Bees for Development Journal Edition 24 - September 1992

Page 1

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Beekeeping development SEPTEMBER 1992



















helped to sort the pledges sent to Rio to trellises around the Tree of Life.

and attach them

INSIDE INFORMATION Our cover shows the Tree of Life, its branches holding some of the pledges sent to The Earth Summit by more than a million concerned people worldwide. It is good to know that bees were not forgotten: beekeeping was represented by readers of this journal who returned pledges from edition 22, seeking protection for bees and committing themselves to minimise their own impact on the environment. The idea behind the pledges was that while politicians hold power to change the world, individuals have a duty to make sure they do so.

The Tree of Life served as a powerful focus during the Summit.


110 Heads of State gathered at Rio, but what was achieved? *


Two major treaties on climate and biodiversity. More than 150 nations signed these but they will not come into force until at least 30 have ratified them.

The Rio Declaration 21 -

- 27

Principles on environment and development issues

- not

legally binding.

an 800-page action plan for sustainable development - not legally binding.




AUN Sustainable Development Commission - to monitor whether governments deliver their promises Development Aid



on aid.

increases pledged by Canada, France, Germany, Japan, UK, and other smaller industrialised countries.

Forest Principles - for forest conservation - not legally binding.

The Summit did at least recognise that environmental problems cannot be solved without alleviating world poverty. It also exposed the gulf that lies between what people want and what their leaders are willing to agree to do. We have to continue lobbying to ensure these intentions are turned into reality.

Unless stated otherwise S refers to

US dollars.

refers to pounds sterling.

IBRA - International

Bee Research



Advortige ments

edited by Dr Nicola Bradbear with assistance from Helen Jackson. All items are written by Nicola Bradbear unless stated otherwise. 4000 copies of each edition are printed and distributed to beekeepers, projects and associations in 174 countries

Advertisements in Beekeeping & Development reach a very wide audience. Various sizes available. Write for rates.

Beekeeping & Development is

worldwide. Four editions are published each year. Apimondia Gold 1989

Your contributions are invited. We welcome articles on techniques found to work well, on your events and activities, and news items of interest or concern to readers. Please include illustrations or photographs.

World Vision Award for Development Initiative 1990 ==


Beekeepi development


Cover picture. The Tree of Life. MARK EDWARDS/STILL PICTURES


IBRA wants to help beekeepers in developing countries. If you have a beekeeping problem we will try to help you. Please make your enquiry as specific as possible.

Thanks to all who have contributed to this edition.

International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff CFI 3DY, UK. Phone: 010 44 222 372409 Fax: 010 44 222 665522

Our aim is to make this journal as useful as possible for our readers, so let us know your views on Beekeeping & Development and of any particular subjects you would like to see discussed in future

& Development is sponsored The NFC Foundation FAO, Oxfam, CTA, by and Traidcraft Exchange.

editions. ama

The International Bee Research Association is a scientific, charitable trust providing information on every aspect of bees and beekeeping to all who need it.


Items appearing in Beekeeping & Development may be reproduced providing that appropriate full acknowledgement is given and copies are forwarded to us.

In 1992 Beekeeping

We have also received donations from The Worshipful Company of Wax Chandlers, UK beekeeping groups and individuals. We gratefully acknowledge this continued assistance. We need subscriptions! Details on page 16.



TEN PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Consult with villagers, farmers and all other participants. Reach agreement on both problems and solutions before taking action. 2. Plan smail-scale, flexible projects. A plan should be a blueprint, not a prison. It should be able to incorporate new information that emerges during the project. 3. Let the people benefiting from the project make the decisions. The experts’ job is to share their knowledge, not impose it. 4. Look for solutions that can be duplicated by hundreds and thousands for the greatest impact on development But the solutions must still be tailored to




fit local needs.

Provide education and training, particularly for young people and women, who remain the most effective agents of change because they are bound to the realities of the family's survival. 6. Keep external inputs to a minimum to reduce dependency and increase stability. Subsidies, supplements and inappropriate technology are unsustainable. 7. Build on what people are doing right. New ideas will be adopted only if they do not run contrary to local practice. New technologies must support existing ones, not replace them. 5.





8. Assess impacts of proposed changes. A multi-disciplinary team, ideally including specialists from the same culture, should look at economic, social, cultural and environmental aspects.

Top-class honeycombs from a top-bar hive!

9. Consider both inputs and outcomes. The failure of projects focusing on a single outcome, such as agricultural productivity, has proved that more is not always better. 10. Maintain or improve the

participant's standard of living. Long-term improvements are unsustainable unless

they address problems the poor face today. Source: Rural Technology 8 (2), September 1991

All colonies are in the open air. Some are suspended from branches of pomegranate and mulberry trees 2 to 4 m above ground, grapevine branches to 1.5 m above ground and date palm leaf stalks at up to 10 m. Other combs were attached to wooden stands of |

Murtadha K Glaiim


In September 1990 a soldier brought a colony of the little honey bee Apis florea to our laboratory in Baghdad. He mentioned that the colony's comb was found in a tree at Madeli town, 10 km west of the Iraq-lran border and 150 km east of Baghdad. When we went there and to other towns located near the border we found many colonies of A. florea. Colonies were found at Khanaqin, about 60 km north of Mandeli and 10 km west of the border, and at Jalowla, 30 km west of Khanaqin. Our identification of the species was then confirmed by the Iraqi Museum of Natural History and the International Institute of Entomology in London.

refrigerators and water pots placed in shaded courtyards (20-30 cm above ground). It is not known how long these bees have been in Iraq. However local people in these areas say they have been familiar with these bees for many years. Since this species occurs in Iran, we believe swarms have crossed the border from neighbouring areas in the Iranian province of Kharmanshah. Local people harvest honey from these colonies by “hunting”, but they may learn a method of beekeeping which is superior to honey hunting. Beekeepers in the Sultanate of Oman either move wild colonies of A. florea to specially prepared artificial ‘caves’ or niches or suspend them in trees near their houses. An important factor affecting these colonies in Iraq is the extensive aerial application of pesticides to date palm plantations. It seems that A. florea is extending its range further west, either naturally or through human intervention. Thanks to Dr Mohammad S Abdul-Rassou! and Dr D B Baker for confirming the identification of A. florea specimens.

Apis florea


Apis florea


BEFORE 1990 the only honey bee species know to occur in Iraq was the native Apis mellifera. The native race is Apis mellifera syriaca, and Apis mellifera carnica has been introduced since the 1970s from Egypt.








SAMUI ISLAND is a Thai island off the


of the Malay Peninsula. The central hill (600 m) is covered by jungle and in the lowlands there are coconut plantations and orchards. People on Samui used to live by fishing and cultivation, but recently the island has been spotlighted as a resort for tourists.

Nakamura, S Wongsiri, M Sasaki.


Beekeeping with Apis cerana has been practised for 100 years and there are still many traditional beekeepers. One beekeeper puts on a show of traditional beekeeping to attract tourists.



