Bees for Development Journal Edition 12 - May 1988

Page 1


NO. 12 MAY 1988

for beekeepers in tropical & subtropical countries BEEKEEPING WITH APIS CERANA

The symbol for the meeting, an Apis ceand the countries where She is found. Yana worker

In February a group of those involved in beekeeping with Apis cerana, the Asian hive bee, met in Malaysia to attend the Advanced Course in Beekeeping with A. cerana in Tropical and Subtropical Asia. The meeting was jointly organised by Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (where the meeting was held), the University of Guelph (Canada) and the Canadian International Development Agency. This was the first such international meeting entirely devoted to discussion of A. cerana and was brought about largely through the efforts of Professor Peter Kevan of Guelph University who for several years has been striving to bring together those working with A. cerana in Asia. Creat efforts had been made to ensure that as many countries as possible with A. cerana were represented at the meeting. This resulted in 30 participants from 15 Asian countries attending, in addition to the Malaysian delegates. Apis mellifera has been successfully introduced to some areas of Asia where there is abundant bee forage and sufficient finance and technical skill are available: in such areas A. mellifera can be managed to produce worthwhile cash crops. However A. mellifera beekeeping is not viable in every part of tropical Asia and the value of beekeeping with the native A. cerana is increasingly appreciated. The benefits of beekeeping with a native species include its ability to survive well in sometimes adverse condipage 2)



The large, single comb nests of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata, are found high in the trees of Malaysia’s tropical forests. Plundering the honey from these nests is a skilled and dangerous operation. This is the work of the honey collectors. A meeting to document information on this traditional honey collecting was held at Cniversiti Pertanian Malaysia following on from the meeting on Apis cerana. This

was certainly a unique event with honey collectors being brought from remote Villages throughout Malaysia to the University where for three days they were encouraged to describe their craft, and discuss the problems they face. The meeting Was conducted in the Bahasa language and experts including apicultural scientists, Sociologists and ethnographers were kept busy recording as honey collectors described their collecting methods, the traditional songs and the customs and taboos connected with the craft. page 4)

VARROA IN CENTRAL AMERICA? On 6 May 1988 a swarm of bees was discovered and destroyed on a ship in Port Everglades, Florida. The vessel had come direct from Guatemala and Honduras. The swarm was found to consist of European honeybees but was heavily infested with Varroa mites. In a follow-up investigation by Plant USDA Protection and Quarantine the ship’s officers and crew were interviewed and they confirmed that the Swarm of bees was on the vessel when they were in port in Honduras. It is likely that the Varroa infested swarm originated in either Guatemala or Honduras and the appropriate authorities have been informed. Varroa has never up to now been Teported from Central America.

Source: PPQ “en eee



A young Malaysian boy shows no fear as

he demonstrates an Apis cerana ‘bee beard’ at the meeting in Malaysia. Although Apis cerana are relatively docile, the making of ‘bee beards’ can be a dangerous activity and should only be attempted by those skilled in the craft.

International Bee Research Association

ISSN 0256-4424

tions allowing production of a honey crop with A. cerana in areas which would not offer sufficient forage for A. mellifera. Only recently when beekeepers elsewhere in the world have had to contend with their colonies facing Varroa parasitism (a honeybee mite which has spread from south-east Asia) has research attention been focused on A. cerana and how it has evolved to survive in the presence of Varroa. The advantages of working with a bee which has evolved to survive in prevailing local conditions are now more widely recognised. Comparisons in productivity drawn between A. cerana and A. mellifera are often unfavourable for A. cerana. True, A. cerana colonies are smaller than A. mellifera and average honey yields are consequently lower, but in every comparison wild type A. cerana are compared with selected strains of A. mellifera. The benefits which can accrue as a result of selective breeding have not yet been used to allow A. cerana to prove its full potential. Although some breeding programmes have been started to select strains of A. cerana, in most of Asia still only the wild bee is available to beekeepers. The meeting emphasised the point that basic research on the biology of A. cerana is lacking and techniques for optimum management of this species await development. Many delegates expressed an urgent need for improved beekeeping extension but others felt that extension is an inefficient use of resources as long as the fundamental research and development of extension messages are still lacking. A major problem with beekeeping with tropical races of A. cerana is the tendency for this bee to abscond. This behaviour is part of the bees’ strategy for survival in tropical climates, and breeding programmes and improved management techniques are needed to overcome this problem. The one exceptional country throughout the debate is China where 800 000 colonies of A. cerana are maintained in ten-frame standard hives. These bees produce about 20 kg of honey per colony per year, although exceptional colonies may yield over 50 kg. Malaysia was an excellent venue for such a meeting. For beekeeping programmes to be successful a variety of skills are required. The beekeeping project at Universiti Pertanian is one of the few cases where this has been made possible by a team working together to provide expertise in apicultural research, practical beekeeping, botany, bee pathology, food processing and economics. The presence at the meeting of experts from countries with differing priorities and constraints and also from various fields related to beekeeping provided an opportunity for extensive debate on A. cerana and how beekeeping with this species could be improved. Much new information on A. cerana was presented during the course of the meeting: this will be published in early 1989 as part of a ‘state of the art’ reference book on apiculture with A. cerana. On the final day of the meeting delegates divided into 11 working groups to discuss areas associated with the development of A. cerana beekeeping. These groups identified specific constraints and formulated resolutions: one resolution recommended the establishment of a group to coordinate international activities in A. cerana development. This meeting provided an excellent basis from which to develop such international co-operation.

This Newsletter is edited by Dr Nicola Bradbear, Information Officer for Tropical Apiculture at the International Bee Re-

search Association (IBRA) and is produced and distributed under funding from ODA (the UK Overseas Development Administration). Two editions of the Newsletter are published each year and are sent free of charge to those in developing countries involved with beekeeping.

Views expressed in the Newsletter are not necessarily those of IBRA: letters of comment are welcome, as are contributions for future editions and news of fortheoming events. If you are involved with beekeeping development then IBRA is always interested to hear of your work.


Apis cerana defends itself from hornets

a recent paper* three Japanese scientists have described how Apis cerana japonica can control attack from predatory homets. From July to October hornets are found near A. cerana colonies where they capture honeybees to feed to the hornet larvae. The defence strategy of the honeybees is as follows: First a guard bee attacks the hornet and then between 200 and 300 worker bees rush on to the captured hornet and form a ball. Immediately the temperature within this ball of bees begins to Tise and can reach 46°C within the first four minutes. The bees stay in the ball formation for at least 30 minutes and then gradually leave it, revealing the dead hornet at the centre of the cluster. The high temperature within the ball is lethal to the hornet but not to the A. cerana honeybees. It is interesting to note that the homet is not stung by the bees at all: it is killed by the heat within the ball of bees. Introduced European honeybees (Apis mellifera) in Japan were also observed performing a similar balling reaction on hornets, but in this case the average temperature within the ball was lower (42.8°C) and several of the honeybees used their stings against the horIn


This is the first reported example of defence by heat production in poikilothermic (cold-blooded) animals. *

Heat production by balling in the Japanese honeybee Apis cerana japonica as a defensive behaviour against the hornet, Vespa simillima xanthoptera (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). by M Ono, Okada and M Sasaki. Experientia 1987, 43, 1031-1032. |

~ know of another beekeeper would benefit from access to who this Newsletter or the information service provided by IBRA, then his/her name can be added to our mailing list if they write to the address below.



