Bees for Development Journal Edition 21- December 1991

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HIMALAYAN ZOOM LOW-COST FOUNDATION COSTA RICA ® VARROA CONTROL #®

IN INTERNATIONAL

ASSOCIATION

21


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT

INSIDE INFORMATION ARKHIVES AND ARCHIVES What was Noah's hive? What are keffo, mpofu, marimba, tshwarangano? Where can you find details of 53 types of hives? And where was that plan for a smoker? During the ten years of its evolution this journal has carried details of worthwhile and new beekeeping activities from all around the world. But information is worthless if it is not accessible. Readers have suggested that it was time to produce an index. In response to this you will find that the centre of this edition contains an index to all editions of Beekeeping and

Development and its predecessors. In the future we will provide you with an index at the end of each year. Many readers’ subscriptions for next year are now due. If yours is, please send it now to ensure that you receive the first edition of 1992 on time. And if you can, why not send an extra subscription? This will help us to help beekeepers in the very poorest rural places. This journal is produced on a non-profit basis - our sole aim is to encourage beekeeping as a good way for people to help themselves while helping to sustain their environment.

Nicola Bradbear

Advertisements

Production Beekeeping and Development is edited by

Nicola Bradbear with

Advertisements in Beekeeping and Development reach a very wide audience. Various sizes available. Write for rates.

assistance from Helen jackson. Four editions are published each year. 4000 copies of each edition are printed and distributed to beekeepers, projects and associations in 174 countries worldwide. Beekeeping and Development was previously published under the title Newsletter for beekeepers in tropical and subtropical countries.

Sponsors We have received sponsorship from: CTA, FAO, Oxfam, Traidcraft Exchange, The Worshipful Company of Wax Chandlers, UK beekeeping groups and a number of individual donors. This support is acknowledged most gratefully.

Reproduction

IBRA

Items appearing in Beekeeping and Development may be reproduced providing that appropriate full acknowledgement is given and copies are forwarded to the Editor.

The International Bee Research Association is a scientific, charitable trust providing information on every aspect of bees and beekeeping to all who need it.

Translation

Contact International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF1 3DY, UK. Telephone: 0222 372409 Fax: 0222 665522

We appreciate receiving any translations of Beekeeping and Development, our information leaflets or our information charts. We are regularly requested to supply information in languages other than English, and rely on the kind support of our readers around the world to help with this. Unless otherwise stated the sign $ used in Beekeeping and Development refers to US dollars. The sign refers to pounds sterling. l

inch = 2.54 cm

1992 SUBSCRIPTION

RATES

S

Beeswax

One subscription to any destination 11.00 20.00 5kg Ten subscriptions to one postal address in a developing country 50.00 100.00 25kg Back issues, per copy 2.00 4.00 lke IBRA. commence on the date are received See 14 for methods of by page Subscriptions they payment, and below for details of BEESWAX BARTER. Groups or individuals who are unable to pay may request a sponsored subscription: please write to Nicola Bradbear.

Kale Vanity

BEESWAX BARTER Beeswax Barter provides a way to pay for Beekeeping and Development without involving a cash transaction.

Apimondia Gold 1989

Conditions: Beeswax must be reasonably clean and of good quality. 2. Beeswax must be presented in solid form and not as scraps of wax or pieces of comb. 3. Beeswax from any species of Apis will be accepted as long as the species from which it is collected is clearly marked on the parcel. 4. Inside the parcel state your name and address, the weight and origin of the beeswax, and the number of subscriptions you are paying. On the outside of the parcel state “BEESWAX RAW FOR IBRA” and the weight of beeswax in kilograms. 1.

World Vision Award for Development Initiative 1990

.

att Our cover picture shows

a log hive in the

Himalayas with the end removed Apis cerana nesting inside.

TWO

to reveal

5.

Any parcel containing comb, adulterated or very dirty wax or otherwise unusable wax will be destroyed on arrival at IBRA. It will not be returned to the sender, and will not be accepted for barter. Payment in beeswax is only available for subscriptions to developing countries and cannot be used for any other subscription or purchase from IBRA.

Arrangements for and costs of carriage of beeswax to IBRA are the responsibility of the sender and IBRA will not be responsible for any postage or other costs whatsoever. Proof of postage is not accepted as proof as receipt. Ensure packaging used is adequate to endure the effects of travel.


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT

LOWER COSTS FOR LEARNERS by N Akukumah

Video

Nelson Akukumah is Rural Industries

When the team moved to the village of Ajumako Esikado, the role of video in promoting rural industries was convincingly demonstrated as the GRATIS Mobile Video Unit arrived in support and stirred up tremendous interest in the area.

Bees for beginners. Nelson Atukumanh (left) assisted by the Chief's son, conducts a bee school at Ajumako Esikado.

ONLY THE PRIVILEGED FEW could afford to pass their driving test and immediately declare that they will take to the roads in nothing less than a Rolls Royce. It is an analogy brought to mind by a prolonged series of articles which appeared in the Ghana press, debating the relevance of the low-cost Kenya top-bar hive to the development of beekeeping. Some of the writers argued for the introduction of hives such as the Langstroth and Dadant, claiming that top-bar hives are not the best choice. Although Langstroth hives are recommended by GRATIS for experienced beekeepers who want to optimise honey production, the Kenya top-bar hive has proved most suitable because of its low cost and the fact that it can easily be replicated by local carpenters. Some of the views condemning the Kenya top-bar hive suggest a lack of understanding of the socio-economic problems in countries like Ghana, where effective promotion of beekeeping can make a significant impact on standards of living. GRATIS emphasis shifted this year to the district and village level. Over the past two years beekeeping activities had centred around regional capitals. While these were useful first steps in introducing the industry to the regions, it was soon realised that not only were these urban bee schools expensive, but also inconvenient for participants who sometimes had to travel long distances from their villages. Some participants from government Organisations were not especially interested in passing on the new skills and, once the bee schools were over, nothing more was heard about their involvement in beekeeping. The first of the bee schools directed at the grass roots level were held in June at four rural communities in the Greater Accra Region. Subsequently officers from the Rural and Women’s Industries Division of GRATIS were able to persuade the Rotary Club to present 10 sets of beekeeping equipment for a village self-help project.

Officer for GRATIS (Ghana Regional Appropriate Technology Industrial Service).

The GRATIS Video Land Rover toured the area early in the day making loudspeaker announcements. Despite being the height of the farming season, with people working until dark, many trekked miles from surrounding villages to see the beekeeping video show on the eve of the workshop. Prior contact had also been made with local organisations such as the 3lst December Women's Movement, and by 8 pm about 2000 people had packed the compound at the house of the Esikado Chief.

At Adaklu, the thriving beekeeping industry is second only to farming, with bees colonising hollow logs made from the trunks of royal palm trees. However these are difficult to inspect and the beekeepers are now keen to introduce Kenya top-bar hives which can be made by local carpenters. Besides increasing the honey yield, Kenya top-bar hives will prevent honey being contaminated by smoke and ash from fire used to drive away the bees and will also greatly reduce the risk of attack from bees.

Costs Production overheads mean that even top-bar hives made from high quality hardwood like odum are now beyond the pockets of many rural people. For example, a hard working farmer at a village like Ajumako Esikado, if the rains are good, can expect a total annual income of about 90,000 Cedis ($325) from a harvest of 20 bags of corn and 10 bags of cassava. With a monthly income of about 60% of the cost of a hive, it is clear that alternatives must be sought if such a farmer is to be drawn into beekeeping.

This situation has led to plans for a 10-hive apiary, where experiments can be made with hives made from a variety of low-cost materials, while harvests of honey and beeswax will raise money for the promotion of beekeeping. It

Spreading the message with the Mobile Video Unit at a bee school

8

is with such

initiatives, and the encouragement of local carpenters to make hives and other modern equipment, that GRATIS aims to prove you do not need a Rolls Royce to start travelling on the road to developing beekeeping as a major and lucrative industry. 7

THREE


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT

LOW-COST FOUNDATION by K

S Aidoo and R

J

Paxton.

Embossed wax foundation is a thin sheet of beeswax with the pattern of hexagonal cell bases embossed on each side of it It is used in frame hive beekeeping to encourage bees to build comb in the way that is most convenient for the beekeeper Foundation provides these advantages:

CS22PRACTICAL EEKEEPING

it encourages bees to build straight combs within wooden frames This allows easy and rapid manipulation of honey bee colonies; b. it saves bees’ resources and labour in the construction of combs thereby allowing increased honey production, c. it facilitates honey extraction since combs in frames can be strengthened by reinforcement with wire. a.

Colonies provided with foundation are therefore able to develop their nest and commence brood rearing quickly, and can store more surplus honey than colonies given either no foundation or just starter strips of wax.

Frame fitted with dyed thin and thick nonembossed wax sheets. In the foreground are dyed and plain wax sheets placed on a frame fitted with embossed foundation.

Foundation has not been universally adopted by beekeepers in rural areas of developing countries because of its prohibitive cost or unavailability. Also, equipment used to make foundation has been designed mainly for European honey bees and not for other races or species of bees with different cell sizes.

Equipment for the large-scale manufacture of foundation is expensive This means that many beekeepers in rural communities are unable to benefit from the advantages of using foundation. It is against this background that a study was conducted at the University of Wales College Cardiff, UK, to find out if honey bees will readily accept plain wax sheets as alternatives to embossed wax foundation.

Method Four European honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies were used in the study. Each colony was provided with the following frames:

two frames with one half of thick (1.19 mm) non-embossed wax sheet, the other half a thin (0.72 mm) non-embossed wax sheet (see preparation of non-embossed wax sheet below). a.

a frame with embossed foundation (thickness 0.76 mm); c a frame with a narrow (3.0 cm) starter strip of embossed foundation (thickness

b.

0.76 mm). An equal number of these three sets of frames were arranged on both sides of a comb full of young brood and the queen. The set-up was completed with two super boxes; one with a set of the experimental frames, the other full of honey At the end of four weeks of colony development during an early summer nectar flow, when bees typically build new combs, all experimental frames were removed from the colonies for the measurement of comb

characteristics

Results The study indicated few statistical differences between comb built from the experimental frames. Cell diameter, cell size and angle at which cells are held to the horizontal were similar for combs developed from the plain non-embossed wax sheets, embossed foundation and the starter strips. The thickness of midribs of combs developed from all experimental frames were not

SAW CUT IN TOP BAR USING CIRCULAR SAW

TOP BAR

TOP BAR

SAW CUT

GROOVE UNDER TOP BAR WAX SHEET

WAX SHEET

FIG.

FOUR

1

FIG.

2

FIG. 3

WAX SHEET


significantly different, ranging from 0.23 mm to 0.27 mm. Therefore no matter how thick the original wax sheet, the resultant comb had a consistently thin midrib. A comparison of the amount of wax added to a unit area of foundation indicated highest fresh wax production using the thin non-embossed wax sheets. The starter strip, the thick nonembossed wax sheets and the embossed foundations followed in descending order, in terms of amount of wax added to the resultant combs Observations made during the study indicated a preference by the bees to use thin non-embossed wax sheets to make new combs rather than thick non-embossed wax sheets or embossed foundation. Cells built on combs from non-embossed wax sheets were, however, irregularly arranged as compared to the regular, orderly arrangement of cells on combs developed from the embossed foundation. Beekeepers can therefore reduce costs and make good gains in colony development and production through the use of plain non-embossed wax sheets. European bees readily use them and construct good combs within frames; a repetition of this experiment with African and other bees will show whether or not they do the same.

Preparation of plain, non-embossed wax sheets A narrow, deep container should be used for melting the beeswax. The length and depth of this container should be about 10-15 cm greater than the required size of brood frame or top-bar comb. Pieces of clean beeswax are put into the container and heated in a water bath to 68°-72°C Beeswax should be added to the container until it is filled to about 50 cm of the brim. A long glass sheet of width a little narrower than the melting container is dipped into the molten wax for about three seconds and then lifted out to cool. Thin sheets of wax formed on each side of the glass are peeled off and placed on a flat surface to harden. Alternatively, a thin, smooth piece of wood or plywood can be used in place of the glass sheet. This should however be soaked in water for 24 hours before use. To facilitate the removal of the wax sheets from glass or wood, a weak solution of liquid washing soap is applied before dipping in the wax. The plain wax sheet is then trimmed to size and fitted into brood or super frames. These sheets can also be placed in wired frames or the sheets themselves can be wired for extra strength

parallel to one another, suspended directly beneath each top-bar, facilitating their removal during inspection and harvest. Secondly they should improve honey and wax production. There are a number of ways by which wax sheets could be fitted on to topbars. The method used will depend upon the type of woodworking tools available. Some methods we have used are.

Awwooden frante

filed wit embossed Wat

foundation

a. make a narrow, deep groove (lengthways) in the middle of the underside of the top-bar.

Place the wax sheet into the groove and apply some molten wax to the line of attachment using a spoon. The wax sheet will be held in place when the molten wax has cooled

(Figure

|);

make a saw cut along the centre (lengthways) of the top-bar This should cut through the entire length leaving about 5 cm uncut at both ends Push the wax sheet through the opening in the top-bar from the underside and apply molten wax to help hold the wax sheet in place (Figure 2), c. Make a cut through the middle (lengthways} of the top-bar from one end using an ordinary hand saw This cut should go up to about two thirds of the length of the top-bar Push the wax sheet into the saw cut and hold it in place with molten wax as above. Alternatively the wax sheet can be held in place by nails through the sides of the top-bar (Figure 3) b.

A frame with drawn comb

based on dyed,

non-embossed way slivels

Fixing non-embossed wax sheets in top-bar hives The adoption of non-embossed wax sheets in the management of honey bee colonies in top-bar hives could improve productivity. Firstly they will force bees to construct combs

—_

—_

FIVE


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT

«_})

NEWS AROUND B

INDONESIA The Government Indonesia's Agenc for the Assessmen| and Application o Technology is embarking on a national development programme to support smallscale beekeeping industries in Indonesia.

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IRAN Sistan and Baluchistan is the largest province of south-east Iran. began in 1982 in lranshar City with 20 Langstroth hives containing Apis mellifera. Although honey gathering from Apis florea was already practised, beekeeping with movable-frame hives had not previously existed in this region, although there is hot weather in the summer for two or three months. Many parts of the province have been used for migratory beekeeping from other regions of tran since 1984. |

extended beekeeping to other cities in this area and organised training classes for have translated articles about villagers. beekeeping and have identified floral plants that bees use including Acacia, Albizia,

Due to the harsh climate in this district artificial feeding of bees with sugar syrup is common. A |:1 sugar syrup is used. We help bee farmers by offering a ready market for their harvest and paying them well. We go to local markets to carry out tests on the honey. We test on sight for the quality, and check water content using a refractometer. We also check for the amount of pollen. After checking we pay the farmer on sight or on delivery. We pack honey in plastic containers to avoid any rust from metal containers.

We buy honey in two forms 1) liquid and 2) crude. The liquid honey is easier to work with because it goes directly to the warming and packing machine. We filter the crude honey, retain the strained liquid honey and the combs are rendered to wax.

