Petroleum jelly: ‘4 cup baby oil or mineral oil ‘4 eup water, % cup honey; Envelope glue: Ya teaspoon wintergreen oil 13% oz beeswax, Cheese wax:


4 oz dry, powdered herb



tablespoon shredded beeswax


save the coloured mass beneath it.

that are locally available. Elaine


paper and allow it to dry. Moisten the glue to

enough water to cover the scrapings and heat


seal the envelope or attach labels.

the propolis will stick to the bottom of the

you follow her ingredients and

oz beeswax (not

taste. With a brush, apply a very thin coat of the hot


The wax will melt and float on the water, while

has tested all of these recipes and if


Heat the ingredients in a double boiler for 15 minutes. Add the wintergreen oil if it is desired to improve the

propolis. Place the scrapings in a heat-proof container that can later be discarded. Add

this in a

Super formulas. Elaine White

Grafting wax:

cup honey

tir in the mineral oil.

They are taken from her book

% teaspoon

tablespoon laundry starch


kind permission of Elaine C White.

Lip gloss:

cup water

cup baby or mineral oil

These formulas reproduced with the

experiment by substituting materials

tablespoon gum Arabic



ingredients and of course you can

This is a moistening-type glue for stamps, labels or the flaps of envelopes.

oz beeswax


However you may experience




Hold the cheese under the hot wax for 10 minutes to Rill the surface bacteria. Remove the cheese and allow the wax to cool

and harden. Reduce the temperature of the wax to 160°F,



3. Dip the cheese and remove it with one quick, smooth motion. Repeat this step until the wax is about 1/16 inch thick.




Simple petroleum jelly is a good clear lip gloss Lipstick colours this formula. This is good way to use lipstick that is too dark because the gloss will be a lighter colour. a

Bees for Development is committed to providing information to beekeepers in developing countries. Our own resources are limited, but we especially want to help those who have no other sources of assistance.

teaspoon shredded beeswax


teaspoon lipstick

you represent a beekeeping project or group in a developing country which has no access to external funding or assistance then you are welcome to request those items which would be of help to you. Write to: If

teaspoon petroleum jelly Melt th ne ingredients in a small can placed in boiling water. Stir it well and pour it into a small j ar.



tablespoon beeswax drops clove essential oil

Melt the wax over low heat and add the oil. When the mixture is cool enough to handle, shape it into small



Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth NP5 4AB, United Kingdom.

INFORMATION CHARTS We have a smal] number of information charts which we will send free of charge to beekeeping projects and groups in developing countries. The value of each chart is 5. Information Chart

Information Chart




Information Chart


Information Chart 4 Pollination


Top-bar hives

balls about half the size of your thumbnail. Store these in a small covered jar.

Use the pellets for aching teeth They are good to use when a filling has been lost.

TOOTHPASTE 250 parts honey 250 parts precipitated chalk 250 parts orris root 7 parts tincture

FIRST WEST AFRICAN BEE RESEARCH SEMINAR We have a small number of copies of the Proceedj which we will donate to projects and groups inter asted in the management of African bees.

The value of each copy is 20.00 given in Bookshelf page 14).

(further details a cout this publication are

of opium


parts tincture of myrrh

2 2

parts oil of rose parts oil of cloves


parts oil of nutmeg

TROPICAL TREE T SHIRTS Friends of Bees for Development can now easily recognise one

(all parts by weight) Mik all ingredients well.




low-technology hive.

T-shirts are 100% cotton with short sleeves. They cost 12.00 including post and packing. One size fits all.

oz rosin or propolis granules

10 oz

another by their distinctive white T-shirts bearing a tropical tree with


Heat the beeswax and rosin at 250°F until they melt.

Friends in cooler climates may prefer the warmer, long sleeved version made of thicker, fleecy material, 50% cotton, 50% polyester. These sweatshirts cost 23.00 including post and packing.


State size required.


oz charcoal powder


tablespoon linseed oil

Grafting wax is used by gardeners and crop growers to seal the union of plant tissue. in the remaining ingredients.