If your address has changed then please return the mailing label together with your new address. Write to: Nicola Bradbear, Information Officer for Tropical Apiculture, IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff CFT 3DY, UK.

Ball on palm of hand: no stinging behavior was observed.

is with deep sorrow that we announce that Vince Cook, Director of IBRA, died suddenly in March. Mr Cook served on IBRA Council for seven years and was appointed IBRA Director in September 1987. He is very sadly missed by IBRA staff and his many beekeeping friends and colleagues throughout the It


RACTICAL BEEKEEPING Why talk about bee-space? 4B Svensson, Bikonsult HB, Sala, Sweden. When Langstroth discovered the natural bee-space for Apis mellifera, he opened great potentials for managing bees in movable

frame hives. When travelling in many countries have found that beekeepers and extension workers often talk about bee-space without knowing the meaning of the word. They often discuss a bee-space between frames such as 6, 8 or 10 mm. Their understanding is based on reading foreign books or having secondary information through their teachers. In reality the bee-space varies a lot, for instance: * different bee species have different bodysizes and therefore also different bee-spaces * within one species such as Apis cerana the bee-space may be different from one area to another * the bee-space may be different between two combs (perhaps 4 mm between honey cells and even 10 mm between freshly built wax at the bottom of combs). |

In both A. mellifera adansonii in Africa, and A. cerana have observed that the bees will leave good bee-space between the comb and the frame and the bee-space arranged by the beekeeper around the frame will be of very little importance. The discussion is also difficult when different beekeepers are using different widths of frame-bars. Instead suggest we use the term comb-space. By comb-space mean the space occupied by one comb and one space between two combs. The comb-space is very distinct for each subspecies of honeybees. This space can easily be measured in wild colonies. This can be done using a ruler placed across the colony at right angles to the combs to measure the distance between combs at each end of the nest. Count the number of combs across which you have measured and calculate the comb space by dividing the width of the colony by the number of combs less one. Many colonies should be studied in order to secure a good average. The following figures are only examples of what kind of Tesults will be expected: a




Apis mellifera



m. adansonii Apis cerana

35mm 32mm northBangladesh




It is very important to find out the comb-space before local and appropriate hives are designed. If hive design follows the natural comb-space in the local area bees will thrive in the hive and production of honey will be simplified. It is essential to design the bars in top-bar hives after the natural comb-space otherwise movability of combs may be lost. A hive with incorrect comb-space may cause the following disadvantages: 1. The bees will not centre combs correctly in frames or under top-bars.


The bees may build two combs in one frame or extra comb between frames.


The balance between drones and workers may be disrupted. Maybe too many drones will be born

in wide

combs and this in

turn can cause trouble with Varroa mites.

be difficult to detect queen cells in unequal combs.


It will


Division between honey and brood may be incorrect which can cause problems during harvesting and difficulties for the yearly exchange of wax. When the comb-space is too wide, the bees will cluster on a lower number of combs and productivity in the hive will decrease.

6. 7.

8. 9.

The bees may have trouble in covering all the combs which may encourage wax moth. Other pests such as lizards, beetles, mice, frogs and spiders will find it easy to hide in the hive when hive design is not correct.

The natural air-conditioning of the hive may get out of order if comb-space is incorrect causing bees to cluster on just a few combs or if extra comb- space allows moisture to condense inside the hive.

10. Beekeepers will find it harder to understand the biology of honeybees when they are forced into unnatural conditions. 11. Bees that do not thrive in the hive may be very aggressive or abscond.

Let's go ahead and study the comb-space in more wild colonies and continue this discussion on bee-space and comb-space and the effects of hive design!

HONEY COLLECTING IN THE FORESTS OF MALAYSIA Much information, most of it previously quite unknown, was gathered during the course of the meeting. Customs vary from one region to another, but most honey collectors operate as follows: during daylight hours a bamboo ladder is constructed from the base of the chosen ‘bee tree’ towards the crown (most bee trees are well over 60 m high). After nightfall the honey collectors climb the partly constructed ladder and continue building it towards the A. dorsata nests which are to be plundered: this process may take several hours with additional pieces of bamboo, rope and nails being sent up to the men as necessary, using a pulley system operated from the ground. When the honey collector has managed to move into position near an A. dorsata nest, a bundle of reeds is lit and this flaming torch is used to allow the collector to plunder the nest. The burning reeds are knocked on the branch from which the nest hangs. As the burning embers fall to earth (and amidst chanting to entreat the bees to leave the nest) the honey collector is able to approach the nest and, if all goes well, break off the honeycomb and deposit it in a collecting bucket. The rest of the nest is thrown to the ground. It is likely that the use of the burning torch causes guard bees to be attracted towards the sparks and foliow the embers as they fall down to the ground below the tree, thus leaving the nest temporarily unguarded. Some bee trees may be home to 20 or more nests of A. dorsata and by plundering all of these nests the honey collectors could obtain honey to a value in excess of US$1000. Honey collecting therefore plays an important part in the economy of forest dwellers, but with half a million acres of forest still being cleared every year in Malaysia, it is obvious that populations of A. dorsata are being depleted. During the course of the meeting honey collectors considered the future survival of the bees: they were encouraged to remove only honeycomb when collecting, and as far as possible to leave brood comb intact. The meeting served a most useful purpose in allowing traditional honey collecting practices to be documented. This is an essential step in helping the honey collectors and in trying to ensure that A. dorsata colonies and their habitat are given the protection they require. The organisers of the meeting and the sponsor, IDRC of Canada, are to be congratulated for their hard work and foresight.


The bee tree. The partly constructed bamboo ladder can be seen. This tree is home to 20 colonies of Apis dorsata.

The collecting bucket (made of cowhide) is prepared for hoisting up to the collectors working in the branches of the tree.

New species of Varroa A new species of Varroa mite has been

identified* from a nest of Apis cerana. Named after Ben Underwood who collected it in Nepal, the new mite has been named Varroa underwoodi. This mite differs from Varroa jacobsoni in havinga smaller sized body and the female has long setae (‘hairs’) radiating outwards from the side of the body. The biology of Varroa underwoodi is not yet known butit is likely that the mite feeds on bee brood and could become a serious pest of honeybees. *

M Delfinado-Baker and K Aggarwal, A newVarroa (Acari: Varroidae) from the nest of Apis cerana (Apidae). Internat J Acarol 1.3 No 4; 233-237.






. *

. . . =

. *






Barclays International Development Fund is helping to finance a The is Beekeeping Project in Swaziland. Fund helping the Lutheran Farmers' Training Centre by arranging revolving funds for local beekeepers, and by providing books, equipment and teaching materials. If Barclays Bank PLC are represented in your country and you wish to approach them to help with your then contact your local Barclays’ Bank beekeeping programme,


HONDURAS The Peace Corps Small Projects Assistance Programme provided funding to purchase equipment needed to bottle and store honey as a means of helping establish a honey cooperative.

