Bees for Development Journal Edition 25 - December 1992

Page 1

Beekee develornenit DECEMBER 1992










AN AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGIST has recently estimated that there might be as many as 50 million species of insect on earth! About 750,000 of them are known species, and 25,000 are bees. The honey bees exploited by man are of very few species, currently numbered at seven: these are described on pages 8 and 9. Two of these honey bee species have now been over-exploited. Apis cerana (the asian hive bee) faces further extinction in Himalayan countries where it is over-stressed by introduced diseases as well as destruction of its habitat. Beekeeping with the most widely distributed honey bee, Apis mellifera also becomes less easy in countries where beekeepers have to contend with introduced diseases or races of bees with inappropriate character. Inevitably other species are being assessed for their potential


to meet honey and pollination requirements. This renewed interest in stingless bees and other species was evident at recent meetings in the Caribbean (page 4 and 5) and Malaysia {page 14). Meanwhile in Honduras, “bee-havers” continue to harmoniously harvest honey from stingless bees using methods handed down, apparently with little beekeeping or development, from Mayan civilisation - Chad Poovey describes this on pages 6 and 7. We have to hope that while eagerness for biodiversity encourages us to look at other species, our looking does not lead to their over-exploitation. While this might not necessarily lead directly to extinction, the introduction of diseases and other problems makes the beekeepers’ craft more difficult and less economic.

Production edited by Dr Nicola Bradbear with assistance from Helen Jackson. All items are written by Nicola Bradbear unless stated otherwise. 4000 copies of each edition are printed and distributed to beekeepers, projects and associations in 174 countries worldwide. Four editions are published yearly in March, June, September and December. Beekeeping & Development is

World Vision Award for Development Initiative 1990

Contributions Your contributions are invited. We welcome atticles on techniques found to work well, on your events and activities, and news items of interest or concern to readers. Please include illustrations or photographs. Thanks to all who have contributed to this edition.


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Cover picture The Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, The Honourable Patrick Manning, cuts the ribbon to open the Fifth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates t] FA CLEMENTS.



Beeswa x barter (for Beeswa x Barter conditions see Beekeeping & Development 24 page 16)




QUEEN INCLUDERS! Kwame Aidoo, Ghana QUEEN EXCLUDERS are normally used to restrict the movement of queen bees to brood boxes within frame hives. The benefits of using queen excluders to manage colonies have been widely debated Many beekeepers think they add to the operational cost and in some cases break the wings of worker bees. Some observers have concluded that workers’ movements during heavy nectar flows are impeded by queen excluders thus reducing honey accumulation.

Fig.1: A hive entrance showing the clearance space. Kenya Top-bar


arrow end side

_ Strip of queen

is known that worker bees never abandon a queen during the mass movement of a colony during swarming, migration or absconding. However within a nest worker bees are known to abandon a queen for young brood Absconding and migration are evolutionary



traits associated mainly with tropical races of honey bees During severe dearth periods whole colonies sometimes abandon their nests, carrying with them all available stores of food. This migration behaviour is stimulated by severe drought coupled with the absence of nearby forage sources An established colony may abscond after heavy disturbance as happens during nest robbing by animals and the occurrence of bush fires. Invasion of a nest by other enemies such as ants and wax moths also leads to absconding. Migration and absconding may result in total loss of productive colonies and therefore serious problems for the beekeeper

The queen excluded entrance In

my attempts to build up an apiary of

25 strong colonies for my research work


suffered much colony loss through absconding These were usually wild colonies which had captured and hived. Unlike captured swarms, they were gone after a few days even though conditions were made conducive for them to stay. decided that if could detain the queen of a colony but allow free movement of workers in and out of the hive, then may succeed in retaining my new colonies. Subsequently all new colonies were put in hives fitted with strips of zinc queen excluder (figure 1). A clearance space of 4 cm was left between the actual hive entrance and the strip of queen |



Landing board of hive

Body of hive

Hive entrance N

Excluded entrance

Clearance space ~~

excluder (figure 2). This covered the entire length of the hive entrance and created a good space for movement, thus avoiding congestion. Worker movements in and out of the hive were observed and there appeared to be no obstruction in the movement of bees even during heavy nectar flows.


A Kenya Top-bar hive fitted with an excluded entrance.


Colonies fitted with excluded entrances were left to establish themselves with comb building and food accumulation going on steadily. The queen excluded strips were then removed The use of the excluded entrance looks promising in preventing new colonies from absconding. Supplementary feeding is required to control migration.

Future research

The effect of an excluded entrance on colony development at the initial stages of establishment needs further investigation. The use of an excluded entrance to control swarming in managed colonies could also be investigated: does the timely fitting of an excluded entrance to a colony at the beginning of the swarming season check the behaviour?













Delegates from 44 countries travelled to the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and Tobago to participate in this Conference in September. These Conferences have |


taken place every four years since 1976 with each one attended by ever greater numbers of people. The Conference was convened by IBRA and hosted by the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.



Delegates had a full six-day programme arranged for them: nine Conference sessions; workshop meetings. two half-day visits to apiaries and beekeepers in Trinidad; a full day visit to Tobago; and social events too. Delegates reported that they found the Conference a worthwhile, useful and stimulating event.



FIFTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APICULTURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES Venue The Conference took place in the University of the West Indies in Trinidad where excellent facilities were made available.

Opening The week started with a splendid opening ceremony. The Prime Minister of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, government and university officials, and representatives of international organisations joined with all the delegates for this event.

Participants Delegates came from:

Africa: Botswana, Cameroon, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania

Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Thailand Caribbean: Antigua, Barbados, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St Christopher & Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent, Trinidad & Tobago

Central & South America: Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Surinam, Venezuela

Europe: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, UK

Middle East: Saudi Arabia

\D ayo

Banners across Port of Spain proclaimed the Conference

North America: Canada, USA

Pacific: Solomon Islands Travelling from some of these countries to Trinidad and Tobago was a long journey! Delegates from developing countries were enabled to participate under sponsorship from CTA, The Commonwealth Foundation, FAO, GTZ, IFS (Sweden), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (The Netherlands), NORAD, ODA and VSO.

Sessions At our last Conference delegates asked for more time for discussion, and to have fewer concurrent sessions. In response we arranged this Conference over six days rather than five, and with a greater number of authors persuaded to give presentations as poster displays rather than orally. This certainly seemed to work well

them with the authors. Groups of people were gathered around the poster displays most of the time, with much sharing of ideas and experience.

Exhibition The exhibition consisted of beekeeping displays from Trinidad and Tobago and other countries, a national honey competition, equipment demonstrations and trade stands.

Technical visits Much effort was extended by the Local Organizing Committee in arranging an excellent programme of technical visits. Two half-day visits to beekeepers in Trinidad were provided, with a choice of five different destinations for each. The host beekeepers were well prepared for the visitors and most welcoming. Everyone had ample opportunity to satisfy their urge to handle honey bees. On Wednesday of the Conference week all delegates travelled to Tobago for a full day visit. The logistics involved in getting everyone to Tobago and back in one day were difficult and had been a major problem during Conference planning, mainly with regard to availability of sufficient return air tickets. However it was achieved on the day, with 170 delegates participating in the visit. There were visits to both government and private apiaries and again all had good opportunities to open hives and handle the bees.

Delegates enjoyed the chance to compare the behaviour of the different honey bees races: Africanized honey bees have been present in Trinidad since 1979 but the honey bees in Tobago are those still of european origin. African delegates did not find the “Africanized” bees greatly different from their bees at home. ~

Workshop sessions These were held towards the end of the Conference and allowed delegates to discuss matters which had arisen, or perhaps had not been covered, earlier in the week. Everyone could suggest resolutions, and these were then considered by all at the closing ceremony.

Simultaneous translation from english into spanish and french was provided, and every session was attended by 100+ people. Papers were followed by lively debate. Inevitably delegates had brought additional slides and videos for presentation - these were shown in evening sessions when discussions continued late! Mr Hallint explains fits plaints for Ute development to he Prime and Minister for Agriculture, Land and Marine




The poster presentations proved very worthwhile as delegates had opportunities to view these throughout the week and discuss


to meet

Africanized honey






Shu Numfor Godlove explains his work in Cameroon


African delegates arranged their own meeting: they discussed the necessity for appropriate training for African extensionists, the requirement for equipment and technical expertise appropriate to their region, and expressed a desire for a beekeeping journal for Africa.


Asian delegates were busy throughout the Conference, finalising plans for the second meeting of the Asian Apicultural Association, in Indonesia next year.

Social events The Local Organizing Committee had arranged steel bands, limbo dancers and local cuisine for the evenings of the first and last days Together with the technical visits all these activities allowed delegates excellent opportunities to meet.


Post-Conference tours Further technical visits were arranged for the two days immediately following the Conference and many were keen to see yet more bees. The first tour focused on stingless bees, the second on honey bees.


Matters arising It is not possible to report here all the subjects raised during the Conference, but some of the major themes weree

Beekeeping projects are aimed often at the rural poor but it was the experience of delegates that there continues to be poor communication between those who plan projects and those who are intended to carry them out or to benefit from them


There is considerable scope for further research on tropical bees and beekeeping.


There is a strong need for more extension material on beekeeping, and available in languages other than english.


There still exist few opportunities for appropriate training.


Delegates discussed the validity of beekeeping projects and the necessity for project proposals to be prepared carefully.


Caribbean beekeepers took the opportunity to meet: outcomes of a four-hour meeting of the Caribbean Apicultural Development Association (CADA) were the establishment of a constitution and election of officers


Stingless bees received a new emphasis. These are tropical bee species which have been harvested by traditional societies, particularly in tropical America where honey bees are not native. Their harvesting can continue to provide a lowinput, Jow-output income source for rural people, and they may represent an area of untapped potential. Entomologists are currently interested in unravelling the life history and biology of these bees. Honey bee diseases are still being taken to new areas by man. There is awareness of the urgent necessity for legislative control of honey bee importation.


The Conference created a lot of work for many people. However their efforts were fruitful, with the Conference providing an exceptional opportunity for those interested in tropical honey bees to meet and share findings. It seems to have been the most successful of these Conferences so far in terms of good organisation, the venue, the arrangement of sessions, and possibilities for discussion between participants. Nicola Bradbear's participation in the Conference was funded by the ODA, UK.

Bernhard Clauss encourages all beekeepers practise ‘fearless beekeeping


IBRA wishes to express its appreciation and thanks to all involved. In particular: The Honourable Patrick Manning, Prime Minister Dr K Rowley, Minister of Agriculture, Land and

Marine Resources Mr W Rudder, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources Dr B Samaroo, previously Minister of Agricult ure, Land and Marine Resources

Mr P Cross, High Commissioner, London Mr G Mathews, High Commission, London MrM K Hallint, Secretary, Local Organizina Committee Mrs Zaida Rajnauth, Chairperson, Local Organizing Commitlee Beekeepers of Trinidad and Tobago The Local Organizing Committee The International Stecring Committee |

CTA, The Commonwealth Foundation. FAO, GTZ, IFS (Sweden), Ministry of Foreian Affairs (The Netherlands), NORAD,

ODA and VSO.