Traditional beekeeping on Samui is different from that in Northern Thailand, as log hives are placed horizontally rather than vertically as in the North. This might be a Chinese influence. Chinese refugees, escaping from China and aiming for Indochina or Malaysia when the Ching Dynasty was ruined may have landed on the island and taught native people to keep honey bee colonies in horizontal log hives. Mr Boontang,

a beekeeper using traditional methods, removes honey from a box hive.












Inside a box hive


[| [_] |











| |

| |






Traditional hive

February when the nectar flow of some orchard trees begins, the colonies migrate back to the plain area. Traditional beekeepers, therefore, site their hives at the foot of the hill or the jungle edge to trap swarms and after combs are built, they move those hives to their apiaries Colonies grow vigorously after February and reach a honey production peak in April and May. Swarming occurs in May and some beekeepers multiply their colonies in this period.

Hives Two types are in use; the coconut log hive, and the box hive. A few frame hives were introduced experimentally but have not been used by beekeepers. Log hives are usually 25-30 cm in diameter, and 100-120 cm long. Box hives are usually 23 cm high, and vary in width from 26 to 34 cm and in length from 46 to 50 cm. All of these hives are placed on stands 40-120 cm high as protection from ants. Beekeepers gather many hives around their houses, often 150 or so. In August 1990, out of 160 hives in a sampled apiary, only 57 (35.6%) were occupied by colonies.

Harvesting Beekeepers use smoke to drive away bees before harvesting honey. A long, sword-like knife is used to cut out all except two or three combs. Some combs containing brood are eaten as well as the honeycombs with wax.

Honey can be harvested four or five times a year between April and August Annual honey production is 5-10 kg per colony. From March to May, rambutan, durian, mango and other fruit trees give a large amount of nectar, but coconut nectar which is available all year mixes with these nectars and makes the honey poor in quality with its dark colour, strong coconut smell, and high water content (25-30%) In spite of such poor quality, the price of honey on the island is high compared to other areas in the country and costs 250-300 baht ($10-12) per kilogram. Some cash crops such as cashew nut, coffee, and rubber trees are also well-known nectar plants, and maize and mimosa are good pollen sources.

Enemies Weaver ants, Cecophylla smaragdina and hornets Vespa spp are economically important enemies in traditional beekeeping. Wax moths, both Galleria mellonella and Achroia sp, are harmful. These all cause colonies to abscond. Varroa jacobsoni is found in the colonies but as with Apis cerana elsewhere, there is no

noteworthy damage to bees.

Problems One problem is that beekeepers keep too many hives in each apiary causing competition for forage during the dearth period. Absconding is also caused by wax moth: boxes are poorly constructed and allow wax moth to spread rapidly between hives. If colonies abscond beekeepers do not pay attention to the remnant combs, from which wax moths are spread over the apiary.

Future prospects As


tourist attraction traditional beekeeping

is finding a way to survive the tide of

tourism-related development. Beekeeping resources are decreasing because orchards and coconut plantations are being cleared for development Beekeepers are getting older and the land for apiaries is being sold for development. A hundred year old tradition of beekeeping on Samui Island is now declining as the boom of the honey bees fades behind the boom of tourism

Translated revision from original Japanese article Honeybee Science .

(1991) 12, 27-30 Traditional hives

Migration Honey bees on Samui Island migrate seasonally between apiary and hill areas. Most apiaries are located in the plain area close to coconut plantations or houses. In October when the monsoon starts there are no resources for bees. At this time colonies abscond from hives and move to the hill area where resources are stil] available. In






The AAA Membership fee is $20 per year. This includes four issues of Beekeeping & Development and AAA Newsletter supplements. People in countries where AAA has chapters (listed below), please send $20 or local equivalent to your chapter. People in other countries send $20 directly to the AAA Office, Institute of Honeybee Science, Tamagawa University, Machida-shi, Tokyo 194, Japan. |



S\\ ~



Bangladesh Apicultural Association, 135 Shantinagar, Dhaka 1217. CHINA: Chinese Apicultural Association, Xiangshan, Beijing. INDIA: Central Bee Research Institute, Khadi & Village Industries Commission, 1153 Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411 O16. Dr V K Mattu, Department of Bio-Sciences, Himachal! Pradesh University, Shimla 171 005. Dr C C Reddy, Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, Inaha Bharati, Bangalore 560 056.

INDONESIA: Ms S Hadisoesilo, PO Box 4/BKN Bangkinang 28401, Riau, Sumatra.


Dr Kun-Suk Woo, Institute of Korea Beekeeping Science, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Suwon 441 744. Dr Huong-Gyun Park, Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 635.



MALAYSIA: Dr M Hj Muid, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University Pertanian, 43400 Serdang, Selangor.

NEPAL: Mr K K Shrestha, Beekeeping Training & Extension Support Project, Godawari, Kathmandu.

PAKISTAN: Dr R Ahmad, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, NARC, PO NIH, Islamabad.



Dr C R Cervancia, Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, UP Los Banos, College,


SRI LANKA: Dr R W K Punchihewa, Agriculture Research Station, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP).

TAIWAN: Dr F K Hseih, Taiwan Apicultural & Sericultura] Experiment Station, 261 Kuan-nan, Kung-Kuan,




Prof S Wongsiri, BBRU, Department of Biology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330.

VIETNAM: Mr Tran Duc Ha, Director, Bee Research Center, Lang Ha, Dong Da, Hanoi.



My reading of your journal makes me think that someone ought to make a study of the types of traditional bee hives used in developing countries before it is too late. notice that shapes vary very much - sausage-shaped, round like tambourines and so on - and also _ the materials from which they are made. Soon they will be superseded as frame hives are adopted. Is there any way of providing a scholarship for someone to undertake such a research project? Perhaps developing countries’ governments would club together each = giving a small sum. |--The questions to be answered are: 1. Is anything known of the history of bee hives: have shapes changed? What materials are they, and have they been made of? & “3. What is put inside the empty hive - wooden:rack, scent etc? Is there a particular way of putting the hive up in a tree? What are the rituals connected with the making and placing, and also with the gathering of honey? Aré there any other cave paintings or drawings like those already known from Southern Africa? |



orothy Galton



balked liNe





EVA CRANE, OBE DSC is one of the most prominent ‘bee persons’ of the 20th century. She was amongst the first to draw attention to the great potential for tropical beekeeping and emphasise the need for improved information resources for tropical

6. Given limited funding, what is the best help for beekeepers in areas where bee forage is scarce?

Treat it as such, and do not encourage any expansion of beekeeping, but consider whether to reduce the number of colonies kept. Try to work out how many colonies the forage can support, giving the beekeepers an acceptable honey crop, and manage these as effectively as possible The resources available may keep more colonies alive, but there will be little or no honey for the beekeeper. 7. What words of advice would you give a beginner beekeeper?

beekeepers. Eva Crane became the first Director of IBRA and established the international organisation as we know it today. Her retirement in 1983 allowed her to embark on major literary works, publishing the all-encompassing Bees and Beekeeping in 1990 and currently researching for a world history of beekeeping. Dr Crane has received many honours for her work both in the UK and internationally.