LESOTHO The species of honeybee found here is Apismellifera adansonii. Most of the indigenous

CHINA Kirin Province lies in the north-east of China and is one of its key apicultural bases. NonPolluted, high quality products from rich, wild bee pasture, in the district of the Changai Mountains, are well known both at home and abroad. Kirin Province has the name of The home of the honeybee’. There are 400500 natural bee plants in the district which loom from April to August forming a long honey flow period. During this time 500 000 ~ 600000 colonies of honeybees are Moved into the mountains. On average, honey output is 10000 tonnes, royal jelly 40 tonnes, pollen 600 tonnes and bee pupae 500 tonnes per annum. The bee products of the Changbai Mountains are not polluted by industry, fertilisers and pesticides, and are from medicinal wild plants. They are espeCially nutritious, high in quality and a natural ‘Ood

The Bee Product Factory in Kirin Province Apicultural Science Research Institute is located on the shore of Feng-Mian Sang Hua Lake. In order to take advantage of the non-poiluted products provided by the Changbai Mountains the

Institute has developed high quality, new specialities which are nutritionally rich with a higher amino acid and vitamin content than similar products from elsewhere. These foods provide tonic effects, and are high-grade nutrition with a local


(Wang Xun-biao, Kirin Beekeeping Scientific Research Institute, Fengman Street, Kirin City, Kirin Province, China)


COSTA RICA Roxana Cordero Quiroz checking one of her bee colonies while her brother Berny works the smoker. In 1979 Roxana used a loan of US$100 to purchase a Pair of movable-frame hives and bees. The first harvest from those two colonies allowed repayment of the first loan installment and the purchase of a smoker, and Roxana has continued to expand her beekeeping enterprise. The loan was made available from IDB credit of US$500 000 given to Fundacion Nacional de Clubes 4-S, a project designed to meet the need for credit of low income youth in Costa Rica.

flowering plants that used to sustain wild bees have been indiscriminantly destroyed so much that few honey sources worth speaking of remain. Besides, wooded plantations all over the country consist mostly of minor sources because they were planted for wood production and not honey. However where suitable species of reliable, hardy and frost resistant Eucalyptus have been planted bees do very well for ten months of the year. Here at Tefobale Bee Research we practise low cost, low-technology modern beekeeping to produce choice grade cut comb honey using hives with double brood chambers and single modified supers. We planted three useful! sources of honey namely Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus melliodora, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, an Acacia species and an apple orchard to be pollinated by these bees. E. sideroxylon flowers at its best from April to September and supplies one or two honey crops of 10 kg per super per hive. In August Acacia flowers and provides enough pollen for colonies to keep up to strength after surviving cold, dry winters. From September to December E. melliodora known for its high yield of nectar blooms profusely. This honey flow is increased during October by a rather short flowering of apple trees. They together supply two to three honey crops of the same 10 kg per super per colony. Before the end of October this flow is further increased by E. camaldulensis flowering at its peak from October also yielding a further 10 kg honey crop. Out of a total of five or six honey crops 50- 60 kg per colony a year is quite common here. In February and March colonies then build up with abundant maize pollen collected in the cultivated areas around this small pilot project. adansonii is As regards behaviour A. aggressive, excitable and sensitive to external interference. Up to now we have encountered no problems with predators or diseases, perhaps because of our virgin environment. Basotho have no traditional beekeeping customs but they hunt wild colonies for honey to use as a food and cure for minor ailments and coughs. At market honey is in great demand because of the changing eating habits of Basotho and it sells very well indeed. One kilogram of choice grade cut comb honey sells easily for R5.00 (2.10 sterling). Unfortunately the pollinatory activity of bees is not yet generally understood, otherwise a beekeeping project could have been launched long before now, to introduce bee pollination into the intensive food production programmes now in progress. Happy, Modern Beekeeping! (T Mahalefele, Tefobale Bee Research, PO Box 46, Mafeteng 900, Lesotho)

MEXICO Organismo Internacional Regional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (OIRSA) is implementing a programme on Management and control of the Africanized bee, financially supported by the Interamerican Development Bank. As part of this programme 21 technicians from seven Central American countries attended a course on bee pathology taught by Dr D DeJong, sponsored by OIRSA and held in March in Cuerneraca, Mexico. Another objective of the programme is to provide each country in the OIRSA region with a small, basic bee library.





The Beekeeping Programme have recently produced a series of nine wall charts depicting bees and beekeeping in Mozambique. The charts are being used for publicity and training and include the following subjects: a

swarm of bees; queen, worker and drone honeybees; a queen bee surrounded by her attendants; a worker bee sucking nectar from a flower; a brood comb; a traditional bark hive; a beekeeper operating a top-bar hive; students operating a frame hive; Mozambique children enjoying honeycomb. The set of charts is available for 5 sterling from Programa Nacional de Apicultura, Cx Postal 1011, Maputo, Mozambique.


Raul G Barrameda of the Bicolandia Bee Raisers Association describes the effect of the typhoon SISANG on beekeeping in the Philippines: Before November 1987 — The beekeeping promotion operation was very successful. As a result we were able to establish miniTesearch apiaries in three provinces. Public interest was aroused which resulted in successful training programmes in rural areas. Self-financed beekeeping activities were moving forward in the depressed areas. Private institutions and the government were becoming aware of beekeeping in different parts of the region. Information material we received from [BRA played an important part in these promotional activities. — The bountiful During November 1987 results of the operation were buried due to the strong typhoon named SISANG. Our region was at the centre of its attack with winds of up to 275 km/hr. After November 1987 — Damage to crops, houses and buildings is rated at 80 to 90%, but as far as the beekeeping industry is concerned destruction reached 100%. Our three mini apiaries and shelters were totally destroyed. Only a small percentage of the beekeeping projects can be restarted as the Government does not have enough funds to support needy typhoon victims. — Expectation Recovery from the damis age expected to take three to four years, especially the coconut trees on which many livelihoods depended. Beekeeping is expected to recover if production assistance programmes are introduced, but this will take at least two years. (Raul G Barrameda)



The Beekeeping Association (Asociacion de Apicultores de Puerto Rico) has membership of 350. Currently the Government pays a

a subsidy of 50% on all equipment and supplies used for beekeeping, except the cost of bees. The fund available is US$100 000 per year but few people are taking advantage of it.

One local problem is the lack of printed materials on beekeeping in the spanish language. Recently the Department of Public Education has sponsored adult beekeeping training. The main honey producing area is in the central region where coffee is cropped. However honey production is not sufficient to cope with local demand. Competition arises from foreign honey imported from Dominican Republic and the USA. Due to differences in agricultural costs in each of these nations, honey from the USA is most expensive and honey from Dominican Republic selis at a lower price than locally produced honey. (Lewis Manuel Medina)

SRI LANKA Beekeeping in the Mahaweli Project The river Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka is 330 km long draining more than 16% of the island's total land area and carrying over 20% of the total run-off of all the island’s rivers. A large-scale project, called the Mahaweli Development Programme, is underway for harnessing the river for the dual objectives of producing hydroelectricity and the irrigation of a total of 364 500 hectares. The environmental aspects of this undertaking are monitored by the Technical Sub-Committee on the Environment (TSCE) of the Mahaweli