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Astragalus, Citrus, Lucerne, Prosopis and Proveskia artemizia.

centralissueis... ( (The whether agriculture can

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be sustainably developed and whether the ecological balance and the productive capacity of natural resources can be retained, without further extending the conflict between man and nature.

|

|

|

|

Our real enemies are not only DESERTIFICATION, DEFORESTATION, LAND DEGRADATION AND AGROCHEMICAL POLLUTION but also, above all

|

UNDERDEVELOPMENT, POVERTY AND INEQUALITIES OF y THE RURAL WORLD.

|

,

|

J

|

Since 1984 when Varroa jacobsoni was found in apiaries in Iran encountered serious problems. Finally i decided to use an integrated method invented by myself and foreign colleagues. treat with tobacco in summer and autumn, also use a dry balsam powder in autumn and kill drone brood in

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AYni

RV ers: pevetorrre™™

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summer. Perhaps am the first person not using chemical materials for controlling mites in bee hives in my country. believe that chemical Varroacides are noxious for humans and bee colonies.

Kitui label

|

|

Farhad Nayeri

KENYA Kitui Honey Refinery is run by a government company called Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority.

|

Taken from the Keynote Address of Edouard Saouma, Director General of FAO at the International Conference on Agriculture and the Environment, April 1991.

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V2) y

The project is in a semi-arid district and is one of the leading honey areas in Kenya, producing one-third of the honey produced in the country. Much of the honey is from log hives, but we also have a campaign to introduce the Kenya top-bar hive.

Refining The semi-refined liquid honey goes to a tank where it is warmed. We keep stirring the honey until we get the right viscosity. From here we release it to pass through a set of four sieves of cylindrical form with varying holes. From the sieves the honey goes to the settling tanks. The honey rests for over week. Any scum which forms on the top is removed and the refined honey is now bottled. We pack our honey in 500g glass jars. The lid is sealed and the jars are labelled as shown. The jars are packed in cartons of 24. We send most of our honey to supermarkets in Nairobi. We have not yet tackled the overseas market but we hope to do so in the future. a

Source: Andrew W Chuchu


INDEX FOR BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT

)

OB Sites

1-21 (1981-1991) A

Apiancash, 18,9 apiary selection, see management apicarousel, see management. carousel Apicultura Moderna, 15,4, 19,13 Apicultura no Brasil, 13,4

Apicultura Venezolana, 12,14 Apicultural Abstracts, 5,7, 18,15 Apicultural Awareness, 15,4

apiculture, see beekeeping Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Third International Conference on, 6,1; 8,2 Fourth International Conference on, 10,1; 13,1 Fifth international Conference on, 18,3; 19,16; 21,15 Apiculture Promotion Unit, Ghana, 6,6: 8,7

Accra, 7,10; 20,3 ActionAid, 10,7; 21,13 acupuncture, 8,4 ADAB, 13,3 Adenia gummifera. 8,3 Adenia lobata, 8,6. 11,7; 13,2; 15,11 Adeola,A O, 19,9 Adey,M, 8,10, 10,1 adhesion, see candle making Adjare,S, 6,6,12; 7,10,12; 10,10; 11,7; 16,13, 20,3.13

|

|

Bacillus larvae, 17,10

Apiaka, 15,4

Acarapis woodi, 8,7; 11,2,12; 13,11; 9,13 acarine, see Acarapis woodi

AdongoA

B

termite, see termite APHIS, 12,1

AAA, 16,1; 17,6,7; 18,13; 19,15; 20,2,8; 21,13,15 ABC and XYZ of bee culture, 17,14 A guide to beekeeping, 10,4 A lifetime's recollections of Kenya tribal beekeeping, 5,9 Abbas,S R, 5,7 absconding, see management Abushady,A, I3,! Acacia, 9,5; 14,2; 16,1; 18,6; 19,8; 21,6 acaricides, 9,12

Apiculture: sources d'information, see Source materials for apiculture

Apiexpo, 8,4; 11,2; 21,15 Apimondia, 5,1; 8,4,11; 11,1; 15,1,2 Congress, see International Beekeeping Congress Apinaticias de Nicaragua, 20,7

D, 12,11

Aduku,K D, 20,14 AFET, 19,16; 20,15 afforestation, 10,6 Afghan refugees, 9,45. 15,5 Afghanistan, I2,8; 14,13 Africa, 8,1; 9,1.6,7; 11,2,5; 12,8.9, 13,2,3: 14,2,5,8,13; 17,1,7; 18,11,15; (9,6,12,14; 20,2,4,13; Africare, 19,6 Africanization, 20,13

Apis adreniformis, 16,5 Apis cerana, 6,4,7,8: 7,1.2.4.5, 11, 8,4,7,51; 9,4; 10,5; 11,1; 12,1,2,3,4.6,10,14; 13,9; 14,11: 15,5,8; 16,2,3,4,5;

17,4,6,7,8.10, 18,10,

14:

19,10,11; 20,6,8,12; 21,13

Apis cerana japonica, 12,2 Apis cerana sabahana, 12,10 Apis dorsata, 5,2,7; 8,4,7; 10,6; 12,1,4,10; 13,2,10; 15,4;

16,1.2,5; 17,4; 18,4,10; 21,13 8,1: E1,5; 12,10, 21,6,13 Apis javana, §9,9

african honey bees, see bee africanized honey bees, see bee

Apis florea, 4,3,5.

Africanized honeybees and bee mites, 13,11

11;

3,2;

18,11;

Aggarwal,K, 12,4 aggressiveness, 6,6; 7,6; 10,6; 12,9,10; 14,14; 16,6,10,13, 17,12 Agricultural Technical Institute, 6,9 agroforestry. 11,4,5 programmes, 20,13 Agromisa, 13,10

Apis Roschevnikovi, 16, 5 Apis laboriosa, 13,10. 16,5; 18,10; 21,13 Apis mellifera, 6.7.8, 7,1,4,5, 11; 8,1,4.5,7; 9,4; 10,5;

Ahmad.|, 15,5 Ahmad,R, 5,7; 12,14; 17,8,9; 19,15; 20,8 ahomafufuo, see Allophylus spp Aidoo.K S, 17,10; 21,4 Ailanthus spp, 10,6

Apis Apis Apis Apis Apis Apis Apis Apis

11,5,12; 12,1,2,3,6.10.14, 13,1,2,7,9,11; $4,411; 15,458; 16,4,5. 0: 17,1,3,6.7,8; 18,10.11,12; 19,12,13; 20,9; 21,4,6,)2,13 Apis mellifera adansonii, 9,12; 12,3,5; 15,11; 16,10,11; 17,7

Ajumako Esikado, 21,3 Akratanakul,P, 11,2,12; 12,14 Akukumah.N, 13,5; 16,6; 21,3 ALADA, 21,11 Alayon sa Banika, 18,9; Albizia spp, 18,6,7; 21,6 Alcobia, F. 8,11: 13,11 alfalfa, see Medicago sativa Algeria, 9,7; 12,9: 16,6

mellifera monticola,

9,12;

11,14

mellifera scutellata, 9,12; 11,14; 18,6; vechti, 12,10; 16,5

21,14

20,16 appropriate technology, 14,3; 20,7 apricot, 14,]2 APU, 16,12 Arab Beekeepers’ Union, 13,3 arabic, 13,1] Appropriate Technology, 19,7;

Alippi,A M, 17,10 All India Co-ordinated Project on Honey Bee Research and Training, 7,5,11 Allophylus spp, 15,8 Almeida,L, 15,8 almond, 14,12 aluminium, 18,4 America, 13,2 central, 8,6; 9,1; 10,4; 12,1; 13,3: 21,12 latin. 9,7; 12,9; 14,13; 21,1] south, 9,1; 11,5 tropical, 18,12 amitraz, 11,2; 14,12 ammonium nitrate, 17,12 Amomum aculeatum, 5,7 An Hes, 21,12 anaesthesia, 15,8 Ancash Beekeepers’ Association, 10,3 Andaman Islands, 5,7 Anderson,R H, 21,14 Anderson,T, 19,9 Andes, 10,3 Andira inermis, 20,9 angelin, see Andira inermis Angola, 20,1] Anno,O K, 20,14 Antigonon, 18,7

Antigua, 7,10; 13,3; 14,12 Antioquia, 6,4

be fo lo

Areca 16,2

Arid Lands information Network, 18,15 Argentina, 6,10; 1,6; 12,13, 13,8; 14,7; 15,8; 17,10; 19,9; 2,11 aromatic herbs, 8,3 Armee du Salut, see Salvation Army Arumeru Beekeepers’ Women’s Group, 19,9 Arusha, 11,14; 18,3; 20,14 ASCAP, 11,7 Asociacion de Apicultores de Puerto Rico, 12,6 Ascosphaera apis, 3,1

Asia, 6,8; 8,4, 9,1,6;

11,12; 12,1,2,8,14; 13,2.4; 14,8,13; 16,1,2; 17,6.7; 19,15; 21,15 Asian Apicultural Association, see AAA Assam, 6,4 assistance, 10,6; 19,3 Associacao Jaguarense de Apicultura, 13,4 Assosa, 12,1] Assiut, 8,6 Astragalus spp, 7,2: 21,6 , ATOL, 9,8; 11,10,11 AT-Source, 9,8; 11,10; 18,15; 19,16 audio-visual programme, 17,14 Aung Myint.S, 14,1} Australia, 87,11; 01,13; 12,13; 21,15

Austria, 9,1 Autonomous Beekeeping Association of Cacha, 18,8 Avicennia spp, 18,6; 19,8 avocado, 18,7, 20,9

ants, 7,7; 8,5; 11,4; 13,6.7; 14,6; 17,5; 20,9.11; 21,13 army, 20,10 bacchacs, 20,9

BOLD denot

mellifera ligustica, 10,4 mellifera littorea, 9,12

subspecies. 13,10 Apis Club, 13,1 apitherapy, 8,4 appeal, 20,14

|}

Figure

mellifera capensis, 21,14 mellifera lamarckii, 13,3

db

le

ge

be {s fe th

bacchacs, see ants Bahasa 12,1: 15,4 Bahia, 12,9 Bailey.L, 3,1; 20,12 baiting, see management Bajwa.S S, f4,11 Baker,E W, 3,1 Ball,B V, 20,12 balling, see defensive behaviour bamboo, 11,3.8.9; 12,4; 13,7.9; 14,8,9,10; 18,12 collector drawer, see pollen trap banana, 18,7. 20,9 Band Aid Trust, 9,5; 18,11 Bandundu, 20,7 Bangkok, 6,7 Bangladesh. 12,3.12; 13,4, 17,10,11 banyan tree, see Ficus bengalensis Baobab, 18,15 Barbosa da Silva.R M, 9,12 Barclays International Development Fund, 12,4; 14,12 bark, 8,3; 9,5; 15,3 barley, 18,11 Barrameda,R G, 12,6; 13,5 barrels, 8,3 barter structure, see marketing Bas-Zaire, 15,1.9 basidiomycete, 11,14 batik, 19,11; 20,7 Bay of Bengal, 19,8 Bazzuro,D, 21,1] Beale,F. 11,8.9 beans, 19,13 bear, 17,5; 19,9 Bechtel,P, 12,7; 13,6,11; 15,6 bee, 12,12 african, 7,6,11, 8,10; 9,7,12: 10,1); 11,4; 12,15; 13,2, 15,11, 16,10,12; 17,7,12; 20,3.10 africanized, 6,3,4,5; 7,10,11; 8,6.7,10,12; 9,4; 10,4,6.11: 11,2,3,7; 12,6.9,10; 13,2,5,11, 14,14; 15,1,2,4;16,6,12; 17,7,12; 18,8,12; 19,13; 20,6,9,13 asian, 7,2; 13,2,9; 15,5; 17,11; 20,6 attractant, see lure beard, 12,1; 18,14 behaviour, 1,12: 17,11 biology, 12,14 black, 12,10 botany, 7,5 breeding, 11,13; 12,2,10 brush, 7,9 carder, 21,14 characteristics, 18,9 chinese, 7,2 colonies, 16,4 defensive, 18,6 disease, 17,5,6.14; 18,7, 19,13; 20,7,9,12 -eaters, 4,5 european, 10,11; 13,2: §7,11 evolution, 11,13 flora, 12,5,14,15; 15,3; 18,7 genetics, 11,13 ground nesting, 21,14 guard, 10,2; 12,2.4

himalayan, 20,6 -hunters, 16,2 importation, 13,2 indian, 20,8 language, 13,9 leaf-cutter, 21,14 Lebanese. 20,6 local, 7,12 louse, see Braula lure, see lure mason, 21,14 mining, 21,14 native, 20,6 pacifying, see management packages, see management plants, see bee flora -plant relationship, 19,12 products, 7,2: 8,3.9; 17,5 queen, 15,8; 19,10 rafter, 16,2 red, 12,10

repellent, 6,6; 11,14 research, 20,2 semana, 19,8

INDEX 1981-199]


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT solitary, 21,14 space, 12,3,10; 14,4, 17,12 species, see Apis sting, 10,2,3; 16,3 sting therapy. 13,5 stingless, see stingless bees tempters, 16,2 tree, 12,4 venom, 7,7 virus, 20,12 Bee Craft. 19,11 Bee genetics and breeding,

11,13: bee hive, see hive Bee Research Unit, see Cardiff Bee World, 13,1. 19,16 beekeepers, 12,1] small-scale producers, 14,5 traditional, 11,4.1 1,14; 13,5; 14,2.7; 16,1; 17,1; 18,6.7.11 Beekeepers’ Annual 1991, 18,5;

beekeeping, appropriate, 7,6; 14,3,5 co-operative, 11,2; 12,5; 13,4; 15,1,2.5,10; 19,10: 20,13 conservation and. 15,1 cost estimates, 11,6 department. 20,9 development, 14,2; 15,3,9; 16,12 development projects, 7,10; 15,8 dictionary, 13,3 equipment, 13,2 extension, 8,8, 11,11, 12,2,3,9; 14,4; 15,3 forest, 15,3 habitat, 20,14 inappropriate, 14,3 industry, 20,12 intermediate, 14,3 management, see management migratory. 13,1; 15,1; 16,2,3; 21,6 modern, 12,14; 4,3,5,6; 19,6,7 potential, 12,14 programme, 6,4; 8,2: 9,6; 11,11; 14,13 project, 9,6; 10,5.6,7; 12,7,8, 14,3,13; 15,8; 17,5,7; $8,7,9,12; 19,3.10.11; 20,4,5,6,14; 21,11 research project. 15,8: 21,11 sustainable, 15,1 technology, 14,4.5 traditional, 7,9; 8,2.3,5,8; 9,5: €2,5,.7.14,15; 13,3.4; 14,3,5.6; 15,3: 16,5,.12: 17,7; 18,6; 19,6,7; 20,10, 12; 21,11,13 traditional Egyptian, 13,3 transitional, 16,7 tree, 17,4

tropical island, 18,6 using newsprint sheets, 18,4 with stingless bees, see Meliponiculture workshop. 8,2 Beekeeping for beginners. 13,10. 14,14 Beekeeping handbook. 4,2: 8,2: 10,10 Beekeeping in Africa, 20,13 Beekeeping in Asia, 12,14 Beekeeping in integrated mountain development, 18,10; Beekeeping in Malaysia: pollen atlas, 20,2;12 Beekeeping in the tropics, 3,10

21,13

Beekeeping in the year 2000, 17,15

Beekeeping study notes, 20,13 Beekeeping with the modern African bee,

17,12 10,10

Beekunda, 10,10 beer, see honey beer beer factory, 19,14 Bees and beekeeping in Southern Africa, 21,14 Bees and beekeeping: science, practice and world resources,

16,14

21,14 beeswax, 8,3.8.9; 9,5,8.9,10; 10,7,8,9; 11,3,10,11,13,15; Bees of the world,

12,15. 13,3; 14,5,8.9,16; 15,1,2,3: 16,12; 7,1,5,8,9,12: 18,5.6,8,14: 19,4,5,12,14; 20,11; 24,6,12 bleaching, 19,14 cappings. 11,3; 18,5; 19,456 embossed, 17,9 export, 20,4 extractors, 10,10; 19,14, see also solar wax

extractor foundation, see foundation handling, 12,7 harvest, 20,10 meliponine, 21,12 mountain grey extractor, 14,6 ointment, 19,14

INDEX 1981-199]

Biclogy, detection and control of Varroa jacobsoni, 13,11.

