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Page 1

HOUSING

research and documentation


Design by Bhavika Aggarwal, Sandeep Ahuja, Varun Bajaj Š School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi 2012 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without written permission from the publisher or author, except in the case of a reviewer, who may quote brief passages embodied in critical articles or in a review. Published in 2014 by School of Planning and Architecture 2 Indraprastha Estate New Delhi 110002 India Printed in New Delhi


HOUSING research and documentation b. arch fourth year academic session

2011-12

SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE NEW DELHI


The students of Fourth Year School of Planning and Architecture New Delhi Academic Session 2011-12

Abhimanyu Mittal Aishwarya Bharatkumar Alok Kumar Aman Jain Amit Chander Pathipaka Ammani Nair Amri Chadha Animesh Behera Ankit Sampatram Ankur Yadav Anuj Khandelwal Anuj Mittal Artika Aggarwal Balaram Munda

Bawesh Pradhan Beeravelli Chetan Bhavika Aggarwal Bimching Maio Changam Wangsa Debakshi Mitra Debashish Biswas Deepak Sharma Dhritiman Das Dhruv Gupta Divya Bansal Dyutisree Halder E. Kautilya Garima Mendiratta

Harsiddh Kumar Sonara Ishwar C. Vidyasagar Joydeep Mondal Joyjeet Kanungo K. Aditya Prudhvi Madhav Kabilan S. Kaushik Narayan B. Mahboubeh Touri Manik Gupta Meban Shanborarbaniang Mohd. Rashideen Saifi N. Navaneethakrishnan Nikit Deshlahra Nishant Gautam

Nitesh Kumar Nongan Perme Ojaswini Singh Prachita Singh Malik Priyanshi Shukla Ranvir Kumar Singh Rohan Patankar Rohit Pratik Sandeep Ahuja Saudamini Chattopadhyay Saurabh Gupta Shashank Gautam Shashank Goyal Shila Cangy Abdula

Shobitha Jacob Shruti Jalodia Soumya Sharma Sumati Mattoo Sushant Jain Swati Goel Swati Rastogi Tongpangnungshi C. Jamir Tripti Mahaseth Tshering Dendup Tshering Denka Tshering Penjor Ugyen Utkarsh Prakash

Vani Sood Kunnappilly Varun Bajaj Varun Kumar Deorha Varun Seth Vijendla Ratna Kiran Virkein Dhar Wate Zhiemi Zothankimi Zoya Ajaz


1

POLICY

HOUSING

1.1 Policies 1.2 By-Laws 1.3 Legislation

2

ISSUE SPECIFIC

6

INTERNATIONAL

2.1 Inclusive Housing 2.2 Squatter Settlements 2.3 Sustainable and Green Housing 2.4 Utopian Housing

3

CLIMATE & TECHNOLOGY

7

SITE SPECIFIC

research and documentation

4

DELHI

4.1 Delhi: Traditional 4.2 Delhi: Contemporary 4.3 Delhi: Larger City Concerns

5

INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT 5.1 Himalays 5.2 Plains 5.3 Coastal 5.4 Desert 5.5 Deccan

6.1 South America 6.2 South East Asia 6.3 Middle East 6.4 Eastern Europe 6.5 Canada 6.6 Africa 6.7 China and Japan 6.8 North America 6.9 Scandinavian Countries 6.10 Central Europe 6.11Central Asia and Russia

3.1 Services and Structures in High-Rise Housing 3.2 Climate and Housing 3.3 Disaster and Housing

7.1 Karkardooma 7.2 Dwarka


CONTENTS This book is the result of the combined efforts of Year 4 students of the School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi during the academic session of 2011-12. Students researched on and documented various aspects of the affordable and inclusive housing situation across the world. This book is a compilation of selected student work.

The students worked under the guidance of Prof. I.M. Chishti Prof. M.L. Bahri Mr. Santosh Aulak Mr. Vinod Gupta Mr. Rommel Mehta Mr. Snehanshu Mukherjee Ms. Meena Mani Mr. Rajeev Agrawal Ms. Raka Chakraborty Dr. Leon Morenas Mr. Biresh Shah

PREFACE POLICY

1.1 Policies 1.3 By-Laws

ISSUE SPECIFIC 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

Inclusive Housing Squatter Settlements Sustainable and Green Housing Utopian Housing

CLIMATE AND TECHNOLOGY

3.1 Structures and Services in High-Rise Housing 3.2 Climate and Housing 3.3 Disaster and Housing

DELHI

4.1 Delhi: Traditional 4.3 Delhi: Larger City Concerns

INDIAN SUBCONTINENTAL PRECEDENTS 5.1 Himalayas

INTERNATIONAL PRECEDENTS 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

South America South East Asia Middle East Eastern Europe

1 3 5 37 65 67 87 107 137 175 177 197 221 243 245 267 295 296 327 329 347 361 379


PREFACE

As the only such course on the undergraduate architecture curriculum, the studio also assumes the additional responsibility of informing its students of the factors which contribute to the design and development of housing today. The studio endeavours to be both a reflection and critique of the city’s response to the need for shelter by initiating discussion and debate on the objective of multi-family housing, changing government norms and the fluctuating real estate market. With this aim, the class was directed to spend part of their semester compiling original and derived research on certain critical aspects of the housing market: policies, the issues of affordability and sustainability, climate and place specific architecture. In addition, this section of the studio encouraged a thorough investigation of the site areas in Dwarka and Karkardooma, as well as the historical and contemporary development of housing in the immediate context of Delhi and India. The class also documented multi-family housing in the global context, encompassing areas as diverse as Central Asia and Scandinavia.

This body of work was shared amongst the students and faculty via a series of presentations and seminars. The schedule was designed keeping in mind the pace of the design studio, and the class was introduced to critical concepts of structure and inclusivity early on. By integrating the research and design halves of the curriculum, the studio managed to achieve synchronicity between the acts of thinking and doing. This book is a compilation of selected research from the Housing Studio, a valuable resource to current and future students attempting to understand the housing scenario in Delhi today.

Iftikhar-mulk Chishti Studio Director July 2012 New Delhi

1 | Preface

The Housing Studio at the School of Planning and Architecture offers its students necessary insight into the way people live in urban conglomerations today, introducing them to the ideas of multi-family housing, high-rise structures and large scale development. The theme for the 2011-2012 studio, inclusive housing, encouraged the class to focus on economic affordability and social sustainability. It allowed them to exercise their ability as designers to instigate a different, better manifestation of urban living.


1

POLICY


1.1 1.1 A

Introduction

1.1 B

Housing And Habitat Policies

1.1 C

National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy 2007– 2012

1.1 D

National Policy on Street Vendors

1.1 E

Schemes Under Ministry Of Housing And Urban Poverty Alleviation

1.1 F

National Rural Housing and Habitat Policy Proposal

1.1 G

Schemes Under Ministry Of Rural Development (Govt. Of India)

1.1 H

Land And Housing Development Models In India

1.1 I

Comparison between International and National level Housing and Habitat Policies

1.1 J

Analysis and Recommendations

1.1 K

References

01 5 | Policies 1.1

Policies


1.1 A

1.1 A

1.1 B

Introduction What is a policy and its need? Policy addresses the intent of the organization, whether government, business, professional, or voluntary. Policy is intended to affect the 'real' world, by guiding the decisions that are made. Whether they are formally written or not. The Indian government, both at the central and state level, formulates and issues policies related to different sectors and thrust areas from time to time. How a policy is governed? In political science the policy cycle consists of :

Content of A policy Policies are typically promulgated through official written documents. Policy documents often come with the endorsement or signature of the executive powers within an organization to legitimize the policy and demonstrate that it is considered in force.

Policy documents usually contain certain standard components including: A PURPOSE STATEMENT

• OUTLINING WHY THE ORGANIZATION IS ISSUING THE POLICY, AND WHAT ITS DESIRED EFFECT OR OUTCOME OF THE POLICY SHOULD BE.

APPLICABILITY AND SCOPE STATEMENT

• WHO THE POLICY AFFECTS AND WHICH ACTIONS ARE IMPACTED BY THE POLICY

ISSUE IDENTIFICATION

1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

POLICY ANALYSIS EFFECTIVE DATE

• WHICH INDICATES WHEN THE POLICY COMES INTO FORCE.

CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION

A RESPONSIBILITIES SECTION

• INDICATING WHICH PARTIES AND ORGANIZATIONS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR CARRYING OUT INDIVIDUAL POLICY STATEMENTS

POLICY STATEMENTS

• INDICATING THE SPECIFIC REGULATIONS, REQUIREMENTS, OR MODIFICATIONS TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR THAT THE POLICY IS CREATING.

BACKGROUND

• INDICATING ANY REASONS, HISTORY, AND INTENT THAT LED TO THE CREATION OF THE POLICY, WHICH MAY BE LISTED AS MOTIVATING FACTORS

DECISION

IMPLEMENTATION

EVALUATION

DEFINITIONS

• PROVIDING CLEAR AND UNAMBIGUOUS DEFINITIONS FOR TERMS AND CONCEPTS FOUND IN THE POLICY DOCUMENT.

03 7 | Policies 1.1

POLICY INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT


1.1 A 1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E

Types of policies at global level Policies may be classified in many different ways. The following is a sample of several different types of policies broken down by their effect on members of the organization.

1.1 F

Distributive policies : Distributive policies extend goods and services to members of an organization, as well as distributing the costs of the goods/services amongst the members of the organization. Examples include government policies that impact spending for welfare.

1.1 G 1.1 H

1.1 J

04 | Policies 1.1 8 | Policies 1.1

1.1 K

TYPES OF POLICIES

1.1 I

Regulatory policies : Regulatory policies, or mandates, limit the discretion of individuals and agencies, or otherwise compel certain types of behavior. An example of a fairly successful public regulatory policy is that of a speed limit.

Constituent policies : Constituent policies create executive power entities, or deal with laws. Constituent policies also deal with Fiscal Policy in some circumstances.

Miscellaneous policies: When the term policy is used, it may also refer to:

- Official government policy (legislation or guidelines that govern how laws should be put into operation) - Broad ideas and goals in political manifestos and pamphlets. - A company or organization's policy on a particular topic.

Housing And Habitat Policies Come Under Miscellaneous Policies

Examples of policies • Company Policy • Communications and Information Policy • Human resource policies • Privacy policy • Public policy • Defense policy • Domestic policy • Economic policy • Education policy • Energy policy • Environmental Policy • Foreign policy • Health policy • Housing Policy • Information policy • Macroeconomic policy • Monetary policy • Population policy • Public policy in law • Science policy • Social policy • Transportation policy • Urban policy • Water policy Impact of policies Intended effects • To avoid some negative effect that has been noticed in the organization • To seek some positive benefit Unintended effects Policies frequently have side effects or unintended consequences. Because the environments that policies seek to influence or manipulate are typically complex adaptive systems (e.g. governments, societies, large companies), making a policy change can have counterintuitive results.


1.1 A

1.1 B

1.1 B

Housing And Habitat Policies

2. Asia pacific ministerial conference on housing & urban development (APMCHUD): The Asia-pacific ministerial conference on housing and human settlements (APMCHHS) is being jointly organized by UN-HABITAT and the Indian ministry of housing and urban poverty alleviation. 3. Singapore - The housing and development board is the statutory board of the ministry of national development responsible for public housing in Singapore, founded in 1960‘s. 4. United states - The united states department of housing and urban development, also known as HUD, is a cabinet department in the executive branch of the united states federal government, founded in 1965, as part of the "great society" program of president Lyndon Johnson, to develop and execute policies on housing and metropolises. 5. Australia -The department of families, housing, community services and indigenous affairs (FAHCSIA) is an Australian government department, was founded in 1945. 6. United kingdom -The housing corporation was the non-departmental public body that funded new affordable housing and regulated housing associations in England. It was established by the housing act 1964. National Housing and Habitat Policies in INDIA National policies of housing and habitat in India have come a long way since 1950s. The pressure of urban population and lack of housing and basic services were very much evident in the early 1950s. In some cities this was compounded by migration of people from Pakistan. However, the general perception of the

policy makers was that India is pre-dominantly an agricultural and rural economy and that there are potent dangers of over urbanisation which will lead to the drain of resources from the countryside to feed the cities

Evolution of Housing Policies in India: A Succession of Five-Year Plans, 1951–2012 First Plan, 1951–56 Investment Targets • Public: Rs 2.5 billion • Private: Rs 9.0 billion • Total: Rs 11.5 billion Main Features 1. Housing was introduced into policy framework at the national level. 2. To enhance affordability, government support through subsidies and loans was considered necessary. 3. Separate Ministry of Works and Housing was created. 4. National Building Organization (NBO) was created. Second Plan, 1956–61 Investment Targets • Public: Rs 3 billion • Private: Rs 10 billion • Total: Rs 13 billion Main Features 1. The initiatives of the First Plan were strengthened. 2. Policy shift moved housing from central to state governments (housing as state subject). 3. Central government decided to provide assistance to the state governments for developing low-income housing (instead of direct intervention). 4. State housing boards came into existence. Third Plan, 1961–66; Annual Plan, 1966–69 Investment Targets • Public: Rs 4.25 billion • Private: Rs 11.25 billion • Total: Rs 15.50 billion

Main Features 1. Emphasis was placed on planned development and land acquisition in urban areas. 2. More emphasis was put on low-income housing. 3. Resources of the state development boards were enhanced to enable them to address the issue of housing shortfall in their respective areas. Fourth Plan, 1969–74 Investment Targets • Public: Rs 6.25 billion • Private: Rs 21.75 billion • Total: Rs 28.00 billion Main Features 1. Decision was made to encourage private and cooperative housing schemes by providing financial assistance. 2. In 1970, decision was made to set up HUDCO to provide housing finance to the low-income segment at below-market interest rates and for longer tenors. 3. HUDCO was to finance urban development activities and help decongest cities. 4. HUDCO was to finance state housing boards by funding their bonds and providing other financial assistance.