Oral and poster presentations made at the Conference will be given in full in the Conference Proceedings these will be published b y IBRA in April 1993. Watch out for further details in Beekeeping & Development.

Perhaps these Africanized bees are nol so fierce!

Tobago honey on display Both Trinidad and Tobago produce honey of excellent quality








ROYAL Ly f "

HAYAN Chad Poovey

AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES Honduras in 1985. Since then they have outarrived in

manoeuvred their transplanted and tropically-frail european cousins. Apiculture in Honduras has become a battle; men don their armour; their gloves, their veils, their suits; they pillage under cover of smoke; the bees sacrificed to a suicidal degree.


The Maya symbol for the honey bee entering a hive. (Illustration by Alberto Beltran from


Hagen’s World of the Maya

Hollow tree trigitks serve as frees far

Melipona beecheli


Here and there in the countryside a more harmonious relationship still exists between man and melliferous insect: harmonious because the native bees of Central America are stingless. One of these is the Royal Hayan bee These stingless bees are Melipona beecheii, known by common names according to region: la abeja de la miel virgen (the bee of the virgin honey), el blanco del pais (the white countryman), and el jicote (the indigenous name) Most frequently it is called la blanca estrella (the white star) or simply la estrella (the star). It is slightly smaller than the Africanized honey bee, with a darker abdomen and a fuzzier thorax. Melipona beecheii colonies establish themselves in protected enclosures, usually hollow logs. Man has not changed this system, the logs are cut toa manageable size, then carried with the colony still inside to the "bee haver's” house. The open ends of the trunk are plugged, usually with a wooden block or a piece of pottery, then sealed with mud. They are then hung from nearby trees or the eaves of buildings Often houses are completely encircled by these strange, mud-daubed trunks, some long and regular shaped, others bulging like beer barrels, others mis-shapen like crudely-hacked congo drums

WAFER-SHAPED NURSERIES the hives themselves intrigue, what goes on inside amazes. Melipona beecheii constructs comb of dark, sticky wax for the sole purpose of raising brood. No honey or pollen is stored in the cells of these wafer-shaped nurseries, which are stacked one on top of the other. Unlike other social insects, this bee does not feed its larva several times a day until the cell If

is capped. Instead it fills the cell with sufficient pollen and nectar for the larva’s development, then seals the cell. As the larva develops into a pupa, a papery cocoon is formed inside the wax cell. On the day of emergence, worker bees cut away the wax capping to help the young

bee out.

Honey and pollen are stored in wax pots on each side of the brood nest. The pots, which Hondurans call mazorcas (corn cobs), are attached to the wall of the hive and are sealed when full. As stores increase more pots are built until only a narrow crawl-way remains free for worker bee traffic.

The hive entrance is also small, just wide enough to admit one bee at a time. The entrance is constantly guarded; the fuzzy head of a sentry can always be seen protruding from the tiny porthole. Wax is spread around the entrance in a star-shape, hence this bee’s most common nickname, la estrella.

BEE HAVERS Such a tight hive is essential to the bee's survival where so many predators, such as ants, cockroaches, mites, toads, and wasps abound. The bee's only defence ts its mild bite - a pinch of the minuscule jaws, that when inflicted on the back of a weathered hand barely registers as pain. Strategy compensates for lack of firepower; the resourceful estrella somehow knows to attack the tender lips, nostrils, eyelids and earlobes of its aggressor. The degree of defensiveness varies from one colony to the next; some are peaceful to the point of indifference, others loathsome in their


Weatherproof Apiary

wooden plug fram one end of the hive

own quiet way. “Some have given me a bit of trouble’, says Mariano Bonilla, of El Porvenir, Comayagua, Honduras who owns 15 estrella hives. “But still, prefer these stingless bees to the



To begin honey harvesting, Mariano Bonilla rentoves the

African honey bees. These bees can be robbed gently and only to a degree, but very rarely tampered with. Hence we call ourselves “bee havers” and not “beekeepers”.








The bees’ honey pots are visible inside the hive.



was eleven years old for one lempira’, he “| am 57 now. tt was a famous colony even


then. The man who sold it to me had been taking honey from it for more than forty years. Wherever have gone have taken those bees with me. cannot tell you how many bottles of honey have taken from that hive. It |




has never failed me’.

To rob a hive one end of the trunk is lowered, the stopper removed, and a container is placed beneath to catch the honey that will soon flow. The internal workings of the hive now lay exposed. The scents of honey and undried pollen waft out from the opening, and the hum of surprised workers surges. The view is bizarre and never fails to draw a hesitant gasp from even the most experienced “bee havers”: a tunnel of chocolate-coloured bulbs that glisten with honey and shimmer with the twitching of 50,000 nervous wings. With a splash of water, the “bee haver" drives the workers deep into the hive where they protect the broad, leaving the honey pots unguarded. Now, with his bare hands, he crushes the pots and scrapes out their horde. Into the pail below flows the amber stream of honey. News. of a harvest (robbery) spreads quickly through rural villages. Adults and children gather with their own bottles to collect honey, or simply drink it from teacups held beneath the dripping hive Generally, the “bee haver” can sell all he can steal at twice the price of other honeys. And there are good reasons: the flavour is fruity and never strong, it has the viscosity of hot maple syrup, the colour of a fine beer and a reputation as a medical


TREAT WITH CARE When the hubbub has finally ceased and the crowd has left, the bee haver prepares to close the hive. He usually gathers the wax from the crushed pots and replaces it in the hive to be recycled by the bees. He then fits the wooden stopper back in the trunk and smears any cracks with mud After two weeks, he can rob the honey on the other side of the brood nest.

The pots are crushed

The Maya also found the estrella dependable: it was pollinating the local flora and satisfying the native sweet tooth when the temples of Copan were mere rockpiles. Estrella honey played an important part in religious festivals and the Mayan bee god was appropriated with sacrifices to ensure a large harvest Not a little of this bounty was allowed to ferment, creating mead, which the Mayans fortified with the alkaloid bark of the “balache” tree.

PRIVATE INSECT The Maya kept, or rather had, their stingless bees in hollow logs just as their descendants do today. Having these bees is therefore one of the few practices handed down from the ancients that has successfully resisted change and improvement.

and the inside walls of the hives are scraped

The bee itself deserves credit. Melipona beecheii is an intensely private insect. It seems to thrive only in the hollow logs. Its system of honey and pollen storage make adaptation to modern box hives nearly impossible Attempts by would-be beekeepers to increase the number of their hives by splitting the brood nest end, more often than not, in disaster.

FAMILY PET Perhaps it is the duality of the bees’ nature (and here unrepentantly anthropomorphize) at once generous, or at least unbegrudging. while also reticent, clannish and secretive that beguiles their so-called masters and earns their respect. |

Many look upon the estrella as the family pet Mariano Bonilla built a small gallery to protect his bees from the rain and chooses to live only yards away to guard against thieves.

The thin, amber-coloured honey flows aito the container placed below

The wooden plug ts reimserted Cracks are sealed with mud After about two weeks the other side of the hive can be harvested

The pols are squeezed to obtain every drop of honey. The emply pots are returned to the

in the same manner

hive for recycling by the bees.

“You must not take all the honey at once, because the bees might starve or leave’,

says Mariano Bonilla.

“You must treat them with care”

Depending on the weather, flowering season and colony strength, in central and western Honduras a Melipona beecheii colony can be robbed twice a month from December to midMarch. Although a colony rarely produces more than 15 kilograms of honey per season, if treated gently and not robbed too often, it rarely swarms and almost never absconds. They can be kept for generations.

80 YEAR OLD HIVE One of Mariano Bonilla‘s hives has been productive for over 80 years. "I bought that colony






Apis mellifera.

the most widely distribuled, widely studied honey bee species See also the Apis mellifera colony pictured

Apis mellifera fuves the

colonies of European origin housed in frame

Bast for Deekeeputd




on page 13




Honey is harvested by man from honey bees and stingless bees All honey bees belong to the single genus Apis, and stingless bees belong to one of five genera of Meliponinae. Until aboul ten years ago beekeeping text books stated confidently that there were four species of honey bees:

Apis mellifera

d Apis cerana, Apis dorsata, Apis florea and Apis mellifera.



During the last few years

currently recognised.

The most widespread species of honey bee Also the most widely studied Many beekeeping texts relate only to Apis mellifera (although this is not always stated).



further species have been identified In response to requests from readers, the following item provides a brief introduction to the seven honey bee species

Apis mellifera, Apis cerana and Apis koschevnikovi all build nests containing a series of parallel combs. These species usually nest in cavities.


This species of honey bee is native to Africa, most of Europe and the Middle East. It has been introduced by man to the Americas, Australasia and much of the rest of the world. Apis mellifera usually builds its nest inside an

enclosed space The nest consists of a series of parallel combs, and this nesting pattern is followed in the design of frame hives.

colony Housed ond freiite hive

Apis cerana builds a nest consisting of a series of parallel combs, similar to Apis mellifera, and

builds its nest within



There are many different races of Apis cerana, as could be expected from the wide range of habitats it occupies Bees of some of the races are the same size as some Apis mellifera However Apis cerana varies in size throughout its range, and tropical races are much smaller, with smaller colonies.

Other names: the Asian hive bee. Sometimes incorrectly named Apis indica Apis koschevnikovi

Other names the hive bee, the European bee, the Western hive bee. Sometimes incorrectly named Apis mellifica.

Other names: the red bee (this species was named for a short period Apis vechti).



Hie asidit honey bee A haracleristic of Apis thal ona comb or frame, ie workers always face

upwards ut this way


Native to Asia between Afghanistan and Japan, and from Russia and China in the north to southern Indonesia Recently introduced to Papua New Guinea (see Newsletter 10, 1987)

There are many different races of Apis mellifera, some tropical, others temperate. The Africanized honey bees in South and Central America are descended from tropical African Apis mellifera. Different races of Apis mellifera have different sizes of individual bees and colonies. Generally Apis mellifera are regarded as the medium-sized honey bees, against which other species are judged as “large” or “small”

Apis cerana

Apis ceratia

Apis cerana

Identified only in Sabah, Malaysia.

The individual bees are slightly larger than Apis cerana found in the same locality, but otherwise the colonies are similar in size and construction. Known as red bees due to a reddish hue when clustering (see Newsletter 12, 1988)

Apis dorsata structure



bees five an

and in a single comb

BEEKEEPING Apis florea

Apis andreniformis colony amongst undergrowth a typical nest situation for both Apis andreniformis and Apis florea

workers: characterised by their distinctly striped


Apis dorsata,



large bees with long


SPECIES WHOSE NESTS ARE SINGLE COMBS Apis florea and Apis andreniformis are small species of honey bees whose nests are small, single combs.

Apis dorsata and Apis laboriosa are large honey bees. Their nests consist of large, single combs.