18,10 birds, 4,5: 9,4; 18,6, 19,8 Bjérklund.E, 10,5 Blade A, 15,5 Blitterswijk, H van, 21,13 BMZ, 19,3 Bolivia, 9,4 Bolrot,D, 15,9 Bombay, 18,7 Bonetti.A M, 17,12 Bonu.B, 15,4 Bookshelf, 6,11; 7,11; 8,10; 9,10; 10,10; 11,12; 12,14; 13,10; 14,14; 6,14, 17,14; 18,10; 19,12; 20,12; 21,14 Borneo, 12,10; 16,5 Bornholm, 20,7 Botswana, 4,2; 7,6,9,12; 8,2 Bowman.C E, 2,3 Brachystegia spp, 8,3, 14,2; 15,3 Bradbear,N. 4,1; 8,12; 12,2; 13,12; 14,16; 15,12; 16,1; 17,2: 18,2.3; 19,2,12; 20,2; 21,11 Brands,|. 16,5 Brassica spp. 7,2; 21,13 Braula spp, 5,2,7 Brazil, 4,3; 9,9,12: 10,11; 11,2.7; 2,9,13, 13,4,8,9: 14,13.15; 15,4: 17,12; 19,9,13; 20,13; 21,11 Congress Vit, 10,11 Breed,M D, 20,13 Breeding techniques and selection for breeding of the honeybee,

Beekeeping in Zambia, 14,7 Beekeeping of the assassin bees, 14,14

Beekeeping: some tools for agriculture.

organic, 17,3,10 press, 19,14 processing 19,4 producer price, 20,10 production, 9,12; 20,10 rendering, 8,9; 18,6: 19,14 sheet. see foundation solar wax extractor, 18,5; 19,14; 20,4,5 statistics, 20,4 Tanganyika method, 8,3.9 Beeswax, 17,14 Beeswax Barter, 17,1; 18,14; 19,2; 20,2; 21,2 Beeswax: composition, properties, adulteration, 5,8 Beeswax: processing, 5,8 Beeswax: publications of historical interest, 5,8 Beeswax: secretion and use by bees, 5,8 Beeswax: uses and commercial aspects, 5,8 Beijing. 7,1 bekyem, see Adenia lobata Belgium, 9,8,10; L1,10,11; 16,13 Belize, 10,4; 13,4; 16,6; 20,6 Enterprise for Sustained Technology, 13,4 Honey Producers Federation, 20,6 bellows, see smoker Belmopan, 10,4 Benin, 14,13; 19,3 Bermuda, 9,4; 11,6,7 Beekeepers’ Association, 11,6 berseem. see Trifolium alexandrinum BESO, 21,12 BETRESP, 21,13 Bhutan, 20,6 bibliography. 11,12 Bicolandia Bee Raisers Association, 12,6 Bihar, 6,4 bio-control, 20,8 Biogeography and taxonomy of honeybees, 13,10

13,10; 14,14 British Executive Service Overseas, see BESO bromopropilate, 11,2 Brong Ahafo, 6,6 brood, 9,3 arrangement, 20,3 nest, 20,3 split, 20,3 Brown.R, 17,14; 19,8 Bucharest, 8,11 buckwheat, see Fagopyrum esculentum Buddha, 8,4 Burgett.M, 20,6 Burkino Faso, 9,6; 12,8,13; 13,8; 18,8 Burma, 14,11,13 burning materials, 9,8 burns, 18,8 buying, see marketing Buys.B, 21,14 Byrne.] 6,11

Cafeteros del Valle de Cauca, 10,4 CAFOD, 15,2 Cairo, 10,1; 13,1; 14,8, 17,13 calabash, 18,12; 20,12

Calliandra, 14,2 Calophyllum, 18,7 Cameroon, 14,12; 15,4, 16,12 Campi.E. 18,8

Can,TT, 16,3,4 cana, see honey, alcoholic beverage Canada, #1,1.4,5,13; 12,4,10,13; 14,8.14; 17,2; 19,9 Canadian international Development Agency, see

CIDA candles, 19,14; 20,7; 21,12 candle making. 9,8,9: 10,8,9; 11,10; 14,8.9,10,12; 17,5 adhesion, 9,8 burning material, 9,8; 11,10 candlestick, 14,10 carousel, 14,10 copper, 9,8 dipping, 10,8,9; E1,10 dyes, 10,8 melting point, 9,8 mould, 14,10 paraffin, 9,8.9; 10,8 stearin, 9,8 wick. 9,8,9. 10,8.9: 11,10: 4,8.9,10 Candle making in a small workroom, 9,8; 10,8: 11,10 Canning Town, 19,8 Cape Verde, 9,6 cardboard boxes, 18,12 Cardiff, 5,5; 6,10, 8,12; 9,12; 61,13; 12,13; 13,8; 17,13;

21,4

CARE, 6,5; 7,11; 13,5 Uganda, 9,5 Caribbean, 9,7; 12,9; 13,3; 14,13; 20,2; 21,11,15 cashew, 20,9 cassava, 6,6; 20,7 Casuarina cunninghamiana 10,11 Catalogo para una flora apicola venezolana, 12,14

Catholic Relief Services. 13,4 cavity, ground, 17,11 volume, 17,11] CBI, 20,13.16 CBRI, see Central Bee Research Institute CDC, 14,12

CDI

11,11

Cebu, 18,9 cell size, 21,45 cement, 13,6,7; 17,8 Central African Republic, 8,6 . Central Bee Research Institute, India, 1,2; 5,2: 7.4.5: 10,5

Centre for World Development Education, 18,3 Centro Agricola Cantonal de Hojancha, 20,6 Centro de Tecnologia Apicola, Honduras, 8,7 Cervancia,C, 15,8; 19,15; 20,8

Chaim. K,

11,3

chalk brood, 3,1; 19,13 Chandler,T, §1,4,5,14 Chang Bloch,}, 20 Changbai Mountains, 12,5 chaste tree, see Vitex negundo cheese press, see honey press chemical treatment, 17,6 cherry, see Prunus puddum Chiang Mai, 6,7

Chilinda, 8,2 China, 7,1,2,3: 9,1; #2,2.5; 16 5,13; 17,6,7,15; 18,8,10,13: 19,9,15; 20,815: 21. 15 Chinese, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 7,1] Beekeepers’ Association, 7,2 Fujian Agricultural College, 7,2 chinese bee, see bee chinese tallow tree, see Sapium sebiferum chir pine, 16,1 Chlorophora excelsa, 16,13; Chrysanthemum coronarium,

21,14 Chuchu,A, 21,6 Church.L, 6,4 Ciba-Geigy, 18,11 CIDA, 6,4; 12,), 13,5; 18,7; 19,10 CUR, $2,7, 13,9, 14,16; 18,15 citronella, see Cymbopogon nardus Citrus spp. 7,2; 10,5; 13,3; 15,1,4; 18,7; 20,9; 21,6 Clauss,B, 4,2; 7,6,12; 8,2; 9,10; 10,10; 12,11; 15,1,3 clay pots, 18,11; 19,11

clothing, 7,8,9, 10,2,10; 11,11,14; 12,10; 20,10 gloves, 10,3 veils, 14,6 clove, 18,7 clover, 14,12 cocoa, 10,5 coconut, see Cocos nucifera

Figures in BOLD denote issue number followed by relevant page number(s) for that issue


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT husk, #9,11

plantation, 20,8 Coconut Research Station, 20,8 Cocos nucifera, 10,5.6, 13,5. 14,13; 18,6.7; 9,1

1:

20,9

coffee, 11,4, 12,68; 19,13; 20,9 Coggshall, WL, 19,14 Coleman.M, 8,7 colony build-up, see management colony division, see management colony introduction, see management Colombia, 6,4, 10,4.6; 14,7 comb, 17,12; 18,5: 21,4.5,12 area, 17,11 dark, 20,3 centre-comb centre, 17,12 plastic. 21,12 -space. 12,3, 14,4; 21,13 Commonwealth Foundation, 1,1; 2,5 conservation, 14,1; 15,1,3; 17,6.15; 20,7 Consultation of Beekeeping Development on Apis cerana, 8,7 Cook Islands, 14,11; 15,10 CookV. 7,3; 10,1, 12,3, 13,1 copper, 9,8 coral trees, see Erythrina abyssinica Coralline Islands, [4,13 Cérdoba, 11,6 corn, 19,13 cosmetics, 7,2 Costa Rica, 9,12; 10,11; 11,3,7; 12,5; 14,1 1.14; $8,412, 20,6.13; 21,12 Costales.A, 15,8 Céte d'Ivoire, 19,3 cotton, see Gossypium spp courses: 7,2: 9,12: 10,4; 18,13: 12,13: 13,8; 14,15. 17,13 Apis cerana,

12,

Argentina, 6,10; 12,13 Brazil, 9,12; 14,15 Canada. 1f,13 Colombia, 10,4 France, 14,13. 12,13. 13,8 Ghana, 12,13 honey processing. 6,10 Israel, 2,13, 13,8 Malawi, 8,2 Tanzania, 13,8 train the trainers, 17,13 training, 15,5, 19,9 UK, 6,10; 8,12, 9,12: 01,13: 12,13: 13,8; 17,13 Uruguay. 12,7 Zambia, 11,13 Couture.H, 14,8 Crane.E, 2,2, 4,1. 5,9; 6,11, 9,6.10, 10,10; 13,1.2,11; 14,4, 16,14, 21,12 Criacao de Abelhas, 8,11; 13,11 criticals, 19,14 Cruptosepalum pseudotaxus exfoliatum, 15,3 CTA, 13,3: 4,11, 9,2; 20,2, 21,2

Cuba. 14,13 CUSO, 12,10 Cuzco Asociacion Arariwa, Peru, 10,3 cyclone Bella, 20,14 Cymbopogon citratus. 6,3 Cymbopogon nardus, 17,1,3

D Dada.Y. 8,7 Dahr el Baidar, 20,6 Danso,Mr, 14,2 Darbo,D K. 16,10 Datanagan,M, 18,9 Day.R, 6,11; 9,10 De Bold.K. 8,6 De Clerg.L. 21,12 De Jong.D. 8,12: 0,!t

defensive behaviour, 7,6: 10,3.6; 12,2; 14,4; 18,12;

20,313 deforestation, 14,1.2.7, 15,3, 21,6,12 Delfinado-Baker,.M, 3,1: 4,4, 12,4 Denmark, 9,1,10; 4,15 Deodikar,G B. 7,4 desertification, 9,5; 19,12; 21,6 Development of world apicultural trade, 8,11

Dhofar, 11,5 Dicko,M, 15,8 Dictionary of beekeeping terms Vol 10, 13,11 Dien.C du. 16,4.5; 17,3

Dietz.A. 13,11; 18,10 Diploma in apiculture, 5,5; 8,12; 9,12; 17,13 Directory of important world honey sources, 6,11, 9,10; 10,6 Diyanilla Technical institute, 20,15

Djibouti, 12,9; 14,13 doum palm, 18,11 DNA, 17,12 mitochondrial, 17,12 Dogon Dawa, 19,9 Dominican Republic, 12,6 Doolittle. see management Drescher, W. 2,2. 9,6. 14,4 drone, 21,14 drugs, 14,4 Dubon.C. 9,5 Duggan.M, 20,9 Duong Quang Thua.Mr, 16,2 Dutta,T R. 5,7 Dutton. RW. 4,2

diversity, 16,1 sources, 20,12 studies, 20,7 Florida, 11,1, #2,1 Flottum.K, 17,14 Folbex VA. 11,2: 15,4 Fomenta Apicola. 9,4 Fondo Ecuatoriano Populorum Progressio. 18,8 forage, behaviour, 15,8 competition for, 11,5 forest. 12,4.10.11; 14,5.7, 7,1.4; 18,4.6.12; 19,8.9. 20,3.10,11. see also woodiand based industries, 14,1 conservation, 15,1 dwellers, 12,4; 16,1 primary. [4,2.12 products, 20,1} rain, 14,1: 20,7 resources, 14,2, 20,10

E

EC regulations. 18,10 Echazarreta,C, 15,8 ecological, conditions. 14,5 degradation. 15,5

tram, 16,2 tropical, 12,1-

Ecology and natural history of tropical bees, 16,14

Ecuador, 18,8 Education Resource Pack. 16,14

Egea Soares.A E, 6,3 Egypt. 5,9, 8,6.10, 9,7; 16,6

11,3:

12,13. 13,1,2.4; 14,13:

E]-Amin.MA, 19,14

El-taweel A, 8,6,

13,4 El Salvador, 8,7; 9,7 elephant ear tree, see Wygandia urens Elkritly,S M, 15,4 Elsen,F, 9,8; §1,10

endophallus, 16.5

Engels.W,

15,5

Environ, 10,13 environment, 11,2, 18,2 equipment, 10,10 imported, 20,4 suppliers, 10,10: 19,13:

21,3

Eriobotrya japonica, 7,2 Erythrina abyssinica, 14,4.5 Erythrina micropleryx, 20,9

Espig,G. 21,14 Espina Pérez.D, §4,14 essential commodities, 20,11 Ethiopia, 7,10: 8,5; 12,811, 03,2; 14,13 Eucalyptus spp, 7,2,11; 8,2; 12,5; 14,2; 15,1.4; 16,1;

19,810.11

13,2, 14,1. 15,3; 16,1, 20,11

20,1011 Forests, Trees and People Programme, 17,10; 18,15; 20,12 forestry, social, 14,1,2, 17,15 Forest Honey News,

formic acid, 11,2 Forster.Br, 6,6 foulbrood, American. 6,4: 15,4, 17,10, 19,13 European. 19,13 foundation, 8,6: 9,3. 17,8.9: 18,8: 19,7.8; 21,45 press, 17,8.9 releasing agent. 17,8 starter strips. 21.4.5 frame. 8,6. 10,3. 12,3,10, 15,5: 17,8,12, 18,4; 19,4,6: 21,4.5, frame bar width, 12,3. 16,2 France, 9,10; 11,13; 12,13; 13,8 Francis.D. 13,1 Free. B. 5,3.5: 6,3: 11,42 french, 12,15, 13,10,11, 14,14; 15,8 fruits, 19,13 Fry.C H, 4,5 Fuentes de informacion en apicultura. see Source materials for apiculture

fumagillin. 15,4 fumigation, 8,5 FUNAC, 14,11 Fundamentals of beekeeping. 8,1 Future Events. see Looking Ahead |

Eucera spp. 24,14 Eupatorium stacchadosum, 17,1,3

European market, 20,1113 Eurya spp, 7,2 Euvarroa sinhai, 10,11

Expert consultation on beekeeping with Apis mellifera in tropical and subtropical Asia, 6,7 extension, 19,10; 20,12 extensionists, 18,8 methods, 8,8 officers, 8,9 services, 8,9 specialists, 14,13 workers, 17,13. 20,4