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

Fifth Plan, 1974–79 Investment Targets • Public: Rs 7.69 billion • Private: Rs 36.40 billion • Total: Rs 44.09 billion Main Features The Urban Land Ceiling and Regulation Act was introduced. It sought to prevent concentration of landholding in urban areas and to make more land available for equitable distribution. However, it was not successful in achieving its targets. 2. The HDFC (Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited), a completely private initiative, was set up in 1977 as the first HFC. It sought to provide financial assistance to individuals, groups, cooperative societies, and the corporate sector for staff housing.

05 9 | Policies 1.1

Housing policies at international level 1. In 1988 the united nations organizations called upon different governments to take steps for the formation of national housing policy to achieve housing as a part of housing problem.

1.1 C


1.1 A 1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J

06 | Policies 1.1 10 | Policies 1.1

1.1 K

Sixth Plan, 1980–85 Investment Targets • Public: Rs 14.9 billion • Private: Rs 180.0 billion • Total: Rs 194.9 billion

Eighth Plan, 1992–97 Investment Targets • Public: Rs 315 billion • Private: Rs 660 billion • Total: Rs 975 billion

Main Features 1. Aimed to increase housing in small and medium-size towns. 2. Intended to improve conditions of the slums and living conditions in such habitats, while emphasizing the need to increase support to private groups. 3. More housing companies from the private sector entered the market.

Main Features 1. The plan acknowledged that low-income housing requires state intervention. 2. The National Housing Policy was adopted by the Parliament in 1994. 3. Recognizing that urbanization was inevitable, it concentrated resources on upgrading urban centers. 4. Recommended need for reforms on financial and legal aspects to promote the mortgage market. 5. Laid special emphasis on government incentives to enhance flow of credit to the housing finance sector.

Seventh Plan, 1985–90 Investment Targets • Public: Rs 24.6 billion • Private: Rs 290.0 billion • Total: Rs 314.6 billion Main Features 1. There was a radical reorientation of all policies relating to housing. 2. The plan argued that major responsibility for house construction would have to be left to the private sector. 3. Government was to promote and facilitate the housing sector and move away from its earlier role as ―provider.‖ 4. India subscribed to Global Shelter Strategy, passed by the United Nations General Assembly in 1988. 5. Based on that, India drafted its first national housing policy. 6. The NHB was set up in 1988 to promote and regulate HFCs and to mobilize additional financial resources for housing. 7. The Building Material and Technology Promotion Council was constituted. 8. During this period, several HFCs were promoted.

Ninth Plan, 1997–2002 Investment Targets • Public: Rs 520 billion • Private: Rs 990 billion • Total: Rs 1.51 trillion Main Features 1. Included further reforms to enable the government to play its role as a facilitator in promoting the mortgage market. 2. Included market-friendly reforms for improving, both taxes and infrastructure to help increase investments in housing. 3. In 1999, the central government repealed the Urban Land Ceiling and Regulation Act. 4. Revised the National Housing Policy in 1998. 5. During the period, commercial banks entered the housing finance market. 10th Plan, 2003–07 Investment Targets • Public: Rs 4.15 trillion • Private: Rs 3.11 trillion • Total: Rs 7.26 trillion

Main Features 1. Maintained the spirit of the Ninth Plan. 2. Commercial banks aggressively entered the housing finance market. 11th Plan, 2007–12 Investment Targets • Total: Rs 5.10 trillion Main Features 1. There was an increase in capital assistance under the Indira Awaas Yojana pro-poor government housing scheme 2. Launch of market-based composite housing loan schemes for rural borrowers just above the poverty line—economically weak and low-income segments of the population. 3. The National Rural Shelter Fund was established. 4. Introduction of a title indemnity scheme and an interest subsidy scheme for urban poor: 5% annual interest for a maximum loan amount of $2,000. 5. Affordable housing continued to be the major consideration behind the various policy measures taken during fiscal 2005/06 by the government, the RBI, and the NHB (National Housing Bank).


1.1 A

1.1 C

1.1 B

National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy 2007– 2012

Aims 1. Urban Planning 2. Affordable Housing 3. Increase Flow Of Funds 4. Spatial Incentives 5. Increase Supply Of Land 6. Special Provision For SC/ST/OBC/Minorities/Disabled 7. Special Provision For Women 8. Employment Generation 9. Public-private Partnerships 10. Management Information System 11. Healthy Environment Role of Government, Urban Local Bodies and Other Agencies The Central Government would (in consultation with State Governments): Create a Supportive Environment 1. Act as a ‗facilitator‘ and ‗enabler‘ with significant actionable steps being taken by State Governments, Urban Local Bodies, Parastatals and Private & Co-operative Sector and NonGovernment Organisations. 2. Advise and guide respective State Governments to adopt and implement the National Urban Housing & Habitat Policy, 2007 in a time bound manner. 3. Promote balanced regional development in the country by suitably decentralizing functions relating

to development of the Housing Sector and promotion of an ecologically sound habitat. 4. Act as an enabler and facilitator by developing suitable financial instruments for promotion of housing for the EWS and LIG groups serviced by basic amenities. 5. Promote Action Plans for creation of adequate infrastructure facilities relating to water, drainage, sanitation, sewerage, power supply and transport connectivity. 6. Develop economically viable housing promotion models and standards for provision of physical, social and economic services. Legal & Regulatory Framework 7. Promote systematic planning at the City, Metropolitan Area, District and Regional levels. 8. Encourage adoption of critical urban reforms relating to municipal laws, building bye-laws, simplification of legal and procedural frameworks, property title verification system and allied areas. 9. Promote an innovative policy for safeguarding the rights of street vendors with appropriate restrictions in the public interest. 10. Promote improvements for elimination of ambiguities in transaction of conveyance deeds, lease deeds, mortgages, gifts, partition deeds and allied property-related documents. 11. Promote the observance of the National Building Code (NBC), 2005.

Housing Finance 12. Devise macro-economic policies for enabling accelerated flow of resources to the housing and infrastructure sector. 13. Develop suitable fiscal concessions in collaboration with the Ministry of Finance for promotion of housing and urban infrastructure with special focus on EWS/LIG beneficiaries combined with a monitoring mechanism for effective targeting. Further, facilitate viability gap funding of integrated slum development programmes with the consent of Planning Commission and Ministry of Finance.

14. Encourage Foreign Direct Investment in the urban housing and infrastructure sectors. 15. Develop convergence between urban sector initiatives and financial sector reforms. Supply & Management of Land

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

16. Develop a National Land Policy for optimal use of available resources including enhanced supply of serviced land for sustainable development.

1.1 G

Environment and Ecology

1.1 H

17. Promote appropriate ecological standards for protecting a healthy environment and providing a better quality of life in human settlements. Special attention will be paid to housing in coastal areas in order to promote fragile ecology. Further, adequate mangrove and allied plantations will be promoted in coastal areas especially those which are in high disaster-prone zones to avoid loss to life from natural disaster.

1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

Management Information System 18. Develop a nation-wide Management Information System (MIS) relating to housing and allied infrastructure for well informed decision making. Research & Development 19. Promote Research & Development (R&D) relating to alternate building materials and technologies as well as energy conservation practices in the housing sector. 20. Take appropriate steps for standardization and quality marking of building materials. The State Government would (in consultation with Urban Local Bodies): Create a Supportive Environment 1. Prepare the State Urban Housing & Habitat Policy

07 | 1.1 11 | Policies Policies 1.1

The Need For Policy 1. Urbanization And Development 2. Rural To Urban Shift Of Labor 3. Balanced Regional Development 4. New Integrated Townships And Green Field Development 5. Role Of Housing 6. Housing Needs 7. Magnitude Of Poverty 8. Development Of Sustainable Habitat 9. Policies & Programmes 10. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission

1.1 C


1.1 A 1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

(SUHHP). 2. Act as a facilitator and enabler in collaboration with ULBs/parastatals/ Private Sector/Co-operative Sector/NGOs with regard to Integrated Slum Development Projects as well as Integrated Township Development Projects. Further, the State Government will ensure suitable flow of financial resources to potential EWS/LIG beneficiaries as well as undertake viability gap funding of large housing and habitat development projects. 3. Prepare medium term and long term strategies for tackling problems relating to provision of adequate water supply, drainage, sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management, power supply and transport connectivity. 4. Promote and incentivise decentralized production and availability of local building materials. 5. Prepare and update Master Plans along with Zonal Plans, Metropolitan Plans, District Plans and the State level Regional Plan by respective agencies with provision of adequate land for urban poor. 6. Promote balanced regional development by observing appropriate prudential norms. Legal & Regulatory Framework 7. Review the legal and regulatory regime for introducing simplification and rationalisation with a view to giving a boost to housing and supporting infrastructure . 8. Enable urban local bodies to take up regulatory and development functions. 9. Take all necessary steps for implementation of the State Urban Housing & Habitat Policy.

08 | Policies 1.1 12 | Policies 1.1

Public-Private Partnerships 10. Promote well designed Public-Private Partnerships for undertaking housing and infrastructure projects. 11. Encourage Cooperative Group Housing Societies, Employees Organizations, labor housing promotion organization, Non-Government Organizations (NGO) and Community Based Organizations (CBO) to have Partnerships with Urban Local Bodies/Parastatals in relation to housing related

12. microfinance and housing development. 13. Promote in-situ slum upgradation with partnership between the Central Government, State Government , Urban Local Bodies, Banks/MFIs and potential beneficiaries. Skill Upgradation 13. Facilitate training and skill upgradation of construction workers. Management Information System 14. Develop appropriate Management Information System for different level of governance. Research & Development (R&D) 15. Promote R&D activities in the field of building materials and technologies and promote their use in housing and infrastructure projects. Optimum Utilization of Land 16. Promote optimal utilization of land by innovative special incentives like relaxation of FAR for ensuring that 20-25% of the FAR are reserved for EWS/LIG units or issuance of Transferable Development Rights for clearance of transport corridors and availability of FAR in outer zones. 17. Consider for upward review the presently authorized Floor Area Ratio (FAR) in line with international practice of making more efficient use of scarce urban land through construction of high rise buildings in consonance with densities specified in statutory Master Plans. integrated Townships, Urban Extensions & SEZs 18. Develop Greenfield towns & integrated urban housing extensions of existing towns with complementary infrastructure or Special Economic Zones (SEZs) with both FDI and national investments in housing and infrastructure. 19. Ensure that such fully integrated housing projects

are well connected by MRTS corridors. The Urban Local Bodies/Development Authorities/Housing Boards would (in consultation with all stakeholders): Create a Supportive Environment 1. Develop capacity building at the local level to design and take up inner-city development scheme, in-situ slum upgradation projects and slum relocation projects through suitable training programme. 2. Implement Central and State sector schemes pertaining to housing and infrastructure sector at the city level with appropriate provision for EWS and LIG beneficiaries in the Master Plan as well as Zonal Plans. 3. Enforce regulatory measures for planned development in an effective manner. 4. Check the growth of unauthorized colonies, new slums, unauthorized constructions, extensions of existing properties and commercialization of residential areas.

Urban Planning 5. Ensure that Development Plans/Master Plans as well as Zonal Plans and Local Area Plans are made and updated regularly so that adequate provision is made for the homeless as well as slum dwellers. 6. Prepare Master Plan and Metropolitan Plans in consonance with the concerned District Plan and the State Regional Plan. 7. Identify city specific housing shortages and prepare city level Urban Housing & Habitat Action Plans for time bound implementation. Wherever necessary and feasible, ULBs as well as other parastatal would provide viability gap funding especially for EWS/LIG housing and supporting infrastructure so as to ensure better affordability by the poor and financial viability of slum upgradation projects. 8. Promote planning and development of industrial estates along with appropriate labor housing


1.1 A 1.1 B

Public-Private Partnerships 11. Promote participatory planning and funding based on potential of local level stakeholders. 12. Develop suitable models for private sector‘s assembly of land and its development for housing in accordance with the Master Plan. 13. Promote Residents‘ Welfare Associations (RWAs) for specified operation and maintenance of services within the boundaries of given colonies as well as utilize their assistance in developing an early warning system relating to encroachments. 14. Involve RWAs/CBOs in collaboration with conservancy organizations at the local level for effective cleaning of streets/lanes and solid waste disposal at the colony level. Special Programme for Disadvantaged Sections 15. Devise innovative housing programmes for meeting the housing shortage with special focus on vulnerable groups. Environment and Ecology 16. Devising adequate safeguards for promoting a healthy environment with special emphasis on ‗green lungs‘ of the city in terms of parks, botanical gardens and social forestry as well as green belts around cities/towns. Security & Safety 17. Ensure Safety & Security in residential and

institutional areas which may include construction of boundary walls around housing colonies as well as installation of security stems. Banks and Housing Finance Institutions (HFIs) would: Outreach 1. Reassess their strategies to be more inclusive in terms of both low-income beneficiaries belonging to EWS and LIG as well as extend/intensify their coverage in low income neighborhoods. Housing Finance 2. Promote innovative financial instruments like development of Mortgage Backed Securitization Market (MBSM), and Secondary Mortgage Market. 3. Enhance / strengthen the income spread of their housing loans portfolio to increasingly cover BPL and EWS beneficiaries. 4. Adopt a more flexible and innovative approach in relation to credit appraisal norms. 5. Develop financial products which encourage EWS and LIG housing beneficiaries to take insurance cover. 6. HFIs could also look at ploughing part of their resources towards financing slum improvement and upgradation programmes. Special Programmes for Vulnerable Sections 7. Provide loans at concessional rate of interest to specified persons for purchasing a house site or house. 8. Devise innovative housing finance schemes for targeting the EWS and LIG segments of the housing market with suitable subsidy support from the Central and State Governments. 9. Promote MFIs and Self Help Groups for mobilizing savings and playing a significant role in the housing finance sector. Provide housing loans to EWS and LIG segments as a priority sector of banking as in the case of rural development programmes.