Allow the wax

to cool to a

spreadable consistency and

Send payment with your order to Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth NP5 4AB, UK.

brush it onto the graft.


cup = 8 oz

loz=35 Helen models the sweatshirt


(details of ways to pay are given in Bookshelf page 15.)








Apimondia Meeting on Bee Biology

Second Asian Apicultural Association Conference 25-30 July 1994, Yogyakarta.

1994 Further details will be given in this journal as they are announced.


AAA Conference, Directorate of Afforestation and Social Forestry, Ministry of Forestry, Manggala Wanbakti Building 13 Floor, || Gatot Subroto Senayan, Jakarta 10270, Indonesia. Telephone 62 21 573 0182. Fax: 62 21 573 7092. Further details from: Organising Committee of the Second

10th Brazilian Congress on Apiculture 14-18 August 1994, Goias.

Caixa Postal No 1337, Goidnia-Goids, CEP 74000- 970, Brazil. Fax: 55 62 224 4745. Further details from-

MALAYSIA Tropical Bees and the Environment

Resources and Environmental Monitoring 3-7 October 1994, Rio de Janeiro. Further details from: Roberto Pereira da Cunha, INPE. PO Box 515, 1220] Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil


13-16 March 1995, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia. The Conference will explore the utilisation of indigenous tropical bees and indigenous knowledge for beekeeping, and the contributions which can be made by beekeepers to the conservation of the environment.

1996 Further details will be given in this journal as they are announced.

BEENET ASIA, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Telephone: 60 3 948 3514 Fax: 60 3 948



XH International Congress on Social Insects 21-27 August 1994, Paris.

The XXXIV International Apicultural Congress - APIMONDIA

Further details from- Secretariat,

Apimondia Meeting on Pollination


Further details from. Professor Pierre jaisson, Laboratoire

d’Ethologie, Universite Paris-Nord, 93430, Villetaneus, France. Telephone: 33 49 403218. |

Fax: 33


49 403975.

Systems-Orientated Research in Agriculture and Rural Development 21-25 November 1994, Montpellier. Further details from: Secretariat du symposium sur les recherches-systeme, Bat, Les Moulins B-10, BP 5035, 34032 Montpellier Cedex 1, France. If you want details of your event included here send details to

Bees for Development,

8-14 August 1995, Lausanne. Further details will

be given in this

journal as they

are announced.

UK Global Forum '94 25 June - 3 July 1994, Manchester. Further details from:

Global Forum ‘94, PO Box 532, Town Hall, Manchester,

M60 2LA, UK.

USA IX International Congress of Acarology 17-22 July 1994, Ramada Unversity Hotel and Conference Center, Ohio. Further details from. IX International Congress of Acarology, Acarology

Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, UK. Fax 44 (0}600 716167.

Laboratory, Museum of Biological Diversity, The Ohio State University, 1315 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212, USA Fax: 614 292 7744. |

LEARN AHEA > Further details f om: Jon Daane, international Agricultural Centre, PO Box 88, 6700 AB, Jageningen, Netherlands. Telephone: 3} 837 090 111. Fax: 31 837 018 55 2,


Rural Project Planning

$8 April-27 Mi


1994, Canberra.

Further details fi ‘am: Course Co-ordinator, ANUTECH Pty Ltd, GPO Box 4, ‘Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Telephone: 61 62 495671. Fax: 61 62 *

International Short Course on Land Use Management for Tropical Agriculture June 1994.

. 6172 213896.

- ISRAEL Extension International Workshop on Beekeeping and

"20 April - 11 May §994, Ruppin Institute of Agriculture. - Further details from: The Director, Center for International Agricultural Development Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, PO Box 7011, Tel Aviv 61070, Israel. Telephone: 972 3 697 1709. Fax: 972 3 697 1677.


‘Agroforestry Research for Development 9-27 May 1994, Nairobi. Further details from: Training Co-ordinator, (CRAF, PO Box 30677, Nairobi, Kenya. Fax: 254 2521 001.