Learn as much as you can by working with, and listening to, good beekeepers in your locality. 8. Do you think that beekeeping equipment will be very different

In 1949

100 years from today? New materials and more effective mechanical devices have been incorporated into beekeeping during the last 100 years, but there have been few changes in the principle of beekeeping. Transport has become easier and more rapid; and there has consequently been a great spread of diseases and pests. would guess that the next 100 years would see further changes of these types. But I cannot see that the colony as the basic unit of beekeeping will

Question |. Dr Crane, you have been able to observe the recent development of top-bar hive beekeeping from its first trials in the 1960s. Do you think top-bar hives will ever become more widely

adopted? Top-bar hives of the type used for Apis mellifera in Kenya are likely to be used further in places where low-input beekeeping is expanding. A more significant expansion may occur with the traditional top-bar log hives used in northern Vietnam for Apis cerana. In 1989 and 1992 saw them in Bac Thai and Lao Cai provinces bordering on China, and on Cat Ba Island off Hai Phong, where they were probably introduced from the mainland. These hives are quite narrow (internal diameter 17-25 cm), but there was little or no comb attachment to the sides. Some beekeepers had squared off the interior of the log, or used wooden boards to make a hive, so that all bars had the same length. have written an article for Bee World on this beekeeping, with Vu Van Luyen and Vincent Mulder, and it will appear shortly. We have not yet traced the origin of this top-bar beekeeping, but it was described in detail in 1933. |


2. Should traditional beekeeping Se encouraged? The danger with fixed-comb traditional beekeeping is that colonies cannot be examined to detect diseases or parasitic mites. would say no with Apis mellifera in areas where movableframe hives are also used, or where honey bees are introduced from elsewhere. I would say yes with Apis cerana where there is proper management and no risk of the introduction of Apis mellifera in the near future, and with stingless bees anywhere. 3. What intervention would most help beekeepers in developing countries? |

One action that can help beekeepers everywhere is enabling them to get more information that is useful to them. This is usually in the form of written and pictorial material, but it should also include contacts with knowledgeable people in other countries who may help them in the future. Much of the work that you provide is this sort of help, and if more funds were available more could be done. 4. Can tropical bees be prevented from absconding? Beekeeping management can help, by reducing stress caused by ants, by excessive day/night temperature changes or other disturbances. Feeding at the onset of dearth periods can also help. It should be remembered that bees generally do not migrate in large regions where vegetation and bee forage are uniform throughout the area - as in coastal plains of Malaysia. 5.

Do you believe that beekeeping projects are successful?

This question is too complicated to answer in a few sentences here!



You fiave visited beekeepers in more countries than perhaps any other person. Where would you most like to pay a return 9.


It is so difficult for me to choose where to return to, that I shall tell you instead of one region should very much like to visit for the first time, although ! think it is not possible at present. am writing a world history of beekeeping, and am constantly impressed by the capabilities of good traditional beekeepers of the past in some of the less well-known parts of the world. The Zagros mountains on the borders of Iran, Iraq and Turkey have a rich beekeeping tradition, with many different types of hive, and this region may possibly have been a focal point from which beekeeping spread to neighbouring areas in the distant past. That is where should choose to go. {0. In recent years man has interfered considerably with honey |



bees by intreducing pests and diseases to new areas. Presumably resistant strains will ensure honey bees’ survival in the long term. Bul do you think beekeeping will survive in the shert term?

necessary to consider the honey bee species separately and will exclude predictions on the development of strains of a particular species resistant to individual pests or diseases. European Apis mellifera has been so widely spread in the world by man that beekeeping with it will surely survive in some places. Tropical Apis mellifera now lives in many regions with a sparse human population. If beekeeping with this bee died out elsewhere, the bee itself would survive in these regions, and the continuation of beekeeping would then depend to a great extent on the determination of people somewhere to keep bees in hives. Apis cerana and Apis koschevnikovi in Asia are now characteristic of less populated, uncultivated areas, and hive beekeeping with them will survive short-term so long as Apis mellifera is not introduced, with communicable pests and diseases. Bee management using honey bees that nest in the open - Apis dorsata, Apis florea and Apis andreniformis - is carried out in only a few areas, but it could well survive better, because these bees are affected by fewer pests and diseases of Apis mellifera. But have not considered here habitat degradation, which is a main cause of the reduction of bee colonies. It is



This is th te first of a new series in which Nicola Bradbear interviews it people-from the beekeeping world, in-the hope that the ideas ‘prominer : : will. stimulate others to further thought‘and debate. «





Absconding Absconding occurs when all adult honey bees leave the hive or nest Achroia grisella The lesser wax moth: a serious pest of honey bee colonies in the tropics Africanized Honey bees descended from those introduced to Brazil from Africa in 1956

Agroforestry The use of both trees and agricultural production on the same piece of land to encouarge economic and ecological benefits Anther The part of a flower's stamen that produces pollen Apiary The location ofa number of colonies Apiculture The science and art of bees and beekeeping Apimondia The International Federation of Beekeepers’ Associations. Apis The genus to which honey bees belong. Different species of Apis will be described in Beekeeping & Devlopment 25 Appropriate hive A hive which is technologically appropriate to the resources (materials, human skill, bee species) available Bait hive An empty hive placed so that it will be occupied by a swarm of bees.

Bark hive A hive made from the bark of trees. Batik A technique for producing designs on cloth by covering with wax, foreach successive dipping, those parts of the cloth to be protected from dye. Bee An insect belonging to the superfamily Apoidea Over 25 000 species of bees have been described Bee space A gap large enough for bees to walk and work, for example the space between two parallel combs or between a comb and the wall of the hive Beeswax Wax produced by honey bees (secreted by special glands on the underside of the abdomen) and used to build comb.

Braula Abbreviated name for a species of wingless fly, for example Braula coeca. Often known as bee louse Brood All stages of immature honey bees, eggs, larvae and pupae.

Brood nest The area of the colony where brood is being reared. Cell Asingle hexagonal wax compartment, the basic unit of comb. Each honey bee develops within a single cell, and honey and pollen are stored within cells. Chalkbrood A disease of honey bee colonies caused by a fungus Ascosphaera apis

Colony Honey bees are social insects Each honey bee can only live as part ofa colony and not individually Each colony of honey bees contains one queen bee who is the female parent of the colony, a few hundred drone bees and thousands of worker bees Comb The wax structure made of hexagonal cells in which honey bees rear young and store food Cross-pollination The transfer of pollen between flowers of different plants of the same species Plants that are not self-fertile must be cross-pollinated before they can develop seeds. Many crops depend upon cross-pollination by insects. Cut comb honey Pieces of comb containing honey and presented for sale in this way, ie honey which has not been extracted. Dadant hive A design of American, single wall. frame hive

Desertification Decline in the productivity of land until it is biologically useless.