10. Encourage potential EWS and LIG beneficiaries to form Cooperative Group Housing Societies. Public agencies/parastatals would: 1. Revisit their strategy of operations and chart out a role relating to land assembly and development of fully serviced land with essential services. 2. Design multiple products to suit clients requirements. 3. Forge partnerships with the private sector and cooperatives for housing and infrastructure development especially with reference to Below Poverty Line (BPL)/EWS and LIG segments of the market. 4. Use land as a resource for housing with special focus on the urban poor. 5. Reduce their dependence on budgetary support in a phased manner and maccess loans through better product development and implementation on the one hand and better bankability in terms of escrow account and land mortgage on the other hand.

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

Cooperative and Private Sectors would: 1. Undertake land assembly and development with special focus on housing with complementary basic services. 2. Design public-private partnerships for slum reconstruction on a cross subsidization basis. 3. Augment housing stock at an accelerated rate both on ownership and rental basis with a view to overcoming shortage of EWS/LIG housing units. Research & Development, Standardisation and Technology Transfer Organisations would: 1. Undertake research to respond to different climatic conditions with a focus on transition from conventional to innovative, cost effective and environment friendly technologies. 2. Develop and promote standards in building

09 | Policies 1.1 13

colonies serviced by necessary basic services. 9. Incorporate provisions of model building bye-laws prepared by Town & Country Planning Organization (TCPO) and National Building Code in their respective building bye-laws. Make suitable provisions in the Building Bye-laws for innovative energy conservation practices and mandatory rain water harvesting for specified owners of buildings. 10. Devise capacity building programmes at the local level.

1.1 C


1.1 A 1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J

10 | Policies 1.1 14 | Policies 1.1

1.1 K

components, materials and construction methods including disaster mitigation techniques. 3. Intensify efforts for transfer of innovative technologies and materials from lab to field. 4. Accelerate watershed development to conserve water, stop soil erosion and re-generate tree cover in order to improve habitat. Specific Areas of Action Land 1. Land assembly, development and disposal will be encouraged both in the public and private sectors. 2. Assembly of land for specified use as per Master Plan will be done by observing the best norms of Regional Planning. District Plans and Metropolitan Plans will be prepared in compliance with the stipulations of the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act. District Plans and Metropolitan Plans will function as sub set of the Regional Plan. 3. Private Sector will be allowed to assemble a reasonable size of land in consonance with the Master Plan/Development Plan of each city/town. 4. 10 to 15 percent of land in every new public/private housing project or 20 to 25 percent of FAR / Floor Space Index (FSI) which is greater will be reserved for EWS/LIG housing through appropriate legal stipulations and spatial incentives. 5. A Special Action Plan will be prepared for urban slum dwellers with special emphasis on persons belonging to SC/ST/OBCs/Minorities/Economically weaker Sections /physically handicapped and Minorities. Due consideration would be given so that Safai Karamcharies and Scavengers are not geographically and socially segregated. 6. Beneficiary-led housing development will be encouraged. Suitable percentage of land developed by the Public Sector will be provided at institutional rates to organizations like Cooperative Group Housing Societies, which provide housing to their members on a no-profit no-loss basis. Employee Welfare Organizations will also be promoted since they operate on a no-profit noloss basis. A special package will also be worked out for Labor Housing.

Finance 1. In order to ensure that 10 to 15 percent of land or 20 to 25 percent of FAR / FSI whichever is greater is earmarked in every new public/private housing project, appropriate spatial incentives will be developed by Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and Development Authorities. 2. A Secondary Mortgage Market may be promoted by the Reserve Bank of India(RBI)/National Housing Bank (NHB). This will enhance transparency and flexibility in the housing market. 3. Residential Mortgage Based Securitization (RMBS) need to be nurtured through NHB, Scheduled Banks and Housing Finance Corporation (HFCs). 4. A Model Rent Act will be prepared by the Government of India to promote rental housing on the principle that rent of a housing unit should be fixed by mutual agreement between the landlord and the tenant for a stipulated lease period prior to which, the tenant will not be allowed to be evicted and after the expiry of the said lease period, the tenant will not be permitted to continue in the said housing unit. 5. The feasibility of a National Shelter Fund to be set up under the control of the National Housing Bank for providing subsidy support to EWS/LIG housing would be examined in consultation with Ministry of Finance. The NHB will act as a refinance institution for the housing sector. 6. Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd. (HUDCO) will be directed to observe the aims and objectives listed in its Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association with a view to encouraging EWS/LIG housing. 7. Efforts should be made to encourage Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from Non Resident Indians (NRIs) and Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs) in the housing and infrastructure sector in consultation with the Ministry of Finance and RBI. 8. Suitable fiscal concessions for promoting the housing sector may be developed by the Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation in collaboration with the NHB and the Ministry of Finance. 9. Central Government and Governments of States/UTs will promote innovative forms of public-

10. 11. 12. 13.

14.

15.

16.

private partnerships. States/UTs will be advised to develop 10 years perspective Housing Plans with emphasis on EWS and LIG sectors. Special financial and spatial incentives would be developed for inner-city slum redevelopment schemes. The Central and State/UT Governments would develop a special package of incentives for in-situ slum upgradation. In order to facilitate RMBS transactions, stamp duty on the instruments of RMBS across all states would be rationalized. Rental housing provides a viable alternative option to the home seekers and the house providers alike. Incentives are to be provided for encouraging lendings by financial institutions, HFIs and Banks for rental housing. Also, Companies and Employers will be encouraged to invest in the construction of rental housing for their employees. Plan Funds and other assistance for housing and infrastructure would be dovetailed according to the Action Plan prepared and adopted by the States under their State Urban Housing and Habitat Policy (SUHHP). This would bring about synergies in the operation of various schemes and funding sources. Micro-Finance Institutions (MFIs) would be promoted at State level to expedite the flow of finance to urban poor. In this regard, suitable mechanisms would be evolved to develop simplified norms for prudential rating and providing finance to MFIs. Adequate regulation of MFIs would be undertaken to ensure that MFIs do not burden the poor by charging usurious interest rates and their operations are kept transparent.

Legal and Regulatory Reforms 1. Model Guidelines will be developed by the Central Government for use by States/UTs for regulation of land supply with a view to reducing speculation in land and haphazard development in urban areas and along inter-city transport corridors. 2. In line with Central Government‘s decision to repeal the Urban Land Ceilings Act, the States (who have not already repealed the Act) will be encouraged


1.1 A 1.1 B

4.

5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

12. 13. 14.

15. 16.

consultation with Ministry of Environment and Forests and modalities for compliance of their guidelines will be worked out. Technology support and its transfer 1. States would be encouraged to prepare detailed city maps on the basis of the GIS mapping through satellite data, aerial survey and ground verification. 2. Low energy consuming and using renewal form of energy for construction techniques and rain-water harvesting technologies will be encouraged. 3. Use of prefabricated factory made building components will be encouraged for mass housing, so as to achieve speedy, cost effective and better quality construction. 4. Central and State/UT Governments should promote low cost, local building materials based on agricultural and industrial wastes, particularly those based on fly ash, red mud and allied local materials. 5. Enforcement of the Building Code/Building Guidelines relating to disaster resistant planning and technologies will be taken up and specific elements in different disaster prone zones will be made compulsory. 6. Transfer of proven, cost-effective building materials and technologies would be encouraged by transfer from lab to land. 7. States/UTs will be encouraged to include new building materials in their schedule of rates. 8. Demonstration houses using cost effective materials and alternate technologies will be got constructed by the Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC) set-up by the Central Govt. and by other appropriate Public/Private Sector agencies. 9. Use of wood has already been banned by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). State PWD Departments need to take similar steps in this direction. Use of bamboo as a wood substitute and as a general building component would be encouraged. Infrastructure 1. Efforts will be made to encourage ULBs/Development Authorities and other concerned

agencies to follow the Urban Development Plans Formulation and Implementation (UDPFI) Guidelines issued by the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment in 1996 in order to improve the quality of Master Plans/Development Plans, 2. Zonal Plans and Local Area Plans of all cities/ towns. The States will be advised to prepare a dynamic plan with provision for review every five years. 3. Development of a Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) at the sub-regional level around metropolitan cities will be encouraged. 4. All States would be encouraged to develop a ‗Habitat Infrastructure Action Plan‘ for all cities with a population of over 1,00,000.

Sustainability Concerns 1. Green belts will be developed around cities with a view to maintaining the ecological balance. 2. Suitable green recreational areas like zoo, lakes and gardens will be earmarked /developed for public visits in the Master Plan of each city/town. 3. Water bodies will be protected with special emphasis on keeping the flood plains of tropical rivers free from construction or encroachments. 4. Efforts will be made to ensure that Master Plans protect large depressions from being filled up since they are natural drainage points for conservation of water and can be developed as suitable water bodies. 5. Efforts will be made to encourage cities/towns to keep a significant proportion of the total Master Plan area as ‘green lungs of the city.’ 6. Efforts will be made to encourage States/UTs to develop Sub-regional / Special Area Development Plans for areas with fragile ecological characteristics on the basis of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) so as to take care of all environmental concerns at the planning stage itself in consultation with the Ministry of Environment & Forests. 7. Growth of a city beyond reasonable limits imposes unbearable strain on its services. City planners would be encouraged to lay down norms for development of urban sprawls and satellite townships. 8. Reduction in the rate of in-migration into mega and

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

11 | Policies 1.1 15

3.

to repeal the said Act. A single window approach would be developed by the Urban Local Bodies/ parastatals for approval of Building Plans and securing Certificates in collaboration with the Council of Architects or their State/UT chapters. Adoption of the Model Municipal Law prepared by the Central Government with suitable modifications, if required, at the State/UT level needs to be encouraged. Revision of Master Plans would be done periodically with wide public participation and should take care of the expansions of the city due to urbanization. Awareness generation and advocacy for increased use of the Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act,2002 and the Recovery of Debts due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act,1993 (DRT Act) to ensure expeditious recovery of housing debts. Stamp Duty reforms should be initiated to bring incidence of duty in all States/UTs at par. Property Tax reform based on unit area method needs to be encouraged in all States/UTs and ULBs. States will be encouraged to adopt the Model Cooperative Housing Act. All States would be encouraged to refine/enact a Town and Country Planning Act in order to promote Regional Planning at the State/UT level. States/UTs would be encouraged to use Information Technology for maintaining urban land records and providing non-encumbrance certificates on the basis of e-enabled data and digitized certification. States/UTs will be encouraged to enact Apartment Ownership Acts. States/UTs will be encouraged to undertake urban reforms listed under the JNNURM. A Citizen‘s Charter should be developed to safeguard the interests of customers vis-à-vis housing schemes offered by both the public and private sectors. The land revenue records of the States/UTs would be computerized and put on Geographic Information System (GIS) mode within a time frame. Environmental safeguards in respect of housing and construction projects will be considered in