Apis florea

Apis dorsata

Native from Oman spreading south-east through Asia as far as some of the islands of Indonesia. In recent years introduced by man to Sudan (see Newsletter 8, 1986) and lately reported in lraq (see Beekeeping & Development 24,

On the western edge of its distribution Apis only as far as Afghanistan but its south-east occurrence extends a long way east of Bali. Its northern distribution is limited by the Himalayas. dorsata is found


Apis dorsata bees are large. Their nests consist of single combs suspended from a branch, cliff

Apis florea builds a single-comb nest, usually fairly low down in bushes, or in the open, suspended from a branch or rock surface.

face or building. These combs can be very big, up to two metres wide and one metre from top to bottom

Apis florea are very small bees, and their nest is small too, often no larger than a man’s hand. A

There is morphometric evidence for different subspecies of Apis dorsata which may eventually be proven to be separate species.

colony might contain 20,000 bees. Other names: the little honey bee, sometimes (wrongly) the dwarf honey bee.

Other names. the rock bee, the giant honey bee

Apis andreniformis

All of these

species are exploited 6y man for their honey, but in different ways. The cavity nesting species can be kept in hives and most beekeeping methods have been determined only for Apis |


of temperate origin. The single-comb nesting species cannot be kept inside hives

Apis laboriosa forager this large honey bee


‘furry’ thorae

ts a

charactertstic of

Need to know more on honey bee species? See Professor Ruttner's new book reviewed on Bookshelf

Apis laboriosa

This species is quite similar to Apis florea: smallsized bees which nest on single combs. It has been identified in Thailand, Malaysia and the southern Chinese peninsula

Not all scientists agree that Apis laboriosa is a species different from Apis dorsata |


Certainly Apis laboriosa are the largest of the honey bees. They are found in the Himalayas at higher altitudes than Apis dorsata. Apis laboriosa nests are similar to those of Apis dorsata, but Apis laboriosa colonies are usually found together in clusters, with sometimes over 100 combs suspended from a cliff face very near to one another

Apis laboriosa

combs and colanies grouped logether

few of the cambs in this picture are occupied by colonies



Apis florea

colony the nest consists of single comb structure



| |



DEVELOPMENT In South Africa bees are kept in Langstroth hives, Beekeepers obtain an income from sunflower honey as well as from pollination

services during sunflower seed production.


































FRIENDS OF THE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAMME The Friends of the Earth Small Grants Programme offers seed and emergency funds to grassroot environmental and sustainable development groups in developing countries. The Smail Grants Programme (SGP) primarily funds efforts to combat tropical deforestation and restore denuded areas. However, the SGP has also supported projects which provided appropriate skills to women farmers, multilingual environmental newsletters to educated and non-education readerships, and legal assistance to communities suffering from industrial pollution. A special focus of the SGP is protection of indigenous peoples and the ecosystems in which they live. The range of funding provided by the Friends of the Earth Small Grants Programme is $US500-5000. Interested groups should provide a project proposal, budget and a covering letter describing the specific grant amount. Project proposals should be two to three pages in length and must include a brief statement regarding the background of your organisation, a description of past activities and a clear explanation of the objectives of the project to be funded. These materials should be submitted to: Friends of the karin, 218 L dlreet dk,

Washington DC 20003, USA.

In South Africa we have two races of honey bee, Apis mellifera scutellata and Apis mellifera capensis. Apis mellifera scutellata is the source of the Africanized bees of the Americas and is renowned for its highly defensive nature, tendency to swarm and productivity. All but one of the African honey bee queens introduced into South America in the 1950s came from the Pretoria region. The range of Apis mellifera scutellata stretches from the southern coastal plain of the Cape to the Sahara. The southern coastal plain is the domain of Apis mellifera capensis, more docile bee seemingly specifically adapted to this winter rainfall region with its almost Mediterranean climate. This race has been extensively researched, primarily because it is the only race of bee in which eggs of laying worker bees develop into worker brood and not drone brood. a

Our contact with the rest of southern Africa is not what we would like it to be, both as a result of the isolation of South Africa and because the organised beekeeping community of South Africa has been insufficiently concerned with rural development and subsistence beekeeping. This situation is expected to change with the political climate. Apicultural research requirements are under review also. We have had a number of requests fcr information and expertise from beekeepers in neighbouring countries in the past year, as well as from rural areas in South Africa, and we hope to be able to help in any way possible. South Africa has the infra-structure and beekeeping knowledge to be of benefit to all beekeeping communities in southern Africa, particularly with respect to research matters, and it is hoped that some structure can be established to facilitate co-operation and information dissemination in southern Africa.

Source: Mike Allsopp, Apicultural Unit, PPRI, Private Bag X5017, Stellenbosch 7600, and Martin Johannsmeir, Apicultural Unit, PPRI, Private Bag X134, Pretoria OOOI.

TANZANIA Tabora Beekeepers’ Co-operative Society Last year we exported 69 tonnes of honey to the UK and 20.4 tonnes to The Netherlands. To execute these orders we had to squeeze ourselves so much that our Co-operative members were forced to wait for their money until our customers made their final payments. This is due to lack of working capital for the purchase of produce. It has been very difficult for us to secure an overdraft facility from our bankers despite our endeavours to generate hard currency which is much needed by our country. We wonder why nobody seems to understand us and encourage our hard-working beekeepers. Our honey has been certified organic by the Soil Association Inspector (UK) and we hope

this will attract many importers to order honey and beeswax from our Co-operative. This gives us a chance to increase production in order to cope with the demand. We have been very lucky that we still have faithful members who are willing to wait for their money. However as we are competing with other traders we have to pay some of our members on receipt of their honey and beeswax otherwise we will loose them.

Source: Justin Madaha, Manager, Tabora Beekeepers’ Co-operative Society, PO Box 7017, Kipalapala, Tabora.

UGANDA On 14 July the Uganda Beekeepers’ Association held a one-day Beekeeping Seminar at The International Conference Centre in Kampala. Both the Minister of Agriculture and Animal Industry, and the Deputy Minister of Commerce attended. The Seminar attracted about 200 participants.

Copies of the papers presented are being sold at 500 shillings (0.25) to raise funds for the Association. Contact: Ms Geraldine Nsubuga, UBKA, The Secretariat,


Kimatri Avenue, Kampala.

ZIMBABWE Kupfuma Ishungu, is a Beekeepers’ Co-operative in north-eastern Zimbabwe. “Kupfuma Ishungu” means “success through hard work”. The Co-operative started in 1987 with a single line of activity - knitting jerseys and tailoring uniforms for five schools in its vicinity. “We decided to diversify our projects and embarked on a beekeeping venture in order to actively involve our men (who could not knit) into the Co-operative’, says

Thandiwe Mutekairi, the Co-operative’s ViceSecretary. Comprised of 10 women and two men, the Co-operative started beekeeping after obtaining 500 Zimbabwe dollars (SUS100) from a local Zimbabwe women's bureau. In May 1989, Seeven Sobobrayen a UN Volunteer, arrived to make the Co-operative’s beehives hum. “Our venture is now thriving and we owe it to Sobobrayen who gave us great assistance, not just as a teacher but as a facilitator’, said

Letwin Mutekairi,


Co-operative Member.






The grp has established 10 colonies of bees and hopes to reach its target of 20 by the end of the year




“Despite the drought that has affected flowers, we are harvesting a lot of honey. In May we harvested more than 200 kg and earned about 800 Zimbabwe dollars” said Mutekairi,





Source: Tanzanian Business Times |

used in Beekeeping & Development (edition 24 pages 8 and 9}; very useful for those of us who are not from beekeeping backgrounds. But a note on one of the definitions: Agroforestry: Agroforestry is a collective name for land-use systems and technologies. where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos, etc) are deliberately used on the same land management unit as agricultural crops and/or animals. either in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. Lundgren, B (1982) The use of agroforestry to increase the productivity of tropical land. Nairobi, Kenya. converted

The important thing about agroforestry systems is that they are deliberate. This allows the disparate systems of shifting cultivation, alley cropping, Javanese home gardens, and the use of bees, fish and cattle, for example, to be compared and


WRITE WITH REGARD to your definition of the term “absconding” in your glossary of terms used in Beekeeping & {|

Development 24,

page 8. would like to suggest that a more comprehensive definition be provided for this term. would suggest that “absconding” be used to describe the condition in which all adult honey bees leave the nest or hive within a short period of time (within 24-48 hours} following the disturbance of that colony by wind, rain, sun, man, ant attack, honey badger attack or some other sudden disturbance. In this case, honey, pollen and brood may be left behind in the colony. |


Using this definition, “absconding”

and “migration” are mutually exclusive rather than “migration” being seen as a sub-category of “absconding” (the latter terminology is often used in literature from the USA).

Robert Paxton, Cardiff, “Beekeeping




station tn Alboraz Mountains, Taleghan, |ran.




of two women who in different it is with sadness that we report the deaths : :



ways generously assisted the beekeeping world.




4 L(AAA, So














The AAA Membership fee is $20 per year. This includes four issues of Beekeeping & Development and AAA Newsletter



' |






194, Japan.


AAA Chapters see Beekeeping & Development 24 page 6. For details









Inge Allen will be remembered by beekeepers throughout the world as the kind-hearted german lady who worked at IBRA for many years. Between 1966 and 1986 IBRA was based at Hill House near London. For the whole of this period Inge Allen worked for IBRA, taking her retirement when the Association moved to Cardiff in 1986. Inge maintained IBRA’s Library at Hill House and seemed able to instantly put her finger on any publication requested A beekeeper herself, Inge took great interest in the subject, had a tremendous store of knowledge, and enjoyed her work. She also took of much else at IBRA, answered telephone enquiries and generally cere maintained the happy and friendly atmosphere enjoyed by both staff and

Galton Dorothy Galton was a



Inge Allen






supplements. People in countries where AAA pas 0 Or chapters (listed below), please sen local equivalent to your chapter. People In other send countries directly to ne science, Institute of920 Honeybee AAA Office, Machida-shi, Tokyo Tamagawa University, ;





lady with strong socialist views and a great interest Dorothy in Russia: her career was in Slavonic Studies at the University of London. She was also a beekeeper. She combined these interests, researching the history of beekeeping in Russia, providing IBRA with translations and writing a number of books. One of these postulated a widespread “civilisation of the bee” helping to form the languages of Eurasia from 10,000 BC or earlier. Dorothy Galton took great interest in Beekeeping & Development and supported our work (see her letter in our last edition). indeed beekeepers in Tanzania named an apiary in her honour after she of their problems. provided them with some assistance after reading . Dorothy Galton was 90 years of age when she died earlier this year the will be broadcast in 1993. it her BBC made a television programme about








BOCKSHELF The hive and the honey bee Dadant & Sons Inc, M Graham.

by J

Insects, plants and microclimate

edited by

by D M Unwin

Hamilton, IL, USA; Dadant & Sons (1992 revised

Slough, UK; Richmond Publishing Co Ltd, Naturalists Handbooks 15 (1991) 68 pp. Paperback.

edition) 1324 pp. Hardback. Available from IBRA price 28.00.

A guide for anyone endeavouring to make scientific investigation of the effects of local

1324 pages packed wth beekeeping information. 27 chapters written by 33 world

most valuable up-to-date reference wok for bekeepers. The chapters on honey bee forage, equipment and hive management relate to North America but much of the other information is widely applicable. Very good value for money.



‘ os acis

sure ‘>


Bees as superorganisms by R



Moritz and Southwick.

Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, Springer-Verlag (1992) 395 pp. Hardback. Available from IBRA price 67.00,

‘7 .

Ee * \ /





up to







Firstly a reference guide to research and visitor facilities at tropical forest sites in Central and South America. Secondly a source of information on how to find out more, a bibliography, lists of relevant organisations, and possible sources of funding for research programmes. A useful, fact-filled book for those travelling in the region.











Traditional candlemaking: simple methods of candle manufacture


by D

Surface mail does not include insurance. Orders over 100.00, or to be sent air mail including insurance, prices on request. (No insurance available to Afghanistan, [ran, Iraq, Lebanon, Nigeria.) IBRA cannot be held responsible for damage to, or loss of goods in-transit.

METHODS OF PAYMENT Access/Mastercard/Eurocard/Visa Please quote name on card, full address, |



type of card, card number, expiry date on card, and your signature for authorisation.

Cheques and bank drafts made payable to IBRA in sterling or US dollars. Send to IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff, CF} 3DY, UK. Bank transfer to National Westminster Bank plc, !17 St Mary Street, PO Box 117, Cardiff CF! 1LG, UK. Account No: 85015415. Bank sort code: 56-00-41 Girobank/Postgiro Account No 291794408 Order fast by fax. Our number is



44 222 665522.


London, UK; Intermediate Technology Publications (1992) 40 pp. Paperback. Available from IBRA price 4.95,

Please quote Beekeeping & Development when you order.


L Caster.

Canada). Payment in US dollars, or from US bank only. Other cheques will not be returned.





Feline Press (1990) 380 pp. Paperback. Available from Feline Press, PO Box 7219, Gainesville, FL 32605, USA. Price $25.45 (outside USA and

p&p 00



Prices shown for books available from IBRA exclude post and packing charges. The following must be added to all orders: UK orders

Chapter introduces the concept of microclimate. Chapter 2 gives greater depth and manages to simplify some of the physics involved. Subsequent chapters explain the effects of microclimate on plants and insects and how to measure these, giving very clear practical guidance. Good information on constructing your own equipment is given. Also provided are useful addresses and further references, as well as a very brief introduction to insect identification.



Overseas orders (surface mail) p&p 2.00 up to 10.00

climate (eg temperature, humidity, wind speed) on plants and insects.

A useful, readable book for those doing field research on bees or other insects.

The authors aim to present the honey bee as it lives in its social unit, which they call a colonial superorganism. Luckily the first chapter answers the question “What is a superorganism?” Subsequent chapters explain the biology of the honey bee colony as a whole (rather than individual bees) by using modern biological analysis. Definitely a book for the apicultural scientist rather than the beekeeper.


and S A Corbet.



A well illustrated guide to candle making methods suitable for small-scale producers, or working at home. Highly recommended and good value.

A handbook of beekeeping by H



Hebden Bridge, UK; Northern Bee Books pp. Paperback. Available from


(1992) 166

price 12.95.

A useful text but relating mainly to British beekeeping.

BOOKSHELF offers you an invitation to reach potential readers

in nearly every country of the world. To improve the network of information available on Beekeeping and Development our aim is to review as many books on the subject as we can.


Naturgeschichte der honigbienen



by F Ruttner.


Munich, Germany, Ehrenwirth Verlag GmbH (1992) 357 pages. Hardback In German.

To help us please send review copies of your publications. We cannot guarantee to review all books but all those received will be considered for inclusion in the [BRA Library and in the Catalogue of publications to purchase from IBRA.





For those of you fascinated by the different species and races of honey bees, this is the one you have been waiting for! Professor Ruttner provides his life-time’s work on honey bee biology, species, races and distribution It is a beautifully produced book containing much data accompanied by abundant colour photographs and clear diagrams An English edition is eagerly awaited.

Bees and beekeeping in Southern Africa edited by


H Anderson and

B Buys. Paperback Reviewed in Beekeeping & Development 21 this book is now available mail order from


Price 10.00.

A grand Apis

insidea house

mellifera colony established in Kenya The central comb ts

2 m long and 0 PHOTOGRAPH SENT





LOOK AHEAD INDONESIA Asian Apicultural Association,

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Tropical Rainforest Research. Current Issues

9-17 April 1993, Universiti Brunei Darussalam. Joint Conference of the Universiti Brunei Darussalam and the Royal Geographical Society. Further details from. Rainforest Conference Organiser, Registrar's Office, Universiti Brune: Darussalam. Bandar Seri Begawan 3186, Brunei Darussalam. Fax: 01 673 2 427003





Further details




Nishihara, Okinawa 903 01. Japan Telephone. 0181 98 895 222]. Ext 2126/2027. Fax. 0181 98 895 6096

MALAYSIA 14th Commonwealth Forestry Conference “People, the Environment and Forestry - Conflict or Harmony.” 13-18 September 1993, Kuala Lumpur.

Fax: 01 8611 5005670

CFC-14. Forestry Department Headquarters, Peninsular Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Salahuddin, 50660 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Fax: 01 603 03 292 5657

GHANA Second West Africa Beekeeping Research Seminar

UK IBRA Day 1993. 26 June

following November the region |



Topics will include all facets of beekeeping development

Further details from: The Secretary General

1993, Rothamsted Experimental Station. Forming part of the programme to celebrate 150 years of Rothamsted Experimental Station, a one-day open day incorporating the 1993 IBRA annual general meeting and lectures Further details from. BRA, 18 North Road, CardiffCF1 3DY. UK.


Fax 0144 222 665522.


Further details from Mr Ralph

A Hoyte-Williams, General Secretary. Ghana Box 9581, Airport-Accra, Ghana. PO Association, Beekeepers’

1X International Congress of Acarology

INDIA international Symposium on Pollination in the Tropics. 813 August 1993, Bangalore

Further details from Secretary, |X international Congress of Acarology,

Ganeshaiah. Secretary. International Symposium Further details from: Dr K Plant Breeding. in the Pollination Tropics, Department of Genetics and N



Further details from: Vil Pacific Science Inter-Congress Secretariat, c/o Section of international Affairs, University of the Ryukyus, ]-Senbaru,

28 November - 4 December 1993, Aburi Botanical Gardens. Africa The purpose of this Seminar is to bring together beekeepers from West two years to discuss the progress made in beekeeping development in the last the First West Africa Beekeeping Seminar held in The Gambia in



27 June-3 July 1993, Okinawa.

20-26 September 1993, Betjing International Convention Centre. General Secretariat, Corso Vittorio Emanuele Further details from: Apimondia, 101, 1-00186, Rome, Italy Telex: 612533. Fax: 01 396 6548578 Information regarding Apiexpo 93, pre- and post-Congress tours, accommodation and travel arrangements contact: Mr Li Wei or Ms Xu Youjing, The XXXill International Apicultural Congress, No 33 Nonfengli, Dongdagiao, Chao Yang District, 100020 Beijing, China Telex 22233 MAGR CN.




JAPAN Second Asia-Pacific Conference of Entomology (APCE).

CHINA The XXXII International Apicultural Congress - Apimondia.


to be

17-22 July 1994, Ramada University Hotel and Conference Center, Ohio.

Acarology Laboratory, Museum of Biological Diversity, The Ohio State University, 1315 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212, USA.


560 065, India, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus. Bangalore Telex: 8458393 UASKIN.


Fax: Ol 1614 292 7774. here send details If you want details of your event included

__ to









Malaysia the full potential tor honey production in rubber plantations ts as yet untapped

This Workshop for asian bee scientists was held in Malaysia in early August. The programme was well devised: bee scientists from Asia were encouraged to participate in a form of strategic planning for future research. They endeavoured to summarise the current problems ad discussed ways to address them.

Overall objectives e


To assist research and development in tropical Asia on beekeeping and pollination with indigenous bees for the rural poor. To balance and harmonise the development of beekeeping and pollination in tropical Asia with concerns for the environment and judicious use of appropriate indigenous species of honey bees

The Malaysian Bee Research & Development Team of the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia is led by Dr Makhdzir Mardan. Over the past 10 years the Team has developed into one of the most successful and achieving centres of bee research within Asia. The Team consists of people from various disciplines providing a range of expertise, and itself provides an excellent model for researchers in other countries to emulate. The meeting was made possible with financial support from IDRC (Canada).

Results Professor Yang aave China s view on priorties for bee research Other experts


joining these from Malaysia at the workshop from Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, were Thailand and Vietnam



Nicola Bradbear participated in this meeting with support from BESO, the British Executive Service Overseas.


Agreement on priority areas for Research and Development. Decisions on the allocation of available IDRC funding for regional Research and Development. Very good links for further communication between asian bee scientists: the network is named BEENET. Agreement to contribute information to a quarterly BEENET newsletter.


Malaysta coconut offers


nectar source for 10 months of the

year, and here provides the basis for profitable

Apis cerana


RUBBER THE HONEY SPINNER IN SRI LANKA Rubber is the most prolific honey-producing tree in Sri Lanka. It is the sap from the tender leaves that is collected by bees. Rubber-based honey is of a light-yellowish colour and has a very sweet flavour. It may take on a darker tinge if mixed with other nectar sources.





During a good season 10 -15 kg of honey could be harvested from a single Apis cerana colony whilst 25-40 colonies could be kept at a single site. The yield is dependent upon prevailing weather conditions and management. Trees 10 -15 years old and undergoing tapping produce the maximum sap while soil conditions may also affect sap output. The sap emanates from the tender leaves as they become the normal! size - sap emerges twice during the day (0830-1000 and 1630-1800) over a period of three to five weeks. Trees at different elevations shed their leaves and produce new ones at slightly different times and this could extend the sap season to nearly two months. It is important that there is bright sunshine during the day as dark and


cloudy days, even without rain reduce the sap output.

Night rain increases secretion but also increases sap water content. Heavy rains, as well as washing away the sap, also further reduce the flow due to fungus infection of the leaves.

Another benefit of rubber is that sap secretion always begins three weeks after the shedding of all Jeaves. This allows the beekeeper to manage the honey bee colony in reparation for the flow. prep C Dhammearatchi

Recent honey harvests Year Harvest period

Season (weeks)

Harvest per colony (kg)



Feb-25 Mar





Mar-25 Mar



26 Mar -18 Apr





ON... BOTSWANA Size 2,14 969 km?

Population 1,275,000

GNP $918 per capita. Agriculture accounts for 4% of the GNP.

Main crops Corn, cowpeas, millet, sorghum.

Honey bees Apis mellifera is native to Botswana. Two races are present: Apis mellifera adansonii and Apis mellifera scutellata.

Beekeeping Honey has traditionally been obtained by plundering wild colonies, without any honey bee management practices.

Langstroth hives were established in a pilot apiary in Molepolole in 1978, but have not been widely adopted. Beekeeping in straightsided top-bar hives commenced in 1980.

Okavango swamp

Projects Various assistance to beekeeping was provided from outside Botswana during the 1970s and early 1980s. A good infrastructure has now been

established within the Government Beekeeping Department for the future development of beekeeping.

BOTSWANA Kaiahari desert

Training The Beekeeping Section organises short (fiveday) training courses at rural training centres throughout the country for extension staff and farmers.