Diversity The number of species (plant and animal) in any given area. Drone A male honey bee. Drones undertake no work within the hive. their sole

function is to fertilize the queen. Extension Providing research findings and instruction to working people. Extractor The centrifugal machine in which honey is spun out of cells within comb. Feeder A device for giving food in the form of sugar syrup to honey bees




Some readers have requested a glossary of terms used in Beekeeping & Developrit. do not. For example the words absconding, migrating and swarming often seedio. points for discussion: perhaps they can be debated and improved at the forthcomil'C feel that other terms need clarditio

Fixed-comb hive A hive in which bees build their nests with the combs attached to the wall of the hive, and therefore fixed (the combs cannot be removed from the hive for examination without breaking) Forage Flowering plants which provide nectar and/or pollen for bees Forager A worker honey bee that collects pollen, nectar, water or propolis for the colony



bacterial disease of honey bees American foulbrood is caused by

Bacillus larvae, European foulbrood is caused by Melissococcus pluton

Foundation A thin sheet of beeswax embossed with the hexagonal pattern of comb. A sheet of foundation is placed in each wooden frame and this serves as a base upon which honey bees build their comb. Without foundation honey bees would not necessarily build their comb in the orientation required by the beekeeper. Frame A wooden rectangular frame that holds a sheet of wax foundation. A number of frames hang parallel to one another inside the hive Frame hive A hive which contains frames The honey bees are encouraged to build their comb within these frames The frames then enable combs to be lifted from the hive for examination Galleria mellonella The greater wax moth, found everywhere that bees are kept

GNP Gross national product Grafting One ofthe techniques involved

in queen rearing: when a beekeeper moves a worker larva from her cell to queen cup Under the right conditions. this larva will develop into a queen bee Granulated honey Honey in which sugar crystals have formed Hive Any container provided by humans for bees to nest in a

Honey Nectar or plant sap ingested by bees, concentrated by them and stored incombs Honey bees Species of bees belonging to the genus Apis All are social bees which store significant quantities of honey. Honey hunting Plundering wild bee colonies for their honey Honeydew Insects such as aphids feed on large quantities of plant sap which they excrete almost unchanged (except for protein content} This sap collects on the leaves of plants and If collected by honey bees is known as honeydew

Inputs Refers to items that are needed for productive beekeeping The basic inputs (which may be free) are bees, pollen- and nectar-bearing plants, water. Other inputs may not be free, for example equipment and transport Kenya top-bar hive A design of top-bar hive with sloping sides. Langstroth hive A design of frame hive The inventor, the Rev L. Langstroth recognised the importance of bee space and this allowed him to design the movable-frame hive. Lost-wax casting A technique for making a replica of an object by casting it in molten metal. The model ts created in wax then covered with a shell of clay. The wax model and its clay coat are then fired to harden the clay and meit the wax. The wax is then poured out and replaced by molten metal. Low-technology hive A hive which is simple, cheap, reliable, mendable.

Mandible The jaw of an insect Meliponinae The subfamily to which all stingless bees belong Migration Seasonal movements of whole honey bee colonies, leaving no brood behind in the nest.


Migratory beekeeping Beekeepers moving colonies of honey bees in hives to take advantage of honey flows in other areas.










Traditional hive


Bee space!


rf P I N (



) E \ ] E L( ) PM E N T

4 Of course many beekeeping terms have straightforward denfinitions, but others yprilt. cause confusion. hope that the definitions given below will serve as starting canfrence in Trinidad and Tobago? If you do not agree with my definitions, or then do write to me. (Ed| on are ition, :








Mite Tiny, eight-legged creatures many species of which have been identified



honey bee colonies. Most of these feed on pollen or hive debris, but some species feed on the bees directly. Morphometry The measurement of form. Movable-frame hive A hive containing frames. Nasanov pheromone A substance produced by a bee’s Nasonov gland to attract other bees, for example to a source of water. Nectar A sweet liquid secreted by flowers, a watery solution of various sugars. Nectaries The glands within plants that produce nectar. Nest The place where the comb or combs of a bee colony are sited.

Networking Providing a channel (for example Beekeeping &

Development) for

information on a subject (beekeeping) to flow between interested people (beekeepers).

NGO Non-governmental organisation, usually non-profit group working for a

development. Nosema A disease of bees caused by a single cell organism Nosema apis. Nucleus Asmall colony of bees created by a beekeeper from an existing colony or colonies. Used to increase colony numbers or in queen rearing and bee breeding.

Omdurman hive


clay hive named after its place of origin in Sudan.

Organic honey There is no precise definition for this rather mis-leading term. Generally the term is taken to mean honey that is free from any additive or tesidues of pesticides, fertilizers or drug treatment. Pacifier A substance used to calm bees.

Package bees Supplies of bees produced for sale. Sold by weight, including a caged queen but without combs. Suppplied in a box with wire mesh forming two sides. Participatory Technology Development (PTD) Combining local skills and experience with research knowledge from elsewhere to identify, practise and apply new techniques. Pheromone A chemical substance produced by a bee (or any animal) to convey a precise message to another of the same species. Pollen The fine dust-like substances which are the male reproductive cells of asa of protein. flowering plants. by SOUICE Collected bees Pollen basket Areas of stiff hairs on the hind legs of worker honey bees where they carry pollen. Pollen trap A device for harvesting pollen from bee hives. Pollination The transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower to the stigma of that or another flower. Pollination agent Bees act as pollination agents when they transfer pollen from one flower to another. Apart from insects, other agents which may bring about the transfer of pollen are wind (cereals are pollinated by the wind), gravity, nectar-seeking birds and bats. Proboscis The mouth parts of an insect.

Proceedings The papers presented at a meeting, published in printed form. Propolis Plant resins collected by honey bees and used by them to seal cracks



Stamen The male reproductive organ of a flower.


consists of a stalk on the end

of which is the anther.

Stigma The receptive part of the female reproductive organ of a flower which receives the pollen.

Stingless bees Social bees which store significant amounts of honey, but belonging to a different genus from honey bees. Super Any hive box placed above the brood nest. Usually contains combs in which bees will store honey. Sustainable beekeeping Beekeeping to benefit humans while also ensuring the safe conservation of the bees and their habitat. Sustainable development Improvement which will continue supporting life in the future. Swarming When a honey bee colony becomes large enough to divide into two, swarming takes place. When this happens a new queen is reared, the colony divides and a swarm leaves the hive or nest. This swarm consists ofa queen, drones and workers which will form another colony in a new location. Tanzania top-bar hive A design of top-bar hive with straight sides. Top-bar hive A low-technology hive in which the bees are encouraged to build their combs suspended from bars placed across the top of the hive. Traditional beekeeping Beekeeping methods which were already in use prior to the invention of modern frame hives. Many traditional methods are highly skilled and in use today. Transitional hive A term sometimes used for top-bar hives referring to them as mid-level technology between traditional beekeeping (low-technology) and frame hive beekeeping (high-technology) Tropilaelaps A genus of mite parasitic upon honey bees. Known species are Tropilaclaps clarae and Tropilaelaps koenigerum.

Varroa A genus of mite, parasitic upon honey bees. The most widely known species is Varroa jacobsoni. Venom The poison of a bees’ sting Vespa spp Species of hornets which are social wasps. Wax moths Species of moths which destroy combs. Worker bees Female honey bees that make up the bulk of the colony and undertake all the work of the colony except for mating and egg laying. Workers are sterile females.