F Fairview College, 11,13 false acacia, see Robinia pseudoacacia Fagopurum esculentum, 7,2 FAO. 1,3: 6,7, 8,4; 9,6,10. 11,2,.3.12. 12,8.14; 3,2.3. 14,2.13, 17,714.15; 18,7.8.11,15; 9,2.3.11,16: 20,2.4,.12,13. 21,2,6 Farmer.B, 14,12 Farming Systems Research & Development 14,1.2 feasibility study, 14,4: 19,3, 20,7 feed grains, 19,13 feeder, see management Feinbure. W: 6,11: 10,10 fejjayieh, 14,12 Fernandez.N A, 15,8 fever grass, [5,4 Ficus, spp 11,4,5, 6,2, [7,12 Fiji, V1,11. 14,11 fig, see Ficus spp Fisher.G, 20,6 Fisher,M, 18,5 fitalomicina, 10,11 Fletcher,.D C. 20,13 flora, 16,8 tropical, 20,12 floral, calendar, 6,8; 7,5, 12,14: 16,8 |

Figures in BOLD denote issue number followed by relevant page number(s] for that issue

Gabon, 12,8 Gabu region. 14,8 Gadgil. VN, 7,4 Galleria mellonetla, 12,10 Galton,.D, 7,11 Galvin.D

|,

15,5

Gambia, see The Gambia Gandhi, 5,2: 7,4 Ganges plain, 21,13 Garcia de Siles,| L. 17,2 Gaston.L 2, 17,2 GATE. 13,5 Gau,K, 13,11, 15,6: 19,14 genes, 17,12 genetic, bank, 20,6 diversity, 20,6 engineering, 20,6 Geneva, 8,11] Germany, 9,1,10, $0,100: 11,1] Ghana. 6,6. 7,10: 8,6. 9,6. 10,44. 1,7, 12,11,13. 13,2.4: 15,4.8.11, 16,612.13. $7,710. 18,9, 20,3,13.14. 21,3 Chana Bee News, 8,7; 16,12,13 giant bee. see Apis dorsata Gibson.N. 21,14 Gil Mora.E, 17,2 glass, 18,5 glucose, 10,11 glyphosate, 20,6

GnagiA. 14,1.2: 15,3 Godawari. 21,13 GédGllé. 5,1 goitre, 16,3 gold medals, 15,2 Gomez Rodriguez.R, 12,14 Goncalves.L C, 10,11: 17,12 Gossypium spp, 7,2; 13,3. 18,11, 19,13 gourd, 8,3, 13,5; 16,12, 19,13 GRATIS, 13,5. 16,6; 21,3

INDEX 1981-199]


Green fingers. 3,10

GRET, 12,15 Grenada. 10,4 Griffiths,D A, 2,3 Gruska,|, 14,14 GTZ, 2,2. 9,6; 10,10; 13,3.5, 14,5; 20,2.3 Guanacaste. 18,12 Guangdong province, 7,2 Guatemala, 12,1 guava, 20,9 Guelph, 14,8 Guide to bees and honey, 21,14 Guide

to

plants tolerant to arid and semi-arid conditions, 19,12

Guinea, 12,8 Guinea-Bissau, 12,8.15; 13,2: 14,8; 16,6; 20,2,4.5 gum arabic, 18,11 Gurung tribes people, 13,10 Guyana. 6,9: 7,10; 12,9 Guzzi.D, 14,8 Gymnopodium antiganoides, 19,13

H habitat, 12,4

Hadisoesilo.S, 19,15; 20,8 Haematoxylum campechianum,

20,9

hakeems, 18,4 Haldwani, 7,5 hallab, 14,12 handicapped people. 14,15 Haryana, 7,11; 8,7 Hassan,L, 21,11 Hayes.G W, 6,9

Heath.L AF, 3,1 Heemert.C van, 19,12 Hepburn,H R. 11,13

Helianthus annuus, 13,3; 15,4

herbs,

aromatic, 18,6 medicinal. 18,4.8 Heredia, 18,12: 21,12 Herklots,|, 15,2

Hermann.H R, 13,] 1: 18,10 Hevea spp, 16,4: 19,10,11 Hilburn,D, 9,4; 11,7 Himachal Pradesh, 6,4: 7,11 Himalayan Bee Concern, 21,13 Himalayas, 15,5; 16,1, 18,10; 20,2: 21,13 Himsel.H, 6,5 Hindu Kush, 18,10 hive, African long, 14,3 appropriate, 12,3 banana bark, 11,8 bait, 19,13 bark, 8,3; 11,8; 14,1.5,6,7; 16,7; 18,11; 19,6; 20,10.11 barrel. 6,9; 7,12 basket, 19,13 box, 14,5.6.7 British standard, 14,3 cardboard bait. 6,3 clay pot, 16,7.12; 18,11, 19,6; 20,14 covers, 18,4 cylindrical, 18,11 Dadant, 14,3; 19,13; 25,3 Dadant top-bar, 19,6 design, 12,3; 14,4, 17,11 entrance. 20,3 fixed-comb, 9,2; 14,3: 17,1,7.11; 20,9,14 frame, 10,3: 11,3; 14,1; 17,7.8,11.14; 18,10,11; 19,7: 21,13 frameless. 19,2,6.7 gelodok, 10,6; 12,10 German, 14,3 grass, 18,11 Greek. 14,3: 16,7 Gufa §8,11 harvest, 19,4 income from, 14,6 intermediate. 14,5: 19,6 keffo, 8,5 Kenya top-bar. 6,6,9; 7,6; 8,2,7; 9,5,10; 10,5.6; 13,4,5.10: 14,3, 15,10; 16,712: 17,7; 18,8,11; 19,6; 20,3, 21,3,.6 Khartoum, 18,11 Langstroth. 6,3; 8,6; 11,3: 13,3.4, 14,3,12; 15,4. 10; 16,3.13, 17,7: 18,8.11; 20,9: 21,3.6 log. 5,9; 6,1.5,7; 8,2,3; 9,2.5; 12,10; 13,3; 15,3: 16,5,12; 18,6,7; 19,6; 21,3,.6,11.13 low-technology, 12,14: 18,11; 19,13 Maputo, 7,12

INDEX 1981-1991

marimba top-bar, 16,6; 18,8 movable-frame, 6,7, 7,5: 8,7; 10,6,10; 11,11; 12,3,5.11,14; 14,3,12; 17,7, 19,6; 21,6,14 Mozambique transitional, 6,4 Mpofu, 13,6,7 Noah's, 7,12; 8,2 Omdurman, 18,11] optimum size, 17,10 papyrus, 9,5 pipe. 13,3 plastic box. 6,5 pot. 8,3, 20,14 pottery, 19,13 products, 10,10; 21,6 repairs, 18,4 Russian, 14,3 rustic, 13,4; 18,8 Schenk, 13,4 sheet plastic, 13,9 skep, 19,6 Sudanese bark, 18,11 support, 11,4 Swazi, 13,6,7 tangel, 18,11 Tanzania commercial, 11,14 Tanzania top-bar, 8,2 timber, 19,13 tools, 10,10 top-bar, 6,1,6,4.9; 7,6,7,.8.9.11: 8,2; 9,1,5; 10,7; 11,5,8.9,5 1,45, 12,3,11,15; 13,6.7,9.10; 14,6, 16: 15,4,9; 16,3.5.7,13; 17,7.11,12; 18,7.8. 19,2.4,6,8,12.13,14; 20,3.4.5,13; 214.5, 11,13 top-bar-log, 9,1.2.3 traditional, 9,2,5; 11,4.5.11; 14,5, 16,7; 17,7; 19,2,13, 20,4.5.9,14; 21,11 transitional, 9,5, 11,11 tshwaragano, 7,12 wall, 21,11,13 wooden, 9,5, 20,5 wooden crate, 19,13 Zander. 12,11; 14,3 Hive Aid, 10,6; 12,8; 14,13. 15,8: 19,3 Ho.K K, 19,15 Honduras, 8,7; 9,7; 11,3; 12,1.5; 18,8 honey: 8,3,8.9; 9,3.5.10; 10,7; 11,6.15; 12,15; 14,16; 17,1, 19,4.12; 20,3,9; 21,6 adulterated, 18,9 alcohol and, 17,5 alcoholic beverage. 20,5 automatic capping separator, 11,3 badgers, 14,6; 20,10,11 barter, 20,5 beer, 14,5.6.7; 15,3: 17,10: 18,6; 20,10 bucket, 20,5, 10 buyer, 20,5 centrifuge, 11,11; 14,3; 19,4.5,6,7 collecting, 12,1.4; 19,8 collecting centre, 20,4,5 combs. 19,4.5; 20,10 containers, 15,2; 21,6 cut comb, 19,4,5,.8 cutting, 14,12 dripping, 20,4 export, 9,1; 15,2; 17,10; 19,13; 20,1! extractor, 10,10; 11,3,11; 14,4; 19,4.5,6,7; 20,3.4.5,15 extracting techniques, 20,4 factory, 20,10 fermentation, 19,5; 20,5 filtering, 19,7 flow, 7,7; 8.3; 16,8; 20,3 forest, 18,4 four-frame extractor, 19,6 granulated, 15,4 harvesting, 6,6; 11,9.11,14; 13,5; 14,4; 18,6; 19,6; 20,3: 21,12 healing properties, 18,9 hurting, 7,9; 8,8; 12,7.9; 13,5,10; 1; 14,1,3,6; 15,3; 18,8,10; 20,4,5,7,14; 21,13 f6, import. ..¥, 11,6 importation. 20,9 jungle, 12,6 labels, 14,12; 15,9; 20,11 lacquer-coated drums, 15,2 legislation, 18,10 marketing, see marketing medicinal value, 10,7; 12,7; 15,4; 17,5; 18,12: 21,32 meliponine, 21,12 organic, 17,1,10; 20,11 plants, 13,11. 18,7 press, 19,4,5,6,7; 20,3.4,10 .

price. 20,4 processing, 6,!0; 89.11: 1,3,6, 19,4.5; 20,5 production, 14,6,7; 16,3: 19,9.13; 20,4.9 quality, 16,4 radial extractors, 19,6,7 refining, 21,6 refractometer. 21,6 ripe, 20,3 sacs, 10,2 satumadu, 14,1] scraper, 19,4 separating cappings from, 11,3 standards, 4,2 stomach, 9,12 storage, 19,5, 20,5 storage pots, 18,12 storage tanks, 20,4.5 straining, 20,4 sweet currency, §5,3 tamper-proof seals, 15,2 tangential extractor, 19,6.7 trade, 8,11: 9,1, 12,15; 15,2 transport problems, 20,4 tropical extractor, 20,4,5 uncapping, 11,3, 19,4,5 uncapping forks, 19,4 yield, 16,4 Honey and beeswax, 20,13 Honey Honey Honey Honey Honey

bee diseases and enemies in bee mites and their control, bee

pathology,

Asia,

11,12

11,12

20,12

bee pests, predators and diseases,

17,14

pollination of important entomophilous crops, 12,14 Honey bee predation by bee-eaters with economic considerations, bee

4,6 Honey bees and wax 11,13 Honey bees in Oman, 4,2 Honey hunters and beekeepers, 20,12 Honey fiunters of Nepal, 13,10 Honey marketing, 18,10 Honey sources satellites, 9,10 Honey standards, laws and regulations (world-wide), 4,2 Honey: a survey of major markets, 9,10

Hong Kong, 9,10 Hooper,T, 7,11, 21,14 hornet, see Vespa spp Howe, C, §5,1.2 Howpage.D, 19,10.11 Hseih,F K, 20,8 hummingbird, 19,8 Hungarian Forest Research Institute, 5,1 Hungary, 5,1; §4,15 Hurbungs,M, 20,14 hurricane, 15,4 hybrid, 20,13 hybridisation, 17,12 Hyden.T, 16,6 I

JAAD, 2,4 IBAR, 1,2 IBRA, 8,4,10; 11,12; 12,15; 13,1.3; 14,1416; 15,12; 16,14; 18,2: 20,7; 21,11,12 branch libraries, 1,2; 7,5: 10,5; 14,7 ICIMOD, 14,15; 17,6; 20,6 ICON, 19,7 ICRAF, 18,11 IDB, 8,6; 11,6,7,11, 12,5.6: 14,11, 16,7, 18,9; 20,6 IDRC, 1,2: 2,1; 5,5; 6,10.11; 8,7: 9,10; 10,6; 12,4,10: 13,3, 19,3 IFS, 13,3, 15,8; 9,3 Ignacio Herrera, see MUNAPIH lesa, 19,9 immortelle, see Erythrina micropteryx Inades Foundation, 14,14 inappropriate technology, 19,3 incense, 19,1] India, 4,5: 5,2: 6,4: 7.4.11; 8,7,11, 9,4; 10,2.4,5; 12,9; 14,7,11,15; 15,4,11; 16,5.13; 17,2,6,7; 18,4,10.14: 19,8,15, 20,6,8 Indian, communities, §8,8 Council of Agricultural Research. 7,5 house crows, 18,6 indigenous species, 18,12 Indonesia, 8.1.4; 9,6; 14,13. 15,4; 19,15; 20,8; 21,6 Industrial Entomology Project. 9,t,2: 21,13 information charts: 9,11; 11,15; 2,15; 14,16, 19,12

arabic version, 16,!5 Information on beeswax,

9,11, 11,15, 12,15, 14,16,

19,12 Information on honey. 9,11: 01,15, 12,15; 14,16; 9,12

Figures in BOLD denote issue number followed by relevant page number(s) for that issue

cee

Greece, 5,9

we

BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT Information on pollination,

9,11, 11,15; 12,15; 14,16;

19,12 Information on top-bar hives, 9,11:

11,15;

12,15; 14,16;

19,12 tnformation for beekeepers in tropical and subtropical countries,

12,15; 16,15 \nformation on Varroa jacobsoni, 12,15

inhaca, 18,6 insam, 14,12

Inside Information, 18,2; 19,2; 20,2; 21,2 institute of Apicultural Research, 7,1 Institute of Honeybee Science, 1,2; 16,1. 17,6: 18,10,13, 19,15; 20,8 Interamerican Development Bank, see IDB Integrated Rural Development Programme, 14,5; 17,5 Intermediate Technology Development Group, see ITDG

Intermediate Technology Publications, 6,12; 10,10 International Beekeeping Congress,

11, 1.2

International Conference on Agriculture and the Environment, 21,6 International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical see Apiculture in Tropical Climates international Development Research Centre, see IDRC

Climates,

International Trade Centre, see ITC

lychee, see Litchi chinensis and Nephelium litchi

Kimpton Brothers, 20,16 King,H H, 18,1} Kintampo District, 6,6

investment, 19,3; 20,5,7 iran, 8,1, 14,13, 15,4; 21,6

19.8

Mahaweli Project, 12.6 Mahe, §8,7 mahogany, see Swietenia mahagoni malaria, 15,10; 16,11 malathion, 9,12 Malawi, 8,2,3: 19.3.6 Malaysia, 8.7; 10,6; 12,1,2.4,10; 13.2,10; 14,1; 16.5; 19,15; 20.8,12,13 Malaysian Beekeeping and Research Development Team,