Honey bee diseases No honey bee diseases have been reported. Pests of colonies include ants, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the honey badger Mellivora capensis.

Further reading 1. CLAUSS, B (1983)


CLAUSS, B (1985) Bee forage in Botswana. In: Proceedings of Third International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Nairobi 1984. London, UK; IBRA. 2.


3 CLAUSS, B (1982, 2nd edition) Beekeeping


Published in English, Swahili and Setswanese editions. handbook

The straight-sided top-bar five has been in use for over 10 years

However, honey is a popular food in Botswana, and local production does not meet the demand: around two tonnes are imported annually.

Beekeeping Section, Division of Forestry and Range Ecology, Ministry of Agriculture, Private Mail Bag 003, Gaborone.


Bees and beekeeping in Botswana.

Honey production. Typical annual yields from a colony in a topbar hive are 10 kg in the Kalahari and 15 kg in the south-east.

Beekeeping department

Practical beekeeping, Letters to the Newsletter 7




Previous articles



There are three main ecological zones: the Kalahari dry savanna covering most of the country, the eastern area with high rainfall (17% of land area) and the Okavango delta in the north. When rainfall is normal, herbaceous plants are the main providers of honey bee forage. In drought conditions (about two years in every ten), trees, bushes and other perennials offer reliable sources of

Beekeeping & Development recipients



Melliferous vegetation

In the north and north-east there are large areas of dry, deciduous woodland. Further south the higher rainfall encourages herbaceous plants. Clauss has found that even the driest south-western region of the Kalahari offers sufficient forage to support beekeeping. The bee forage has been extensively catalogued by Clauss (1, 2).


Khaliso Kepaletswe,

Senior Technical

4. PHOKEDI, K M (1985) Apiculture and problems in Botswana. In: Proceedings of Third International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Nairobi 1984. London, UK; IBRA. 5. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE (1991, 3rd edition). Beekeeping handbook. Gaborone, Botswana, Beekeeping Section, Department of Crop Production and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture. 80 pp. A new edition of the handbook by Clauss, with some changes.

Officer in the

More articles and papers are held

Beekeeping Section

in the

IBRA Library.





THINKING OF A DIPLOMA? Robert Paxton In Beekeeping & Development 23

Diploma in Apiculture students have come from:



Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Ghana, Greece, Indonesia, Ireland, Japan, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mexico, Mozambique, Netherlands, Pakistan, P ortugal, Saudi Arabia, Su jan, Tanzania, Turkey, Iganda, UK, Za mbia.

gave details of the Diploma in Apiculture at Cardiff University. Who are the students of the Diploma in Apiculture at Cardiff University? |

Some 49 students from across the world have taken the course since its inception seven years ago. Honey bees are distributed across the world, and so are people interested in studying and working with them! Together with other postgraduates (MPhil and PhD students) working on honey bees at Cardiff, there is always a good mix of people from many different countries: the bee laboratory at Cardiff sometimes feels like the United Nations. All have beekeeping experiences and are highly motivated and interested in studying and working with honey bees.

Exchange of information within a rich diversity of participants is a positive feature of the Diploma course With ready access to the nearby IBRA headquarters and a flow of visiting bee scientists, extensionists and sabbatical workers to Cardiff, visiting both IBRA and Cardiff University, Diploma students have a stimulating environment. But what sort of people attend the Diploma course? Generally, they are government or NGO employees who already have some experience with bees. Some are practically oriented, others are interested in more academic study. Many have first degrees, others without a degree but with practical experiences are readily admitted and can benefit from the course. Once the course is completed, participants return to their home countries, hopefully to improve their own work as a result of their experiences and knowledge from Cardiff. Two examples of past Diploma students may help to give an idea of who attends the course, and what benefits they gain. Carlos Echazarreta was in the 1987 class at Cardiff. After completing the course, he returned to his previous job at the






i '

Carlos Echazurreta sus bud Cardiff hive with to record the movement of

a special


individually marked honey bees, part

of fis research on the Diploma in Apiculture

Department of Apiculture of the Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Mexico, where he has been researching into Africanized honey bees (that coincidentally arrived in the Yucatan Peninsula in 1987). He now heads the Research and Postgraduate Affairs Office of the Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science at the university. This September he organised and ran a tropical beekeeping course at the Department of Apiculture in Yucatan (see Beekeeping & Development 22, page 6). Liana Hassan was in the 1989 class at Cardiff. After completing his Diploma he returned to his home country of Tanzania to head the nation’s beekeeping research centre at Arusha. He is now working on a project to design and test top-bar hives in collaboration with Nicola Bradbear at IBRA (see Beekeeping & Development 21, page 11). Experiences and knowledge gained from the Diploma in Apiculture and its research element have helped both Carlos and Liana to develop their work for the benefit of local beekeepers. If you want to know what participation in the course is really like, why not contact someone from your own or a neighbouring country who has already attended

For more information on the Diploma in Apiculture at Cardiff and its past students, write to: Dr Robert Paxton, The School of Pure and Applied Biology, University of Wales College of Cardiff, PO Box 915, Cardiff, CFI 3TL, UK.

Liana Hassan, on the Diploma in Apiculture, examines a comb of sealed worker honey bee brood for signs of damage by PHOTOGRAPHS



Varroa jacobsoni.

Carlos Echazarreta and colleagues of the Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan examine a colony of Africanized honey bees in Mexico




INDEX FOR BEEKEEPING & DEVELOPMENT 22-25 A AAA, 22,10; 23,5; 24,6.13; 25,5.10 chapter, 24,6, 25,10 Newsletter, 24, 6 Abdalla, M A, 22,3 Abdul-Rassoul, M S, 24,3 absconding, see management Abstracts of papers and bibliography on asian

23,5.13; 24,13 23,3 acarine, see Acarapis waodi Achroia sp, 24,5.8 acting locally, 22,15 ActionAid The Gambia, 22,5 Advisory Service for beekeepers in developing countries, 23, 2.3: 24,2.11; 25,2 AFET, 22,4.5,; 23,8 Afghanistan, 24,12; 25,8.9 Africa, 23,12; 24,8:12.13; 25,4.5,8,10,13 african honey bees, see bee africanized honey bees, see bee Agenda 2}, 22,14; 24,2 Agrodok, 23,12 agroforestry, 24,8,14; 25,11 Agromisa, 23,12 A handbook of beekeeping, 25,12 Ahmad.R, 24,6 Aidoa.K S, 23,14; 25,3 Akukumah.N, 23,9 Alfizzia spp, 22,11 Alboraz Mountains, 25,11 Allend. 25.14 Allsopp.M. 25,10 America. 25,10 Central and South, 25,4,8,10,12 North, 25,4 Amman, 23,11 amoeba, 22,6 Anderson.R H, 25,!3 Anno.O K, 22,10 anther, 24,89 Antigua and Barbuda 24,14, 25,4 ants, 24,5,7 25,3 protection from, 22,9 weaver. see Oesophylla smaraadina aphid, 24,8 apiary, 22,5.8: 24,5.8 demonstration, 24,15 Apicultural Abstracts, 22,3 apiculture, see beekeeping Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Fifth International Conference on, 22,16; 23,7; 24,14: 25,2.4 Apiexpo, 23,4 apilarnil, 22,13 Apimondia. 22,2; 23,2.11; 24,2.8.14; 25,2 Apis adreniformis, 22,7, 23,13: 24,7; 25,2,8.9 Apis cerana, 23,4,5,6,13; 24,4,5.7.12; 25,2.8,9.14 Apis cerana japonica, 23,13 Apis dorsata, 23,5:13; 24,7, 25,8,9 Apis florea, 22,7; 23,3, 24,3.7; 25,8.9 Apis kaschevnikovi, 23,13. 24,7, 25,8 Apis indica, 25,8 Apis laboriosa, 23,13: 25,9 Apis mellifera, 22,210.11, 23,4.6,t2,13: 24,3.7,10,11,12,15; 25,,.2,8,10,15 Apis mellifera adansonii, 22,2.4, 25,15 Apis mellifera capensis, 25,10 Apis mellifera sculellata, 25,10.15 Apis mellifera syriaca, 23,11, 24,3 Apis mellifica, 25,8 Apis vechti, 25,8 arabic, 22,6 Argentina, 25,416 Arusha. 25,!6 Asfaw, A M, 22,9 Asia, 23,4.5, 25,4.8.9 Asian Apicultural Association, see AAA Asian honey bees, 23,13 Ascosphaera apis, 24,8 Assiut University, 22,5 Australasia, 25,8 Australia, 22,1]; 24,11 Avicennia spp, 22,11, 24,15 Avitabile, A, 22,13 B Bacillus larvae, 24,8 Badara Camara, A, 24,10 Baker,D B, 24,3 balache, 25,7 Bali, 25,9 Ball,B V, 23,6 bamboo, 22,8 banana, 22,11] Bangkok, 23,4,13 Bangladesh, 24,6,12; 25,16 bankers, 22,10 Barbados, 25,4 Barclays plc, 24,14 honey bees,

Acarapis woodi,

bat, 24,9 batik, 24,8 bee, 23,4,12; 24,28: 25,2.13 african, 22,3

africanized,22, 3:23,7,24,8,12.14,15: |

25,4,5,6,8,10.16 asian. 23,13. 25,8.9 attractant, see lure behaviour, 22,12 biology, 23,14 books, 23,13 breeding. 23,6 cavity-nesting, 23,12 colonies, 24,8; 25,3 communication, 22,12 dance language, 22,12 disease, 22,610.11: 23,2,; 24,; 25,2,5.15 distribution, 25,13 dwarf honey, 25,9 european, 22,13; 23,14: 25,8 flora, 23,12, 24,4 forage, 24,7,10,12; 25,15 foraging behaviour, 22,12 genera, 24,13 giant honey, 25,9 hive, 25,8 italian, 23,11 learning, 22,12 little honey, 25,9 louse, see Braula jure, see lure

olfaction, 22,12 packages, see management parasite, 23,4 pest, 23,4.11: 24,7 plants, see bee flora poisoning by pesticide, 23,11] queen, 22,6,7,10; 23,6.11.12, 24,9: 25,3 red, 25,8 research, 23,4,14; 25,5 rock, 25,9 scientist, 25,14 scout, 24,9 social, 24,8.9 space, 24,8 species, see Apis stingless, see stingless bees tropical, 24,7; 25,3,5 undertaker, 22,6 vision, 22,12 western hive, 25,8 wild, 24,8 worker, 24,9: 25,3.10 Bee Biology Research Unit, see Chulalongkorn University Bee Craft, 22,6 Bee disease updale, 22, 6, 23,3; 24,10 Varroa reaches Mexico, 24,10 bee haver, 25,6,7 bee hive. see hive Bee Research Unit, see Cardiff Bee Science, 22,16; 23,16; 24,16; 25,20 Bee World, 22,3, 23,11,16; 24,7 beekeepers, 22,4; 24,4 African, 22,12 beginner 22,13, 24,7 Caribbean, 25,5

traditional. 24,4.5.7 of Trinidad and Tobago, 25,5 beekeeping. 22,13; 23,14; 24,2 American, 22,13 Apis ceranta, 23,6 appropriate, 22,2: 23,14 Asian, 23,5,6 association, 23,11 basket, 23,8 British, 25,12 co-operative, 22,7,11; 25,10 commercial, 23,4 cycle, 24,4 department, 22,11, 23,11; 24,15; 25,15 equipment, 23,2; 24,7 fearless, 25,5 fixed-comb, 24,7 forest, 23,12 frame hive, 23,12,14 industry, 22,10 large-scale, 23,6 management, see management migratory, 24,8 modern, 23,9 organisation, 24,14 project, 22,4,7; 25,5,15 regional centre, 22,4 sustainable, 24,9 terms, 24,8 top-bar hive, 24,7 traditional, 22,4; 24,5,7.9,10

with stingless bees, see

Meliponiculture Beekeeping and tourism on Samui,

24,4 Beekeeping Division of Forestry 23,12 Department, Beekeeping for beginners, 22,13 Beekeeping handbook, 22,12 Beekeeping handbook: a guide on how to keep bees in the Salomon Islands, 22,11 Beekeeping Beekeeping Beekeeping Beekeeping

in jordan,



in Malaysia: pollen atlas, in the Guianas, 24,15


in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,

23,11 Beekeeping in the tropics,


BEENET, 23,5; 25,14 Bees and beekeeping in North West Province,

Zambia, 23,12 Bees and beekeeping in Southern Africa, 25,13 Bees and beekeeping: science, practice and world