Protectives Clothing to protect beekeepers from being stung by bees. Queen The female parent of the colony, the only sexually developed female. Queen rearing This term is taken to mean the raising of queen bees as a result of management by the beekeeper.

fece Frame containing honeycomb


Queenlessness A colony is queenless when it contains no queen or developing queens or brood from which a queen could be reared. Refractometer An instrument which can be used to measure the refractive index of honey (from this the sugar concentration of the honey can be calculated), Royal jelly Glandular secretions of worker honey bees mixed with some regurgitated carbohydrates and fed to developing bees. Sacbrood A viral disease of honey bees. Scout bees Worker honey bees that are responsible for locating new sources of forage, or a new location fora swarm. Shifting cultivation A method of cultivation whereby land is used until it is no longer fertile. After this cultivation is moved elsewhere. Slash and burn A method of clearing land ready for cultivation. Smoker A device for generating smoke to subdue bees. Often made from a metal can with bellows attached. Smoker fuel Material which can be burnt in the smoker, ideally to produce cool smoke over a long period. Solar wax extractor A piece of equipment in which the sun’s heat is used to produce clean wax. Usually used for combs and odd scraps of wax from the

and gaps within the hive.

Frame hives


Tanzania top-bar hive







to legend, their intelligence was such that they appreciated the finer points of Platonic discourse. People have always been drawn to honey bees by their


gentleness, their useful products, and their habits much admired by entomologists. am a shepherd of

Infestation of honey bee colonies with the mite Varroa jacobsoni has been confirmed in the State of Veracruz, Mexico, in Apis mellifera colonies located in a tropical climate. The infestation was detected on 9 May, in the State University apiaries. The SARH authorities


bees; they

This 36-year old United Nations Volunteer from Guinea is a specialist in tropical beekeeping. He is working on a United Nations Development/International Labour Organisation Project, the aim of which is to assist small and medium-sized businesses. His job is to promote beekeeping.

surveys. i...

Source: Dinerah Chihu Amparan | and Luis Miguel Rojas Avalos

fill a large part of my life”.

Abou-Badara Camara waxes lyrical on the subject of his bees. However, he is also well versed in more practical arguments, using these to good effect to publicise the frame hive, to increase awareness of techniques for wax and honey extraction.

immediately brought emergency quarantine conditions into effect and implemented extensive regional and national



arrived in September 1987, it was a question of starting from scratch, identifying problems and creating a plan of action”. Abou-Badara began by

The difficulties inherent in any project startup did not discourage Abou-Badara. Equipment for training and demonstration purposes had to be found: “we approached a number of local craftsmen and institutions for the design and manufacture of equipment suited to the local honey bees”.



“The National Congress of Lebanese beekeepers will be held in the Faculty of Sciences, University of Lebanon in Fanar, on Saturday 12 September 1992 starting at 1500 hours. Problems and solutions of the profession will be discussed with the responsible personalities, associations, and organisations. For more information contact Rashid azbek Est , |deidet Beirut, Lebanon. Telex: 41236: _


progress: hives have been modernised or improved, veils and smokers are used, harvested honey is of higher quality. Source: UNV News



Jane lles for translating the original article.



compiling a list of local bee forage plants and made a study of the honey market. A beekeeping development project was then devised with the Congolese Minister for Rural Development.



In the Congo, traditional beekeeping is practised fairly widely, and this is favoured by the rich melliferous flora of savannah and forest regions. Honey is a prized product. Among some ethnic groups it is reserved for close friends and honoured guests. The most common harvesting method is by taking honey from hollows in trees.

Abou-Badara has set up a small apiary school to provide practical instruction for future beekeepers and organised a two-month beekeeping training seminar for 25 in Brazzaville. He gives lectures on beekeeping development strategy in the Congo for advisers serving businesses in Brazzaville and on modern harvesting techniques in villages up-country. The results of the project, which was created from nothing, have been most encouraging. in addition to the 25 trained beekeepers, 13 beekeepers owning almost 190 hives are active in five regions of the country and three have already completed their first harvest. The yield was 15-20 kg of honey and 300 g of wax per colony. Everywhere he has been, Abou-Badara has brought about marked

National Beekeeping Workshop The first National Workshop was held from 18-23 May 1992 in Addis Ababa. Included amongst the 125 participants were regional extension officers, technicians, researchers, individual and commercial beekeepers. There were also participants from the EEC funded project “Menschen fiir Menschen” and from “Relief & Rehabilitation Commission” and the Ethiopian Children’s Home. 32 papers were presented of which 10 were

research results, others were on bee management, diseases, pests, pesticides, honey plants, honey and beeswax processing, packing and marketing, equipment, and on training and extension. These papers will be published in the Proceedings of the Workshop.

Displays prepared by Holeta Bee Research and Training Centre, Ethiopian Children’s Home, private beekeeping equipment producers and Tsigie Honey Factory gave a beautiful insight for the audience and were

educational. Everyone participated in a study tour toa backyard apiary, Tsigie Honey Factory, and to Holeta Bee Research and Training Centre. The discussions and study tour benefited the participants and encouraged them to promote the beekeeping industry. It was agreed to establish a beekeepers’ association and to form a nine member steering committee to prepare the constitution. The Workshop was organised by the Beekeeping Unit of the Animal Breeding & Feed Resources Development of the Ministry of Agriculture, Environmental Protection and Development. Source: Gezahegne Tadesse







a aN




Beekeeping is not traditional in Papua New Guinea. Bees were introduced from Australia in the 1940s. In 1986 a project commenced using 80 hives left behind by the Japanese and with assistance from the New Zealand Government. Colony numbers were increased with 500 Apis mellifera queens imported from New Zealand. Bees do very well at altitudes of 1500 to 2000 metres above sea level, but are not so successful in coastal areas due to the high humidity (19-25%). Currently there are around 200 beekeepers owning 3500 bee hives. Beekeeping is expanding and more people are becoming involved because of the favourable assistance offered by the Agriculture Bank. Small-holder beekeepers have formed a Honey Co-operative which buys, extracts, packs and sells all their honey. Small-holders produce up to 120 tonnes annually. 100 tonnes of honey are consumed locally while 20 tonnes are exported. We hope that with proper management we can increase production from the current 35 kg to 45-50 kg of honey per colony per year. In addition to packaging and selling honey the Co-operative also manufactures its own beekeeping equipment including boxes, frames and foundation. It is also diversifying into preparing timber for sale. At present we are unable to meet the total export demand but in the next couple of years we hope to: we are embarking on an ambitious expansion programme to increase to 5000 colonies. Varroa Our programme is being threatened by Varroa jacobosoni, discovered in 1987 in our North West Province, on the border with the Indonesian Province of Irian Jaya. We are predicting that in the next year or so Varroa will strike our main beekeeping centres. In preparation for the imminent arrival of Varroa and Tropilaelaps clareae, we have implemented, with the help of New Zealand Government Aid, an intensive three-year training programme at Telford Rural Polytechnic, New Zealand. This programme is designed to increase the skills of beekeepers and government extension officers. Their training includes the

study of bee mites, their behaviour, control and management along with intensive bee breeding skills and general hive management for production. This programme is ensuring that our people are aware and ready to deal with mite invasions of Papua New Guinea, and we feel confident of combating any serious threat to our industry. We welcome any ideas, hints or experiences from any countries that have experience with Tropilaelaps and Varroa. Your experience is valued in our preparation towards the war against the Varroa mite when it invades our main centres of beekeeping. This is expected within one or two years.