1.1 C


1.1 A 1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J

12 | Policies 1.1 16 | Policies 1.1

1.1 K

metro cities is urgently needed through preparation of State/UT level regional Plans based on fast transport corridors for balanced growth. 9. Model bye-laws will be developed to promote the use of renewable energy sources particularly solar water heating systems in residential and commercial buildings. 10. Poverty and unemployment are detrimental to the well balanced growth of urban settlements. States/UTs Governments and local authorities will be encouraged to formulate and implement poverty alleviation and employment generation programmes based on skills‘ training especially in the services sector. Employment issues relating to the Housing Sector 1. Efforts will be made to provide good quality training to construction workers with a view to improving their skills in tandem with technological advancements in the construction sector. 2. The Construction Industry is one of the biggest employers of women workers and is perhaps their biggest exploiter in terms of disparity in wages. Concerted efforts will be made to upgrade the skills of women construction workers, induct them at supervisory levels and also develop them as contractors. Both public and private agencies would be encouraged to take a lead in this. Training institutions will be requested to enroll women trainees on a preferential basis. 3. Efforts will be made to get States/UTs to enact legislation on the pattern of the Building & Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment & Conditions of Service) Act, 1996 of the Central Government with a view to ensuring that adequate measures are undertaken by employers for the occupational health and safety of all workers especially women engaged in construction activities. Efforts will also be made to ensure use of modern techniques and modern safety equipment at construction sites with strict penalties for noncompliance. 4. Construction companies/public authorities will be directed to provide adequate support services like

crèches and temporary rest accommodation with appropriate toilet facilities at construction sites. 5. Effort will be made to get States/UTs to enact legislation on the pattern of the Building & Other Construction Workers Welfare Cess Act, 1996 of the Central Government and ensure adequate provision for skills upgradation of construction workers. 6. States/UTs will be encouraged to adopt a decentralized pattern of training for ensuring better coverage. Slum improvement and upgradation 1. The Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission has started to play a vital role both in slum improvement as well as in-situ slum rehabilitation along with provision of security of tenure, affordable housing and basic services to the urban poor. 2. Specially designed slum improvement programmes will also be encouraged which focus on upgrading of basic services and environment improvement of urban slums with a participative, in-situ slum rehabilitation approach. 3. Inner-city slum redevelopment programmes for creating a better environment would be encouraged with cross subsidization and special incentives. 4. Land pooling and sharing arrangements would be encouraged in order to facilitate land development and improvement of basic amenities in slums. 5. Release of Transferable Development Rights and additional FAR would be carefully considered for accelerating private investment in provision of shelter to the poor. Community Based Organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Self-Help Groups (SHGs) would be involved in partnership with the Private Sector. 6. The Policy gives primacy to provision of shelter to the urban poor at their present location or near their work place and efforts will be made to ensure that rights provided are non-transferable for a period of 10-15 years. 7. Only in cases, where relocation is necessary on account of severe water pollution, safety problems on account of proximity to rail track or other critical

concerns relocation of slum dwellers will be undertaken. In such cases, special efforts will be made to ensure fast and reliable transportation to work sites. 8. Income generating activities in slums, which are non-polluting, will be encouraged on a mixed land use basis. Efforts will be made to structure such activities as an integral part of housing and habitat projects. 9. The process for integrating the Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY) and the environment improvement scheme titled National Slum Development Programme (NSDP) has been undertaken through the Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP) in Mission Cities and Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) in NonMission cities. Efforts will be made to remove hurdles faced by the States/UTs in implementing these integrated schemes. Further, efforts will also be made to enhance funds under IHSDP as well as develop a new scheme for meeting water, drainage, sanitation and sewerage concerns in slums located in smaller towns with a population below 5 lakhs. 10. Formation of Group Cooperative Housing Societies of urban poor and slum dwellers will be encouraged across the country for providing better housing serviced by basic amenities through thrift and credit based CBOs


1.1 A

1.1 D

1.1 B

Why? Street Vendors provide valuable service to the urban population while trying to earn a livelihood and it is the duty of the State to protect the right of this segment of population to earn their livelihood. This policy tries to ensure that this important section of the urban population finds recognition for its contribution to society, and is conceived of as a major initiative for urban poverty alleviation. Objective: 1. Legal: To give vendors legal status by amending, enacting, repealing and implementing appropriate laws and providing legitimate hawking zones in urban development/ zoning plans. 2. Facilities: To provide facilities for appropriate use of identified space including the creation of hawking zones in the urban development/ zoning plans. 3. Regulation: To eschew imposing numerical limits on access to public spaces by discretionary licenses and instead moving to fee-based regulation of access. 4. Role in distribution: To make Street vendors a special

5.

6.

7.

8.

component of the urban development /zoning plans by treating them as an integral and legitimate part of the urban distribution system. Self Compliance: To promote self-compliance amongst Street vendors. Organization: To promote organizations of Street vendors e.g. Unions / Co-operatives/ Associations and other forms of organization to facilitate their empowerment. Participation: To set up participatory mechanisms with representation by urban vendors' organizations, (Unions / Co-operatives/ Associations), Voluntary organizations, local authorities, the police, Residents Welfare Association (RWAs) and others for orderly conduct of urban vending activities. Rehabilitation of Child Vendors: To take measures for promoting a better future for child vendors by making appropriate interventions for their rehabilitation and schooling. Social Security & Financial Services: To provide/ promote social security (pension, insurance, etc.,) and access to credit for Street vendors through promotion of SHGs/co-operatives/Federations/ MFIs etc.

1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

13 | Policies 1.1 17

National Policy on Street Vendors 2004


1.1 A 1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J

14 | Policies 1.1 18 | Policies 1.1

1.1 K

1.1 E

Schemes Under Ministry Of Housing And Urban Poverty Alleviation JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSION (3rd December 2005 ) Why? Cities and towns of India constitute the world‘s second largest urban system. They contribute over 50% of country‘s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and are central to economic growth. For these cities to realize their full potential and become true engines of growth, it is necessary that focused attention be given to the improvement of infrastructure therein. For achieving this objective, a Mission mode approach is essential. Objective: 1. Focused attention to integrated development of basic services to the urban poor. 2. Security of tenure at affordable price, improved housing, water supply, sanitation. 3. Convergence of services in fields of education, health and social security. 4. As far as possible providing housing near the place of occupation of the urban poor. 5. Effective linkage between asset creation and asset management to ensure efficiency. 6. Scaling up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access to urban poor. 7. Ensuring adequate investment of funds to fulfill deficiencies in the basic services to the urban poor. JNNURM comprises two Sub-Missions : 1. Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG) 2. Basic Services to the Urban Poor Urban (BSUP) There are, in addition, two other components: 1. Urban Infrastructure Development of Small & Medium Towns (UIDSSMT) 2. Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme (IHSDP)

Who? 1. Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation (MHUPA) is the nodal Ministry for BSUP and IHSDP. 2. Ministry of Urban Development is the nodal Ministry for the Sub-Mission Urban Infrastructure & Governance(UI&G) and UIDSSMT. Cities covered under these: These Sub-Missions (BSUP and UI&G) are for select 63 large cities and cities of religious/historical /tourist importance. 1. seven cities having 4 million plus population as per 2001 census 2. 28 cities having 1 million but less than 4 million population 3. 28 selected cities of religious/historic and tourist importance. Other cities/ towns are covered under IHSDP.

(for list of Mission cities please see JNNURM guidelines at https://jnnurmmis.nic.in/jnnurm_hupa/jnnurm/Guidelines JNNURMEnglish.pdf)

Addition of more cities under the mission JNNURM : 1. National Steering Group may consider addition or deletion of cities /towns, but the total number of cities shall remain about the same .i.e. 63 2. For other cites/towns, two schemes, namely, Integrated Housing & Slum Development (IHSDP) and Urban Infrastructure Development for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT) have also been launched on 3.12.2005. Town under IHSDP The IHSDP is applicable to all cities/towns as per census 2001 according to 1. which a Census Town is one which has: A minimum population of 5,000; 2. At least 75% of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and 3. A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km.

Duration of the mission The duration of the Mission is seven years beginning from the year 2005-06. How BSUP and IHSDP are different from erstwhile VAMBAY and NSDP? Unlike NSDP and VAMBAY, the new schemes aim at an integrated development of slums. Both NSDP & VAMBAY have been subsumed in IHSDP. What strategy is adopted under Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP)? Planned urban perspective frameworks for a period of 20-25 years Preparation of Development Plans integrating land use with services, urban transport and environment management. Objectives of BSUP 1. Focused attention to integrated development of basic services to the urban poor; 2. Security of tenure at affordable price, improved housing, water supply, sanitation; 3. Convergence of services in fields of education, health and social security 4. As far as possible providing housing near the place of occupation of the urban poor 5. Effective linkage between asset creation and asset management to ensure efficiency 6. Scaling up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access to urban poor. 7. Ensuring adequate investment of funds to fulfill deficiencies in the basic services to the urban poor Admissible components under BSUP 1. Integrated development of slums, i.e., housing and development of infrastructure projects in the slums in the identified cities. 2. Projects involving development/ improvement /maintenance of basic services to the urban poor. 3. Slum improvement and rehabilitation projects. 4. Projects on water supply/sewerage/ drainage, community toilets/baths, etc.


1.1 A 1.1 B

Can individuals/NGOs submit project proposals? No, the State/UT Governments/ULBs are required to prepare City Development Plans/Detailed Project Reports. Total budget provision for JNNURM An amount of Rs. 50,000 crore is earmarked during the seven year period as under: 1. UIG : Rs. 25500 Crore 2. BSUP : Rs. 13650 Crore 3. UIDSSMT : Rs. 6400 Crore 4. IHSDP :Rs. 4450 Crore How are funds released? Funds are released as Additional Central Assistance by Department of Expenditure on the recommendation of Ministry of HUPA to the State Government or its designated State level agencies under BSUP. In the case of IHSDP Central assistance (grant) released will go directly to the nodal agencies identified by the State government as Additional Central Assistance

YEAR-WISE CENTRAL FUND ALLOCATION (Tentative allocation made by the Planning Commission) Year 2005-06

BSUP

IHSDP

Rs.334 crore for BSUP & IHSDP combined

2006-07

Rs.1000.00 crore

Rs.500.00 crore

2007-08

Rs.1501.00 crore

Rs.490.00 crore

2008-09

Rs.1880.35 crore

Rs.613.84 crore

2009-10

Rs.2267.35 crore

Rs.1113.85 crore

2011-12 To 2012-13

Not yet fixed

Targeted beneficiaries under BSUP and IHSDP Slum dwellers/urban poor/EWS/LIG categories.

SHARING PATTERN BETWEEN CENTRE AND STATES ON THE TOTAL PROJECT COST BSUP

Preference to women: Title of land should preferably be in the name of the wife and alternatively jointly in the names of husband and wife. In exceptional cases, title in the name of male beneficiary permitted.

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

IHSDP

Cities with million plus population

50% Centre 50% State / ULB/ Beneficiary

--------

Cities/ towns in North

90% Centre

90% Centre

Eastern States and J&K

10% State/ ULB/ Beneficiary

10% State/ ULB/ Beneficiary

Other cities

80% Centre 20% State/ ULB/ Beneficiary

80% Centre 20% State / ULB/ Beneficiary

.

Special Category States There are 11 States for which the funding pattern is 90 % by Centre and 10% by State: 1. Himachal Pradesh 2. Jammu & Kashmir 3. Uttaranchal 4. Arunachal Pradesh 5. Assam 6. Manipur 7. Meghalaya 8. Mizoram 9. Nagaland 10. Sikkim 11. Tripura

What is Beneficiary contribution? 1. Houses under the schemes are not to be provided free. 2. A minimum contribution of 12% of house cost is to be borne by the beneficiary. 3. Beneficiary Contribution is 10% in the case of SC/ST/BC/OBC/PH and other weaker sections. Why is beneficiary contribution being charged? Beneficiary Contribution is being charged in order to inculcate a sense of ownership among the beneficiaries. How, when and to whom should the Beneficiary contributions be paid? The stipulated beneficiary contribution is paid to the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)/implementing agencies in accordance with the procedures adopted by the

15 | Policies 1.1 19

5. Houses at affordable costs for slum dwellers/ urban poor/EWS/LIG categories. 6. Construction and improvements of drains/storm water drains. 7. Environmental improvement of slums and solid waste management. 8. Street lighting. 9. Civic amenities, like, community halls, child care centers, etc. 10. Operation and maintenance of assets created under this component. 11. Convergence of health, education and social security schemes for the urban poor.

1.1 C


1.1 A 1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

ULBs/State Governments.. Dwelling Unit1. Ceiling Cost - @ Rs.80, 000 per unit under IHSDP. 12.5% additionally permissible for special category/hilly States and difficult/far flung areas. 2. Minimum Floor Area - Not less than 25 sq. meters under IHSDP Preferably two room accommodation plus kitchen and toilet. So far 30 states/UTs have got projects sanctioned under BSUP and 29 under IHSDP. RAGIV AWAS YOJNA (RAY) June 4, 2009 Why? Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) for the slum dwellers and the urban poor envisages a ‗Slum-free India‘ through encouraging States/Union Territories to tackle the problem of slums in a definitive manner.

16 | Policies 1.1 20 | Policies 1.1

Objective: 1. Bringing ex sting slums within the formal system and enabling them to avail of the same level of basic amenities as the rest of the town; 2. Redressing the failures of the formal system that lie behind the creation of slums; 3. . Tackling the shortages of urban land and housing that keep shelter out of reach of the urban poor and force them to resort to extra-legal solutions in a bid to retain their sources of livelihood and employment. Slum-free City Planning Team (State Government/ULB) : 1. MIS Specialist – 1 2. GIS Specialist – 1 3. Town Planning Specialist – 1 4. Social Development Specialist – 1 5. Project/Engineering Specialist – 1 and 6. Capacity Building/Training Coordinator -1

Diagram : Methodology for Preparation of Slum-free City Plan: Conceptual Framework Source - Rajiv Awas Yojana Guidelines for Slum-free City Planning, Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, India


1.1 A 1.1 B

Matrix showing Rajiv Awas Yojna Development Models

MODEL DESCRIPTION

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT SUPPORT

STATE/ULB SUPPORT

ROLE OF PRIVATE DEVELOPER

CONTRIBUTION/ LOAN BY INDIVIDUAL BENEFICIARIES

SLUMS – IN SITU REDEVELOPMENT

I

II

III

IV

Land Availability; Zoning/FSI Incentives including TDR

High Value Land – PPP Model for both Housing & Infrastructure

Medium Value Land – PPP Model for housing and infrastructure

Share of Viability Gap Funding

Bid based on Extent of VGF support sought Construction with state govt/ULB supervision and involvement of beneficiaries

Share in Infrastructure and housing Subsidy & 5% Interest Subsidy on Housing Loan

Land Availability, Zoning/FSI Incentives including TDR, Share in Infrastructure and/or housing capital subsidy

Low Value Land – Public Agencies

Share in Infrastructure and housing Capital Subsidy & 5% Interest Subsidy on Housing Loan

Land Availability, Zoning/FSI Incentives including TDR, Share in Infrastructure and/or housing subsidy

1.1 E Contribution towards cost of Housing only

Contribution towards cost of Housing

Equity Contribution subsidised Housing Loan

Equity Contribution subsidised Housing Loan

+

+

Land Availability, Share of Infrastructure and housing subsidy

Personalised construction under technical supervision of the state/ULB

Subsidised Incremental Housing

loan for Housing/New

Land Availability; Incentives including sale component

Bid based on No. of Free Houses offered

Contribution only

for

V

Infrastructure Provision only – Beneficiaryled Housing

VI

High Premium area – PPP Model for both Housing & Infrastructure on public land

VII

Relocation on Public Land – Conventional model Through Public Agencies

Share in Infrastructure Costs, Capital Subsidy & 5% Interest Subsidy on Housing Loan

Land Availability, Zoning/FSI Incentives, Share in Infrastructure Costs

Equity Contribution, subsidised Housing Loan

Relocation on Private Land

Share in Viability Gap Funding, & 5% Interest Subsidy on Housing Loan

Zoning/FSI Incentives including TDR, Share in Viability Gap Funding

Equity Contribution and subsidised Housing Loan with Capital & Interest Subsidy

Share in Infrastructure Costs @ Rs.50,000 per unit of Affordable House, 5% Interest Subsidy on Housing Loan

Land Availability, Zoning/FSI Incentives including TDR, external development where required

Equity Contribution subsidised Housing Loan with 5% Interest Subsidy

VIII

Zoning/FSI TDR/ free

IX

1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

Housing

AFFORDABLE HOUSING FOR THE URBAN POOR Affordable Housing in Partnership – Public-Public, Public-Private, etc.