13th International Course for Development-orientated Research in Agriculture january - 28 July 1994 (in English}, 28 February [5 September 1994

10 .


French}, Wageningen.



University of Aanchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, MI3 9QS, UK.

TRAILANS Marketing of Non-Timber Tree and Forest Products 21



ipril 1994, Bangkok.

Further details f am: Dr Somsak Sukwong, Director, RECOFTC, Kasetsart University, Ba| ngkok 10900, Thailand. Telephone: 662 579 0108. Fax: 662 561 4880.

Certificate C vurse in Community Forestry

13fune-140 ctober

1994, Bangkok.

Further details fi om: Dr Somsak Sukwong, Director, RECOFTC, Kasetsart University, Ba ngkok 10900, Thailand. Telephone: 662 579 0108. Fax: 662 561 4880. OB



ju y 1994, Sri Lanka and Manchester, UK.


Further details from: Director General, Attn C Searle, International Consultancies, Department of Primary Industries, Queensland, GPO Box . 46, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia, Telephone: 61 72 393302. Fax:


‘Alleviation: Project Management and Design

Further details fr om: Institute of Development Policy and Management,










Diploma in Aydiculture October 199 4 - 30 September 1995, University of Wales College of Cardiff.F th details from: Diploma in Apiculture, University of Wales College of Ca diff, PO Box 915, Cardiff CFI 3TL, UK. Telephone: 44 222 |

874147. Fax:

4 222 874305.

Women and gricultural Development 21 April - 30] ine 1994, University of Reading. Further details f om: Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Department. Iniversity of Reading, 3 Earley Gate, Whiteknights Road, Reading, KUO 2AL, UK.


ZOOMING IN ON... INDIA Size 3,287,263 km Population 843.9 million GNP S610 per capita

Location India lies to the north of the equator. It measures 3214 km north to south and 2933 km east to west, with altitudes ranging from sea

level to 8581 m in the Himalayas.

Main agriculture Cashew, coconut, coffee, cotton, jute, maize, pulses, rice, sugarcane, tea, tobacco and wheat are just some of the important crops: many fruits and vegetables are grown.

Honeybees Apis cerana, Apis dorsata, Apis laboriosa and Apis florea are native bee species. The following sub-species of Apis cerana have so far been

identified: Apis cerana cerana, Apis cerana himalaya and Apis cerana indica. Apis mellifera was introduced to the north in the mid 1960s and to southern India only recently.

Beekeeping Wooden boxes, hollowed-out logs, earthen pitchers and wall hives are traditional ways of keeping Apis cerana. Modern hives for Apis cerana are wooden movable-frame hives, called the IS]

villager's hive. Apis mellifera is kept in Langstroth hives. Migratory beekeeping is practised in some parts, especially in the north. Beekeeping equipment is supplied by government departments and private dealers.

Problems Frequent swarming, absconding, robbing and decline in populations of Apis cerana. Mating and foraging competition between Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Pesticide poisoning and invasion by pests and pathogens.

Number of beekeepers There are around one million colonies of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera being kept in

Honeybee diseases, pests and predators These include the parasitic mites Acarapis woodi and Tropilaelaps clareae, ants, bears, beetles, birds, predatory wasps (Vespa spp) and wax moths. Acarine, nosema, sacbrood and cluster virus are the most important diseases. Thai sacbrood virus which killed almost 80% of Apis cerana colonies in the early 1980s is still prevalent in some parts of the country. As a result of this the large scale multiplication of Apis mellifera is taking place, which is threatening the existence of Apis cerana.





SA ep

INDIA Calcutta® Bombay



Beekeeping Association The All India Beekeepers Association, 817 Sadashiv Peth, Pune 411 030. There are also regional associations and societies.

Research Beekeeping research is being conducted by universities and institutes in Bangalore, Himachal Pradesh, Hisar, Kerala, Ludhiana, New Delhi, Palampur, Pune, Punjab, Simla, Solan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh.