IBRA wants to help beekeepers in developing countries. If you have a

beekeeping problem we will try to help you. Please make your enquiry as

Source: Tella Loie

TANZANIA The Arusha branch of the Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania is funding Hadza Beekeeping Scheme to assist traditional hunter/gatherer people to continue to use their environment sustainably through the production of honey and wax. Bees only benefit the environment, but care has to be taken when fire is used during harvest. This will be carefully monitored.


specifi possible send it to IBRA at the oo

address given on page


Source: Miombo No 8, May 1992

VENEZUELA Rural people in Venezuela are being encouraged to diversify production to increase their income. The Beekeeping Development Programme has been designed by the Agrarian National Institute to unify people through a Peasant Economical Organisation: this means that enterprises and a credit union get together to establish the programme. The programme includes an apiculture course to prepare professionals and technicians from different organisations involved in the Agrarian Reform process. These people will be in charge of giving financial and technical support to the Peasant Economical Organisation. Under the programme 146 beneficiaries have obtained over 2600 hives. Finance is provided by the Agricultural Livestock Credit Institute. This organisation provides credit with an interest rate of three per cent and a five year payment term. Payment is done as follows: the first year is free of charge and the remaining four years are paid together with accumulated interests from the first year. Three headquarter co-operatives will be located in the following regions: The Andes: co-ordinating Barinas, Mérida, Trujillo and Tachira. Western region: co-ordinating Lara, Yaracuy and Falcén. Eastern region: co-ordinating Anzoategui, Sucre and Monagas. Source: Filadelfo Laguna Q.






BOOKSHELF Farming for the future: an introduction to low-externalinput and sustainable agriculture Haverkort and by C Reijntjes, A Waters-Bayer. B

Leusden, Netherlands;

ILEIA (1992) 250



The call for sustainable agriculture is getting louder. The environmental and social costs of high-external-input agriculture have become increasingly obvious. At the same time smallholders are being forced to exploit their resources so intensively that yet more environmental degradation occurs. Development planners and donors are seeking solutions which will benefit smallholders, halt degradation, and if possible improve resources.

This book provides informaton that

developmen workrs inolved


extesion, research and training need to

know. It will give them understanding to assist small-scale farmers to make best use of low cost local resources.

The material has been provided by a network of innovative farmers, fieldworkers and scientists in developing countries. The result is 250 pages of close-packed information, explaining the terminology currently in use, interspersed with examples and illustrations, and with useful appendices full of data.

This book describes the current state of the art of sustainable agriculture. Typical perhaps that while beekeeping is mentioned a few times, its value and potential are not discussed.

MAIL GSEr Prices shown for books available from IBRA exclude post and packing charges. The following must be added to all orders: Overseas orders (surface mail) p&p UK orders p&p 2.00 1 00 up to 10.00 up to 10.00 3 50 10.01 to 20.00. 2.50 10.01 to 20.00 4.50 20.01 to 30.00 3.50 20.01 to 30.00 5.50 30.01 to 5000. 5.00 30.01 to 50.00 7.50 to 100.00 50.01 6.00 50.01 to 100.00 Surface mail rates do not include insurance. Orders over 100.00, or to be sent by air mail including insurance, prices on request. (No insurance available to Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Nigeria.) IBRA cannot be held responsible for damage to, or loss of goods in-transit. Please quote Beekeeping & Development when you order. .

METHODS OF PAYMENT Access/Mastercard/Eurocard/Visa. Please quote name on card, full address, type of card, card number, expiry date on card, and your signature for authorisation. Cheques and bank drafts made payable to JBRA in sterling or US dollars. Send to IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff, CF] 3DY, UK. Bank Transfer to National Westminster Bank plc, 117 St Mary St., PO Box 117, Cardiff CF] 1LG, UK. Account No 85015415. Bank sort code: 56-00-41. Girobank/Postgiro Account No 291794408. Order fast by fax. Our number is 44 (0}222 665522


Honeybees in mountain agriculture edited by

L R Verma.

New Delhi, India; Mohan Primlani (1992) 274 pp.


The proceedings of meeting held in Nepal to discuss the development of beekeeping in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan). The publication contains much data on the current status of beekeeping in this area with details of the bee species and the forage available to them. There are interesting articles describing the various practices within the region and the special problems and benefits of beekeeping in mountainous areas are defined. The pros and cons surrounding the introduction of Apis mellifera to this region are discussed. Amongst the resolutions of the meeting are calls for the establishment of a centre for research and training and for a practical training manual on beekeeping with Apis cerana. a

Killer bees

by M


Cambridge, MA, USA; Harvard University Press (1992) 162 pp. Hardback.

Available from IBRA price 15.50. Most of us try hard to discourage the term

‘killer bee’, preferring the less provocative and more informative term Africanized for those bees introduced from Africa to Brazil in 1956. Indeed Mark Winston argues that Africanized is indeed the most appropriate name for these bees. Perhaps the name ‘killer’ does have value at least in selling books! People who are encouraged to read this book because of its title will find an informed and unbiased account of Africanized bees. In nine short chapters the author describes the biology of the bees, their possible economic impact, the conflicts which have arisen, and gives recommendations for coping when the bees arrive in new areas. The book is written in a most readable style and all sides of the various arguments are presented. Illustrated with clear diagrams, line drawings and black and white photographs.

Tiger paper Vol XVIII No 4 (October-December 1991), Rural energy in the Asia pacific region RAPA Bulletin 1991/2 (December 1991), Forestry research in the Asia pacific: FORSPA publication no (1992).


Available from FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Maliwan Mansion, Phra Atit Road, Bangkok, Thailand.

This edition of Tiger paper contains the report of an expert consultation on non-wood forest products. Honey is listed amongst the animal food products.


Biodiversity of honey bees in Thailand and Abstracts of papers and bibliography of asian honey bees (1979-1991). These publications (described in Beekeeping & Development 23 pages 5 and 13) are now available and 8.00 from IBRA price 7.00 respectively.

Members of AAA can obtain copies at a special rate from the AAA administration office (see page 6)

Diversity in the genus Apis edited by D R Smith. Boulder, CO, USA; Westview Press (1991) 265 pp.

Hardback. Available from IBRA price 39.95. The genus Apis (to which all honey bees

belong) is increasingly appreciated by scientists to be a larger and more diverse group than was previously realised, with species showing highly differentiated behaviour. This diversity reflects the range of environments occupied by honey bees. Recent research findings are presented in this publication which will be of value to honey bee scientists and other biologists.

Tools for agriculture: a guide to appropriate equipment for small-holder farmers introduction by


Carruthers and

M Rodriguez. London, UK; Intermediate Technology Publications in association with CTA and GRET (1992) 256 pp.