1.1 F

1.1 G

Land Availability; Zoning/FSI Incentives including TDR; Share of Viability Gap Funding.

Low Value Land – Slum Dwellers‘ Cooperatives

Share in Infrastructure Cost; 5% interest subsidy for housing loan

Bid based on No. of Free Houses (Ownership/ Rental) offered

1.1 D

Source - Rajiv Awas Yojana Guidelines for Slum-free City Planning, Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, India

17 | Policies 1.1 21

MODEL

1.1 C


1.1 A 1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

SWARNA JAYANTI SHAHARI ROZGAR YOJANA (SJSRY) (01.12.1997) Why? The key objective of the Scheme was to provide gainful employment to the urban unemployed or underemployed through the setting up of selfemployment ventures or provision of wage employment. Objective: 1. Addressing urban poverty alleviation through gainful employment to the urban unemployed or underemployed poor; 2. Supporting skill development and training to enable the urban poor have access to employment opportunities provided by the market or undertake self-employment; and 3. Empowering the community to tackle the issues of urban poverty through suitable self managed community structures and capacity building programmes.

18 | Policies 1.1 22 | Policies 1.1

The revamped SJSRY has five major components, namely1. Urban Self Employment Programme (USEP) 2. Urban Women Self-help Programme (UWSP) 3. Skill Training for Employment Promotion amongst Urban Poor (STEP-UP) 4. Urban Wage Employment Programme (UWEP) 5. Urban Community Development Network (UCDN) Financial provision for supplementing the administrative support structure: 1. 5% of SJSRY allocation could be spent for Administrative and Other Expenses (A&OE). 2. 10% of SJSRY allocation meant for Urban Community Development Network (UCDN) component could be expended towards meeting the cost of community development activities including remuneration to Community Organizers. 3. Small Enterprise Advisory Services (SEAS) could be

provided through the Micro Business Centres (MBCs) equipped with specialists.

(NHB) and HUDCO have been designated as the Nodal Agencies (NAs) for administration of and release the subsidy under the scheme to the lending institutions.

Eligibility: Under employed and unemployed youth in urban and Criteria semi-urban town living below the poverty line i.e. on the basis of monthly per-capita income. 1. Residing in town for at least 3 years. 2. Should not be defaulter. 3. Minimum educational qualification has not been stipulated. 4. However, should not be more than 9th standard. 5. No Age limit. 6. Annual income ceiling will be as per new methodology (cir.SIB/53/97-98)

Objective: The purpose of the Scheme is to provide home loan with Central Government subsidy to EWS/LIG persons for acquisition of house as also for construction of house to such beneficiary, who does not own a house in his/her name or in the name of his/her spouse or any dependent child. Such beneficiaries who own land in any urban area but do not have any pucca house in their name or in the name of their spouse or any dependent child will also be covered under the Scheme.

INTREST SUBSIDY SCHME FOR HOUSING THE URBAN POOR

Definition of EWS and LIG: 1. The economic parameter of EWS is defined as households having an average monthly income upto Rs.3,300. 2. The economic parameter of LIG is defined as households having an average monthly income between Rs.3,301 upto Rs.7,300.

Why? The scheme aims at enabling the EWS and LIG segments in the urban areas to construct or purchase houses by providing an interest subsidy of 5% on loan amount of Rs.1.00 lakh. The National Housing Bank

2004-2005

2005-06 (Upto Mar. 06)

Target

10475

11250

Applications Sanctioned

7061

9324

Loans Disbursed

4439

6569

Gap Between Target And Achievement

6036

4681

Gap Between Sanction And Disbursement

2622

2755

Parameters


1.1 A 1.1 B

Eligibility: 1. The borrowers under the scheme must belong to the EWS or LIG 2. They must have a plot of land for the construction or have identified a purchasable house 3. Applicants planning to form cooperative group housing societies or organizations like Employees Welfare Housing, Labour Housing, etc. should be given preference and wherever possible construction of houses by such cooperatives by way of 1+3 storeyed buildings should be promoted so that cost of land is shared among beneficiaries. 4. Other eligibility criteria would be the same as in case of Home Loan scheme of the Bank. The preference under the scheme (subject to beneficiaries being from EWS/LIG segments) should be given to the following in accordance with their population in the total population of the area as per 2001 census. 1. Scheduled Caste 2. Scheduled Tribe 3. Minorities 4. Persons with disabilities 5. Women beneficiaries Loan amount admissible: 1. The scheme will provide a subsidized loan for 15 – 20 years for a maximum amount of Rs.1,00,000 for an Income Group

EWS individual for a house at least of 25 sq.mts. Additional loans, if needed would be at unsubsidized rates. 2. A maximum loan amount of Rs.1,60,000 for a LIG individual for a house at least of 40 sq.mts will be admissible. However, subsidy will be given for loan amount upto Rs. 1 lakh only. Additional loans, if needed would be at unsubsidized rates. The scheme will be open for sanction upto and including 31st March, 2012.

Governed by: 1. From 1980-81:- Initially started through the Ministry of Home Affairs & later through Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment. 2. ·From1989-90:- Transferred to Ministry of Urban Development & Poverty Alleviation 3. From 2003-04:- Transferred to Ministry of Urban Employment & Poverty Alleviation / Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation The ILCS Scheme was implemented till December 2007.

INTEGRATED LOW COST SANITATION SCHEME 10 / 10 / 1990 TO 31 / 10 / 2013

Components of the earlier integrated Low Cost Sanitation Scheme (ILCS) The scheme was being operated through the Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) by providing a mix of subsidy from the Central Government and loan from the HUDCO.

Why? The practice of carrying night-soil on the heads from dry latrines by scavengers has been in existence for centuries in India. It was felt that the abolition of manual scavenging was essential to restore human dignity among the scavengers. Objective: The objective of the Scheme is to convert/ construct low cost sanitation units through sanitary two pit pour flush latrines with superstructures and appropriate variations to suit local conditions (area specific latrines) and construct new latrines where EWS household have no latrines and follow the inhuman practice of defecating in the open in urban areas. This would improve overall sanitation in the towns.

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

The scheme was taken up on a `whole town basis‘ meaning thereby all sections of population of the town (HIG, MIG, LIG & EWS) are presently covered by the ILCS guidelines.

Eligibility criteria: 1. The scheme is on All Town coverage basis. 2. The proposal can be submitted by the urban local body or organizations like Housing Board, Slum Clearance Board, Development Authority, Improvement Trust, Water Supply and Sewerage Board, Cantonment Board, etc. duly authorized by the State Government to the State Urban Devp.

Average Monthly House Hold Income@

Minimum Size Of The House

Maximum Permissible Subsidized Loan Amount*

Maximum Loan Amount Eligible For Subsidy

EWS

Upto 5000 Rs

25 Sq.Mts.

1 Lac

1 Lac

LIG

5001rs To 10000rs

40 Sq.Mts.

1.60 Lac

1 Lac

19 | Policies 1.1 23

This will be subject to revision by the Steering Committee of the Scheme from time to time.

1.1 C


1.1 A 1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J

20 | Policies 1.1 24 | Policies 1.1

1.1 K

3. Authority for undertaking the programme. • The concerned urban local body/ organization has to give an undertaking prohibiting dry latrines in the towns thereafter. • The States should select NGOs having adequate experience in this field who will be funded maximum to the extent of 15% over and above the total project cost to be borne by the Centre and States based on the ratio of 5:1 at different stages of implementation. Funding Pattern: Central Subsidy 75 percent, State Subsidy 15 percent and beneficiary share 10 percent. The second instalment of Government of India subsidy portion that is with reference to total funds earmarked for a given State or UT will only be released after the State share for the first instalment has been released. The subsidy will be released by Central Government directly. The funds will be released to State Urban Development Agency (SUDA), District Urban Development Agency (DUDA) or any other agency designated by the State Government.

YEAR

BUDGET

RIENBURSED

ACTUAL EXPENDITURE

2002-03

30.00

4.80

4.80

2003-04

30.00

4.80

4.80

2004-05

30.00

30.00

20.00

2005-06

30.00

5.00

2.00

2006-07

30.00

30.00

30.00

The details of Budget Allocation and Expenditure incurred during 10 th Five year Plan under ILCS were as follows: (Rs. In Crores)


1.1 A

1.1 F

1.1 B

Working Group on Rural Housing for formulation of 11th Plan The Planning Commission set up a Working Group on Rural Housing, for formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan. The Chairperson of the Working Group is Secretary, Ministry of Rural Development and the Member Secretary is Joint Secretary, Ministry of Rural Development. Need For A Rural Housing And Habitat Policy 1.There is acute shortage of housing and there is a need to address the gap between the housing shortage and demand on one hand and the existing availability of housing. 2.Shelter for all‘ to be achieved through ensuring homestead land availability for all within the 11th Plan in a phased manner. 3.Access to basic infrastructure along with housing must be addressed in order to make a meaningful difference in rural habitat conditions. 4.At present, Government‘s intervention is primarily through its subsidy-based IAY scheme. Suitable schemes for meeting the housing needs of such of those BPL families that remain left out and of APL families would have to be formulated. 5.It is imperative to create facilitative conditions that allow a greater number of rural households to access housing and quality habitat through government support as well as through people‘s own efforts. 6.There is an urgent need to devise and make available a judicious mix of various modes of financing rural housing and to encourage livelihood-based habitats. The private sector which at present is not very active to cater to the housing demand of rural poor would have to be activated. 8.The shortcomings of IAY scheme necessitate corrective measures for better targeting of eligible beneficiaries through the participation of the gram sabhas, prevention of corrupt practices and provision of adequate homestead lands to the landless, with due emphasis on the use of appropriate technology. 9.Capacity building of key stakeholders including

SHGs, Panchayats, government functionaries and local artisans who have a role in housing and habitat development in the villages must be facilitated. 10.Convergence between Govt schemes, delivery channels & institutional mechanisms across departments is necessary for total habitat development in rural areas. 11.To government needs to formulate a Rural Housing and Habitat Policy which would enable tackle shelterlessness on a larger scale. 12.The Working Group thereafter discussed the aims of such a Rural Housing Policy and these aims are listed at para 5.2. The Working Group also discussed the various alternatives for financing rural housing and specific interventions requiring immediate attention. These aspects are dealt with in chapter 6 and 7 respectively. Aims And Objectives Of The Rural Housing And Habitat Policy The strategy of a Rural Housing Policy would have to be sustainable, based on community choice and would have to provide the household with control over the ownership of the asset and the aims and objectives of such a Rural Housing Policy would broadly be as follows: 1.To create within the timeframe of the Eleventh Five Year Plan, adequate rural housing stock that would cater to the rural housing shortage estimated as per the Census data. 2.To prepare a State-wise road map with a definite time frame for provision of appropriate and affordable housing to shelterless households either by way of upgradation of kutcha houses or through construction of new houses. 3.To restructure and strengthen the local and state level institutions / agencies so that the framework for mobilizing additional land and finance for housing purposes and community infrastructure building is created. 4.To introduce the participation of private entrepreneurship on a selective basis and initiate housing development through public-private

5.

6.