Authority of Sri Lanka (MASL). The Sri Lanka Bee Farmers’ Association drew the attention of the TSCE to the desirability of encouraging beekeeping by the settlers of the developing agricultural areas. It noted that, among other benefits, beekeeping could provide additional sources of food (and wax) from these lands as well as benefitting insect-pollinated crops. Production of hives (at US$5 each) and other accessories could also create employment opportunities. Benefits at the national level could include the saving of foreign exchange since the available locally produced honey is insufficient to meet demand, particularly for the preparation of traditional (ayurvedic) medicines. Pressures on the forested areas of the island are rapidly leading to non-availability of surplus “jungle honey”. MASL accepted this suggestion and has commenced a beekeeping popularisation project at Nochiyagama, a village in the Mahaweli System H area in the north- west of the country. Around 120 colonies of bees were established in settlers’ home gardens and co-ordination was provided by the Agricultural Officer, Ranjan Attygalle. Only indigenous Apis cerana are used; importation of Apis meilifera honeybees into Sri Lanka is not permitted in order to minimise the possibility of the introduction of disease or undesirable bees. The main problem experienced in the initial stages was mortality of bees due to the incorrect use of pesticides. This has been considerably overcome following the reduction by settlers of the use of pesticides in their home gardens. Initial problems with wax moth have also diminished following training in hive management. The interest and enthusiasm of the settlers for this activity has been encouraging and it is hoped to extend beekeeping pro-


grammes to other Mahaweli areas in stages. (Dr Rohan H Wickramsinghe, Past President, Sri Lanka Bee Farmers’ Association, 41 Flower Road, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka)








Traditional beekeeping is not common in Swaziland although honey hunting is widely Practised by men and boys. The honey is usually kept by the honey hunter for home use either as food or as medicine. Little honey is sold on the market because it is highly prized and is usually in short supply. With this as a starting point a beekeeping Programme is working to convert honey hunters into beekeepers and because beekeeping does not require a lot of time or resources, rural women are also being helped by the project. In Swaziland men are often away from home working in mines, so getting women involved is doubly important. The beekeeping education and extension Project team work within the Ministry of AgriCulture and Cooperatives. Initially they faced a number of problems common to all beekeeping development projects. The project itself had severe shortages of funds and transport, a widely dispersed target population and extreme difficulties in getting Materials to build beehives and other equipment. The target populations suffered from lack of capital, lack of beekeeping knowl@dge and lack of a market for the honey Produced. The first group of farmers to be helped received a grant to get started but the project team realised that this form of develOpment was not sustainable because (1) People would believe that finance is essential to start beekeeping; (2) farmers (and the Project) would become dependent on outSide assistance and (3) continual grant giving would require funds that are not available. For this reason the team decided to develop a bee education programme, designed to enable the farmer to start beekeeping no matter what the available resources. The team also decided that a marketing scheme would be necessary, at least at the beginning of the project to eduCate farmers and consumers about high quality local honey. In essence, the project team believe that the best way to motivate farmers is to demonstrate that beekeeping is €conomic under local economic conditions Tather than to provide artificial, short-term incentives. (Peter Bechtel, Bee School, Lutheran Farmers’ Training Centre, Box 229, Piggs Peak, Swaziland)


March 1988 Society of Beekeepers in Uruguay organised their 1st National Update Course on Beeswax. The course was intended to provide participants with current knowledge on the best ways of handling beeswax and the use of practical and simple techniques to identify beeswax contamination. The course also discussed the standards of beeswax demanded by national and international markets. For information on future events organised by the Society contact: Sociedad Apicola Uruguaya, Avenida Uruguay 864, Montevideo, Uruguay.






Stamps featuring honeybees Postage stamps showing honeybees can be a useful way of promoting interest in beekeeping. Shown here are a set of four honeybee postage stamps issued in Mali and a honeybee stamp

from Vietnam, which formed part of a series of stamps featuring insects. These stamps were kindly sent (from Mali) by Miriam Peterson and (from Vietnam) by Vincent Mulder.






agency, is seeking to recruit an experienced beekeeper to develop a rural amongst beekeeping project communities. The project is part of a

larger development scheme in North central Yemen's region, highland funded internationally and nationally, increase agricultural designed to



qualification in beekeeping



and honey two years

production and a minimum of Applicants without a experience. qualification but with considerable experience are welcomed.

CIIR provides


year contract, a single person, housing, a return flight, insurance, extensive various allowances, briefings, language training, etc.

colony, hive a swarm, inspect a colony, harvest honey and beeswax, uses of beeswax. She/he will also train a local counterpart in the theoretical and practical skills of

For further details and an application form please send a large stamped addressed envelope and your cv to CIIR Overseas Programme, 22 Coleman Fields, London N1 7AF, UK. Quote Reference:

The beekeeper will encourage small hold farmers and other rural people to participate in the beekeeping project and organise beekeeping extension messages for them, eg how to divide a


a two

salary adequate for



HIVE-AID No 9 (1986) a list of beekeeping programmes undertaken by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) was published. Since 1986 a number of additional programmes have been initiated and details of these are given below. All of these projects were implemented during 1986/87. Projects listed in Newsletter No 9 are not shown again here although many are still in progress. IBRA welcomes details of all beekeeping developments, however large or small. It is hoped that this information will stimulate cooperation between those involved in the planning and implementation of beekeeping programmes. In Newsletter





Burkina Faso




4.5 months

ment at the Farm Level

To improve honey production at

Consultancy services. Local training.

farm level.

TCP/BKF/5760 Intensification of Apiculture at the Farm Level BKF/87/016

30 months

Land Potential of Coffee and Oil Crops (Api-

12 months



ths) (2 montis 18 months



Consultancy services. Local training. Equipment and material.

To increase the production of honey in the country through the introduc-

Consultancy services. External and local training. Equipment and

To evaluate the feasibility of an api-

Consultancy services.

To evaluate potential for apiculture

Consultancy services.

of the suitability of the western forest of Kaffa for the production of crops other than coffee.


culture programme.



Advisory services. Consultancy services. External and local training. Equipment and material.

To make a preliminary assessment

tion of new beekeeping techniques.


Integrated Rural Development in Fouta Djal-

To increase the income of 200 farmers each year from the 2nd year of life of the project, particularly the women, and to improve their level of occupation.

ture Development TCP/ETH/6763




culture Component) TCP/ETH/4521 Assistance in Apicul-





36 months

development in the project area.



(1 month)








Madagascar Apiculture ment



To increase apiculture development


in the area by providing modern


18 months

Equipment and material.

To increase production and market-

Consultancy services. Local training. Equipment and material.

To provide advisory services and

Advisory services. External and local training. Equipment and material.

ing of honey and beeswax in Manica Province through modern techniques and improved beehives, using the existing resources and popularising the activity at all levels so that it can contribute to the improvement of the population's diet and raising of rural incomes and employment.

ment in Manica Province TCP/MOZ/6756


Consultancy services.

beekeeping equipment.


Mozambique Apiculture Develop-

To evaluate potential for beekeeping development in the country.



Afghanistan Apiculture Development


27 months

technical assistance to the existing Apiculture Centre in Kabul for upgrading its staff and facilities to undertake research, training and extension.


Centre of Advanced Studies for Post-Graduate Phase Ill: Agricul-

7.5 years


(1 month)

tural nent)


Consultancy services. Local training. Equipment and material.

To evaluate potential for bee polli-

Consultancy services.

for post-graduate studies and research in apiculture.



To increase and strengthen facilities


Advisory Services and Fellowship in Agriculture, Fisheries, Lives-

24 months

nation development.



and Forestry (Apiculture Component) RAS/79/123

(1 month)

Assistance to Apicul-

24 months






in the country by providing assistance to the Beekeeping Company to control parasitic mites, provide and select strains of bees, modernise laboratory and beekeeping equipment, train technicians and beekeepers.

Consultancy services. External and local training. Equipment and

To stimulate the expansion of bee-

Consultancy services. External and local training. Equipment and




12 months

ment in the State of Bahia

keeping in regions with a good potential for apiculture development, but where until today hunting has been the only method used to collect honey. To preserve stingless bees useful for pollination and to introduce new techniques of handling them. To improve the africanized bees, through the selection of queen bees, to increase productivity and reduce aggressivity.