2012.13

Malaysian pollen atlas, see Beekeeping in Malaysia: pollen

kyongokgo, 14,12

atlas

L

traq, 12,9 Ireland, 17,15; 18,13 IRETA, #4,11 Irian Jaya, 10,5

Maldives, 12.9; 14,13; 19,11

La abeja africanizada, see Beekeeping of the assassin La Digne. 18,7 Lama.M A del, 17,12 Lamdong Beekeeping Company, 17,3 Lanerolle,G, 19,11

tshaque.A, 12,12 Islamabad, 10,5 Island Bee News, 15,5 Israel, 11,3: 12,13; 13,8, 19,8

Langermannia wahlbergi, Langstroth, 12,3

bees

11,14

Langstroth hive, see hive

10,11

Italy, 9,1,10; 17,2 ITC, 9,1,10 ITDG, 10,10: 20,15 IUSSI, 14,15 Ivory Coast, 14,14; 16,12

Lantana camera, 7,7 Laos, 17,4,5 Latham,H, 15.1.9

Latin American Association of Beekeepers, see ALADA Laws and regulations (worldwide) relating

to the

importation of

bees, the control and notification of bee diseases, and the

Jackson.H, 13,12; 14,16; 15,12; 17,2; 18,2,3; 19,2; 20 lali, 10,7; Jamaica, 6,4; 11,11; 15,4 Jammeh.M E, 16,10 Jammu, 9,4 jamrul, 12,12 Janssens,P. 9,8; 11,10 Japan, 8,4.5: 9,1,10; 14,7; 15,5; 16,1; 17,6; 18,13: 19,15; 20,8 Java, 6,8; 10,5 jicote barcino, see Melipona fasciata jicote gato, see Melipona beecheii jicotes, 18,12 Johansen,C A, 18,10 Johansson.TS K, 11,14 Johnson.E, 17,12 Jordan, 17,10. 19,3 Jordanian Beekeepers’ Association, 17,10 jujube, see Ziziphus jujuba

MacDonald,D, 13.5 Macdonald], 17,2 Machel,K. 20,15 Madagascar, 9.6; 12.8 Mahabaleshwar, 7.5; 10.4

Mahalefele T, 12,5;

Kumasi, 6,6; 11,7; 12,13; 20,3 Kuwait, 9,10; 4.13 Kwoba,] O, 17,2

Introduction lo beekeeping, 13,11

Luxembourg, 9,10 M

Kumar Gupta,], 9.4

International Society of Invertebrate Reproduction Congress, 15,5

MRC,

Kilon,E, 10,5

Kitui, 21,6 Klinger.R, 8.2 Koeniger,G, 12,10 Koeniger,N, 2,10 Korea, 9,7; 14,12; 19,15; 20.8 Krell.R, 19.2,6,7 Kristensen,W, 14,15 Kshirsagar, 5,2 Kubbum, 9,5

XXXIE 15,1.2

Issa

lucerne, 21.6 Lukwaro,C, 19.9 lumboy tree, see Syzygium cumini Lumle Agricultura] Centre, 8.7, 21,13 lure, 5.5. 15.4, 18.6 alarm pheromone, 10,2 bee attractant, 12,11 Nasonov gland, 10.2 Nasonov pheromone, 5,3,4; 15,4 pheromone, 5,3; 7.7; 11,12 Lutheran Farmers’ TrainingCentre, 12.4 Lutheran World Relief, 18,11

Kiongozi cha ufugaji wa nyuki, see Beekeeping handbook Kiribati, 14,11

XXIX, 5,1 XXX, 8,4

XXX.

Kenya top-bar hive, see hive Kerr, W E, 6,3 Kevan,P, 12,1 Khadi and Village Industries Commission, 5,2; 7.4,5 khaki weed, see Tagetes minuta Khalid,S, 8,5 Khartoum, 8,1; 11.5; 12,11 Khatri,B. 17.4.5.11 Kiang West. 10,7 Kibwezi Women’s Beekeeping Co-operative, 6,2 Kielce, 11,2 Kiew.R, 20,12 Kigatiira, K, 13,10; 14,14

;2

Julbernardia spp, 14,2

K Kaal,], 16,11 Kabompo, 14,5; 15,3; 20,10 Kabul, 12,8 Kaddu.], 9,12; 12,11 Kaffa, 12,8 kafos, 10,7 kakaw, 18,9

Kamil.S, 8,1 Kampala. 9,5 Kampuchea, 17,4 Kannaiyan.R, 18,14 Karachi, 8.7 Karl Bergmann KG, E111 Karlsson,T, 17,1} Kashmir, 6,4.; 8,11; 10.2.6; 16,5

Kathmandu, 20,6: 21,13 Kawa.M N, 6.4.5; 8.2.3: 11,11; 14,11; 15,10; 16,11; 18,7 Kenya, 5.9: 6.1: 10,5; 13,10; 14,2,7,.13.14; 17,2; 19.14: 21.6 National Beekeeping Station, 6.2

registration and siting of hives, 5.8 Laws and regulations (worldwide) to protect bees from pesticide

poisoning, 4,2 Le point sur Vapiculture 12,15; 13.11 en afrique tropicale, Leaflet |, see information for beekeepers in tropical and subtropical countries Leaflet 2, see The management of Africanized honeybees Leaflet 3, see Information on Varroa jacobsoni Leaflet 4, see The Asian hive bee

Lebanon, 12,9. 14,12; 19,3,20,.6 Lebas,M, 14.16 legisiation, 5,8; 20,9 lemon grass, see Cymbopogon citralus and Cymbopogon nardus Les abeilles, 14,14

Les Eyzies, 12,13; 13,8 Lesotho, 12,5, 19.8 Lettersto the Editor, 7,12; 9,12; 11,5; 12,11. 13,9; 14,14, 15,10, 17,12: 18,4; 19,14; 20,14 Leventis Foundation, 19,9 Liberia, 15,10 Libya, 9.7: 15.4; 16.6 light traps, 20.8 Limma,G, 15,11 linden, see Tilia spp linseed oil. 6.6 lip balm, 19,14 litchi, see Litchi chinensis and Nephelium litchi Litchi chinensis (see also Nephelium litchi), 7.2 Llaxacondor Vilca.], 10,3; 18.9 Lobo, A, 17,12 log wood, see Haematoxylum campechianum Lokadito,P, 15,8 longan, see Nephelium fongana Looking Ahead, 2,5; 3,3; 4,6; 6,9; 7,12; 9,9, 10,11; 12,13, 42,13: 13.8, 14,15; 15,11; 16,13; 17,15; 18,13; 19,15; 20,15;21,15 Lopez-Palacios,S, 12,14 loquat, see Eriebotrya japonica Lord.W, 8.1 Loronha, F de, 10,11 lost-wax casting, 6,12; 16,12:21,12 Lost-wax casting: a practitioner's manual, 6,11; 10,10 Lowenberger,C, 6,4 ]

Figures in BOLD denote issue number followed by relevant page number(s) for that issue

Mali, 9.6; 12,7; 15,8; 16,12 Malichi,B, §7,1,3; 20,10 management, 12,14, 16.4, 17,4.11; 18,7 absconding, 12,2,10; 13.6.9; 14,6; 16,2,3,5.6,10.13; 17,7,19.10.11 apiary selection, 8,2 baiting, 8,2,6:9.12:19,11 burningcolonies, 15,9 carousel, 34.15 colony build-up, 10.6 colony division, 16,10 colony introduction, 7,11; 11,12; 14.4; 15,5 colony multiplication, 19,10 division board feeder, 18,4 Doolittle, 16,10 feeder, 13,6; 18.4 feeding, 10,3: 16,10; 19,11:21.6 grafting, 17.7 importation, 15,5;20,12 inbreeding, 19,10 migration, 17.7.12 nucleuscolonies, 19,10 occupation rate, 14,6 pacifying, 11,7.14; 13,3 packages, 14.14 queencatching, 16,5 queen excluder 14,4 queen rearing, 9,12; 13,11; 14.13; 16,10; 17,7; 19,10 queenlessness, 16,4,10 robbing. 7,8 shade, 7,7 supers, 10,5; 16,4 swarming, 12,10.11: 166,10: 8,6; 20,3 syrup feeding, see feeding techniques, 13.2 to follow, 18.6 trap boxes, 18,7 unintentional introduction, 11,5 Manejo de la abeja africanidada, 12,14 Mangifera indica, 18.7.9: 20,9: 23.13 mango, see Mangifera indica mangrove, see Avicennia spp

tendency

Manihot utilissimus, 15,11

Manila, 10.5 Manual Prdctico de Apicultura, 18,9 Maputo, 11.11. 18,6 Mardan,.M, 10,6. 12,10 MARDI, 10,6 Mariana Islands, 14,14 marketing: 9,10; 10,7; 17,10; 18,10 barterstructure, 15,3

buying, 8.9 competition. 10,7 honey. 14,5: 35,9; 20,5: 21.6 investment requirements, 14,5,6 market development 8,9 price, 14,3,5; 20,10

INDEX 1981-1991


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT programme, 19,10 strategy, 10,7 system, 15,3 mariaola, see Tetragonisca marijuana, 20,6 Martes flavigula, 21,13 Maskey,M, 15.8 Maskey,R, 21,11 Matheson.A, 18.2 Mathew.K, 12,10 Mathew,S, 12,10 Mattu.V K, 19.15; 20.8 Mauritius, 8.7; 9,6; 20,14

Maxwell, 14.8 Maya Indians, 18,12 Mayer,D F. 18,10 Mazeed.M, 13.1 Mbabazi,H M, 16,7 McKinnon.D M, 15,11; 16,8; 17.2,12 McPhetres,S F, 14,14 Meals for Millions/Freedom from Hunger Foundation, 7,10; 13.4 Medellin, 10.6; 14.7 Megdhin Fita.W, 12,11 Medicago sativa, 7,2; 13,3 medicinal plants, 21,14

medicines, 7.2 ointment, 20.7 traditional. 18.4 Mediterranean, 13.2 Melilotus spp, 7.2

21,12

meliponiculture, 18,12;28,12 melliferous vegetation, 18,10,11; 19.13; 20.9; 21,13 melittopalynology, 7.5 melting point.9.8 Mendoza Arrdliga.C, 6,5 menthol, 11.2 Message.D, 10.1! Mestriner.M.A, 17.12 Mexico, 8.6; 9.7; 12,6; 13.2; 15,4,8; 19.2.9, 13 Mexican National Beekeeping Program, 15.4 Middle East. 13.2 middlemen, 20,5 MIDINRA, 6,5; 13.5 Miel Carlota, 19.13 migratory beekeeping, see beekeeping milk vetch, see Astragalus spp Mimosa spp, 10.5, 16.4 Minia, 8.6 Minor Species Association of Grenada, 10,4 miombo, see woodland Mirabeau Agricultural Training School, Grenada, 10,4 Mishra.R C, 7,11 mite, 10,11; 11,2,12; 12,2,4,9,10; 13,2,11; 17,1,6.7,14; 21,12 control of, 7,3; 17.13 Mjeni.A M, 4,2 mole hole, 12,11 Mollel, LON, 11,14 Mombasa, 18,7 Montevideo, 12,13 Montserrat, 13,4 Mopafi,l, 6.5 Morales Soto,G, 14.7 Morocco, 9.7, 14.11; 16,6 morphometricstudies, 12,10 Morse.R A, 6.3: 7,11; 14.2; 17,14; 19,14 Mosquera.R, 10.4 mosquitoscreen, 19,7 Mount Elgon, Kenya, 10,5 mountain, 17,7 communities, 18,10 grey extractor, 14.6 Mouzavifard.K H, 15.4 Mozambique, 6.4.5; 7,11; 8.2.3.1); 11,11, 12,6,8,13; 13,11; 14,11; 15,10; 18,6,7 MRDP/CECI, 14.8 Mugisa,D, 9,12 Mugono,BT, 20,12 Muid,M, 12,10; 19,15; 208,12 Mukerjee.K D, 17,2 Mulder, V, 12.7; 16,2 MUNAPIH, 13,5 Murless,P H, 12,11 Murungu,G, 16,7 muslin, 18,5 mustard, 15,4 Mutsaers.M, 12.11; #9,2,4,9 Mweso,] B, 8.2.3

INDEX 1981-1991

Nagoya, 8,4 Nagrota Bagwan Bee Research Station, India, 8,7 Nairobi, 6.1; 13.2 Nasonov pheromone, see lure Nassar,], 19,5 Nationa! Agricultural Research Centre, 10,5 National Bank, 6.5 National Beekeeping Programme, Mozambique, 14,11 National Beekeeping Programme of Nicaragua, 13.5 Nayeri,F, 21.6 Nazer,| K. 17,10 Near East, 9,7. 12,9; 14,13 Near East Foundation, see NEF Needham,G R, 13,11 NEF, 8,1: 9,5; 3.3,11; 16,15; 18,11; 19,14 Neghalya, 6.4 Nepal, 8,7; 9,1.2; 12,4; 13,10; 14.15; 15,8; 17.6. 19,15; 20.6.8; 21,11,13 Beekeepers’ Association, 21,13 Nephelium litchi (see also Litchi chinensis), 6,7 Nephelium longana, 6.7; 7,2 nest, entrance, 17,11 site, 12,11,17,12;21,12 volume, 17,1) Netherlands, 9.1.10; 13,8; 14,15: 15,11; 16,13 Ministry for Development Co-operation, 18,12

networking, 20,2

Melaleuca leucadendron, 16,2

Melipona beecheii, 18,12; Melipona fasciata, 18,12

N

Nevis, 14,12 Beekeepers’ Association, 14,12 New Zealand, 6,5; 18,2,13, 19,15 Government. 15,5 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 6,11; 13,3 News Around The World, 5.6; 6.4: 7.10; 8,6; 9.4; 10,4; 11,6; 12,5; 13.4; 14,11; 15,4; 16,6; 17,10; 18.8; 19,8; 20,6; 21.6 Nicaragua, 6.5, 7,11; 8,7; 13.5; 20,7 Nicobar Islands, 5.7 Nicoya, 18,12 Nieves,T, 20,7 Niger, 6,5 Nigeria, 12,11, 16,12; 17,2; 19.2,4,9; 20,14 Nightingale,], 5.9: 19,14 Nile, 13,1 Niue, 14,11 Nixon,M, 2,3 Niiro Wildlife Research Centre, 18.3; 19,14; 20.14,

2111 Nnyiti.P, 10.10; 12.11, 16.7 Noor Al Hussein Foundation, Jordan, 17,10 North West Frontier Province, see NWFP North Western Bee Products, 17.3,10; 20.10.11 Nosema, 15.4; 19,13 Nowogrodzki,R. 13,11, 17.14 Ntenga.G, 8.8; 11,14; 20,12 NWFP, 9,4,5 Nyika National Park, 8,2,3 nylon tights, 18,5 Oo

Oakes.L, 21,12 Ockenden Venture, 9.5 ODA, 1.1; 2,5; 4,1; 5.1; 6,12; 9.11; 10,1,7; 13,3,12; 14,16; 15,2,12; 16,1, 17,2; 18.3, 19,14; 20,11

ODNRI, 11,13 Odongo Omamo.W, 6,1 odum, 21,3 Ofori Addo.C, 16,6 OIDA, 6,10 oil, crops, 12,8 seed, 19,13 Okada.!, 8.4; 12,2 Oku Honey Co-operative Society, 14,12 Oman, 4,2; 8.1: 11.5 Onianwa,C, 19.5 Ono, M, 12,2 orange, see Citrus spp Organisation of African Unity. 6.1 Organisation of Mauritian Beekeepers, 8,7 Ordsi-Pal, Z. 5.2 Otis,G W. 4.4; 10,11