22,12 Bees as superorganisms, 25,12 beeswax. 22,10. 23,9: 24,8; 25,10 foundation, see foundation polish. 23,9 sheet, see foundation solar wax extractor, 24,9 Beeswax Barter, 22,2; 23,15, 24,16: 25,18 Bees and trees,

23,9 Beetsma,j, 23,12; 24,15 Bejora Beekeepers’ Society, 22,10 Belgium. 23,12 Belize, 25,4 Benin, 22,4,5 BESO, 25,14 Bhutan, 24,12 biodiversity, 22,14, 25,2 Biodiversity of honey bees in Thailand, 23,5,13. 24,13 biological diversity 22,14 Biosphere Reserve, Mexico, 24,13 birds, 24,9 black spot 23,6 Bonilla.M, 25,6,7 Bonney.R E, 23,12 Bookshelf, 22,1] 2; 23,12; 24,12; 25,12 Bootang,Mr, 24,4 boots, see clothing Botswana, 22,12: 25,4.15 Government Beekeeping Section. 22,12 Bradbear.N, 22,2; 23,2,3: 24,2.7.8: 25,2.5,.8.14,15, 16 Braula spp, 22,14,15; 23,8,15; 24,8.12.14 Brazil, 22,14,15, 23,815; 24,8.12,14: Beeswax furniture polish,

25,416 British Executive Service Overseas, see BESO brood, 24,5,8; 25,3,10 box, 26,8 nest, 24,8 Brunei Darussalam, 24,14: 25,13 Burkino Faso, 22,5 Burma, 24,12

Burr-Nyberg,E, 23,3 bushfire 25,3 Buys.B, 25,13 Cc

CADA, 24,14; 25,5 CAB-International, 22,12 Camazine,S, 23,2,5; 24,3: 25,9 Cameroon, 22,4,5; 23,10; 25,4.5 Canada, 23,5, 24,2: 25,4 candle, 23,9 candle making, 25,12 Cape, 25,10 carambola, 24,15 carbon dioxide emissions, 22,15 Cardiff, 23,14; 25,16 Caribbean, 22,10; 24,14; 25,2,4 Apicultura! Development Association, see CADA Carruthers,!, 24,13 cashew, 24,4,5 Caster,.L. 25,12 cave paintings. 24,6 cell size, 24,8 Centro Cooperativista Uruguayo, 22,7 Cervancia,.C, 24,6 chalk brood, 22,6: 24,8 Chihu Amparan_D, 24,10 China, 22,14, 23,5,.6,15; 24,4,6,7,12,14; 25,8.13 Chinese Peninsula, 25,9 Christian Aid, 22,5 Chulalongkorn University, 23,4,13 Chun-Huang,Y, 23,5 CIDA, 24,15 Citrus spp, 23,11; 24,15 Clauss,B, 23,3.12: 25,5.15

Clauss,R, 23, 3,12 Clements.F A. 25,2.5 climate change, 22,14 clothing, 24,9 boots, 22,3 gloves, 25,6 protective. 22,3,12 veils, 23,3; 25,6 cockroach, 22,6 cocoa, 22,11 coconut, see Cocos nucifera plantation, 24,4 Cocos nucifera, 22,11, 24,4,5,15; 25,14 coffee, 24,4,5,15 Colloquium, 22,12 Colombia, 25,16 comb, 24,5.8; 25,9 parallel, 25,8 single, 25,8 Commonwealth Foundation, 25,45 computing equipment, 23,3 Congo. 23,8: 24,10 Connor,L.|, 22,16: 23,5.16; 24,16; 25,20 conservation, 23,13; 24,9,15 Coorg, 23,6 Corbet.S A. 25,12 corm, 25,15 Costa Rica, 25,4 Céte d'ivoire, 22,5 courses: Congo, 24,10 training, 22,6,11, 23,8.10,14: 24,10:

25,16.20 UK, 23,14; 25,16,20 cowpeas, 25,15 CPRE, 24,16 Crane,, 23,13; 24,7 Cross,P, 25,5 CRS, 22,5 Cruz Landim.C da, 23,15 CTA, 22,25 23,2.12: 24,213; 25,2.4,5 Cuba, 25,4 cultivation, 24,9 Czechoslovakia, 22,13 D

Dada J. 22,4

DANIDA 22,5; 23,8 Danish Beekeepers’ Association, 23,8 Darbo.D K. 22,45 date palm, 24,3 Dead Sea Depression, 23,11 dearth period, 24,7; 25,3 debt, 22,15 De Jong,D, 22,13 deforestation, 22,13; 25,10 Denmark, 23,6,8: 25,4 desertification, 24,8 development. 24,3 Development Aid, 24,2 Dhammearatchi.C. 25,14 Dicko,.M, 22,4 Diploma in apiculture. 23,14; 25,16 diversity, 23,4: 24,8 Diversity in the genus Apis, 24,13 Dominica, 25,4 Dominican Republic, 23,9 Drifting behaviour in honey bees, 22,13 drone. 22,13, 23,12; 24,8 durian, 24,4,5 Earth Charter, 22,14 Earth Summit 22,14,15: 23,9; 24,2 EC, 24,10 Echazarreta.C, 22,6; 25,16 Echinops spp, 23,11 ecological benefits, 24,8 Ecology and natural history of tropical bees.

24,13 Edwards.M, 24,2 Egypt, 22,6 24,3. 25,4 Eischen,F,A, 22,13 el jicote, 25,6 Emadipour,E, 25,11 emire, 22,10 ENCORE, 24,14 energy, 22,15 environment. destruction, 22,14 problems, 24,2 equipment, 23,11; 24,13; 25,4 Eshete.A M, 22,9 estrella, 25,6,7 Ethiopia, 22,8; 24,10 Ethiopian Childrens’ Home, 24,10 Eucalyptus spp, 22,11; 23,10 Europe, 23,4; 25,4,8 Euvarroa sinhai, 22,7 Euvarroa wongsiri, 22,7 Eva Crane answers, 24,7 Evans,B, 22,8 evolutionary relationships, 23,4

relevant page number(s) for that issue. Figures in BOLD denote issue number followed by





Dadant, 24,8 demonstration, 22,6 design, 23,7 environment, 23,12 fixed-comb, 24, 8 frame, 22,8.11,13; 23,10.11, 24,5.6.8: 25,3.8 history 24,6 Kenya top-bar, 24,8 Langstroth, 22,11, 23,10; 24,8.15,

experts, 24,3 extension, 24,8 material, 25,5 extractor, see honey


fair trade, 22,15

FAO, 22,2; 23,2,13. 24,2.12.15: 25,2.4.5 Farming for the future, 24,12 FAVACA, 24,14 feeder, see management fertilizer, 24,9 Fichth.R, 22,9 financial sector, 22,10 First definite recard of Apis florea in |raq. 24,3 Fisher.R,C, 22,12

25,1015 log, 24,4,5; 25,6.7

low-technology, 24,9 management, 23,12 modern, 23,12: 24,9 movable-frame, 22,4,8; 24,7.9 Omdurman, 24,9 overcrowding, 24,5 Tanzania top-bar. 24,9 top-bar, 22,4,5,8.10.12. 23,7.8,10. 24,3.7.8; 25,8,16 top-bar-log, 24,7 traditional, 22,45: 23,8.10.11,12:

Flora palinologica de la reserva de la biosfera de

Slan Ka’an, 24,13 floral calendar, 23,12

forage, 24,8: 25,3 forager, 24,8 forest. see also woodland 22,8.15 products, 23,13: 24,12.13 resources, 23,13 tropical, 24,13.15. 25,12 Forest principles, 24,2 forestry, community, 22,12 Forestry research in the Asia-Pacific, 24,12 Forster.Br, 22,1] foulbrood. American, 22,6; 23,11; 24,8 foundation, 24,8 low-cost. 23,10 unembossed wax sheet. 23,14 frame, 24,8, 25,9 France, 23,15; 24,2:14: 25,11 Friends of the Earth. 24,13, 25,10 Smail Grants Programme, 25,10 fungi, 23,13 Future in our Hands, 22,5 G


GNP. 24,8 Godlove,S.N. 22,4, 25,5 Goodman,L.|, 22,12 Goya Food Company, 23,9 grapevine, 24,3 GRATIS, 23,9 Greece, 25,16 GRET, 24,13 Grenada, 22,14; 24,14, 25,5 Gross National Product. see GNP, GTZ, 23,11: 25,45 Guadeloupe, 25,4 Guatemala. 25,4 Guinea. 22,5. 24,10 Guinea-Bissau, 22,4,5,10,12 Guyana, 23,7, 24,15 Beekeepers Association, 24,15

trials 23,12 transitional, 24,9 type, 23,12 woven bamboo 23,1] Hive management 23,12 Hochstrasser.C, 23,10 Holetta Bee Research and Training Centre 22,9. 24,10 Honduras. 25,2.6.7 honey: 22,10.12.13. 23,4,9.11, 24,4.5.8: 25,5.7, 10.11.14 analysis 24,13 badger. see Mellivora capensis Caribbean 24,14, 25,5 centrifuge, 24,8 competition, 25,4 co-operative. 24,1] cut comb, 24,8 demand 24, export. 24,1).15; 25,10 extractor, 24,8 granulated, 23,10: 24,8 harvest, 23,9: 24,3,4.5,7,10, 25,14 hunting, 24,3.8.15; 25,15 importation. 22,11; 23,9.11 knife, 24,5 local 23,9 marketing, see marketing organic, 24,9 plants, 24,4 pot, 25,7 price, 24,5 production, 24,5.15: 25,15 products. 23,4 quality, 23,10: 24,5 refractometer, 24,8 Tipe, 23,2 rubber-based. 25,14 straining, 23,2 tropical, 24,13 yield, 22,11. 23,6,11 Honey bee diseases in South India, 23,6 Honey bev Science. 24,5 Honey bee species, 25,8 Honey bees in mountain agriculture, 24,12 Honey production in Guyana, 24,15 honeydew, 24,8 hornet, see Vespa spp . HRH The Prince of Wales, 24,13 Hseih.F K, 24,6 humidity, 25,12 Huong.Gyun.P, 24,6 hurricane Hugo, 22,10 Hussein,M, 22,6