To increase honey production

Development of the TCPBee Industry /GUY/6651

12 months


The objective of the project is to improve the economy of rural families through a wider. use of beekeeping as a source of family income, as well as to reach local self- sufficiency and export of honey. The specific purpose is to assist the Ministry of Agriculture to establish a pilot scale commercial honey production unit

Consultancy services. Local training. Equipment and material.

Local training.

and to prepare a feasibility study for the large scale production of honey.


Algeria Djiboutl


NEAR EAST AND NORTH AFRICA Services (Apiculture Component) ALG/83/002 Information

Apiculture Development TCP/DJI/6651

Apiculture ment


12 months

To contribute to the establishment

(2 months)

and consolidation of the national extension programme.


To evaluate potential for apiculture


development in the country.

24 months


To contribute to the development of a modern beekeeping industry and to increase the income of farmers

Consultancy services. Consultancy services. Local training. Equipment and material.

through the part-time activity.





To assist government and beekeepers in the control of Varroa mites.

External training. Equipment and material.

45 months

To increase the production of honey in Erzurum Province. To train local

(4 months)

beekeepers in Varroa control.

Consultancy services. Local training. Equipment and material.

3 years

To improve apiculture production

8 months



Erzurum Rural Development Project (Apiculture Component)



Improvement of Technical Capabilities in Apiculture Production


management and

and the standard of living of the rural population by introducing modern methods of production and to establish a framework to train local technicians.

Consultancy services. Local training.

THE ‘RED’ BEES OF SABAH by Susan and




Today, while we read with avid interest about the breeding of new strains of bees for better bee products, or worry

over the evils of hybridization, as in the case of Africanized bees, there exists in the quiet tropical forests of Sabah a type of bee. hitherto unknown to the beekeeping world. Is this a new species, race, or variety? Sabah is one of the two states of Malaysia situated in the tropical island of Borneo. Tropical species of Apis dorsata, Apis cerana, Apis florea and Trigona spp. are very common and bee products are still harvested from the wild by age old methods. A. cerana bees are kept in log hives or ‘Gelodogs'’ by the local people. Recently a different type of bee has been observed; they are larger than A. cerana, but smaller than A. mellifera, and amber gold in colour. they seem to have existed all along with the others in the wild, yet little is known about these bees. While A. cerana bees are known as “Black Bees” locally, the others are referred to as “Red Bees” due to their reddish hue when in a cluster. These names will be used in this article to distinguish between the two types of bees. Close observations to assess the behaviour of the red bees and preliminary morphometric studies were made to compare them with other known varieties of bees.

Appearance The dense coating of hair is gold in colour interspersed with brown giving the bee its amber gold tinge. The wings are a light amber gold with dark brown veins. The abdomen is banded dorsally while the ventral side is entirely gold, the colour deepening to a darker amber towards the posterior end. Behaviour

These bees are very mild. Their hives can be opened most of the time without even smoke or protective garments. No experiments were conducted to verify this aspect in comparison with other varieties of bees. When agitated, black bees pursuit distance is observed to be 60-75 metres while that of red bees is negligible. When the hive is opened they are nervous and excited, and run down the comb. Queens are difficult to find even in small colonies. The bees are not timid foragers: observing them in the field as well as in robbing situations, they are found to be as aggressive as any other bee.


ing and absconding two sides of a coin?

Pests Although no timing was done, this bee seems to fly more slowly than A. cerana. Whereas the black bees are visible only for about 1-2 metres from the hives due to their speed and manner of flight, the red bees can be followed visually for about 4-5 metres. Hives Hives with either six or ten frames were used, with the same frame size ie 32.5 x

17cm. Since both these varieties of bees collect little or no propolis, and burr combs are seldom built outside the comb area, exact bee-space was maintained only between combs and supers. Providing a larger entrance seems to help the bees to ventilate the hive better, and encourage them to fly directly to the cluster, rather than alight on the landing board to crawl to the sides of the hive. This also discourages wax moth from laying eggs in the debris accumulated on the bottom board. Increase in colony strength is rather slow, so red bees are generally hived in six frame hives. Transferring strong colonies to larger ten frame hives ended in the bees absconding. Joining with queenless or weaker colonies also had the same result. Exchanging a comb having brood in various stages of development between red and black bee colonies resulted in the red bees totally rejecting the black bee comb. The comb was cut down, eggs and larvae were eaten, and the rest were killed and thrown out. Finally the colony absconded too. In the black colony the brood developed into young bees, and were accepted by the colony as their own. The black queen refused to lay eggs in this comb so the bees stored honey on both sides of the comb. Using red bee combs in black bee hives for honey supers proved to be very successful.

Absconding Absconding is not a serious problem with A. cerana but swarming is; with the red bees it is vice versa. Are not swarm-

Wax moth (Galleria mellonella) exists with the bees up to a certain stage of development. Strong colonies consistently destroy them. Whenever there are problems in the hive, such as insufficient bees to cover the combs, a weak queen or whatever afflicts the morale of the colony, the infestation is aggravated, forcing the colony to abscond. It seems that wax moth is not the cause of the problem but is rather the effect of it. Remedial measures to correct the situation are of paramount importance to combat wax moth. Mites (Varroa jacobsoni) are also found in the hives but do not pose a serious threat.

Summary and Conclusions Apart from the appearance, preliminary morphometric analysis indicates that there are differences between the red bees and other known varieties. To pin point the true identity, more thorough investigation is required. Temperament and appearance are the most desirable characteristics of these bees, observed thus far. They are good housekeepers, diligent foragers and have little inclination to swarm but they are notorious absconders. Successful selective breeding to eliminate their absconding trait could very well make them “The Italian Bees” of tropical Asia. If this is a new subspecies we suggest it is known as Apis cerana sabahana.

Acknowledgement We wish to thank CUSO for sponsoring our beekeeping work in Sabah; Dr EB Tay, Assistant Director, Research Department of Agriculture, Sabah for his guidance and support; Dr Mohamed Muid, Professor at the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia; Ms Sim, Entomologist, and staff at the Agriculture Research Station Tuaran for guiding us in morphometric measurements and IDRC for sponsoring K Mathew to attend the Apis cerana meeting in Kuala Lumpur. * CdSO volunteers. CUSO, 151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5H5, Canada.

Since the Mathews wrote this article further research on the 'Red bee' has been undertaken. The ‘Red bee' is indeed a different species from Apis cerana, however it was already described by Maa in 1953 and named Two papers discussing Apis vechti have just been published: Apis vechti. Rediscovery of Apis vechti (Maa 1953): The Sabah Honey Bee by Tingek, S; Apidologie, 1988, 19 (1): 97-102 and Mardan, M; Rinderer T et al. time of drone flight between by different Reproductive isolation Apis cerana (Fabricius, 1793) and Apis vechti (Maa, 1953) by Koeniger, N; et al. Apidologie, 1988, 19 (1): 103-106. Koeniger, G, Tingek, S$









using newspaper to make a If smoker fuel. useful sheets of newspaper are used burn up in smokers they quickly producing hot smoke The for a short period. is of ideal smoker fuel course

cool long



period, and achieved by can be into a pulp newspaper making or papier maché. into a Shred newspaper bucket of water and leave over







it for 10 days, stirring produce occasionally to Obtain a a soft mush.






push the compacted After from the pipe. pulp the pulp has. dried thoroughly it is ready for use. this of The advantages material are: 1) it gives a



smoke and


not deposits; produce tar well; alight 2) it stays be can it and 3) and extinguished with water Use reused after drying. a length of ignited newspaper to get the material burning. (Ken


division Reed, Epsom the Surrey Beekeepers!