O'Toole.C, 21.14 Overseas Development Administration, see ODA Oxfam, 19,2; 20,2; 21,2

P Pacific, 12,8; 13,2; 14,13 pacifiers, 15,11 tranquillisers, 15,11; 17,12 Pakistan, 5,6; 8.7: 9.4,5; 10,5; 12,14; 15,5,11: 17.6.9;

18,10; 19,3,15; 20.6.8 Paltrinieri,G, 14,13

Pammi.PS, 15,4 Panama, 8,6 Canal, 18,12 Panataran Temple, 6.8 paper mulberry, 14,2 Papua NewGuinea,6,5; 10,5; 13,2,9 paraffin wax, 9.8 Park,H-G, 19,15; 20.8 participatory development 18.8 Pathankot, 7,5

Patiala, 6.4

Paxton,R J, 19,13; 21.45 Payawal, P,C, 20.7 paw paw, 18,7 Peace Corps. 8,2,6; 13,4,9; 15,9, 18,8 Smail Projects Assistance, 12,5 peach, 15,4 peanut, 18,11 pear, 15.4

Peixote.PP, 10,11 penguin, 20,7 Pennsylvania, E11

Perera.JMC. 19.11 perizin, 15.4 perspex, 18,5 Peru, 10,2,11; PL11; 14,13; 17,2, 18,9; 20,13 Peruffo.D, 11.7 Peshawar,.9,5 Pest control safe for bees, 8.10 pesticides, 810,11, 11,12,13; 12,14; 13,3; 14,4; 18,9,10 Peterson.M. 12,7 petroleum jelly, 19,14 Phadke.R.P. 7.4 Pham Van.L, 5,8; 19,15; 20,8 phenothiazine, 14,12

pheromone, see lure

Pheromones of social bees,

11,12

Philanthus spp. 4.5

Philippines, 3,1; 10,5; 12,6; 13,5; 15.8; 17,2; 18,9; 19,15; 20.7.8 Phokedi.K M, 8,2 Phuket, 8,7

Pickard.R S, 5.5; 6,10; 8,12; 9,12 pilotschemes, 19,3 Pindamonhangaba, 9, 12 pine, see Pinus spp pine marten, see Martes flavigula pineapple, 18,7 Pinus spp, 8,2; 14,2 Pitche, 20,4,5 plant resources, 15,8 plastic, film, 20,5

comb, 21,12

Plectranthus spp, 9,4; 10,6

plum 15.4 Poland, 9,9; 10,11; 14.1,2; 17,;20,3 Polish of Sciences, 11,2 pollen, 7.2.3; 9.10; 12,5; 18.9 bamboocollector drawer, 11,3 grain, 20,12 harvesting, 11.3 pots, 18,12

Academy

substitutes,

9,12;

19,11

trap, 7,3:11,3 pollination, 8,4,10,11; 11,15; 12, 12.14.15; 13,2,4; 14,16:

18,9;19,11 cross-, 12,12 pollinators, 18,12

Pollination directory for world crops, 6,11 Pollinator protection, 18,10

Ponchant.D, 11,11 Population differentiation and racial admixture in the Africanized

17,12 Port Launay, 18,7 portuguese, 11,11; 13,11 traders, 20,11 postcards, 18,10

honeybee,

pots, bee, 8,6

clay, 8,6 PPQ, 12.1 Practical Beekeeping, 6,6,9; 7.6; 8,8; 9,2; 10,2; 11,3,4,7; 12,3: 13.6; 14,8; 15,6; 16,10; 17,7,8,11; 18.4.5; 19,4,6;

20,3,21,4 Praslin, 18,7 President of Beekeepers’ Union, 20.6 Proceedings, 17,15 Third International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, 8,10

for that issue Figures in BOLD denote issue number followed by relevant page number(s)


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT Fourth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical

Climates, 14,14, 16,15

product quality, 20.4 producer groups, 17,15 Programa Apicola, Mozambique, 6,5; 8.2.3; 12,6 Programa Nacional de Apicultural, 20.7 project, see beekeeping project Project Tiger, 19,8 propolis, 7.2; 83.5; 9.10, 12,10, 13,2; 14,4; 15,2,10: 16,10,11. 17,12; 20,7 harvesting, 16,11 in medicine, 16,1 |

therapeutic properties, 15,10 Prosopis spp, 21,6 see clothing Proveskiaspp, 21,6 Pruett.C]H, 9.4 Prunus puddum 9,4

protectives,

pseudoscorpion, 16.5 PSTC, 20.6 Puerto Rico, 5,6; 12,6; 20,7 puffballs, 8.3, see also Langermannia wahlbergi Punchihewa.R W K, 19,15; 20.8 Pune, 7,4 Punjab, 6.4; 7,11; 8,7 pygmoid groups, 20,7

Q queen catching, see management Queen Noor Al Hussein, 17,10 queenlessness, see management queen rearing. see management Queen rearing simplified, 10.1

questionnaire 5,11; 11,9

R tafter bee, see bee tain tree, see Samanea saman rainforest, see forest Rainforest Harvest Conference, 17,1,3 Rajakulendran,S V, §4.1! Rajkumar,A, 7,10 Ramachandran.,T K, 20.8 Ramirez BW, 9,12, 10,11, 11,3 tape, see Brassica spp Rarotonga, 14,1] Ratnieks,F LW. 13,1] Raw,A, 24,14 reafforestation, 9.6; 15,8; 16,1; 21,12 RECAST, 21,11 Reddy,C C, 20.8 Reed.K, 12,11 refractometer, see honey Rehm.S. 21.14 Reunion, 20,14 revolving fund, 19.10; 20,5 Rhodes| W, 17,15 Rhododendron spp, 21,13 rice, 20.9 Riches,H RC, 18,10 Rigau.B, 18.8 Rinderer,T E, 11,13. 12,10 Rio de janeiro, 15,1; 17,12 Ritter, W, 2,3, 11,2 Robberts, |. 10,5; 13.8 tobbing, see management Robinia pseudoacacia, 5,1; 7,2; 10.6 Rodbee, 20,14 Rodrigues tsland, 20,14 Rome. 9,10 ronga, 18,6 Root,At, 17,14 rotary club, 21,3 Rothamsted Experimental Station, 5,3 Roubik,.D W, 16,14 Rousseau,P, 14.8 royal jelly, 7,2: 12,5; 20,7 royal palm, 16.12: 21,3 RRIM, 10.6 rubber, see Hevea brasilensis : Rudnick,T, 10,5 Ruijter,A de, 19,12 Ruttner,F, 3.10; 14,14 Rwanda, 95 Ss

Sabah, 12,10 Saberwal, 18.4 sacbrood. 6.4 Thai, 9.4, 13.4 Sadakathulla,S, 18,14, 20.8 SADCC. 83

Sahadevan,13,10 Sahara, 9,12 Saipan, 14,14 salt-petre, 17,12 Salvation Army, 15.9 Samanea saman, 20,9 Samoa Bee & Honey Co Ltd, 10.5 Santiago del Estero, 12,13 Sao Paulo, 9,12 Sao Tomé, 9.6 Saouma.E, 21.6 Sapium sebiferum, 7,2 Sasaki, M, 12,2

satumadu, see honey Saudi Arabia, 9,1,7,10 savannah, dry, 20,3 Savaii, 10.5 Save the Children Fund/USA, 21,13 Scaevola, 18,7

Scandanavian Seminaron Tropical Bees, 20,7 Scholten.F, 6.8 Schumacher,EF, 10,10 D, 6,3 Seeley,T Segeren,P, 13.10 Sekong Province, 17,4,5 semana, 19.8 Senegal, 12,15, 18,15 Serratia marcescens, 18,11 sesame, 18,11

setswana, 10,10

Settlers’ Association of Uruguay, 18.9 Seychelles, 14,13; 18,7; 20,14 shade, see management Shadere,A, 17,2 Shah FA, 8,11; 9.4; 10.2.6 Shambat, 18,11 Shende,SG, 7.4 shifting cultivation, 4,1,2;17.4

21,13 Showler.K, 7,11 Shorea robusta.

Shrestha,K

K, 19.15, 20,8; 21,13

SIDA, 10,5; $8,15; 20.12 SierraLeone, 16,12 Silberrad.R EM, 14,7 Silva, H da, 10,11 Sim,Ms, 12,10 SINAFORP, 6,5: Singapore, 19,9

Singh.MM, 21,11 Sivapatham,K, 18.7 Sixth tnternational Symposium

on

Pollination, 19,12

Skirm,G, 15,4 slash and burn, 14,2; 15,3,17,4, 19,13 Small-scale

queen

Smith.F.G,

7,11;

rearing 13,11

8.3

Smith,|. 48,3 Smith.R, 8.7; 18,9 smoke, 7,8. 9,12; 10,2; 15,7

treatment. 8.5

smoker: 7,8; 10,2,3.10; 14,6; 15.1,6,7,11; 18.6; 20,12 bellows, 15.6.7 fuel, 7,8; 10,2; 12,11, 15,7 making, 55,6

oversmoking. LE,14 snails, giant, 14.14 snake, 17,12.18.6 snakeroot, see Eupatorium stacchadosum SNV-Nepal, 9.1; 21,13 socialinsects, 11,12;21,14 Sociedad Apicola Uruguaya, 12,7 soilerosion, 10,6: |; 14,16,} Sokodé, 11,11 Soil Association, 20,11 solar power, 8,11 Solomon.G, 6,5, 18.4; 20.9 Solomon Islands, 6,6; 14,11; 15,5 Beekeepers’ Association, 15,5 Some differences between temperate European and tropical African and Southi American honey bees, 4.4

Sommeijer,M |, 18,12 sorghum, 18,11 Sosu,F, 6.6, 15,4 Source materials for apiculture, 1.2; 2,1; 6,10; 8,12: 10.6 South Africa, 8,2; 12,41: 15,$1, 18,6; 21,14

soya flour, 19,11 SPAF, 15,10 Spain, 5,9: 9,1,10 spanish, 12.14.15; 14.14; 15,48; 20,7 Spencer.R, 7,10; 13.4 Spencer,R A, 13.9 Speth,K. 9,2

Spivak,M, 20,13 Spore, 13,4

Sri Lanka, 3,1; 8.7; $0.5: 12.6.7; 19,2,10,11,15, 208,15 Bee Farmers’ Association, 12,6 Srinagar, 9.4 stainless steel, 19.6 stamp, 7,11, 12,7; 16.7; 18.14, 19,9 starter strip, see foundation stearin, 9.8 stingless bee, 12,9; 16,2; 18,12; 19,13; 20,9; 21,12 stork, 18.6 STRAIN, 18,9 Strategy for Research on Renewable Natural Resources, 17,2 strawberry. 8.4

Stroev.A, 7,1] Studies on social forestry in India, 17.15

Suazo Caliz.A, 11,3 SUBA, 16,15; 18,1! subsidy, 20.7 Sudan, 8.1.5; 9.5; 11,5; 12,11; 13.2; 14,13; 15,8; 18.11; 19.14

Council of Churches, 18.11 sugar, 19.13; 20.9 Sukartiko,B, 8.4 Summers.D, 13,10; 21,13 Sundarbans, 15,5 19.8 sunflower, see Helianthus annuus supers, see mahagement sustainability, 20,10,11] development, 20,7 Svensson,B, 12,3, 13,.4,9; 14,1,3,.5; 15.3; 16,7; 20,7 swahili, 10,10 Swaminathan.M S, 20,7 swarm, 9,12; 17,11; 20,4,10 boxes, 6,3 capturing.6,3.:11,11 catcher, 20,14 swarming, see management Swaziland, 12,7; 13.2.6,7,11; 15,6; 19,14 Sweden, 13.4.9; 15,8: 17,10; 18,14,20,7,12 Swedish, Mount Elgon Association, 10,5 University of Agricultural Sciences, 17,10: 18,15: 20.12 sweet clover, see Melilotus spp Swietenia mahagoni, 20,9 Swiss Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid, 13.3 Switzerland, 9,10 Syria, 14.12: 19.3 syrup feeding. see management Syzygium cumini, 18.9

T ta-hori, 18.9 Tabora, 11,14; 13.8 Beekeepers’ Co-operative Society. 15,1,2; 17,10 Tagetes minuta, 7,7

Taiwan, 19,15; 20,8 tajonal. 19.13 Tamagawa University, 8.4, 17.6 Tamale, 20,3 tamarind, 10.5 Tamil Nadu/G D Naidu Agricultural University. 20.8 Tanzania, 6,5; 8.3.8; 10,5.10; 11,14; 12.11: 13.2.8: 1, 14.1.2: 15.2.1], 16,7,14, 7,10,12; 19,914; 20,12,14; 21,11

Beekeepers’ Association, 10.5 Tanganyika method, see beeswax Tappita Beekeeping Co-operative, 15,10 Tasmania, 6,11 Tay.E B, 12.10 Taylor,O R, 4.4 TCC, 6,6; 7.10; 11,7; 16.12, 17,7 tea, 18,7 teak, see Tectona grandis teaching aid, 19,12 technical assistance, 9.7; 18,7 Technical Co-operation Activities. beekeeping, a directory and guide, 9.6; 14.4 Technology Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-

operation, seeCTA Technology Consultancy Centre,

TCC

Tefobale Bee Research, 12.5;19.8 Tel Aviv, $2.13; 13.8 Temple.G, 21,13 Tenaru, 15,5 termite, 11,4, 14,4. 17,41. 18.6 mound, 20,12 Tetragonisca, 18.12

— Figures in BOLD denote issue number followed by relevant page number(s} for that issue

see

Tectona grandis, 20,9

INDEX 1981-199]


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT

The biology of the honeybee, 12.14

The Centre of Science

forVillages,

5,2

The culitivated plants of the tropics and subtropics, 21,14

11,7

woodland, 12,! miombo 8235. 14,2 savanna, 14,1 worker brood cell diameter, 17,12 Workshop, 15,10 onparastic mites, F1,2 1

University of the West Indies, 21,15 University of Wales College, see Cardiff UPLB, 20,7 Upolu, 10,5 Uruguay, 12,7,13, 18,9; 21,11] USA, 9,1.9,10; 10,01; 10,1,2; 12,6,13; 13,2,8; 14,14,15; 17,15; 18,13; 19.6,9,15;, 20,15; 21,15 USAID, 8,6; 10,4; 14,12; 20,6 USDA, 11.1; 12.1; 19.9 USSR, 19,9 Uttar Pradesh, 6,4

World Animal Review, 17,2

World Conservation Union, 20,7 World Vision, Award, 18,3 ofBritain, 18,3 World-wide standards for hive products except honey and for equipment used in beekeeping and in processing hive products,

The Fund for Special Operations, 18.9 The Gambia, 10,10; 16,10; 16; 20,15; 21,15 The golden insect, 6,12: 10,10

Vv

4.2

Vaca Patino,A, 10,1,2 vaids, 18,4

The illustrated encyclopedia of beekeeping, 7,11 The impact of pest management on bees and pollination, 4.1 The management of Africanized honeybees, 8,12; 12.15; 20.6

Valfi,E, 13,10; 21,13 Vanuatu, 4.11

Worshipful Company of Wax Chandlers, 19,2; 20,2;21,2 woven straw, 20:5 Woyke,}. 11,2; 17,7; 20,3