Available from \ntermediate Technology Publications, 103-105 Southampton Row, London, WCIB 4HH,

UK price 30.00. For 25 years Intermediate Technology have been publishing guides to appropriate equipment. This latest publication contains ten sections, one of which is beekeeping. An introduction providing advice on the selection of appropriate beekeeping equipment is followed by an illustrated list of beekeeping equipment with descriptions and details of where it can be obtained. The other nine sections relate to all other equipment that small-holders use, from the smallest manual implements to enginepowered tools. This book can help in many different ways: by describing the types of equipment available for specific purposes, by giving the addresses of manufacturers producing particular items, by allowing people to find out the range of equipment available from specific manufacturers or those in a particular country. In addition there are contact addresses for further information.

A very useful source book for anyone with responsibility for purchasing equipment.



The Rainforest Harvest: sustainable strategies for saving the tropical forests? London, UK; Friends of the Earth Trust Ltd (1992) 293 pp. Paperback. Available from Publications Despatch, Friends of the Earth, 26-28 Underwood Street, London N1 7JQ,

UK price 12.45 including post and packing. Friends of the Earth brought together harvesters, politicians, scientists, and entrepreneurs to discuss the sustainable harvesting of tropical forests. This publication presents their contributions. The result is an interesting range of perspectives, ranging from reports from the forest floor to an over view of the situation provided by HRH The Prince of Wales. Happily, one of the views from the forest floor was provided by a beekeeper from Zambia, Bob Malachi, manager of Northwestern Bee Products, Kabompo who described the success achieved by traditional beekeepers in this part of East Africa. The book provides much useful information and well-argued debate, and 30 colour plates illustrate some of the forest products discussed. “Tcan, with

the utmost enthusiasm, commend to you

the proceedings of this Conference, for it seems to me to offer some realistic hope, at a somewhat gloomy

time, both for the rainforests themselves and for the people of those countries on whom we depend to act as guardians and stewards of the forests in all our


HRH The Prince of Wales.

Ecology and natural history of tropical bees by


W Roubik

Previously reviewed in Newsletter for

beekeepers in

this valuable compendium of current knowledge on the 300 or so bee genera which occur in the tropics is now available in paperback. tropical and subtropical countries No 17

Price 16.95.

Flora palinologica de la reserva de la biosfera de Slan Ka’an, Quintana Roo, Mexico by R Palacios-Chavez, B LudlowWiechers & R Villanueva G. Quintana Roo, Mexico; Centro de Investigaciones de Quintana Reo (1991) 321 pp. Paperback. |n Spanish. Available from IBRA price 29.50.

This paperback gives 2558 photomicrographs of pollens collected from plants in a Biosphere Reserve on the east coast of Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula. The book will be valuable to those who analyse tropical honeys: many of the pollens are from plants found throughout the tropics. The text is in Spanish: scientific names are used throughout.





CARIBBEAN BEEKEEPERS The Caribbean Apicultural Development Association (CADA) was formally established in Castries, Saint Lucia, on 13 May 1992, during the First Regional Training Workshop for Beekeepers. The

formation of this new body was one of several resolutions directed towards the development of the beekeeping industry in the


IBRA’s Fifth International. Conference on Apiculture in= Tropical Climates will be held at University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago from 7-12 September. This will provide an excellent opportunity for CADA to meet and for new members to join. For further details of this™. meeting contact Mr M Hal lim, Fifth International tonference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Mi istry of Food Production and Marine Exploitation, PO Box 389;.. Port of Spai n, Trinidad:; Fax: 010 80 ? 622 4246.







The Workshop (11-13 May) was attended by 56 beekeepers and officials from 19 nations. Presentations were made on the current status of beekeeping in the respective countries. A number of important issues were highlighted: I. The weakness or non-existence of beekeeping organisations at the national level and the need for a regional body to co-ordinate the development of the industry. 2. The threat of Africanized bees, bee parasites and diseases, and the need for common legislation to control and support the development of beekeeping enterprises. 3. Insufficient control on the importation of queen bees, honey, hive products and equipment poses a direct threat to the privileged pest and disease-free status of most of the region. This creates opportunities for number of apiculturerelated projects which will create rural employment opportunities: a) queen rearing, since we have the genetic material best adapted to our environmental conditions; b) local manufacturing of beekeeping equipment; c) marketing of hive products; d) speciality marketing of Caribbean honey taking advantage of the high a

LOOK In honour of Dr Warwick E Kerr on his 70th birthday. 14-18 September 1992. Part of the meeting wil! be held in Rio Claro-and part in Ribeirao Preto. Further details from: Dr Carminda da Cruz Landim, Depto de Biologia, Instituto de Caixa Postal 199, 13.500 Rio Claro, SP, Brazil.



A Newsletter is planned for CADA. For details or contributions contact Dr Daniel Pesante, University of Puerto Rico, Animal Science Department, College Station, 5000 Mayaguez, 00681, Puerto Rico. Fax: 010


809 265 860.

MALAY 14th Commonwealth Forestry Conference “People, the and Environment Forestry- Conflict or Harmony.” 13-18 September 1993, Kuala Lumpur. Further details from The Secretary General CFC-14, Forestry Department Headquarters, Peninsular Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Salahuddin, 50660 Kuala 010 603 292 5657

Lumpur Malaysia Fax Bees and Trees in the Tropics 28 August 1992. A one-day seminar to discuss development of beekeeping integrated with agroforestry, reforestation and forest-conservation programmes. Further details from: NECTAR, PO Box 141, 6720 AC, Bennekom, The Netherlands.

Tropical Rainforest Research. Current Issues 9-17 April 1993, Universiti Brunei Darussalam. Joint Conference of the Universiti Brunei Darussalam and the Royal Geographical Society. Further details from: Rainforest Conference Organiser, Registrar's Office, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan 3186, Brunei Darussalam. Fax: 010 673 2 427003. CHINES.

The XXXII International Apicultural Congress - Apimondia.

Fifth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates: 7-12 September 1992, University of the West Indies. Further details from: Conference Steering Committee, IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff CFI 3DY, UK. Telex: 262433 B8390. Fax: 010 44 222 665522.

20-26 September 1993, Beijing International Convention Centre. Further details from: Apimondia, General Secretariat, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 101, 1-00186, Rome, Italy. Telex: 612533. Fax: 010 39 6 6548578. Information regarding Apiexpo 93, pre- and post-Congress tours, accommodation and travel arrangements please contact: Mr Li Wei or Ms Xu Youjing, The XXXII International Apicultural Congress, No 33 Nonfengli, Dongdaqiao, Chao Yang District, 100020 Beijing, China. Tel 22233 MAGR CN. Fax: 010 861 5005670.