Beekeepers should never When you are

1. You







tube with an internal diameter slightly smaller than the smoker and fill it with the pulp. Press the water out of the









support forestaticn:


furniture source.



otherwise barren land: beekeeping is often viable in rocky areas is where other cultivation impossible.

3. You develop the beauty of areas


providing flowering plants. a

5. You create employment for

blacksmiths and carpenters

tailors, (manu-

facturing beekeeping clothing


equipment). 6. You play an important role in the


of your bees.

John Kaddu, Uganda

keep bees locally using pots made of mud, old buckets sealed nicely, and trunks of trees into which | drill large holes. Mult made from millet or maize is ground, some water is added to it and sprinkled inside the container. This usually gives a good smell and within 12 hours bees are attracted into the container. This container is placed on a tree far from houses in an area with plenty of flowering plants. A good source of water is important. Adongo A Daniels, Central Veterinary Laboratory, PO Box 97, Tamale, Ghana. I

Honeybees in mole holes


most woodland and grassland bees

are being destroyed by bush fires every year and colony numbers are decreasing. In Ethiopia, in the savanna grass and woodland area called Assosa, some colonies of bees can be seen living in the ground in preference to the traditional hives hung high up in trees. believe that this is to avoid strong winds. Bees in this area placed in Zander* hives give good results if seasonal routine work is done, according to the colony's needs: the results are best when the hive is placed with protection from wind on all sides, rather than in the open field or in trees. The holes in the ground taken over by the bees are made by moles and other similar animals which live under ground and excavate their holes. The colony enters the hole when it is empty and inhabit it from November to April. |

valuable food for or increased income both for yourself and perhaps for your country by the export of bee products.


interest that I read about the discovery and introduction of Apis florea to the Khartoum area of Sudan. Some people may take it as a blessing in the short term, but we as beekeeping people will in the long run be the victims of the situation. In your Newsletter No 11 (November 1987) I noted with great appreciation the ideas of DrRobert Whitcombe which I strongly support. The idea of having A. florea in Sudan, be it naturally or accidentally imported, is nearly the same as importation of old beekeeping equipment or bees from an infected area. In my opinion the A. florea colonies in Sudan should be completely destroyed with immediate effect if we really want to keep bee disease out of this Eastern Region of Africa. Paul Y Nnyiti, PO Box 370, Handeni, Tanzania.


2. You provide an economical

pollinated crops

Apis florea in Sudan


plant trees for your bees they provide tomorrow's shade, fuel and

4. You provide your family


EDITOR It was with









grown in the area




They leave the holes from the end of April to the middle of May when the start of the rains leads to the chance of flooding. I will be grateful to have your views and other beekeepers’ experiences of bees living underground in holes. Wolde Medhin Fita, Box 450, Jimma, Ethiopia. * (The Zander hive, named after its inventor Professor Enoch Zander is a top- opening, movable-frame hive, widely used in Central Europe. Ed) would like to correspond with beekeepers interested in development beekeeping. At this mission we have 15 Tanzanian top-bar hives and try to encourage local people to start with bees using the methods advocated in ‘The Beekeeping Handbook’ by Bernhard Clauss. I

Peter H Murless, Kwa Zainokuhle Diaconic Centre, PO Box 108, Estcourt 3310, South Africa. Beekeeping in Nigeria: Mrs Marieke Mutsaers, International! Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Oyo Road, PMB 5320, Ibadan, would like to contact and visit other beekeepers in Nigeria. Please send your address to her.

QUESTIONNAIRE Grateful thanks to ail who have completed the questionnaires and returned them to IBRA during the past six months. The responses we have received are currently being analysed. Your comments are very much appreciated and will ensure that your requests and suggestions are considered as far as possible. |

Thank you again for your help. Nicola Bradbear 11


DO NOT KILL BEES The bee is indeed a friend we need. Most people in Bangladesh are not aware of its services to mankind and even many highly educated people do not know about its usefulness. The majority of our people think that this insect has been created to make honey for us. [ asked a number of persons — highly educated, half-educated and illiterate — about the main function of the bee. Replies received from most of them were identical: “the bee makes honey for us.” Some of them however added, “the bee produces wax as well.” The correct reply was received from very few persons. Some readers may not be inclined to believe what I stated with regard to highly educated persons. To make them believe, I take this opportunity to relate a story based on facts. About five years back had been to a district headquarters on tour. Having failed to get a seat in the Circuit House, had to stay at the residence of the District and Session Judge of that district. After dinner slept on a comfortable bed in his well-furnished guest room. got up early in the morning and stepped out for moming walk. The official residence of my host was situated on land of over one acre. While walking in the garden, looked at the fruit trees and flower plants. A very charming spring moming it was and a gentle breeze cooled and refreshed the body and |






mind. Varieties of seasonal and perennial flower plants were seen in the garden with blossoms of various colours and fragrance. Some flowers were known to contain both nectar and pollen, some nectar only and some pollen only. But our friends were not seen on any kind of flower. became a trifle astonished. White flowers bloomed in profusion on two pomelo trees. walked close to the trees, but not a single bee was found on the pomelo flowers. walked through the garden for a while more. There were blossoms on other fruit trees, but bees were also not seen there. was disappointed and felt it my duty to find out the reason. When at breakfast with my host and his family I had little attention to the food served. My mind was occupied with only one query, why were there no bees on the plentiful blossoms? “Well Mr H, your garden abounds in flowers, but I didn't find a single bee on any flower! What's the reason?” asked my host. My relationship with Mrs H was one of jest and joke. Sharply she said in jest: “The bees have got information that a man has come here to catch them and he'll raid the garden before the night is out.” Everybody burst out laughing and also joined them. came to myself in the next moment and said: “Well your |








Honour, I’m not joking. It’s a matter of great concern. I wonder, why not a single bee is found foraging when flowers are in abundance in your garden! There’s no bee’s nest nearby, I

suppose?” “Yes there was one in my garden, in the cavity of a ‘jamrul’ tree.” the host said.

“What happened to it?” “Only a few days back, my orderly put blazing jute sticks into the hole and killed the bees. He then took out some combs. Only a little quantity of honey, not even a ‘chhatak’ was squeezed out of the combs.” ! was shocked. The blazing fire seemed to be causing blisters on my body. I could neither speak nor take anything from the plate. came round after a while and asked: “Did you see him collecting the combs?” “Yes, he did it in my presence.” I was astounded once more and said: “You are an Honourable Judge. Your Honour is to try cases of crime and punish criminals. Does Your Honour realise that killing of bees amounts to crime?” |

“Ive never come across any penal provision for killing bees.” “It’s true. There is no penal provision for killing bees in our country, but there should have been a law for the protection of this useful insect. This insect is under the protection of law in many countries.” “The bee is for making honey. What else do they do for us?” asked the hostess. “In the absence of bees, production of certain fruits and crops will go down. Production of fruits and crops depends on pollination and cross-pollination of flowers by bees and other pollinating agents, such as flies and ants.” ‘Is it? We didn’t know about it!” the host said now in astonishment. “Then no fruit will grow in our garden!” said the hostess who looked at me in astonishment.