Training The state departments of horticulture and agriculture look after the extension work of beekeeping and give training to farmers and

young entrepreneurs. Beekeeping is becoming an important component of Integrated Rural Development Programmes Central Bee Research Institute, Khadi and Village Industries Commission, 1153 Ganeshkhind Road, Sivajinagar, Pune 41] 016. Training from beginner to postgraduate level. Overseas students are accepted.

Projects Many projects are underway in universities and institutes. A major one is: All India Co-ordinated Project on Honeybee Research and Training, Haryana Agricultural

Publications Mattu,V K (1992) Scope and strategies for apicultural development in Himachal Pradesh. In Honeybees in mountain agriculture. New Delhi India; Oxford and !BH. 181-192.

Mishra.R C; Sihag, R C (1987) Apicultural Research in India. Hisar, India; AICRP. 120 pp.

Rawat, B S (1978) Beekeeping Ranikhet, India; Rawat Apiaries. 146 pp.

University, Hisar, Haryana 125 004.

questions and answers.

Locally organised development projects have been funded by: ActionAid; CARE-India; Oxfam, SIDA, YMCA, and others.

in Hindi.


45,000 villages.

Indian Bee Journal,

All India Beekeepers’ Association, 817 Sadashiv Peth, Pune 411 030.

Rawat, B 5 (1981) Elementary Ranikhet, India; Rawat Apiaries. 63 pp. In Hindi.

Melliferous vegetation

(In English. Quarterly).

Shah, F A (1983) Fundamentals of beekeeping. Shah Apiaries,

indian Honey, Indian Institute of Honey,

India. 60 pp.

Martandam, Kuzhithurai, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu 629 163.

Verma, L R (1991) Beekeeping in >.

traditional and modern hives, which are being maintained by about 250,000 beekeepers in

India enjoys tremendous ecological diversity. A variety of honey resources are present in different agro-climatic zones which can be categorised as agricultural crops, forest and avenue trees and shrubs, fruits and vegetables.

Honey production Annual honey production is more than 18,500 tonnes. Apis cerana colonies yield 4-10 kg, whereas Apis mellifera produce 10-25 kg per colony.


(In English, Malalyalam, Tamil. Quarterly).

Madhu Prapancha, D K Beekeepers’ Co-operative Society Ltd, No L 386, Puttur 574 201. (Im



integrated mountain development.

Edinburgh, UK; Edinburgh Aspect Publications. 367 pp.


Kannada. Quarterly).

Patrika, Uttar Pradesh, Mannapal Sangh,

PO Jeolikote, Mainital, Uttar Pradesh. (In Hindi. Irregular).

DrV K Mattu of Himachal Pradesh University for much of the information for this item.

We thank






oy Food Chain Food Chain is a journal providing practical and appropriate information for small-scale food processors Articles are written by workers in many countries experienced in their fields. The journal presents information in a very clear format.

published three times a year by Intermediate Technology, Myson House, Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HT, UK. The subscription is 9 for three issues, but those who cannot afford to pay may write for a free


it is

The First West African Bee Research Seminar Bradbear


edited by N

Food, nutrition and agriculture

Funded by the International Foundation for Science, Stockholm, Sweden.

Available free of charge to government agencies and research institutes from the Food Policy

86 pages. Paperback.

and Nutrition Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

Published three times a year in English, French and Spanish, this journal carries articles on nutrition issues, food standards and quality in developing countries. It is included here as it will be of value to readers concerned with projects addressing malnutrition problems.

Super formulas: how to make more than 360 useful products that contain honey and beeswax by

EC White

Valley Hills Press, Starkville, USA (1993) 120 pages. Paperback.

Bees for Development, Monmouth, UK (1993) 20.00

The written texts of the papers presented at this First Seminar, held in The Gambia in 1991. The papers reveal the difficulty of managing the honeybee native to West Africa, Apis mellifera adansonii, and depict the current level of knowledge of this bee Other information is also presented: on making beekeeping projects successful, on the further research requirements of West Africa, and concerning other bee species.