7.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13. 14. 15.

partnership wherever deemed feasible. To plan for removing the barriers preventing greater credit flow into rural areas and to suggest administrative, legal, fiscal and any other operational changes that would facilitate entry of greater resources so that the rural-urban gap of quality of life is bridged. To provide for an assembly of basic services like water supply, sanitation, power, roads and other livelihood infrastructure that eliminate daily household drudgery and creating sustainable habitats attuned to local requirements. To identify specific rural segments where habitat development can take place along the lines of integrated townships with layouts etc., and reverse the process of migration to urban and semi-urban areas. To prepare area specific livelihood based habitats after factoring in the local requirements and constraints, in terms of availability, adequacy and appropriateness of resources. To put in place a legal-administrative mechanism that provides housing plots for the totally landless so as to qualify them for financial targeting and subsequent livelihood initiatives. To put in place a mechanism for identification that would ensure the flow of benefits from Government funded housing programmes to genuine BPL population. To energise the functioning of PRIs so that issues of access to land, finance and community participation are more effectively addressed at a decentralized level. To generate awareness and promote cost effective, environment friendly, energy saving and disaster resistant technologies. To achieve a synthesis between R&D institutions, financial institutions and implementing agencies in the planning and development of rural housing. To provide for operational flexibility in the implementation of housing programmes in different parts of the country. The flexibility in the delivery mechanism can be in terms of design, implementation, technology choice and allocation of financial resources.

1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

21 | Policies 1.1 25

National Rural Housing and Habitat Policy Proposal


1.1 A

1.1 G

1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G

Schemes Under Ministry of Rural Development (Govt. of India) Government Initiatives in the Areas of Rural Housing • • • •

Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (Gramin Awaas) Credit-cum Subsidy Scheme for Rural Housing Innovative Stream for Rural Housing and Habitat Development Setting up of Rural Building Centers Samagra Awaas Yojana National Housing Bank State-run Housing Schemes

1.1 H

• • • •

1.1 I

INDIRA AWAS YOJANA (IAY)

1.1 J 1.1 K

Objective / purpose To implement Indira Awaas Yojana to primarily help in construction / up gradation of dwelling units of members of : 1. Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, 2. Freed bonded labors, 3. Minorities in the below poverty line category and 4. Other below poverty line non- sc/ST rural households by providing them a lump sum financial assistance.

22 | Policies 1.1 26 | Policies 1.1

Vision Ensure adequate and affordable housing for all & facilitate development of sustainable &inclusive habitats in rural areas by expanding Government support, promoting community participation, self help and public-private partnership within the framework of Panchayati Raj. Mission 1. To set up systems to facilitate and maintain a sustained growth of the housing stock to ensure adequate and affordable housing for all 2. To create within the timeframe of the 12th Five Year Plan, adequate and affordable rural housing stock that would cater to the rural housing shortage to the extent of existing kutcha houses. 3. To provide homestead plots for the poorest and the vulnerable who do not have agricultural land or

house sites. 4. To promote adequate flow of grant from Government to support housing for the poorest and the vulnerable. 5. To promote larger flow of funds from Governmental and private sources for fulfilling housing & infrastructure needs 6. To address the special needs of marginal and weaker sections of the society such as SCs/STs/Women etc. 7. To develop planned rural habitats with an assembly of basic services and livelihood infrastructure that provide for dignified living 8. To develop, promote and transfer use of appropriate, environment-friendly, energy-efficient and disaster-resistant technology 9. To develop required technical and managerial capacity of delivery agents including upgradation of construction skills 10. To strengthen functioning of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) and encourage partnership among civil society, public and private sectors. Brief history 1. Began in the early 1980s. 2. Construction of houses was one of the major activities under the National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), which began in 1980, and 3. The Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), which began in 1983. 4. Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) was launched during 1985-86 as a sub-scheme of RLEGP. 5. IAY, thereafter, continued as a sub-scheme of Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) since its launching in April, 1989. 6. 6% of the total JRY funds were allocated for implementation of IAY. From the year 1993-94, 7. The scope of lay was extended to cover below the poverty line non-scheduled castes/ scheduled tribes families in the rural areas. 8. Simultaneously, the allocation of funds for implementing the scheme was raised from 6% to 10% of the total resources available under JRY at the national level, subject to the condition that the benefits to non- scheduled

castes/ scheduled tribes poor should not exceed 4% of the total JRY allocation. 9. IAY was de-linked from JRY and made an independent scheme with effect from 1st January 1996. Duties Dealing with all issues related to Rural housing policy and all matters germane and incidental, in so far as it relates to rural areas. Main activities / functions 1. Formulation of policy guidelines, 2. Release of funds under IAY and Homestead Scheme 3. Monitoring and evaluation List of services being provided 1. Allotment of Physical/Financial Target 2. Allocation of funds 3. Release of funds 4. Monitoring and Review of implementation of the Scheme 5. Organising training programmes for functionaries involved in the implementation of the Scheme. CREDIT-CUM SUBSIDY SCHEME FOR RURAL HOUSING 1. 2. 3. 4.

6.

The credit-cum-subsidy scheme for rural housing has been launched with effect from 1st april, 1999. The scheme targets rural families having annual income upto rs. 32,000. While subsidy is restricted to rs. 10,000, the maximum loan amount that can be availed is rs. 40,000. The subsidy portion is shared by the centre and the state in 75:25 ratio. The loan portion is to be disbursed by the commercial banks/ regional rural banks, housing finance institutions, etc. During the current financial year. A provision of rs. 82 crores has been kept under this scheme for the construction of 1.09 lakh houses.


1.1 A 1.1 B

1.

2.

3.

Samagra awaas yojana is a comprehensive housing scheme launched in 1999-2000, with a view to ensuring integrated provision of shelter, sanitation and drinking water. During the first phase of its implementation, it has been decided to take up samagra awaas yojana in one block each of 25 districts of 24 states and one union territory which have been identified for implementing participatory approach under the accelerated rural water supply programme. A special central assistance of rs. 25 lakhs is provided for each block for undertaking overall habitat development and information, education and communication (IEC) work with 10% contribution coming from the people. So far an amount of rs. 351.90 lakhs has been released for implementation of the scheme in the states.

PRADHAN MANTRI GRAMODAYA YOJANA (GRAMIN AWAAS) (PMGY) This Scheme is introduced to achieve the objective of sustainable human development at the village level. The Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (Gramin Awaas is based on the pattern of the Indira Awaas Yojana and it is implemented in the rural areas throughout the country. Target Group : The target group for houses under the scheme will be the people who are living Below the Poverty Line in the rural areas, belonging to Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribes, freed bonded laborers and non SC/ST categories. Identification of Beneficiaries : The District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs)/Zilla Parishads will decide the number of houses to be constructed, Panchayatwise and the same will immediately be intimated to the Gram Panchayat. Thereafter, the Gram Sabha will select the beneficiaries from the list of eligible households, restricting this

number to the target allotted. The intermediate-level Panchayat (Panchayat Samity) will invariably be sent a list of selected beneficiaries. INNOVATIVE STREAM FOR RURAL HOUSING AND HABITAT DEVELOPMENT 1.

2. 3.

With a view to encourage innovative, cost effective and environment-friendly solutions in building/housing sectors in rural areas, this scheme has been launched with effect from 1-4-1999. During 1999-2000, rs. 2.53 crores was released under this scheme. During current financial year, rs. 10 crores is available under this scheme. An amount of rs. 3.95 crores has been released under the scheme so far during 2000-2001.

SETTING UP OF RURAL BUILDING CENTRES 1.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

The objectives of establishment of the rural building centers are: (a) technology transfer and information dissemination (b) skill upgradation through training and (c) production of costeffective and environment-friendly materials/ components. During the first year of the operation of the scheme in 1999-2000, it was proposed to set up 2 building centers in each of the states. One was to be set up by a governmental institution and the other by an NGO. The limit of these building centers per state has been increased to 4 during the current year. During 1999-2000, 9 project proposals for setting up of these centers were approved and funds to the extent of rs. 54 lakhs Released During the current year, 22 project crores proposals have already been approved and rs.1.32 released. The total allocation under this scheme for the current year is rs. 3.00 crores. For setting up a building centre, a one time grant of rs.15 lakhs is provided, which is released in 3

installments in the ratio 40:40:20. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS 1. 2.

Central Building Research Institute (CBRI) Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council(BMTPC)

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

23 | Policies 1.1 27

SAMAGRA AWAAS YOJANA

1.1 C


1.1 A 1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J

24 | Policies 1.1 28 | Policies 1.1

1.1 K

NABARD = National Bank For Agriculture And Rural Development SIDBI = Small Industries Development Bank Of India HFC = Housing Finance Corporation NBFC = Non-banking Financial Company Source - NHB (National Housing Bank). 2004. Report on Trend and Progress of Housing in India 2004, New Delhi, India.


1.1 A

1.1 H

1.1 B

Land And Housing Development Models In India

1.1 C

The Government of India adopted a central planning model of development. Land and housing development is carried out in various ways in different cities in India. But the institutional framework and the process of land and housing development are more or less similar in various states, with small variations.

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

The popular models of land and housing development are as follows: 1. Town Planning (TP) Schemes 2. Development Authority Projects 3. Housing Board Projects 4. Cooperative Society Projects 5. Private Real Estate Developers 6. Public Private Partnership 7. Slum Boards 8. Government Employees Housing 9. Illegal Layouts 10. Government Programmes 11. Squatting = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

National Government Sub National (State) Government Municipal Government Para Statal Organisation Housing Boards Development Authorities Government Department Central Public Works Department Public Works Department Employees Public Sector Undertaking Cooperatives Private Developers International Funding Agencies Domestic Funding Agencies National Housing Bank Banks Capital Markets Insurance Companies Housing Finance Institutions Friends Relatives Pawn Broker Money Lender Chit Fund Saving Association Community Organisation Households Non Governmental Organisation

1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

Source – Housing And Land Development Study, P.S.N. Rao

25 | Policies 1.1 29

NAT. GOVT. SUB.NAT.GOVT. MUN.GOVT. PARA STAT. H.B. D.A. GOVT.DEPT. C.P.W.D. P.W.D. EMP. P.S.U. COOP. PVT.DEV. INT.FUN.AG DOM.FUN.AG. N.H.B. BAN CAP.MKTS. INS.COS. HFI‘S FRNDS. RELAT. PWN.BKR. MON.LNDR. CHIT FN. S.ASSN. COM.OR. HH NGO

1.1 G


1.1 A 1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D

(Matrix showing various Land and Housing Development Model in India Project Initiation / Formulation

Approvals

Source of funding

Land Development

External Infrastructure

Internal Infrastructure

House Construction

Town Planning Schemes

Improvement Trusts / Development Auth.

State Govt., T.P. Dept. & Local body, Elec. And Water board

State Govt. and through levy of betterment charges

Improvement Trusts / Development Auth.

Improvement Trusts / Development Auth.

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

Individual plot owners

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

Development Authority project

Development auth.

State Govt., T.P. Dept. & Local body, Elec. And Water board

Various Funding agencies

Development auth.

Development auth.

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

Development auth.

Development auth. Or by individual buyers

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

Housing Board

State Govt., T.P. Dept. & Local body, Elec. And Water board

Various Funding agencies

Housing Board Or Development auth.

Housing Board

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

Housing Board

Housing Board Or by individual buyers

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

Slum Boards Projects

Slum Board

State Govt., T.P. Dept. & Local body, Elec. And Water board

Various Funding agencies

Slum Board Or Development auth.

Slum Board

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

Slum Board

Slum Board Or by individuals

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

Govt. Employees‘ Housing

CPWD, PWD, Police, P&T, Railways, etc.

State Govt., T.P. Dept. & Local body, Elec. And Water board

Various Funding agencies, government allocation

Development auth.

CPWD, PWD, Police, P&T, Railways, etc.

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

CPWD, PWD, Police, P&T, Railways, etc.

CPWD, PWD, Police, P&T, Railways, etc.

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

Cooperative society

Development auth. Or Cooperative society

State Govt., T.P. Dept. & Local body, Elec. And Water board

Various Funding agencies, self financing from members

Development auth. Or Cooperative society

Development auth. Or Cooperative society

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

Cooperative society

Cooperative society or by individual members

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards, Association of members

Private Real Estate Developers (Pvt. RED)

Development auth. Or Pvt. RED or as a Partnership

T.P. Dept. & Local body, Elec. And Water board

Various Funding agencies, self financing from buyers

Development auth. Or Pvt. RED

Development auth. Or Pvt. RED

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards

Pvt. RED

Pvt. RED or by individual purchasers

Local Body / Electricity and water Boards, Association of buyers

Illegal Layout

Illegal Coloniser

Nil

Illegal Coloniser

Illegal Coloniser

Illegal Coloniser

-

Partial Provision by illegal coloniser

Squatting

individuals

Nil

individual

individual

individual

-

Mafia

1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J

26 | Policies 1.1 30 | Policies 1.1

1.1 K

Source: Housing And Land Development Study, P.S.N. Rao

Housing Board Projects

Land Assembly

Maintenance

individual purchasers

Nil

Individual

Mafia


1.1 A 1.1 B

(Organizational Chart Of Ministry Of Housing And Urban Poverty Alleviation)

Source - Housing And Land Development Study, P.S.N. Rao

1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E

Minister of state (Independent charge) for Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation

1.1 F

1.1 G

Secretary (HUPA)

1.1 H 1.1 I

JS (Housing)

Economic Advisor

1.1 J

Mission Director (JNNURM)

JS (F&A)

1.1 K

US (H)

SO (H)

US (LCS)

D.S. (AA)

US (AA)

US (Admn.)

DD (Monitorin g)

DFA

CCA

Dir. (UPA)

DS (Budget)

US (UPA)

SO (Budget)

SO (AA) SO (Admin & Cord)

SO (UPA)

SO (USD)

Dir. (NBO)/OSD (JNNURM)

D.S. (JNURAM)

US (JNNURM)

DD (BSUP)

DD (Data & MIS)

SO (IHSDP)

AO

Research Officer

AO

Abbreviations: 1. HUPA – Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, 2. JNNURM – Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission, 3. NBO – National Buildings Organisation, 7. H – Housing, 8. CCA – Chief Controller of Accounts, 9. DS – Deputy Secretary, 10. UPA – Urban Poverty Alleviation, 11. Admn – Administration, 12. ILCS – Integrated Low Cost Sanitation, 13. A.O. – Account Officer, 14. DFA – Deputy Financial Advisor, 15. EA – Economic Advisor, 16. DD – Deputy Director.