“May not grow’, I said. “And if the fruits grow at all, that may be due to pollination by other insects. Many fruits will be inferior both in size and quality for want of cross-pollination.” “What is the difference between pollination and cross-pollination>?” “Transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma of a flower of the same plant or tree is called ‘pollination’. And transfer of pollen from a flower of one plant or tree to a stigma of a flower of a different plant or tree of the same species is termed ‘cross-pollination’. If crops are inadequately cross-pollinated they may become inferior in size and taste.” “Why should it be so?” asked Mr H. “| never found the reason in any book on apiculture. It is, perhaps, a sort of degeneration due to pollination among flowers of the same plant. It is said that defective children may be born to a couple belonging to the same family or clan related by blood. It is, perhaps, true with regard to the production of fruits and crops.” “Now | realise, my orderly had really committed an offence.” “Yes, definitely he had committed an offence. And the Honourable Judge had committed the same offence as an abettor by his wilful omission.” “Yes, admit my guilt. Now understand, why the production of our fruits and crops is on the wane. It is due to indiscriminate killing of bees of our country.” The dwindling bee “Yes, that’s it. population is a major reason for unsatisfactory production of fruits and crops.” “Then it is expedient to enact a law immediately for the preservation of bees,” Mr H said emphatically. ‘Yes, it is essential to do that immediately,” said. The time was up for getting ready to go to our respective duties. So we had to close the topic on bees. (Abu Ishaque, The New Nation, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 28 August 1987) |



Beekeeping Courses ARGENTINA Curso Latinoamericano de Control de Calidad de la Miel y Cera (Course on Control of the Quality of Honey and Wax) 13-17 June 1988. Centro de Investigaciones Apicolas (CEDIA), de la Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero. Further information from: Dr Eduardo Mario Bianchi, Av Moreno (s) 577, 4200 Santiago del Estero, Argentina.


LOOKING AHEAD Please note if you are planning a beekeeping event and you want details to appear in this column it is important that you send information to the Editor of the Newsletter well in advance of the planned date.



I curso de Potinizacion (Pollination Course No 1). 29 September-9 October 1988. The course is aimed at agricul-

XXXII International Beekeeping Congress, Apimondia. 22-26 October 1989, Rio de Janeiro. Further details to be announced.






apicultural products from Uruguay and Latin-American countries. Further details from: Daniel

Sociedad Apicola Av Uruguay 864, Montevideo.


University diploma in tropical beekeeping. A six month course, in the french language. Further information from: Madame B Darchen, Directrice de la Station BioloGique des Eyzies, Université Paris VI,

24620 Les Eyzies, France.

GHANA International Beekeeping Course. 11-17 September 1988. University of Science and TechNology, Kumasi. Further information from: The Director, Technology Consultancy Centre, University of Science and Technology, University Post Office, Kumasi, Ghana.




UK Diploma in apiculture. An international diploma course taught within the Bee Research Unit at the Department of Zoology, University College, Cardiff. This annual course runs from October until July and is intended for those who already have science degrees or approPriate posts in government research or the agricultural industry. Further information from: Professor R S Pickard, Bee Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University College, Cardiff, CF1 1XL, Wales, UK.


18th International Congress of Entomology.

3-9July 1988, Vancouver.

USA International Beekeeping Seminar VIII 18-29 July 1988. The Ohio State University and the United States Department of Agriculture. Week 1 — Basic Beekeeping, Week 2 — International Beekeeping Topics. Simultaneous translation in Spanish or French is available if requested in advance: a surcharge is required. Further details from: Gail Miller, International Programs, Agricultural Technical Institute, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA.


ISRAEL International course on beekeeping and extension. April — June 1988. This two month course involves lectures, laboratory work and field trips. The course is designed to enable participants to make improvements in beekeeping in their home countries and to be skilled in extending knowledge to beekeepers. For details of future courses write to: The Director, Centre for International Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, POB 7054, Tel Aviv, 61070, Israel.


Beekeeping Meetings

Further information from: The 18th Congress Secretariat, Venue West Ltd, 801- 750 Jervis St, Vancouver, BC V6E 2A9, Canada.

EGYPT 4th International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates.

6-10 November 1988, Cairo. Further details on the back page of

this Newsletter.

Pre-conference beekeeping tour of Egypt. Borje Svensson of Sweden is organising a beekeeping study tour of Egypt in the week before the 4th International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates (see back page). There are spaces for English speaking participants on this tour which will commence in Cairo on 30 October. if you are interested in joining the tour please write to Mr Svensson at Box 5034, Oja, S-73300, Sala, Sweden.



2nd Australian and International Bee Congress. 21-24 July 1988, Gold Coast, Queensland. Further information from: The Convenor, The Second Australian and International Bee Congress, GPO Box 1402, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 4001.

1st National Beekeeping Meeting.

beekeeping development in Mozambique. Further details from Jose Alcobia, Chairman of the Steering Committee,

Ist National Beekeeping Meeting, CP 1011, Maputo, Mozambique.


Burkina Faso Agricultural Alternatives tional Self-Sufficiency.

12-14 October 1988. The meeting will discuss strategies of



2-5 January 1989, Ouagadougou. This seventh International IFOAM Conference will deal with specific problems of agricultural developmental related to theoretical work and practical approaches of agro-forestry. details Further from: IFOAM Conference, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

5th International Symposium on Apiculture.

22-25 September 1988. This Symposium is intended for re-

searchers and experts involved with apitherapy, which is the therapeutic use of bee products. The Symposium will be

conducted English. Further details from: Kompas Jugoslavija, Congress Department, 61000 Ljubljana, Prazakova 4, Yugoslavia.




the known differences in biology between temperate and tropical honeybees. The book contains excellent illustrations, some new and some redrawn from other sources: these together with Mark Winston's skill at explaining complex concepts in a lively and interesting way, make this an enjoyable and highly informative text. It will be a useful addition to every beekeeping library.


BOOKSHELF of management including queen rearing, and equipment available for modern beekeeping, including motor-driven machinery. The final chapters give details of pesticides, and the use of honeybees for crop pollination. This useful book (which can be read in one evening) will provide an excellent guide to the subject for the complete newcomer to Asian beekeeping as well as giving factual, current and unbiased help to practising beekeepers.


Beekeeping in Asia



Beekeeping in Asia

thep Akratanakul

by Pong-

FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin, 68/4, FAO, Rome, Italy, 1987. ISBN 92-5102518-5, 112 pages, paperback. Available from FAO sales agents or from IBRA, price 7.50 (excluding postage and packing)*. This new publication provides a concise introduction to beekeeping as it is practised now in Asia. The first chapter of the book describes briefly all the commonly-recognised species of honeybees found in Asia. The remainder of the book deals with the biology and management of the two hive bee species now present in Asia, Apis cerana and introduced Apismellifera. The reader is instructed on bee forage and how to construct a floral

calendar: this is useful information as data on forage availability is still lacking in much of Asia. Many would-be beekeepers are often deluded into believing that because an area appears to have plenty of flowering plants commercial beekeeping is a possibility: this new publication gives good advice on how to assess beekeeping potential more accurately.