The New Zealand Beekeeper, 19,8

Thomas.A M, 7.4 Thuvesson.D. 18,15 Tiernan,L, 7,6 tiger, 15,5;19.8 Tiger paper, 17,15

Tilia spp, 7.2 Tingek,S, 12,10 Toah,] M, 15,10 Tobago, 15,5; 19,16; 16 20,9, see also Trinidad and Tobago toddy making, 18,7 Togo, HI,11; 12,15; 16,12 Tomlinson,R, 18,5 Tonga. 11,11; 14.11 TOOL, 13,10 top-bar, see hive tourism, 11.6,7 Townsend.G, 14.8 traditional beekeepers, see beekeepers traditional beekeeping, see beekeeping

Traidcraft, Exchange, 13,3. 15,2; 17,10, 19,2; 20,2; 21.2 plc, 15,2

Wygandia urens, 19.8

Varroa, see Varroa jacobsoni Varroa jacobsoni, 4,4; 6.8; 7,3; 8.4.5; 9.4.12; 10,5,11; 1E,1.2.7,12; 12.1,2,3.4,9,10; 13,2.3,11; 14,12,14,.15; 15,2.4,.8; 16,.4,15: 17,1,6; 18,10; 19,3, 20,6,12;

21,612.13

control of 8,5; 9,12; #0,11;

14,2; 17,1, 21,612 herbal treatment of, 17,1,3:21.6,12 t tarsal pads, 10,1 Varroa underwoodi, 12,4, 21,13 varroasin, 15,4 Varroasis of the honey bee, 16.15: 17,14 varroastan, 15,4 Vatimo, 10,5 Venezuela, 9,9; 10,11; 12,14,15; 13,2,5; 15,8: 17,12;

20.9,13

venom, 9,10 Verma, LR, 6,4; 17,6; 18,10; 20,7; 21.13 Vespa mandarinia, 8.5; 18,13 Vespa spp, 4,5; 12,2; 14,12; 20,6; 21,13 vetches, see Vicia spp Vicia spp, 7,2 video, 21,3 Vietnam, 12,7,9; 15,8: 16,2,5; 17,1,3.4; 19,15; 20.8 Viguiera helianthoides, 19,13

training, 7,5; 12,6,21,11,!3

village,

Trang Cong Ta,Mr, 16,2 Tree of Heaven, see Ailanthus spp trees, 12,11; 16,1; see also forest and woodland cavities, 18,7 hole, 17.4

viruses, 3,1;20,12 Vitex spp. 7,2; 5.11, 19.13

tram, see forest

17,12;20,9,

Trees and Bees, 14,1, 15.1

Trifolium alexandrinum, 15,4

Trigona spp, 12,10; 18,12; 21,12

Trinidad, 19,16; 20,9, see also Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago, 5.6; 6,5: 16.7,13; 17,15; $8.13: 19.15; 20,915; 21,15 Tripoli Beekeeping Association, 15.4 Tropical and sub-tropical apiculture, 9,10 Tropical Apiculture Centre, Brazil, 9,12 Tropical Forest Products, 17,10;20,11 Tropical Forestry Action Plan, see TFAP tropical forests, see forests Tropical Research and Development Institute, 4,1 Tropilaelaps clareae, 4.4; 6,8; 7,3; 8.7: 105,11; 11,2,12; 13,2,11, 16.4, 173.6, 21,13 Tropilaelaps koenigerum, 3.1: 10,11;21,13 Tunisia, 9,7; 16,6; 19,3 Turkey, 9,7; 12,9 typhoon, 12,6; 13,5

U Tan Tuk'el Kab, 19,13 Uganda, 7,11; 9,5,12; 11,4; 12,11; 16,7 Beekeepers’ Association, 9,5 Red Cross, 7,11 U

YMCA, 7,11 UK, 6,10; 9,10,12; 11.13; 12,13; 13.8; 15.11; 16,13; 17,13; 18,13. 19,15; 20,11 Umaru Mufti.B, 20,14 UN, 14,1 volunteer, 17.5; 18,8 UNCTAD/GATT, 8.11; 9,10 Underwood.B, 12,4 UNDP, 14,2,11; 18,8; 20,11 UNDTCD, 17.5 UNHCR, 9,5; 18,11 UNIFEM, 14,1] Union Nacional de Apicultores, 19,13 Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, 10,6; 12,1,2 University of Guelph, 12,1 University of Khartoum, 8.1.5 University of Science and Technology, Ghana, 6.6: 7.10:

INDEX 1981-1991

Xx

Xianshu, Liu, 7.1 Xu, RX, 18,8

Y Yazbek,R, 14,12; 20:6 Yates,B D, 20,13 Yates,] D, 20,13 Yeboah Gyan,D, 15,8 Yemen, 12.7; 13.9, 14,16; 18,15; 19,3 yield, see honey Yucatan, 18,12; 19,13; 21,12 Yugoslavia, 12.13; 16,13; 17,15; 18,13; 19,9,15; 20,15

Z Zaire, 11,1,8,9; 15,9; 20,7 Zambia, 8.2; 11,13, 13,2; 14,1,5,6,7; 15,3; 17,1,3,10; 19,3,6,7,8: 20,11 Zander,E, 12,11 Zimbabwe, 15,11; 16.7.8; 17,2 Ziziphus jujuba, 7.2

Zooming in on,

18,11; 19.13; 20,9; 21,13

apiary groups, 10,7 centres, 20,5 Villieres.B, 12,15, 13,11

Voandzeia subterranea, 15,11

volunteer, 18,3, 19,14 Volunteers in Overseas Assistance, 20.6 Vragbaak, see AT-Source VSO, 14,12, 20,14 Ww

Wabwire Muwesa.E, 7,1 Wainwright,D, 14,1,5; 15,3; 17,3,10; 20,11 Walker,P, 4,1; 6,11; 8,10; 9,10 Walker,P T, 8.10 wall charts, 12.6 Wang.X, 12,5 Wardha, 5,2 Warsaw, F1,1 wax, see beeswax wax foundation, see foundation wax moth, 12,10, 14,4; 16,2 wax sheets, see foundation wasp, 17,5 Wedenig.B, 6,5; 10,5 wedging, 17,4 Welti,A, 15,10 Wendorf,H, 14,7 West Bengal, 15,5 West Indies. 13,4; 14,12 Western Samoa, 10,5; 11,11; 14,11, 15,10 Western Sudan Beekeeping Project, 18,11 wheat, 18,11 wheelchair. 14,15 Whitcombe,R P, 4,2; 11,5: §2,11 wick, see candle making Wickramsinghe.R H, 12,7 Winston.M L, 4,4; 12,14 Wisconsin, 11,! Wolde Senbet.A, 7,10; 8.5 Wolayita, 7,10 Wolverhampton Polytechnic, 17,13 women, with respect to beekeeping 2,4; 6,2; 9,7; 10,5; 12,7,8; 13,2,5, 14.4,11.13; 15,3,10; 16,7; 17,10,13; 19,9; 20,6; 21,11 WonegsiriS, 19,15; 20,8, 21,15 Woo, K-S, 19,15, 20,8 Wood.W F, 11,14 |

Index prepared by Nicola Bradbearand Helen Jackson. Copyright 1991

Figures in BOLD denote issue number followed by relevant page number(s) for that issue

zEYV

Texas, 19,13 TFAP, 14,1,2 Thach,Mr, 16.5 Thai sacbrood virus, 21,13 Thailand, 6,4,7,8; 8.7; 14,1,2,15; 16,5,13; 17,6,15; 18,13; 19,15,16; 202,815; 21,15 Thakar.C V; 7.4 The “African” honey bee, 20, 13 The archaeology of beekeeping, 5.9 The Asian hive bee: Apis cerana, 20,6


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT

LATIN AMERICA (

|

The Latin American Association of Beekeepers (ALADA) was created on 25 November 1990. The general objectives of ALADA are to group all the Latin American and Caribbean institutions of beekeepers. After several metngs with delegates of different countries in Brazil and Argentina, Uruguay was proposed and elected unanimously as the first country headquarters of ALADA.

The principal objectives of ALADA are: * to encourage the integration of beekeepers to defend our rights and improve our

conditions, *

,

to move towards the development and improvement of beekeeping in the member countries, * to encourage initiative towards the improvement of beekeepers, as well as the enhancement of beekeeping knowledge; * to establish permanent relationships with national and international organisations, both government and private, to co-ordinate local or regional programmes to support the expansion of beekeeping. The first task is to transform ALADA in each country, to integrate all beekeepers, associations, co-operatives, and public and private organisations related to beekeeping. If this is done on a national level, the results will serve as an example and will allow us to project ourselves with sufficient credentials to establish the objectives of ALADA in the region Source: urce:

.

Ing

Agr Daniel Bazzurro

NEPAL Beekeeping training for Nepalese women The Women’s Development Section of Fikkal Village llam (in Far East Nepal) organised a programme on education and training on beekeeping for rural women with the technical support of RECAST, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. Sixteen women trainees participated in the programme. These trainees were not total beginners: the methods they knew were traditional ones ie log and wall hives. The main focus was to develop practical skills in preparing improved bee equipment like veils. smokers, hive tools and movable bar or frame hives by using local materials. Zinc queen

PB

from Kathmandu to were taken excluders used for site at Fikkal the and were training preparing queen gates while runnig the to was A local hired carpenter programme. construct hives and he was given special guidance in front of the trainees during the classes. Besides this the trainees were also given education on basic bee biology and bee behaviour including swarming, absconding and laying workers. A further course will take place next year

The camera clicks on as the group of Lrainees

gather at the end of the programme together with Renu Maskey, tie Co-ordinator and

OfficerofWomen's

Development Section (on

the extreme left hand side) and

Madhusudan

Man Singh, Resource Person from

RECAST,

at the cantre.

Madhusudan Man Singh |

RESEARCH ON TOP-BAR H IVE DESIGN

|

This IBRA research project is now underway at Njiro Wildlife ‘Research Centre near Arusha in Tanzania. The purpose of the project is to establish optimum top-bar hive design and to prepare information material which will be widely applicable. the The first stage of the project is establishment at Njiro's apiaries of 50 strong colonies. These will subsequently be used to stock the experimental hives. In October Nicola Bradbear visited Njiro to discuss the project with Liana Hassan, Acting Director, and his staff at the Research Centre. .

:

:

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}

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|

|

!

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|

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|

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The project is funded by ODA, UK.

|

|

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Source:

Baobab

ELEVEN


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT

STINGLESS BEES IN COSTA RICA Dr Eva Crane, Scientific Consultant to IBRA visited Costa Rica earlier this year. Dr Crane is currently researching into meliponiculture (beekeeping with stingless bees) because she is writing a world history of beekeeping: meliponiculture has been practised in Central America for at least 2000 years. Museums in the region display beautiful gold ornaments made between ADIO00 and 1500 by lost-wax casting using wax from stingless bees.

x Dr Crane's visit

to

Dr Crane visited the stingless bee project at

Heredia (described in Beekeeping and Development 18) where researchers are trying to find answers to many of the unknowns which still surround beekeeping with stingless bees.

Most of the stingless bees in Costa Rica nest in cavities in trees, and deforestation has removed many of these nest sites. Even where reforestation is practised, nest sites do not become available until the trees are large enough to contain suitable cavities. The limitation on the survival of stingless bees therefore seems to be shortage of nest sites rather than lack of available nectar and pollen sources. It is no longer possible to obtain colonies by collecting them from the forest to put in hives, as was done before the recent decades of deforestation. It is therefore necessary to multiply existing colonies in hives, and one of the aims of the Project is to find out how to do this under present conditions in Costa Rica. Colony multiplication has been done routinely by traditional beekeepers in Yucatan who use Melipona beecheii, in December and also in spring when honey is harvested, so drones must be produced at these times. An increase in the number of colonies of Meliponine bees, through the work of the present Project, is likely to have an additional economic value as a result of improved pollination of native crops. Meliponiculture is a low-input activity, that requires no equipment except for the hive.

Costa Rica was funded by

British Executive Service Overseas.

Both now, and in past centuries, the annual honey yield from a hive of Melipona beecheii is |5 kg and occasionally up to 8 kg. From Trigona species it is up to one kg. This could be increased by perhaps 10-20% if improved harvesting methods can be developed. Such

a Belgian beekeeper, Ludo de Clercq and ensuing discussion brought to light the first real hope of Varroa control without chemicals.

SAME

i

DIAMETER

|

LARVAE

|

NEW PLASTIC COMB

TWELVE

Meliponiculture can have these socioeconomic benefits only where the bees thrive well, having plenty of plants yielding pollen and nectar close by, and a suitable (not too wet) climate, so efforts are being concentrated on these areas, mostly in the west of Costa Rica. Products from meliponiculture and apiculture are of the same types, primarily honey and beeswax. The characteristics of honey from honey bees that prevent its spoilage by fermentation are quite well understood, but this is not so with Meliponine honey, although we know that it is free from

fermentation at high water contents. Beeswax is used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations, but in most of the world formulations are based on the use of Apis mellifera wax, and buyers on the world market will not accept Meliponine wax. Domestic outlets for Meliponine wax should therefore be explored. For several centuries Spanish settlers used large quantities of this wax for church candles, and a craft market for candles made from it might be possible.

A chemical-free light at the end of the tunnel A chance meeting with

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People much prefer Meliponine honey over honey bee honey, and they believe that it has special medicinal properties. Its economic value lies not in large-scale production or export trade, but in providing rural households with a cash crop or food or medicine which they can collect outside their own houses when needed. The price obtained for Meliponine honey is several times that for honey bee honey, and sale of this honey increases a family’s income and social status.

A VARROA TREATMENT WITHOUT CHEMICALS

NORMAL COMB

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methods should also reduce the amounts of pollen and propolis in the honey which are known to reduce the honey’s quality and flavour.

A German researcher has been looking very closely at Varroa mite behaviour using perspex-backed comb cells. He has discovered that every time a nurse bee visits a cell to feed a young larvae, the mite runs off the bee into the cell and ‘checks’ the space between larvae body and the cell wall. When the larvae is fully grown and only 24 hours away from cell sealing, its body touches both sides of the cell wall. At this point any mite doing its check will remain in the cell and be sealed in with the larvae. 24 hours contact with the brood food in the cell is needed for it to become sexually mature. It can then multiply its numbers and more adult mites

will emerge with the young bee. Applying some clever thinking to this situation has resulted in the design and production of a full plastic comb with cells having tapered sides.

As the cell walls are further apart at the bottom, where the larvae is coiled, its body does not expand to touch the sides until some two hours before sealing. Thus the Varroa mite has insufficient time to mature before being sealed in, and therefore will not multiply. Although the combs are not cheap, at present 5 each, they would ensure pure honey for the public and ourselves. Lol Oakes, An Hes (Newsletter of the West Cornwall Beekeepers’ Association).

Source:

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BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT

ZOOMING IN ON

NEPAL

Size

]4 7181 km2 (56 827 square miles)

Population GNP

17.5

million

$150 per capita (one of the financially poorest countries). Agriculture accounts for 65% of GNP.

KATHMANDU

Main agriculture Jute, maize, millet, oilseeds, potatoes, rice, sugar, wheat.

Honey bees Apis cerana, Apis dorsata, Apis florea, Apis laboriosa. Apis mellifera (recently introduced by man).

Interviews conducted by BETRESP (see below) indicate that the number of honey bee colonies is decreasing: this reflects the environmental degradation which is occurring throughout Nepal.