Ha.T D. 24,5

IBRA, 22,2.12: 23,2.7, 25,4 charts, see Information charts library, 23,14; 24,2,7,14,15; 25,15 ICRAF, 25,11

Gajadhar.R, 24,14 Galleria mellonella, 23,11, 24,58; 25,15 Galton.D, 24,6, 25,11 Galvin.D J, 22,11 Gambia, see The Gambia Gambian Beekeepers’ Co-operative, 23,8 Ganeshaiah,K.N, 23,15 Garn Products, 23,16 German Agro Action, 22,9 Germany, 24,2: 25,4 Ghana, 22,4,.5,10; 23,8.10; 25,2.4,13,16 Gibson,N, 23,13 ginseng, 23,4 girl guides, 24,2 Glaim.M, 24,3 global, Strategy, 22,14 warming, 22,14 Global Forum, 22,14 glossary, 24,8; 25,11 Gmelina moluccana, 22,11

Hadisoesilo,S, 23,5; 24,6 Hadza Beekeeping Scheme, 24,11 Hagen.V W. 25,6 Hall.L, 22,13 Hallim.M K |, 24,14; 25,45 hardwoods, tropical, 22,15 Hassan,L. 25,16 Haverkort.B, 24,12 Hawaii, 22,7 Hertz.O, 22,5: 23,8 Hevea spp, 24,4.5, 25,14 himalayan countries, 25,2 Himalayas. 25,9 Hindu Kush. 24,12 hive, 22,13; 23,11, 24,5.8, 25,10 appropriate, 24,8 bait, 24,8 baladi, 23,11 bark, 24,8 box, 24,4,5 cheaper, 22,10 chika 22,89 clay, 23,11; 24,8


IDB, 22,7 IDRC, 23,5; 25,14 IFS, 22,5, 25,45 ICA, 24,14 ILEIA, 24,i2 Hles,|, 24,10 Improving honey production and disposal in

Guyana and Surinam, 24,15

inappropriate technology, 24,3 India, 23,2.5,6.10,15. 24,612.14, 25,13 indigenous people, 25,10 Indonesia, 23,5; 24,6: 25,,13,14.16 information, practical. 23,12 Information charts: 23,10 inputs, 24,8 insect species, 25,2 Insects. plants and microclimate, 25,12 Inside Information, 22,2, 23,2; 24,2; 25,2 Institute of Honeybee Science, 23,5.13: 24,6; 25,11

Interamerican Development Bank, see IDB Intermediate Technology Publications, 24,13; 25,12,20 International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, see Apiculture in Tropical Climates International Development Research Centre. see IDRC international Federation of Beekeepers’ Association, see Apimondia International Institute of Entomology. 24,3 international Rural Development Centre. 22,12 International Symposium on Asian Honey Bees and Bee Mites, 22,10. 23,4.5,13 fraq, 23,11; 24,37 lraqui Museum of Natural History, 24,3 lran, 22,7, 24,3.7; 25,11 Ireland. 25,16 Irian Jaya, 24,11 iron, corrugated, 22,9

22,9 Isola.A. 22,10 Israel, 23,11] Italy, 23,13, 25,4 IWOKRAMA. 24,15 Island Bee News,


Jackson.H, 22,2, 23,2,3; 24,2, 25,2 Jacobs,F, 23,12 laima.A, 24,14 Japan, 23,5.13: 24,2.6: 25,8.13.16 lesus.Mr, 24,15 lohannsmeir,M, 25,10 Joho.M.K, 25,13 Jordan, 23,11 Jordanian, 23,11 Beekeepers’ Association, 23,11 Journal of Apicultural Research, 22,3

K Kaal.}, 22,13 Kaal’s Printing House, 22,13 Kalahari, 25,15 Kampala, 25,10 Kampmiiller,R, 24,3 Karnataka, 23,6 Kashmir, 23,6 Kenya, 24,7; 25,4,13,16 Kenya top-bar hive. see hive Kepaletswe,K, 22,12: 25,15 Kerala, 23,6 Kerr, W E, 23,8 Kew, 23,13 Khuzestan Province. 22,7 Killer bees, 24,12 Kokoye.S |, 22,4 Korea, 23,4: 24,6 Krell.R, 24,15 Kun-Suk.W, 24,6 Kupfuma ishungu, 25,10 L Laere. O van. 23,12 Laguna,Q.,F. 24,1) land-use systems, 25,11 Langstroth,L, 24.8 Langstroth hive. see hive La pollinisation par les abeilles, 22,13 Lebanon. 24,10 legislation, 22,10,11; 24,14; 25,5 Lesotho, 25,16 Letters to the Editor. 22710; 23,10: 24,6. 25,11 Liberia, 22,5 library. 23,13 local level, 23,12 Loie.T, 24,11 Look Ahead, 22,14: 23,15. 24,14; 25,13 lost-wax casting, 24,8 Ludlow-Wiechers,B, 24,13 lure, Nasonov gland, 24,9 Nasonov pheromone, 24,9 pheromone, 24,9 M Madaha,|, 22,10, 25,10


Beekeeping in

Mali, 22,4.5; 23,10 management, 23,14. 24,7; 25,3 absconding. 23,6, 24,4.5,7,8; 25,3.11 colony numbers, 24,7

Figures in BOLD denote issue number followed by relevant page number(s) for that issue. EIGHTEEN

Miombo, 24,11

Mishra.R C, 22,7 mite, 23,4,13 asian, 23,4 parasitic, 24,7 phoretic, 23,5 research on, 23,4 Mogga,}. 22,3 Molepolole, 25,15 Monkman.K, 22,6 Moritz.R F A, 25,12 morphometric studies, 23,4; 24,9 mountain, areas, 24,{2 Mozambique, 25,16 mud, 22,8 blocks 22,8 Muid.M Hj, 24,6 mulberry tree, 24,3 Mulder,V, 23,12; 24,7 Murillo-Yepes,}, 22,14: 23,15: 24,14 Mutekairi.T. 25,10 N

Mahabala Bhat.Y, 23,6 mail order, 22,12; 23,13; 24,12; 25,12 maize. 24,5 Make your own boots, 22,3 Making a mask veil, 23,3 Malachi,B. 24,13 Malas Peninsula, 24,4 Malawi, 22,3, 25,16 Malaysia, 22,14, 23,5,15; 24,6.7,14: 25,2.4.8,9,13,14 Malaysian Bee and Research Development Team, 23,5, 25,14 Malaysian pollen atlas, Malaysia: pollen atlas

feeder, 24,8 feeding, 22,6, 24,7, 25,3 grafting, 24,8 handling, 22,12; 23,12 importation, 24,14: 25,5 introduction, 24,12; 25,2 migration, 24,3,7.8; 25,311 nucleus, 23,6; 24,9 packages, 24,9 problems, 23,6 productivity, 25,10 queen rearing, 23,6; 24,8.9.14 queen excluder, 25,3 queenlessness, 24,9 resistant stock, 23,6 resistant strains, 24,7 robbing, 25,3 shade, 22,7 stress, 24,7 supers, 24,9 swarming, 23,12; 24,4,5,9; 25,3 syrup feeding, see feeding trapping, 24,4 mandible, 24,8 Mandiznidza,H. 22,10 mango, see Mangifera indica Mangifera indica, 24,5 Mangrove, see Avicennia spp Mardan.M, 23,5; 25,14 marketing 23,12 honey, 24,9 problems, 23,9 Martinique, 25,4 Matheson.A, 22,13 Mathews, G, 25,5 Matsuka, M. 23,5 Mattu.V K, 24,6 Mauritania, 22,5 Maya, 25,2.7 mazorcas. 25,6 Mbuti Hunters, 22,12 Medina.L M. 23,9 Mediterranean climate, 25,10 Meise.R, 22,13 Melipona beecheii, 25,6.7 Meliponids, 24,15 Meliponinae, 24,8: 25,8 Melissacaccus pluton, 24,8 melliferous vegetation, 23,11. 24,15: 25,15 Mellivora capensis, 25,15 Menschen ftir Menschen, 24,10 Merida, 22,6 Mexico, 22,6, 24,10.13; 25,4.16 microclimate. 25,12 Middle East, 23,11; 25,4.8 War, 23,11 migratory beekeeping. see beekeeping Miksa,D, 22,13 Milea,O, 23,1! millet, 25,15 Millington.D, 25,12 Mimosa spp, 24,5

Nakamura.|, 23,5; 24,4 Nasonov pheromone, see lure National Beekeeping Workshop, Ethiopia. 24,10 National Congress of Lebanese Beekeepers, 24,10 Natural medicine from honey



22,13 Naturgeschichte der honigbienen,


nectar, 24,5.8.9; 25,6 seeking birds 24,9 source, 24,5; 25,14 nectaries, 24,9 Nepal, 24,6,12, 25,14 nest, 24,9: 25,9 Netherlands, 22,13: 23,12, 24,12.14:

25,4.5,10.17 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 25,4,5


networking, 24,9 New Zealand Government, 22,11; 24,1] News Around The World, 22,6: 23,8: 24,10; 25,10 NGO, 24,9 Nieves,T, 23,9 Niger, 22,5, 25,4 Nigeria, 22,4,5, 25,4 Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association, 22,7 Non-governmental organisation, see NGO Non-wood forest products: the way ahead, 23,13 Noor Al Hussein Foundation, Jordan, 23,11 NORAD, 25,4,5 North Western Bee Products, 24,!3 Northern Bee Books, 22,13 Norway, 25,4 Nasema, 23,1) 1, 24,9,15 Notes on honey sources of Kolombangura for beekeeping, 22,11

Nsubuga.G, 25,10 nucleus, 24,9

ODA, 25,45 Odum. 22,10 24,5 oil, olive, 23,11 Okavango, 25,15 Olsson|, 23,2,6 Oman, 24,3, 25,9 One Warld Group of Broadcasters, 22,15 Ono, M, 23,5 Oppong,S, 22,4, 23,10 orange, see Cilrus spp Otis,G W, 24,15 Overseas Development Administration, see ODA Oxfam, 22,2, 23,2; 24,2; 25,2 Dakar, 22,5 P pacifiers, 24,9 Pakistan, 22,7; 24,6,12; 25,4.16 Palacios-Chdvez.R, 24,13 Pammi,P S, 23,10 Papua New Guinea, 22,1]. 24,!!: 25,8 parasitism, 23,13 Participatory Technology Development, Ocvcopliylla smaragdina,