DD (JPC)

DD (NRC)

Research Officer

27 | Policies 1.1 31

Director (H)

Dir. (Admn. & Cord)


1.1 A 1.1 B

1.1 I

Comparison Between International And National Level Housing And Habitat Policies

1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I

Country

India

Germany

UK

1.1 J 1.1 K

France

Organisation Of Government

The pressure of urban population and lack of housing and basic services were very much evident in the early 1950s. In some cities this was compounded by migration of people from Pakistan.

The pressure of urban population and lack of housing and basic services were very much evident in the early 1950s. In some cities this was compounded by migration of people from Pakistan.

Unemployed youth in economically depressed Eastern provinces.

Decentralised federation unified in 1990, now 16 Lander each with constitution, and municipalities.

Lone parents, unemployed households, homeless population and nomadic ‗Traveller‘ households.

New migrants of non-European background, legal and illegal refugees, housing quality of concrete panel estates and poor-quality inner city private rental housing.

Unitary state shifting from centralised to decentralised power through regional assemblies and coordinating mechanisms. Local governments have diverse and changing roles. Unitary state, 22 elected regional councils influential in economic planning process, and 96 department councils. Communes (lowest tier) and associations of communes increasingly involved in renewal activities.

Low-income tenants burdened by high rents tied to landlords‘ financing costs, racial, religious and lifestyle discrimination in the housing market, low urban amenity in some areas, social isolation, particularly of singleperson households, adaptable and accessible housing for older people.

Federation of 26. Some Cantons have direct democratic regimes.

USA

Supportive housing for homeless, ownership housing for low-income and minority (Black and Hispanic) households. Energy-efficient housing. Native American and Native Hawaiian housing needs.

Federation of 50 states, with own constitutions. Central government co-ordinates and broadly interprets inter-state concerns.

Australia

Persistent housing need particularly in rural and remote areas. Persistently high rate of homelessness. Significant unmet need for affordable housing among diverse non-aged low-income households driving emphasis on assisting homeless and special needs households in public and community housing and in the private rental market (e.g. through brokerage schemes).

A federation founded in 1901, 8 State/Territory governments and 673 local municipalities with comparatively narrow span of responsibilities.

Switzerland

28 | Policies 1.1 32 | Policies 1.1

Need Of Policy


1.1 A 1.1 B INDIA

Increase Social Housing

Y

GERMANY

UK

FRANCE

SWITZERLAND

USA

Y

1.1 E

Social Regulation Renovation Support Homeless

Y Y

Address Special Needs Including Indigenous Groups

1.1 F

Y

1.1 G

Y

Environmental Standards

Y

1.1 H

Y

Regulate Allocation

1.1 I

Y

National Urban Renewal Program

Y

Y

Employment Initiatives

Y

Y

Key Role Of Local Government

Y

Y

1.1 J

Y

1.1 K

Y Y

Conditional Land And Infrastructure Provision

y

Improving Quality

Y

Loans For Improvement

Y

y Y

Y

Y

Y

Enhanced Regulation And Performance Monitoring

Y

Y

Investment In New Supply

Y

Y

Y

Y

Proactive Asset Management /Reconfiguration

Y

Y

Y

Y

Financial Sustainability Of Main Providers Improved

Y

Y

Emphasis On Integration Of New Social Housing In Existing Areas

Y

Y

Government Driven Service Reforms

Y

Y

Source – Social Housing in Europe by Christine Whitehead and Kathleen Scanlon

1.1 D

Y Y

29 | Policies 1.1 33

POLICY

1.1 C


1.1 A 1.1 B 1.1 C

1.1 D 1.1 E 1.1 F

1.1 G 1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J

30 | Policies 1.1 34 | Policies 1.1

1.1 K

1.1 J

Analysis And Recommendations 1. While the objectives of the Policy are laudable, it is disappointing to learn that only two States i.e. Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh have so far announced their State housing policies based on the NUHHP-2007. 2. In redevelopment of urban slums, social groupings should not be disturbed. 3. Housing is an employment generation opportunity and should be promoted accordingly. 4. Concerns of environment should be incorporated 5. In the development plan of a city, there should be a separate Housing and Infrastructure Development Plan incorporating the needs of urban poor. 6. Specifically for the purposes of providing shelter to the urban poor, a new tax called 'shelter cess' may be charged from developers who are unable to provide reservation of area or built space for urban poor as specified in the National Housing and Habitat Policy and this amount should be exclusively used for the EWS housing. 7. For existing slums, in situ upgradation of rehabilitation under the PPP (Public Private Partnership) should be examined especially in the light of its misuse. 8. Guidelines should include strategies for improving and upgrading the existing housing stock. 9. Looking at the problems of the urban poor in a holistic manner, the most practical and viable solution to urban poverty is through regional spatial planning that aims at sustainability and urban-rural continuum as a result of which slum formation in cities can be stabilized and reduced. 10. Spatial location guidelines for street vendors should be incorporated with participation of local population. 11. Performance indicators should be identified to monitor urban poor housing and habitat activities and changes in the quality of life of the urban poor. 12. A. Jockin, Magsaysay award winner, said his organization has been advocating that people be asked to invest, either in cash or in kind, in housing projects. "Get rid of the free housing concept. Anything free is not valued. In almost every SRA scheme, 50% of the eligible names are fake,'' he said.

11. Housing policies should enable supply of serviced urban land at right location, at right time and at affordable price as cost of land constitute large component of cost of a house. 12. Maintenance of assets created is a very important part of housing activity. The maintenance exercise in the EWS/LIG dwelling units has largely remained poor and unsatisfactory. In fact, poor maintenance has become the hallmark of a Government asset. Therefore, the Government needs to pay urgent attention to this important aspect. 13. A major problem, which needs attention in this context is that many a time Government plots/houses allotted to EWS/LIG persons change hands as the original beneficiaries sell those off to a second party in the open market at a premium, thus defeating the very purpose of allotment. 14. Definition of infrastructure should include solid waste management and water treatment plants. 15. At present, there is no basic mechanism for smooth property transactions. 16. Recommendation to Central Government to set up a ‗Central Empowered Committee‘ to help Governments of all the States, Union Territories and Local Authorities to ensure effective implementation of the National Urban Street Vendors Policy 2009. 17. Exemption of Street Entrepreneurs under the Section 283 and 431 of Indian Penal Code and Section 34 of Police Act: It has been noticed by organizations and institutes working with Street Vendors that authorities have not been use some sections of the law, specifically section 283 of Indian Panel Code and Section 34 of Police Act, in the same spirit with which they have been formed. They instead use them as weapons to harass Street Vendors. We recommend Central Government to modify section 283 of Indian Panel Code and work with Governments of all the States and Union Territories to exempt Street Vendors under different sections of State Police Acts.


1.1 A

1.1 K

1.1 B

References

National urban housing and habitat policy, 2007 Government of India ministry of housing & urban poverty alleviation, New Delhi

www.nhb.org.in

web.worldbank.org

1.1 D

National urban housing and habitat policy- 2005 ministry of urban employment and poverty alleviation govt. Of India

www.cprindia.org

1.1 E

www.unhabitat.org

1.1 F

www.indiapolicy.org

www.economictimes.indiatimes.com

1.1 G

www.india.gov.in

National Housing And Habitat Policy, 1998, ministry of urban development and poverty alleviation

Effective implementation of entire national housing & habitat policy: solution for India's major problems By Kiran Nanda, chief economist, Gujarat cements ltd.

Transformation of housing policy in India - the trend towards market mechanisms , prof. Dr. P.S.N.Rao Professor of urban management, Indian institute of public administration, new Delhi, India.

Is there a right to housing in India?, February 11, 2008, R. Russell jarvis, jr., Intern, vigyan foundation

The national rural housing and habitat policy for india-2007 a proposal to the government of India

Housing and human settlements

India: housing finance ii project, Asian development bank

Rural housing, Piyush Tiwari

Housing finance mechanisms in india, united nations human settlements programme, Nairobi , 2008

Rural housing schemes in India, a resume

Affordable housing in India: needs and emerging solutions, anne-cecile cardona

India: national report, progress of implementation of the habitat agenda (1996-2000)

1.1 H 1.1 I 1.1 J 1.1 K

31 | Policies 1.1 35

1.1 C


1.3 1.3 A

Bye-laws – What? How? Who?

1.3 B

NBC

1.3 C

Need and importance

1.3 D

MPD in Detail

1.3 E

Environment

1.3 F

Conservation of built heritage

1.3 G

Disaster

1.3 H

Shelter

1.3 I

Housing

1.3 J

Building Requirement

37 | By-laws 1.3

By-Laws


1.3 A

Bye-laws – What? How? Who? Classification The government frames and passes acts. These acts are explained by a set of rules which are called laws. When an autonomous body authorized by the government frames rules, they are called bye-laws. Bye-laws governing buildings are called building bye-laws The building byelaws are defined as the standards & specifications designed to grant minimum safeguards to the workers during construction, to the health & comfort of the users & to provide enough safety to the public in general. The regulation set out the basic requirements to be observed in the of design and construction of buildings. They are applied to new building and also to extensions, material alterations, and certain changes of use of existing buildings. A building byelaw is a local law framed by a subordinate authority. It channelizes to achieve the concepts & policies outlined in the Master plans of the city, in order to give a particular ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER to the city.

1.3 A 1.3 B 1.3 C

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

39 01 | By-laws 1.3

Framing The building bye-laws are framed by the town planners in consultation with architects and civil engineers. The bye-laws are framed in accordance with the master plan. The Master Plan is a vision document which proposes a systematic development of a city. This divides the city into zones and bye-laws are framed for different zones accordingly. Though the approval of these bye-laws depends on the government.


1.3 A 1.3 B 1.3 C

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

1.3 B

NBC (National Building Code) The bye-laws are framed according to the existing conditions of a given place. For example, an already existing, dense built fabric will have different norms than that of a planned settlement. The source of bye-laws are building codes like the national building code. These codes provide elaborate details for good living conditions. These codes are translated into building norms in accordance with the site specific conditions.

• • •

Delhi Development Authority Set up under the Delhi Development Act, 1957 controlling jurisdiction of the DDA is with the Ministry of Urban Development, with the LG as its Chairman and a nominated Governing Board.

• • • •

Functions: • Pioneering Urban Development: To formulate a Master Plan for covering the present and future growth of Delhi • Creating Metropolis : Preparing schemes and advising the concerned authorities departments and agencies • Formulation and sanction of the projects and schemes for the development of the Delhi • Institutional and Industrial Development : which makes Delhi a land of opportunities • To acquire, hold, manage and dispose of property What is building code? A document which contains standardized requirement for the design & construction of buildings.

01 | | By-laws 1.3 40 By-laws 1.3

Government

Codes regulate building construction & building use in order to protect the health, safety & welfare of the occupant.

What is the national building code? It is a single document in which the information contained in various INDIAN STANDARDS is woven into a pattern of continuity. The purpose of all these building codes is to ensure public safety, health & welfare as affected by building construction. This purpose includes:4 Structural Strength Sanitary Equipmen Light & Ventilation Fire Safety Seismic Design Correct Use Of Materials Energy Conservation

NBC

Master Plan

Bye laws

DDA Local Bodies


1.3 C

1.3 A

Need and Importance

Delhi has a Master Plan that divides the city into different land use zones, with detailed maps. The MPD specifies the permitted uses (e.g. commercial or residential) and the required standards (e.g. building size and location) in each zone.

Objectives of by-law  To make it easier to pre-plan the building activities.  Gives guidelines to the designing Architect or engineer.  Prevents haphazard development without any resemblance to the development of the area as a whole.  gives safety (to humans who work & most importantly live in the buildings) against fire, noise, health hazard, structural failure (may be due to natural calamity).

Need • providing better living conditions to the occupants of a building and the occupants of the city on a larger scale • to curb unplanned Development • to ensure optimum use of infrastructure and better utilization of resources • generates revenue for the government by fining defaulters. Importance • based on scientific laws, known properties of building materials & inherent hazards to users • In INDIA, the construction activity both in public & private sector amounts to 50% of outlay of any 5 year plan • Tackle problems of:  Loss of mass identity  Visual disorder  Uncontrollable traffic  Uncomfortable and unhygienic living conditions  Environmental problems  Lack of housing for poor

Architectural Need It defines : • Min. plot size • Maximum building height • Area requirement • Other structures on the property

1.3 C

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

41 01 | By-laws 1.3

Zoning by-law A zoning by-law controls the use of land in our community. It includes: • Land use • Location of buildings and other structures • Permitted typology of buildings and specific uses. • Plot sizes and dimensions, parking requirements, • Building heights and setbacks from the street.