La biologie de l'abeille by M

L Winston

Editions Nauwelaerts, Beauvechain, Belgium (1993) 276 pages. Paperback



Elaine White has spent years testing formulas and methods for making all sorts of products. The common factor is that the recipes and techniques all contain or use honey, beeswax or propolis. The formulas are not just recipes for food items (although a few are included), but are for making other products.

A French translation of Mark Winston's excellent text: very highly recommended for all who want to understand the biology of

These methods and products range from those you might already know - candles, mead and vinegar, to those you probably never thought could contain products of bees: beard softener, mascara, paint stripper, and theatrical grease

paint! Many of the formulas contain ingredients that are not readily obtainable but from the 350 methods and recipes you are certain to find some that can be made and could become

popular (and maybe lucrative) products in your area

A selection of Elaine White's formulas are given on page 10

honeybees, tropical and temperate

Network Available from. Dr

S K Bhargara, Chief Technical Adviser, Forestry Planning and Policy Assistance, Asia and Pacific Region, c/o FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Maliwan Mansion, Phra Atit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand.

This is a quarterly newsletter carrying information on forest conservation, planning and policy projects funded by FAO in Asia and the Pacific Region. Beekeepers in this region should read this newsletter to know what projects are being planned

They can then ensure that their needs and those of the bees are not neglected!





JHoneéY he


reference (nearly every page) to Morse and Hooper's Encyclopedia of beekeeping, which is apparently easily available in Nevis. This seems a reasonable way to provide a specific text without repeating the information given in the standard beekeeping books.

by H

at 13.00

(was 42.00).


BOOKSHELF offers you an


29}, is

now available

many books on beekeeping and development as we can.


Send copies of your publications to

Bees for Development and we will do our best to review


them in a future edition of

Available from: Panos London, 9 White Lion

Street, London NI 9PD, UK. Price: 9.95


guide to collecting and interpreting The book aims to help information. spoken to improve their workers development skills, and to value the and learning listening knowledge, culture and priorities of the people that projects are supposed to help. it would be of value to anyone who plans to assist traditional beekeepers: it will assist in finding the right questions to ask and in recording and transcription. This book encourages those involved with assisting development to listen to the (sometimes awkward) voices of the

This is

“Ss we Seeks




published quarterly and sent free of charge to readers of this journal. To order books use the form in Books to Buy or simply write to us listing your requirements. We are also able to obtain other publications not listed in Books to Buy. Just ask us! Please send payment with your order. Prices include packing and post to any address, by surface mail world-wide, or in the UK.

To have your order sent by airmail, please add 20% to the total order cost. We cannot be held responsible for books lost in transit: for insurance please enquire and we will inform you of the extra cost. We can also issue invoices but we must receive payment before books are dispatched.


Quentin Henderson, Gingerland

PO, Charlestown, NEVI KN2, St Kitts & Nevis. Price 5 including airmail postage.

Publications will as far as possible be supplied at the prices quoted, however these are subject to alteration.

A 38 page spiral bound book which sets out to provide basic information about beekeeping on the Caribbean island of Nevis to the people

WAYS TO PAY Please make all payments to Bees for Development

State card type, card number, expiry date and name on card

Banker's draft in € sterling Bank transfer

Cheques and Eurocheques in Post Office Giro transfer



Account number: 10167967. Sort code: 20-00-85. Barclays Bank ple, PO Box 29, Monmouth, NP5 3YG, UK




Access, Mastercard or Visa

who live there. The bees on Nevis are European Apis mellifera. The date of their introduction to Nevis (several hundred years ago) is unknown. Colonies of these Apis mellifera are found nesting in the wild all over the island and their honey is plundered by men known as “honey cutters”. Africanized bees are not

The book provides information on frame hive beekeeping using the equipment and facilities available. It starts at the leve! of describing a hive tool and gives practical advice through to harvesting and marketing the honey, including clear instructions for removing a nest of bees

and visual aids on tropical


Funded by Voluntary Service Overseas, London, UK (1992, 2nd edition) 38 pages.


particularly interested to expand our range of books

Books to Buy is a list of books available to buy from Bees for Development.