24,9 Paxton.R |, 23,14. 25,11.16 Peasant Economical Organisation, 24,11 Persano Oddo.L, 24,15 Pesante,D, 24,14 pesticides, 23,11; 24,3.9 pheromone, see lure Phillipe}. 22,13 Philippines. 24,6; 25,14 Phokedi.K M, 25,15 phoresy, 23,5 plant, flowering, 24,8 resin, 24,9 sap, 24,8 Pledging for the Planet, 22,1516: 23,9 poison, see venom, pollen, 22,13; 23,4; 24,8,9,13; 25,6 basket, 24,9 source, 24,5 trap, 24,9 pollination, 22,13; 24,9 agent, 24,9 cross-, 24, 8 services, 22,13 politicians, 24,2 pomegranate, 24,3 Poovey,C. 25,2.6 Poovey,D. 25,7 population, 22,6 Port of Spain, 25,4 Portugal, 25,16 post cards, 23,5,13 poster display. 25,4 potato, sweet, 22,11 Practical Beekeeping, 22,38. 23,3; 25,3 Pretoria, 25,10 Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, 23,4 Priorities on R&D in beekeeping in tropical Asia. 25,14 proboscis, 24,9 Proceedings Fourth International Symposium on

harmonization, 22,13 Praceedings International Symposium on recent research in bee pathology, 23,12

project proposal, see also beekeeping project, 25,5,10 propolis, 23,4; 24,9 therapeutic properties, 22,13 protectives, see clothing protozoa, 23,13 Pterocarpus indicus, 22,1


publications, 23,13 Puerto Rico, 22,10; 23,9: 24,14 Punchihewa.R W K, 23,5; 24,6

Punjab Honey and Village Industries, 23,10 Q quarantine, 22,10 queen catching. see management queen cup, 24,8 Queen includers, 25,3 Queen Noor Al Hussein, 23,1) queen rearing, see management queenlessness, see management R tafia 22,10 rainforest, see forest Rainforests, 25,12 Rajnauth,Z. 25,5 rambutan, 24,4,5 Ramoiau.R.R, 22,11 Rath,W, 23,5 recycling, 22,15 Reddy.C C, 24,6 reforestation, 22,7 refractive index, 24,9 refractometer, see honey Reijntjes.C. 24,12 research, degree, 23,14 knowledge, 24,9 project. 24,6 tice, 24,15 Richards.A, 22,13 Riches,H RC, 25,12 Rinderer,T E, 23,5,13 Rio Declaration, 24,2 Rio de Janeiro, 22,14, 24,2 Ritter.W, 23,12 Robinson.W S, 23,11 Rodriguez.M, 24,13 Rojas Avalos, L M, 24,0 Rothamsted Experimental Station, 23,6 Roubik.D W, 24,13 Rowland,!, 25,11 Rowley.K, 25,5 Royal Botanical Gardens, 23,13 Royal Entomological Society of London. 22,12 Royal Hayan bee, 25,6 royal jelly, 22,13, 23,4; 24,9 tubber, see Hevea spp Rubber the honey spinner, 25,14 Rudder,W, 25,5 rural,

development, 25,10 people, 25,5 poor, 25,5 Rural Energy in the Asia-Pacific Region, 24,12 Rural Technology, 24,3

Russia, 25,8 Ruttner,F, 25,9,13 Ss

Sabah, 25,8 sacbroad, 22,6; 23,6, 1: 24,9 Thai, 23, 2,6 Sadeghi.M T, 22,7 Sahara. 25,10 Saint Christopher & Nevis, 25,4 Saint Lucia. 23,15: 24,14; 25,4 Saint Vincent, 25,4 Sakai.T, 22,7 Samaroo,.B, 25,5 Samui Island, 24,4.5 Santiago Collazo,M, 22,10 SARH. 24,10 Sasaki, M. 24,4 Saudi Arabia, 23,11; 25,16 school, 22,10 scientists, 23,4 Segeren,P, 23,12 Senegal, 22,45 sessions, 25,4 shade, see management Shah Beekeepers, 23,6 shifting cultivation, 24,9: 25,11 Shrestha,K K, 24,6 Sierra Leone, 22,5 Sihag,Dr, 23,5 slash and burn, 24,9 small-holders, 24,13 Smith.D R, 24,13 smoke, 24,5 smoker, 22,7, 24,9 fuel, 24,9 SNF, 22,5 soap, flakes, 23,9 soft. 23,9 white, 23,9 Sobobrayen.S, 25,10 social insects, 25,6 Soil Association, 25,10 Solomon tslands, 22,11; 25,4 Honey Producers’ Co-operative, 22,11 Sommeijer,M }, 23,12 Sonko.F, 23,8

sorghum, 25,15 South Africa, 25,10 South Kanara Beekeepers’ Co-operative Society, 23,6 Southwick,E . 25,12 spanish, 24,13 spreading the message, 22,15 Sri Lanka, 23,5; 24,6; 25,14 Ssekitoleko.V, 23,9 stamen, 24,89 Sterrer,W. 22,6 stigma, 24,9 stingless bee, 23,7, 24,7,8.9,15: 25, Strainaway, 23,3,16, 25, strategic planning, 25,14 study visit, 23,14 Sudan, 22,3. 24,9; 25,9.16 sugar, 24,15 concentration, 24,9 sacks, 22,3 SYTUP, 22,6: 23,6; 24,8 Sultanate of Oman. see Oman. superorganism, 25,12 supers, see management Surinam, 25,4 sustainable. agriculture, 24,12 development. 22,14; 24 9; 25,10 Svensson,B; 22,5,12 swarm, 24,3.9.15: 25,10 swarming. see management Sweden, 22,12; 25,4.5 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 22,12 Sylvester,H A, 23,5,13 Syria, 23,11 syrup feeding. see management


Tabora Beekeepers’ Co-operative Society, 22,10; 25,10 Tadesse,G, 24,10 Taiwan, 23,4. 24,6 Tamil Nadu, 23,6 Tanzania, 22,10,12; 24,11. 25,4.10,16 Business Times. 25,11 taro 22,11 Taylor,O R, 24,15 technology. new, 23,12 old, 23,12 transfer, 22,14 telf, 22,8 temperature, 25,12 Ten principles of sustainable development, 24,3 Telford Polytechnic, 24,11 Terms used in Beekeeping & Development,


Thai sacbrood, see sacbrood Thailand, 22,7,10; 23,4.5.13; 24,4,5,12; 25,4,9.14 The Banjul Bee Declaration, 22,14 The bee catalogue, 23,13 The beekeeper's handbook, 22,13 The behaviour and physiology of bees. 22,12 The chika hive, 22,8 The Gambia, 22,3.4.5, 23,8,10 The hive and the honey bee 25,12 The honey bee tracheal mite, 22,13 The Honourable Patrick Manning, 25,2,5 The NFC Foundation, 24,2; 25,2 The rainforest harvest, 24,13 The seasonal management of a honey bee coleny,

24,4 The workable African honey bee, 22,13

Thimann.R, 22,7


Thinking a Diploma?, 25,16 Thymus vulgaris, 23,11 Tiger paper, 24,12

timber, 24,15 toad, cane, 22,11 Tobago, see Trinidad and Tobago Togo, 22,15 Toots for agriculture, 24,13; 25,20 top-bar, see hive tourism, 24,45 related development, 24,5

traditional, beekeepers. see beekeepers beekeeping. see beekeeping methods, 24,8 practices, 23,12 Traditional candlemaking. 25,12 Traidcraft Exchange, 22,2; 23,2; 24,2: 25,2 training, 22,11. 25,5.15,16,20 Training women trainers in beekeeping. 25,20 transport, 22,15 Tree of Life, 22,14,15,16; 23,9, 24,2 trees, see also forest and woodland, 25,14 multipurpose, 22,7 Trees and Bees. Trigonids, 24,15 Trinidad. see Trinidad and Tobago



Trinidad and Tobago, 22,14,16; 23,2,7.15. 24,14; 25,2.4.5 government of 25,4 Minister of Agricuiture, Land and Marine Resources, 25,4 Prime Minister, 25,45 tropical forests, see forests Tropilaelaps clareae, 22,6, 24,8,12 Tropilaclaps koenigerum, 24,8 Tsigie Honey Factory, 24,10 Turkey. 24,7. 25,16 turpentine, genuine, 23,9 U

Uganda, 23,9; 25,10.16 Beekeepers’ Association, 25,10 UK, 23,2.13.14,15; 24,213.14;

25,4,10,12.13.16 beekeeping groups, 22,2; 23,2: 24,2. 25,2 UN, 22,14 Sustainable Development Commission, 24,2 volunteer, 23,8, 24,10: 25,10 Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, 25,14 University of the West Indies, 23,7; 25,4 University of Wales College, see Cardiff University of Yucatan, 22,6: 25,16 UNV Neus 24,10 Unwin,D M, 25,12 urea, 23,10 Uruguay, 22,7 USA, 22,13.14: 23, 24, 25, 4,10,12.13 Vv

Vandenburg,|, 22,14, 23,15 Varroa, see Varroa jacobsoni Varroa jacobsoni, 22,6,7, 23,2.4,11. 24,5.8,10.11: 25,16 resistance to, 23,4 Venezuela, 22,7: 23,7, 24,11. 25,4 venom, 22,13: 24,8 Verma, L R. 23,5: 24,12 Vespa spp. 23,11; 24,5,.8,9 video, 22,13 Vieques, 22,10 Vietnam, 23,5; 24,6,7; 25,14 Villanueva,G.R, 24,13 viruses, 23,6,13 visual aids, 23,13

VSA, 22,1] VSO, 25,4.5 VuV L, 24,7 Ww

Wael, L de, 23,12 Waikakul Y. 23,5 Walker,P, 23,]3 wax. see beeswax wax foundation, see foundation wax moth, 22,6.11: 24,5,8.9, 25,315 wax sheets, see foundation wasp, 24,8 West Africa, 22,5; 23,10 West African Beekeepers’ Association, 22,5; 23,10 West African Bee Research Seminar, 22,4 Second, 22,4 West Bank, 23,11 wheat, 23,11 Wickens,G, 23,13 Wicwas Press, 23,5 Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania, 24,11 wind speed. 25,12 Winston.M L, 24,12 women, with respect to beekeeping. 22,4.7.11; 23,8; 25,20 Wongsiri.S, 23,4,5.13: 24,4.6 World of the Maya, 25,6 World Vision, Award for Development Initiative, 22,2; 23,2; 24,2: 25,2 of Britain, 23,3 World distribution of major honey bee diseases and

22,6: 23,3 Worshipful Company of Wax Chandlers, 22,2; 23,2, 24,2, 25,2



yam, 22,11 Yang, Prof, 25,14 Yazbek.R, 24,10 yield, see honey Yoshida,T, 23,5 Yucatan, 24,13, 25,16 Zz

Zabaneh.S. 23,11 Zaire, 22,12 Zambia, 23,12: 25,16 North West Province, 23,12 Zambian Beekeeping Handbook,


Zimbabwe, 22,10: 25,10 Zooming in on, 22,11; 23,11: 24,15: 25,15

Index prepared by Nicola Bradbear and Helen Jackson. Copyright 1992








A Guide to Appropriate Equipment for Smallholder Farmers Introduced by Dr Jan Carruthers and Marc Rodriguez

June 1993

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