Beekeeping Traditional beekeeping practices in log and wall hives. The latter are cavities within house walls where bees build their nests: this type of hive offers good protection against pine martens. Various frame hives for Apis cerana have been introduced, and in recent years lowtechnology top-bar hives have been developed and promoted. Comb spacing for Apis cerana is 30 mm.

Honey hunting of Apis dorsata/laboriosa colonies is widely practised.

BANGLADESH

Cc the Ministry of Agriculture in co-operation with The Netherlands Development Organization. Duration: six years, 1987-1993. BETRESP, SNV/Nepal, PO Box 1966, Kumaripati, Lagankhel. Lumle Agricultural Centre c/o BTCO, PO Box 106, Kathmandu.

Other activities have been funded by Save the Children Fund/USA and ActionAid Nepal. Many NGO's in Nepal are involved with beekeeping promotion. The Exploration of genetic diversity in Himalayan honey bees is a regional project to conserve Apis cerana. Further details in Beekeeping and Development 20, page 6.

Melliferous vegetation

Training

Most of Nepal lies on the southern slopes of the Himalayas extending down from the highest peaks, through hill country to the northern edge of the Ganges Plain. The country can be divided into distinct zones: the Himalayas which are forested up to the tree line, the hilly central area (500-1000m)} and the Terai. As honey bees are native pollinators there is an abundance of melliferous vegetation. Forests are Nepal's major natural resource, but these are disappearing rapidly. In the Himalayas are Rhododendron spp and many other flowering trees. In the cultivated valleys are Brassica sp and other temperate crops and herbaceous plants. At the foot of the Himalayas are sal Shorea robusta woodlands. In the Terai are all the usual tropical bee plants including litchi Litchi chinensis and mango Mangifera indica.

Gordon Temple organises training courses using Apis cerana kept in top-bar hives. Contact J Gordon Temple, Community Progress Nepal, Bansbari, PO Box 3191, Kathmandu.

AAA chapter Mr Krishna K Shrestha, Beekeeping Training &

Extension Support Project, Godawari, Kathmandu.

Beekeeping department Industrial Entomology Centre, GPO Box 436, Kathmandu.

Projects Current: Beekeeping Training and Extension Support Project (BETRESP). Implemented by

A top-bar five

for Apis verdad

Association Nepal Beekeepers’ Association, Jamal Ranipokhari, PO Box 1934, Kathmandu.

A traditional wall hive,

closed at the front with

Equipment manufacturers

a decorated stone

Himalayan Bee Concern, Chobhar Gate, PO Box 126, Kathmandu.

Photographs by Henk van Blitterswijk.

Honey bee predators and diseases Mites: Tropilaelaps clareae, Tropilaelaps koenigerum, Varroa jacobsoni, Varroa underwoodi,

Thai sacbrood virus (in the early 1980s this virus killed an estimated 90% of all Apis cerana colonies in Nepal}. Pine martens Martes flavigula are regarded as the most serious predators of colonies kept in hives. Ants, wasps and hornets also cause problems.

Honey The average yield from one traditional hive containing Apis cerana is about 5 kg per year. Plundering of Apis dorsata/laboriosa colonies yields greater amounts of honey typically 20 kg honey per colony.

Further re ading

fete

Thereis a

,

rel tively large

literature on the bees and

|

;

beekeeping of Nepal: many articles, papers and reports are held in the IBRA library. Two particularly relevant, recent publications are:

VERMA, L

R (1991} Beekeeping in integrated mountain development.

Aspect Publications Ltd; Edinburgh UK {al

Oxford and IBH Publishing Co Pvt Ltd, India); 367 pp.

VALLI, E; SUMMERS,

D (1988)

Honey hunters of Nepal. Thames & Hudson; London, UK; 104 pp.

THIRTEEN


BEFKEEPING AND DFVELOPMENT

BOOKSHELF

The of Ultivare th,

Pics

and

of beekeeping activities in countries

The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics

neighbouring South Africa The publication therefore covers a wide range of interests and will be a worthwhile addition to beekeeping 2 libraries

by S Rehm and G Espig Verlag Josef Mararaf, Weikersheim, Germany (1991). 552 pp. Hardback. This compact manual contains an amazing of the on over of plant 1000 wealth detail species which provide us with food, drinks, spices, medicinal plants, raw materials for

Bees of the world ,

by C O'Toole and A Raw.

clothing and many other requirements Each chapter begins with an introduction to the particular properties of the plant group, the economics, production trends, nutritional aspects, chemistry and technological features Major crops are treated in detail Ornaental and forest plants are not included This book is mentioned here on Bookshelf because it may be of interest to readers involved with aspects of sustainable land use The information given on beekeeping is unfortunately very brief and erroneous in

Blandford. London,

UK (1991) 192

pnce

Bees and beekeeping in Southern Africa R

H Anderson and B Buys.

Proceedings of the International Beekeepers’

Symposium, Stellenbosch, 1990. 160 pp. Available from IBRA. price to be announced. This publication is formed from the papers given at the International Beekeepers’ As part

oh

IBRA

s

services to

te beekeeping

world we operate a atail order service supplying publications worldwide Nina

Gibson, pictured above,

400 titles

of

is responsible for

A catalogue of over publications and visual aids

IBRA’s publication

sales

currently offered for sale by IBRA available

ts

MAIL ORDER SERVICE

Methods of payment Cheques and bank drafts. In sterling or US dollars Bankers: National Westminster Bank plc, 117 St Mary Street, PO Box 117, Cardiff CFI ILG, UK Account No: 85015415 Bank sort code. 56-00-41 Girobank/Postgiro‘ccp Account No 291794408 Credit card. Access/Mastercard/Eurocard/Visa, Please quote name on card, full address, type of card, card number, expiry date on card, and your signature for authorisation Don't forget - you can order fast by fax See our number on page 2.

FOURTEEN

.

-

Symposium held in Stellenbosch, South Africa in January 1990 The subjects of the papers relate to aspects of pollination, the impact of African bees in the USA, bees and pesticides, the biology and management of Apis mellifera capensis (the Cape honey bee) and Apis mellifera scutellata, honey, beekeeping techniques, stings, forage, and short reports

Prices shown for books available from IBRA exclude post and packing charges UK orders (surface mail) Overseas orders p&p p&p 1.00 2.00 up to 10 00 up to 10.00 2.50 to 20.00 10.01 3.50 10 01 to 20 00 3.50 to 30 00 4.50 20.01 20 01 to 30.00 5.00 30.01 to 50.00 5 50 30 OI to 50 00 6.00 00 50 01 to 100 7.50 to 100 00 50.01 Surface mail rates do not include insurance. Orders over 100 00, or to be sent by air mail including insurance, prices on request. {No insurance available to Afghanistan, Iran. Iraq, Lebanon, Nigeria.) IBRA cannot be held responsible for damage to, or loss of goods in-transit. Please quote Beekeeping and Development when you order.

9

18

This book will be enjoyed by anyone who has a liking for bees It 1s highly readable, full of interesting illustrations (mostly in colour) and helpful diagrams. The book explains what bees are, and how they differ from other insects With a world fauna of 25 000 described species, bees easily outstrip amphibians and reptiles (5500 species), birds (8600 species) and mammals (3500 spectes], and new bee species are being identified every year Most bee species are solitary and the life cycles of mining, mason, leaf-cutter and carder bees are described The road to sociality is then discussed, leading of course to haney bees and stingless bees The final chapters discuss bees and flowers. with a whole chapter devoted to the unlikely partners bees and orchids. The idea of the male honey bee as the lazy, feckless drone, relying on workers to feed him, has permeated our language. To set the record straight, the authors have devoted a whole chapter to males of the species, carefully emphasising the vital role of male bees and how they achieve it The cover of the book features a happy scene eleven males of an as yet undescribed species of Eucera (ground-nesting bees} settled down for the night on a flower of Chrysanthemum

part.

edited by

pp

Hardback Available from IBRA

.

coronarium .

Guide to bees and h oney

|

|

by

T Hooper

Blandford, London.

UK (1991 third edition) 271 pp Hardback. Available from IBRA

|

price 15.95

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The third edition of this excellent. practical guide The type of beekeeping described is with movable-frame hives and the text relates to conditions prevailing in the UK However, much of the information can be universally applied to frame-hive beekeeping and at 15 95 this text still represents excellent value for money.


BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT

ASIAN APICULTURAL ASSOCIATION The first general assembly of the Asian Apicultural Association will be held during the International Conference on The Asian Honey Bees and Bee Mites. AAA is one of the sponsors of this Conference, which will be held at Chulalongkorn University in Thailand, 10-14 February 1992. The Conference will consist of 14 symposia whose titles are: I. 2.

3.

Biodiversity of honey bees in Asia Biodiversity of bee mites Bees monitor environment and as survey

tools

Impact of Asian bees on environment {tropical forestry) 5. Varroatosis and other acarine diseases

4.

8.

Need for bees in crop production Economics of bees in pollination of agriculture, horticulture and highland crops Honey bees in conservation and wildlife

9.

New technologies and mite resistance

7.

technologies and genetic manipulation of Asian bees 11. New crops and hybrids, the plant and the beekeeper 12. in means of crc Advances biology protection and impact on bees 10. New

q

Pesticide safety for honey bees 14, Apitherapy and natural bee prodi 13.

%

For further details contact:

Dr Siriwat Wongsiri, Bee Biology Res Unit, Department of Biology, Chulal« University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Fax: 662 215 7436.

= o4 ~

Y —

Sociaw®

APIEXPO 92 During the Conference an exhibition products, equipment and publications will be held in the Exhibition Centre, Chulalongkorn University. For further details contact:

C Lekprayoon, BBRU, Department of Biology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Fax: 662 215 7436.

LOOKING AHEAD Please note that if you want details of an event to be advertised in this column it is important that you send information to the Editor well in advance of the planned date.

AUSTRALIA

THE GAMBIA

Honey and Tree Seed Farming Conference.

First West African Beekeeping Research Seminar.

21-22 November 1991, Melbourne. Two-day Conference on the linked farm enterprises of sedentary honey farming and tree seed farming. Further details from: ITC] Secretariat, PO Box 283, Caulfield South, Victoria 3162, Australia.

23-28 November 1991, Friendship Hostel, Bakau Further details from: AFET, Brikama Town, Kombo Central District, Western Division, The Gambia.

CARIBBEAN Proposed Beekeepers’ Workshop, 1991. The purpose of the Workshop will be to bring together beekeepers operating in the Eastern Caribbean to discuss topics including production, commercialisation and Promotion of beekeeping in the region. Further details from: Jorge Murillo-Yepes, IBRA Regional Representative-Grenada, PO Box 612, Saint George's, Grenada.

CHINA XIX International Congress of Entomology. 28 June-4 July 1992, Beijing.

Further details from: Professor Z L Zhang, Secretary-General,

XIX International Congress of Entomology,

19 Zhongguancun Lu, Beijing 100080, China. Telex: 222337 ICCST CN; Fax: (861) 2565689.

THAILAND International Symposium on The Asian honeybees and bee mites and APIEXPO 92. 10-14 February 1992, Chulatongkorn University. Further details from: Dr Siriwat Wongsiri, Bee Biology Research

Unit, Department of Biology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Fifth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical

Climates. 7-12 September 1992, University of the West Indies. Further details from: International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff CFl 3DY, UK.

USA International Workshop on Non-Apis Bees and their Role as Crop Pollinators.

August 1992, Logan, Utah. The purpose of the Workshop will be to facilitate exchange of current information on all aspects of bee biology and to improve prospects for establishing non-Apis bees as crop pollinators. Further details from. Dr John, Vandenberg, USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 843222 5310, USA. D

USDA-NASDA National Honey Bee Certification Workshop 24-26 October 1991, St Louis. Shimanuki, Bee Research Laboratory, BARC-E, B476, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. Tel: 301 344 2205.

Further details from: Dr

H

Fax: 30] 344 1736.

FIFTEEN


REMEMBER TO MENTION BEEKEEPING AND DEVELOPMENT WHEN RESPONDING TO ADVERTISEMENTS

FIFTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APICULTURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES TRINIDAD & TOBAGO, 7-12 SEPTEMBER 1992

ty

On Conference Day 3 (9 September) the field excursion to Tobago will take place. (The cost of a return flight from

{BRA provides the world’s most comprehensive information service on ail subjects relating to bees and beekeeping If you're interested in any part of that subject, we're likely to have what you need Our coverage 1s comprehensive, and includes all species of Apoidea, bee pollination, beekeeping with Apis species, bee diseases, bee products and

INFORMATION AT YOUR FINGERTIPS @ @ @

irescesn

movement and where is it going next. Renewable energy — what are the options and how to choose.

generai

For an annual subscription you will be. Kept informed with our journal Bee World Able to use IBRA's library in person or borrow material by post. @ Offered privileged prices on our publications and information service @ Welcome to visit IBRA’s headquarters in Cardiff, UK. @ @

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Mountains — overcoming the isolation. Pastoralism — support for a traditional and sustainable way of life.

ITDG's 25th Anniversary — Where is the AT

Our services include. Four respected quarterly journals. The world’s most comprehensive library specializing in bees and beekeeping A mail order service for speciahst publications Technical and scientific conferences. An advisory service on tropical beekeeping

R

*

sources, and

to IBRA.

B

*

rccie.""

Members of IBRA support this information network and enjoy the benefits of belonging

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The Fifth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates is convened by the International Bee Research Association and will be hosted by the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Conference Secretariat International Bee Research Association 18 North Road, Cardiff CF1 3DY

For further information on

membership and the other services that IBRA provides,

conjact International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff, CFI 3DY, UK Fax: (#44) 222 665522 Phone (+44) 222 372409

INTERNATIONAL BEE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION THE WORLD INFORMATION SERVICE FOR BEES AND BEEKEEPING

*

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APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY The quarterly magazine of practical change in the developing world

Reports from the field for anyone concerned with development in practice. Plus the latest in appropriate technology applications, news from Intermediate Technology, book reviews, Foodlines, Resources Guide and a development diary. Annual subscriptions institutions 12 individuals

16

Intermediate Technology Publications, 103-105 Southampton Row, London WC1B 4HH, UK

Beekeeping and Development is published quarterly by the International Bee Research Association, Telephone 0222 372409 International 44 222 372409, Fax: 0222 665522 International 44 222 665522 See page 2 for subscription details.

Environmentally Friendly Paper.

~

18

North Road, Cardiff CFl 3DY. UK.

ISSN 0256-4424

Trinidad and T

Opportunities will be provided to see beekeeping in both Trinidad and Tobago. There will be trade exhibits and other displays. Social and cultural activities will be organised by the Government of Trinidad and Tobago.

@

Trinidad to Tobago may be additional: you are advised to check with British West Indian Airlines.) An excellent range of accommodation will be available. The venue for the Conference is the University of the West Indies and some student rooms will be available on the campus. Other accommodation ranges from guest houses to the international chain hotels, or why not try bed and breakfast in a local home? Contact addresses and further details are all in the Second Announcement.

me

Less than a year to wait for the Trinidad and Tobago Conference! The Second Announcement for the Conference is now available and is being distributed to all who have requested it. Conference Sessions will cover all aspects relating to beekeeping in the tropics and subtropics: there will be oral and poster presentations, informal sessions and workshops. Full details regarding the submission of presentations are in the Second Announcement.