Traditional and modern beekeeping A. cerana are described, with useful tips on management and advice on diseases to look out for in A. cerana. Reflecting the lack of information generally available on A. cerana, little is given on designs of low-technology or movable frame hives appropriate for A. cerana in tropical countries. In comparison much more advice is provided for A. mellifera, with detailed descriptions of hives, most with




PRE she Honey

Honeybee pollination of important entomophilous crops by Rafiq Anmad

Directorate of Publications, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan, 1987. ISBN 969-409034-2, 104 pages, paperback. In English.

This publication lists the main fruit, fod-

der seed, oilseed and vegetable crops grown in Pakistan and reviews the publications describing the pollination of these crops. The book will be of value to agriculturalists who wish to know the pollination requirements of the crops they are growing.


salogy The Bioloe! oF




ma ~~ ge) BARDS


Manejo de la abeja africanidada by Ricardo Gomez Rodriguez






ie. . RE hg Be ai


ek ge

LPL Rol nad

Apicultura Venezolana, Caracas, Venezuela, 1986. ISBN 980-265-019-6, 280 pages, paperback.



A text in Spanish covering


The biology of the honeybee by Mark Winston

Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and London, England 1987. ISBN 0-674-07408-4, 281 pages, hardback.

Available from IBRA price 23.95 cluding postage and packing)*.


Anew text book giving a comprehensive account of honeybee biology. For each

of the major fields of honeybee biology Winston has written an effective review which allows the reader to understand the basic concepts involved in the subject and be well informed about current research topics and findings. Starting with the evolutionary history of honeybees the reader is taken through honeybee anatomy, development and nutrition, nest architecture, activities of worker bees, pheromones, communication and orientation, food collection, colony reproduction, drones, queens and mating. The final chapter discusses

all aspects of practical beekeeping in Venezuela. Much of the book is concerned with beekeeping techniques including honey processing and these are particularly well illustrated. Much useful information is also provided on the bee flora of Venezuela,


ween gare 6OY


puna aprcaus


PRE sun


Catalogo para una flora apicola venezolana by Santiago Lopez-Palacios

Cosejo de Desarrollo Cientificio y Humanistico, Mérida, Venezuela, 1986.



Paperback. In

211 pages,


This catalogue starts with a brief introduction to the bees of Venezuela and the types of honey commonly available. The main part of the catalogue is taken up by a list of 150 plant families and the names of nectar bearing species found in Venezuela. Usefu appendices are Provided listing plant common names, commercial beekeepers in Venezuela and beekeeping societies.

New leaflets from IBRA Leaflet 1 — Information for beekeepers in tropical and subtropical countries obtainable from IBRA. A new eight page edition of Leaflet 1 detailing publications available free of charge and to purchase from IBRA.


These Information Charts are for use as teaching aids. They are available from IBRA free of charge, but only to institutes such as schools” and

agricultural countries.

wot Nad

eo, é #3

and to developing

colleges, projects in


Chart 1 Information on Beeswax. This chart aims to persuade beekeepers not to discard beeswax, but to value it as an additional crop which can, by simple methods, be readily processed for market.


This 2 Information on honey. chart describes what honey is and how Chart

it is

made by bees. Simple details given on, for example, how to prepare honey for market, what determines and the honey quality, difference between granulated and


liquid honey.





Top-bar hives.

The basic features of a top-bar hive are described along with illustrations

Le point sur lapiculture en afrique tropicale by Bruno Villieres

Dossier No 11, Groupe de Recherche et d'Echanges Technologiques (GRET), Paris, France, 1987. ISBN 2-86844-

017-7, French.




Leaflet 3 — Information for beekeepers in tropical and subtropical countries on Varroa jacobsoni. A new four page leaflet describing Varroa jacobsoni, its biology, how to detect its presence and methods to control it.

Both of these leaflets are available free of charge from IBRA.

Still available:

Available from GRET, 213 rue La Fayette, 75010, Paris. This book consists of five parts. Part Tapidly reviews the istry of beekeeping, the world honey trade and bee biology. Part Il discusses beekeeping in West Africa: the African honeybee, the flora found there, the beekeepers and ‘the methods they use, with interesting Pictures and descriptions of the traditional beekeeping practised in Guinea Bissau, Senegal and Togo. Part Ill examines the benefits of beekeeping and proVides examples of low-technology equipment and Part IV lists useful addresses. Part V consists of five annexes describing bee biometry, bee forage and pollination in West Africa, IBRA, Apimondia, and publications of OPIDA. This is an attractive publication which mainly presents information assembled from elsewhere in a new for|





ation for beekeepers in tropical and subtropical countries on the management of Africanized bees. Available in English or Spanish, free of charge from IBRA. {





of the various types of top-bar hives that have so far been developed. Some and of advantages disadvantages in are hives top-bar beekeeping listed, and the basic principles of the construction of top-~bar hives are given. Chart





This chart is primarily intended to help explain to crop-growers the value of honeybees in pollinating their Brief descriptions of why crops.

pollination is important takes







place are given, along with of crop plants that benefit from


you would

project these



receive charts then to

institute one or more




of Dr

Nicola Bradbear, Information Officer Interfor Tropical Apiculture, national Bee Research Association, 18 North Road,


CF1 3DY,


Please note that information charts will be dispatched by surface post and may take some time to reach you. "

Information on TOP-GAR HIVES





| rc

7 i





‘IBRA MAIL ORDER TERMS Post and packing charges for orders to

UK and overseas addresses by surface mail only. Orders totalling: 1.00 upto 10 00 2.00 10.01 to20.00 ...............

3.00 20.01 to 30.00 4.00 30.01 to40.00 5.00 40.01 to 100.00 For orders over 100, post and packing charges will be quoted on receipt of order. Air mail charges are also quoted on request.





Top-bar hives.


FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APICULTURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES convened by the International Bee Research Association (IBRA) and hosted by the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt (ARE) as part of the Diamond Jubilee Celebration of the

Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture

Egyptian International Centre for Agriculture, Cairo, Egypt, 6-10 November 1988 The Conference will include sessions devoted to important aspects of tropical beekeeping, poster displays, trade stands discussions and technical visits. A programme for accompanying persons has also been arranged.

This Conference provides the major opportunity for those actively involved with the development of beekeeping in the tropics to meet and exchange knowledge and ideas. Sessions will include: African honeybees: Africanized honeybees: Asian honeybees Improving the quality standards of honey and wax: Marketing Appropriate beekeeping equipment: Management techniques and problems Beekeeping in integrated rural development programmes: Education and training Country reports: Crop pollination and forage: Pest control safe for bees Encouraging women as beekeepers: The importation of honeybees Mite parasites of honeybees: Other pests and diseases Bee products for the benefit of human health. Registration fee: 200 USS if paid before


August 1988, thereafter 250 US$.

Accompanying person fee: 40 USS. To receive the 2nd Circular for the Conference, write to: Conference Steering Committee, IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff, CF1

3DY, UK.

For details of special flights to Cairo, Conference accommodation and various pre-* and post-conference tours please contact the Official Conference Travel Agent: Misr Travel/Egypt, 1 Talaat Harb Street, PO Box 1000, Cairo, Egypt. Cable Address Misrship. Telex: 22666/20771 Mrship UN. Overseas Offices: Frankfurt-Jeddah-Kuwait-London-New York-Paris-Rome-Stockholm-Sydney'

Tokyo. * Pre-conference beekeeping tour of Egypt

If undelivered, please return to:

see page 15.

IBRA, 18 North Road, Cardiff CF1 3DY, UK.




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