8th International Palynological Congress. 6-12 September 1992, Aix en Provences. Further details from: Lab de Palynologie. CNRS Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, 34060 Montpellier Cedex, France. IN DLA International Symposium on Pollination in the Tropics. 8-13 August 1993, Bangalore. N Ganeshaiah, Secretary, International Symposium Further details from: Dr on Pollination in the Tropics, Department .of Genetics.and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, _Andia. Telex: 8458393 UASKIN.


and Tobago.




quality of the region's honey as evidenced by gold medals won in international competitions. 4. The need to integrate beekeeping into the diverse environmental and agro-forestry initiatives underway in the region so as to strengthen their potential for becoming selfsustaining enterprises. This First Regional Training Workshop for Beekeepers was sponsored by the InterAmerican Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) as one regional activity in celebration of its 50th Anniversary. The event was co-sponsored by the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Fisheries and Forestry in Saint Lucia. Financial assistance for the costs of some 30 participants was provided by Barclays plc, the USAID-funded Environmental and Coastal Resources Project (ENCORE) and the Florida Association of Voluntary Agencies for Caribbean Action (FAVACA). The Caribbean Apicultural Development Association has a five member Steering Committee consisting of the Chairman, Abudu Jaima Antigua and Barbuda, jorge Murillo Yepes Grenada, Daniel Pesante Puerta Rico, Rupert Gajadhar Saint Lucia, and M K Hallim Trinidad

Living with Varroa -

a symposium for British Beekeepers. November 1992. A one-day workshop being organised by IBRA. Further details to be announced and will be available from: IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF] 3DY, UK. Fax: 010 44 222 665522.


IX International Congress of Acarology 17-22 July 1994, Ramada University Hotel and Conference Center, Ohio. Further details front: Secretary, LX International Congress of Acarology,

Acarology Laboratory, Museum of Biological Diversity, The Ohio State University, 1315 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212, USA. Fax: 010 1.614 292 7774.




If you want details of your event included here then send details to the









Size 214,969 km?

Population 811 000 of which 98% live in the

coastal area and along the mouths of the major rivers.

GNP $684 per capita. Agriculture accounts for 17% of the GNP.

Main agriculture

Apis mellifera: Italian races of honey bees have

been present since the beginning of this century. Africanized honey bees arrived in 1975. Stingless bees: some of these are as respected for their defensiveness as the Africanized honey bee.

Beekeeping Honey hunting is practised by native Indians on Apis mellifera and Meliponids and Trigonids. This honey is not sold commercially. Houses are mostly wooden with double ceilings and walls providing excellent nesting sites for swarms. This creates serious problems in the presence of Africanized honey bees. In the summer months of 1989 six people were killed by bees. Behaviour of hived swarms is extremely variable. On average however bees have become less defensive, are less likely to abscond and large multiple swarms are hardly seen anymore. Ministry of Agriculture extension efforts are limited to emergency swarm removals.

Hives Langstroth frame hives have been in use since the beginning of this century. Repeated introduction of Italian queens after the arrival of Africanized honey bees always failed. Honey production The first attempts to export honey were made before arrival of Africanized honey bees. Subsequently the fledgling industry and extension services collapsed, partially due to the Africanized honey bee. Today there is not enough honey to meet local consumption. Before the arrival of Africanized honey bees 180 000 kg of honey were sold locally, harvested by 700-800 beekeepers. By 1989, 200-300 beekeepers were active with less than 1500 hives.

Further reading BEETSMA, J (1976) Improving honey production and disposal in Guyana and

The forested areas of Pomeroon and NW provinces produce the highest yields. Land bordering the rivers is very productive. The majority of honey is from mangroves along the coasts of Demerara and Berbice, where most of the active beekeepers live. This honey is very good tasting, slightly salty and of light amber colour. Overall the honeys are varied in colour and flavour, but all have high moisture content regardless of care taken during harvesting.

KRELL, R; PERSANO ODDO, L (1989) Honey production in Guyana. Its conformity to international quality standards. Proc XXXII Int Apic


Congress, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil:

Surinam. Apiculture


Guyana Beekeepers’ Association (since 1932). President: Mr V O Camacho, c/o 74C Sixth Street, Albert Town, Georgetown.

OTIS, G.W; TAYLOR, OR Jr (1979) Beekeeping in the Guianas.

Beekeeping department

Beekeeping in rural development

London, UK; IBRA and Commonwealth Secretariat:

Ministry of Agriculture, PO Box 1001, Georgetown.



More articles and papers are held in the IBRA Library

CIDA equipment grant to the Guyana Beekeepers’ Association (1985). 1988-1989: FAO-funded Technical Cooperation Programme for the training of extension personnel and beekeepers in the management of Africanized honey bees, the establishment of demonstration apiaries, and a feasibility study on large-scale beekeeping. Conservation

Mr Jesus’ apiary at Pomeroon River, Essequiba Coast

The IWOKRAMA Rainforest Programme starts in 1992. The emphasis of the Programme is on sustainable utilisation.

Honey bee diseases Symptoms of Nosema have been reported. At least one introduction of Italian queens from the USA, in 1988, resulted in isolated cases of European foulbrood in non-Africanized colonies. With thanks this item.


Rainer Krell for his assistance with

in Tropical

Climates: 81-83.



Melliferous vegetation


Coconut, rice, sugar, timber, carambola, citrus, coffee and vegetables. Natural resources besides the world’s oldest tropical forests covering 80% of the land area, are gold, diamonds and bauxite.








BeeScience A Cha

Take of English earth as much As either hand may rightly cluteh. In the taking of it breathe Prayer for all who lie beneath.


new scientific journal about bees G@

Not the great not well-bespoke But the mere uncounted folk Of whose life and death is none Report or lamentation Lay that earth upon thy heart And thy sickness shall depart!

Volume 18


England's countryside lives, with all its intricacy, variety and magic, because generation after generation has defended it. CPRE leads that defence. If you love the countryside, please join us.

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One subscription to any destination



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Back issues per copy*

Beeswax 5


25 kg 1


*editions 1-8 are available only as photocopies.

Subscriptions commence on the date they are received by IBRA. Each subscription covers four editions, and includes airmail postage. For methods of payment see “Bookshelf”. Groups or individuals who are unable to pay may request a sponsored subscription, please write to Nicola Bradbear.

BEESWAX BARTER Readers in some countries face difficulty in obtaining foreign currency to pay their subscriptions. We are making every effort to help you. Beeswax Barter provides a way to pay for Beekeeping & Development without involving a cash transaction: the conditions are shown below. Readers in Asian countries may pay in their own currency to their local AAA chapter (see page 6).

Conditions: Beeswax must be reasonably clean and of good quality. Beeswax must be presented in solid form and not as scraps of wax or pieces of comb. 3. Beeswax from any species of Apis will be accepted as long as the species from which it is collected is clearly marked on the parcel. Inside the parcel state your name and address, the weight and origin of the beeswax, and the number of subscriptions you are paying. On the outside of the parcel state “BEESWAX RAW FOR IBRA” and the weight of beeswax in kilograms. I.


Any parcel containing comb, adulterated or very dirty wax or otherwise unusable wax will be destroyed on arrival at IBRA. will not be returned to the sender, and will not be accepted for barter. Payment in beeswax is only available for subscriptions to developing countries and cannot be used for any other subscription or purchase from IBRA.


Beekeeping & Development is published quarterly by the International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF1l 3DY. UK. 44 222 372409, Fax: 0222 665522 International 010 44 222 665522 See page sixteen for subscription details. ISSN 0256-4424 Environmentally Friendly Paper.

Tlephone 0222 372409 International 010