Available from:


this journal. We may also stock them for sale: we are


Beekeeping: the Nevis way |]



people they want to help.



opportunity to reach readers in nearly every country of the

Slim and P Thompson

Panos Publications, London, UK (1993) 147 pages. Paperback.


world. Our aim is to review as


Listening for a change




Nectar and pollen plants of China fy Xu Wanlin treviewed in Beekeeping & Development



Account number: 4222067

receives from book

sales is used to provide the free advisory service to beekeepers in developing countries.

if you wish to send a cheque or bank draft in USS then add 20S to cover the cost of exchange.


ORDER FAST BY FAX: 44 (0)600 716167

from the wild. The text makes constant






One subscription to any destination



Ten subscriptions to one postal address



Subscriptions commence on the date they are received. Each subscription covers four editions, and includes airmail postage.

A receipt will be issued on request.




Beekeeping Associations are welcome to order copies in bulk: special rates available.

Groups or individuals who are unable to pay may request a sponsored subscription by writing to Bees for Development.

_ ~

WAYS TO PAY Please use the same payment methods as shown in Bookshelf overleaf. For details of Beeswax Barter see below right.

Return the form below as soon as possible. This will ensure you do not miss any issu of Beekeeping & Development. Send to Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NP5 4AB, UK or Fax to: 44 (0)600 716167. .

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"25-30 July 1994

Price in US dollars is a guide only.







Yogyakarta, Indonesia Deadline for papers 1 June 1994 Second Announcement now available Write to:

Organising Committee of the Second Asian Apicultural Association Conference, Directorate Afforestation and Social Forestry, Ministry of Forestry, Manggala Wanabakti Building 13 Floor JI, Gatot Subroto Senayan, Jakarta 10270, Indonesia. Fax: 62 21 573 7092. NEW RULES FOR BEESWAX BARTER PAY IN CANDLE CURR NCY $| teswax

One subscription



Ten subscriptions to one address






25 kg

10 kg


Payments should be made to Bees for Development

Beekeepers in developing countries (only!) may pa y th their subscription in pure beeswax or with pure beeswax candles. We have decided to accept candles in payment, and since they are of h igher value than

agree that Bees for Development may debit my Access/Mastercard/Visa account for the sum of

beeswax, only 2 kg of candles are needed to buy or e subscription. The lower weight of candles needed will also allow sav ings on postage costs.


please delete as applicable




Name on card. Card number

Conditions for paying



Expiry date on card ..


beeswax or candles:

Beeswax must be reasonably clean and of good q uality. It must be presented in solid form and not as scraps of wax « T pieces of comb.


Candles must be of saleable quality. Beeswax from any species of Apis will be acceptec as long as the name of the species from which it is collected is stated.







authorise Bees for Development to charge future subscriptions to (announced in advance) to my credit card on each anniversary of the first payment until such time as | instruct in bs th writing that wish t x trouble of renewing zach year and saves Bees for Development vital funds by not ha ving to remind me to renew.


Inside the parcel state your name and address, th e weight and origin of the beeswax, and the number of subscriptions you are paying. On the outside of the parcel state "BEESWAX RAW (C )R CANDLES) FOR BEES FOR DEVELOPMENT” and the weight in kik ograms.


Any parcel containing comb, very dirty wax or oth erwise unusable wax will be destroyed on arrival at Bees for Developn rent. it will not be returned and will not be accepted for barter.


Payment in beeswax or candles is only available f or subscriptions for Beekeeping & Development to developing countries.


Arrangements for costs of carriage of beeswax or candles to Bees for Development are the responsibility of the sende! ‘and Bees for Development wil! not be responsible for any pos tage or other costs whatsoever.


Beekeeping & Development





may ancel this instruction at any time.




Beekeeping & Development is published quarterly by Bees for Development, Troy, Monmouth, NPS 4AB, UK. Telephone: 44 (0}600 713648 Fax: 44 (0)600 716167.

Environmentally friendly paper.

Bees for Development ISSN 0256 4424