1.3 B


1.3 A 1.3 B 1.3 C

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I

01 | | By-laws 1.3 42 By-laws 1.3

1.3 J

1.3 D

MPD in Detail Vision • to make Delhi a global metropolis and a world-class city, • Necessitate planning and action to meet the challenge of population growth and inmigration into Delhi. • Provision of adequate housing, particularly for the weaker sections of the society. • Dealing with the issue of slums, upgradation of old and dilapidated areas of the city; Provision of adequate infrastructure services; conservation of the environment; preservation of Delhi's heritage and blending it with the new and complex modern patterns of development; and doing all this within a framework of sustainable development, • The quantitative and qualitative shortages and deficiencies in adequate wellplanned shelter and housing have been addressed while formulating the MPD-2021. • Redevelopment and densification of the existing urban areas and city improvement aspect is a major component of the new Master Plan for accommodating a larger population, strengthening of infrastructure facilities accompanied by creation of more open spaces at the local level


1.3 A

1.3 E

1.3 B

Environment

Unprecedented scale and speed of urbanization has resulted in enormous pressures on the physical environment Creation of a sustainable physical and social environment for improving quality of life

Delhi‟s Environment

The habitat pertaining to the natural features and resources including the to open spaces, green areas and other surface and sub-surface conditions

Services management related to the built environment and includes the environmental infrastructure - water supply, sewerage, solid waste disposal, and the transportation network

Three fold approach and strategy adopted : 1. Management of Natural Resources and the related environment infrastructure and services to optimize utilization and reduction of pollution. 2. Conservation and Development to enhance the environmental value of the Natural features. 3. Development and preservation of open spaces, greens and landscape/ recreational areas. 4. need for adopting the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the awareness of the carbon credits development of Biodiversity Parks (2) to provide better green cover. To promote this • No building activity is permitted on the banks of Yamuna or on the ridge • Trees can not be cut without prior permission • Installations for waste treatment are compulsory • Large green belts are specified by the Master plan • 50% of open area in residential buildings to be green

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

Source : Master Plan of Delhi 2021

43 01 | By-laws 1.3

1.3 C


1.3 A 1.3 B 1.3 C

1.3 D

1.3 F

Conservation Of Built Heritage • •

1.3 E

1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

Delhi is a historical city with monuments scattered all over. The built heritage is an irreplaceable and nonrenewable cultural resource. enhances Delhi„s environment, giving it identity and character. The DDA & INTACH have identified 1208 historical monuments (of which the Archeological Survey of India has declared 170 as protected). The surveys conducted by MCD, NDMC and the State Archaeological Department have published lists of Heritage Buildings.

“Heritage building” means and includes any building of one or more premises or any part thereof and/or structure and/or artifact which requires conservation and / or preservation for historical and / or architectural and / or artisanary and /or aesthetic and/or cultural and/or environmental and/or ecological purpose and includes such portion of land adjoining such building or part thereof as may be required for fencing or covering or in „Conservation Of Heritage Sites Including Heritage Buildings, Heritage Precincts And Natural Feature Areas‟ any manner preserving the historical and/or architectural and/or aesthetic and/or cultural value of such building.”

01 | | By-laws 1.3 44 By-laws 1.3

“Conservation” means all the processes of looking after a place so as to retain its historical and/or architectural and/or aesthetic and/or cultural significance and includesmaintenance, preservation, restoration, reconstruction and adoption or a combination of more than one of these. Responsibility of the owners of heritage buildings: It shall be the duty of the owners of heritage buildings and buildings in heritage precincts or in heritage streets to carry out regular repairs and maintenance of the buildings. Restrictions on development / re-development / repairs etc.: • No development or redevelopment or engineering operation or additions / alterations, repairs, renovations shall be allowed except with the prior

• •

permission of Commissioner, Municipal Corporation /Vice Chairman, Development Authority and shall act in according with the advice of the Heritage Conservation Committee. Suggestions from the public shall be invited and shall be considered. No interventions be permitted either on exterior or interior of the heritage building or natural features unless it is necessary in the interest of strengthening and prolonging the life of the buildings/or precincts. For this purpose, absolutely essential and minimum changes would be allowed .

Incentive Uses For Heritage Buildings If the owner / owners agree to maintain the listed heritage building as it is in the existing state and to preserve its heritage state with due repairs and the owner / owners / lessees give a written undertaking to that effect, the owner / owners / lessees may be allowed with the approval of the Heritage Conservation Committee within permissible use zone to convert part or whole thereof of the non-commercial area within such a heritage building to commercial/office use/hotel provided the building is not spoilt.

50m

300m

100m 50m, 100m & 300m restricted zones around heritage sites.

Maintaining Skyline And Architectural Harmony Buildings within heritage precincts or in the vicinity of heritage sites shall maintain the skyline in the precinct and follow the architectural style (without any high-rise or multistoried development) as may be existing in the surrounding area, so as not to diminish or destroy the value and beauty of or the view from the said heritage sites. Sign boards and hoardings ate not permitted on the heritage buildings themselves. ASI Guidelines: • 50m protected zone: It is a 50m protected zone within which no activities are permitted.

100m restricted zone: Digging in this area permitted up to 12 inches. No industrial activity and vehicle permitted within the area.

200m restricted zone: Development can happen with the permission of ASI. Maximum height for construction should not exceed the maximum height of the monument.


1.3 A

1.3 G

1.3 B

and services restoration should be taken up on top most priority. necessary setup should be created in each of the concerned department for such eventualities. Standard type designs and layout should be prepared by the local bodies and made available to the people so that crucial time is not lost in approval of layout plans and building plans after disaster.

Critical issues for the design of high-rise buildings in regions prone to significant wind and seismic effects typically include:

Delhi is placed in Seismic Zone IV. Two major lineaments, namely Delhi Haridwar ridge and DelhiMoradabad faults pass through the territory, both having potential of generating earthquakes of the magnitude up to 6.5 to 6.7 in future. Seismic Micro-zonation: Seismic micro-zonation is a process of subdividing a potential seismic or earthquake prone area into zones w.r.t. some geological and geographical characteristics of the site. NCT Delhi has been discretised into 9 units with different hazard levels. As per MPD 2021 following policies and strategies for disaster management are proposed:

1. Pre-disaster preparedness: • Micro-zonation surveys should be referred for land

• • •

use planning. Building bye-laws should incorporate the aspects of multi hazard safety, and retrofitting. Delhi fire services should identify vulnerable areas such as areas with high density and poor accessibility in the city and propose suitable measures. proposed disaster management centers should be established in every zone. Sensitize people, particularly school children, about after effects of disaster. Make people aware through media campaigns and advertisements about emergency procedures and location of emergency shelters etc.

2. Post disaster management: • Communication centers should be protected from natural disasters i.e. flood, fire and earthquake etc.

1. High base overturning moment and foundation design (wind, seismic) 2. High shear capacity requirements near base (seismic) 3. High gravity stresses in the vertical elements (and use of high-strength materials) to minimise structural sizes for economic structural design and to maximize net floor area 4. Development of ductility in elements at the base of a structure under high compressive gravity stress (seismic) 5. Controlling lateral accelerations (wind) 6. Controlling storey drift (wind and seismic) 7. Controlling damage so as to permit repair (seismic) 8. Ensuring ductile energy dissipation mechanisms and preventing brittle failures (seismic)

1.3 C

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

45 01 | By-laws 1.3

Disaster


1.3 A 1.3 B 1.3 C

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

1.3 H Shelter

Shelter • Shift from plotted housing to group housing for optimal utilization of land • Private sector participation for development of housing • Removing unnecessary controls for optimum utilization of land • Enhancement of ground coverage, FAR and height for all categories of residential plots. Unauthorized Colonies: • should be effectively incorporated in the mainstream of urban development.

Population Holding Capacity Of Delhi The area within the existing urbanisable limits of Delhi Urban Area-2001 consists of the planning zones A to H and the Dwarka, Rohini, Narela Sub-city projects. Population holding capacity of A to H zones is to be enhanced through a redevelopment strategy and modified development norms. This will be related with: • •

Mixed Use: To meet the growing demand of commercial activities and overcome the shortfall of available commercial space: • a liberalized provision of Mixed Use in residential areas has been adopted while achieving better synergy between workplace, residence and transportation. • 2183 streets have been notified by the GNCTD vide notification dated 15.09.06 for local commercial and mixed use activities. • Small shops of daily needs have been permitted on ground floor in residential areas.

• • • •

Residential development types and their potential for higher absorption. Redensification of housing areas developed at lower densities and along selected sections of the Metro corridor. Employment areas / centers Augmentation and rationalization of infrastructure physical and social. Increase in transportation network capacity. The holding capacity of Dwarka, Rohini Phase III, IV & V and Narela is proposed to be enhanced through: • Early and full utilization of the planned areas. • Implementation of the schemes under planning stages. Existing residential areas may provide a potential to accommodate about 153 lakh population ultimately i.e. 114 lakh in Zones A to H and 39 lakh in Dwarka, Rohini Phase III, IV & V and Narela

%age of Land 12%

8%

53%

18%

4%

5%

Residential

Commercial

Industrial

Green/ Recreational*

Public & Semi-Public Facilities

Circulation

Land Distribution Bult-up area (as per irs ic liss iii satellite data 1999) 19%

01 | | By-laws 1.3 46 By-laws 1.3

Population (In lakh)

138

162

182

199

230

47%

7% 7%

2006

2011

2016

2021

Source: Census of India and projections by DDA Sub-Group (MPD2021)

Disposal of Solid Waste generated up to 2051 (sanitary landfill & statutory green belts). Metro Services / Utilities e.g. power plant, grid station water and sewerage treatment plant, etc.

7% 2001

Natural features ( forest,wild life santuary, ridge, river yamuna and other water bodies)

13%

Agriculture zone n NCT Delhi including dairy farming, Proposed and Actual land available for urbanization


1.3 A 1.3 B

Zone

Holding Capacity 2001

(as in MPD)

Existing Population 2001

Holding Capacity 2021

A

420

570

570

B

630

624

630

C

751

679

788

D

755

587

813

E

1789

2798

2800

F

1278

1717

1975

G

1490

1629

1955

H

1865

1226

1865

Sub Total

8978

9830

11400

Dwarka

-

597

1300

Rohini III

-

96

160

Rohini 1V & V

-

198

820

Narela

-

179

1620

3222

1070

3900

122 Lakh

109 Lakh

153 Lakh

Sub Total Grand Total

Note: Population figures are only broad planning guidelines. The remaining population for the year 2021 will have to be accommodated in the planned new urban extensions.

What is F.A.R.? The floor area ratio (F.A.R.) is the principal bulk regulation controlling the size of buildings. F.A.R. is the ratio of total building floor area to the area of the plot. Why is F.A.R. used? 1. Floor Area Ratio (F.A.R.) is one of the most important development regulations, which regulates the bulk of the built space. Higher the F.A.R. value, more will be floor area within the same plot, and higher the pressure on land for infrastructure. 2. Carrying capacity and development priorities assigned by the plan to each locality are the major factors which decide F.A.R. that can be permitted in an area. 3. F.A.R. values mainly determine the density or intensity of development of an area. Hence different F.A.R. values are prescribed for different locations in development plans. 4. In brief; the permissible F.A.R. values are decided in relation to different inter-related aspects such as adequacy of water supply, sewerage system, solid waste disposal, road capacity, land availability, harmony with surrounding developments and other facilities, amenities and services. 5. In other words, F.A.R. is a very crucial regulation, which decides the intensity of development in an area and hence highest care is required in fixing its maximum allowable limit in different areas. It is high time for us to think about the Implications of F.A.R. on the development of our developing cities.

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

Like any structure, the city has the ability to take a safe load, beyond which the stress and strain will increase and reach the breaking point. It is this safe load factor, which in other words we call the F.A.R.

A common misconception is that if F.A.R is low, we cannot go for high-rise development. This is wrong. We can still go for vertical development. But, more the floor, greater will be space to be left open. This will also help in ensuring adequate space around the building, which will take care of the light and ventilation of the residents of the building as well as those around.

47 01 | By-laws 1.3

Table : Zone wise Estimated Holding Capacity of Existing Urban Area (Population in 2000)

1.3 C


1.3 A 1.3 B 1.3 C

Housing needs

1.3 D

40% of housing need can potentially be satisfied through redevelopment of existing areas of A to H zones and in the sub cities of Dwarka, Rohini and Narela.

Remaining 60% of the requirement would have to be met through new housing units

Prescribing FAR / density norms without distinguishing between housing categories in terms of plinth area, can result in over population or under population and non-optimal design and underutilization of the utility network.

1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

Development Agencies

Slum & JJ -In-situ Rehabilitation; Relocation / Reconstruction & Up-gradation.

EWS/ LIG

Others

Total

Public Private, Co-op Society

25

-

25

Houses on Independent Plots & Redevelopment

Public, Private

4

4

8

Group Housing (Min. 35% of total DUs mandatory 2 room or less)

Public, Private Co-op Society

14

28

42

Employer Housing

Central / State Govt.

2

2

4

Unauthorised Regularised colonies infill

Co-op Society/ Residents'/Association /Private

6

9

15

Other Housing areas/ Up-gradation of Old areas Traditional areas/ Villages

Public, Private Co-op Society

3

3

6

54

46

100

The following density norms, with corresponding category of dwelling unit (DU) sizes are proposed: • • • •

01 | | By-laws 1.3 48 By-laws 1.3

Housing Type

Housing Component %

Slum/EWS housing (up to 30sq.m)-600 DUs/Ha Category I (above30-upto40sq.m.)-500 DUs/ Ha Category II (above40-upto80sq.m.)-250 DUs/ Ha Category III (above80sqm) - 175 DUs/Ha

TOTAL

Source : Master Plan of Delhi 2021


1.3 A 1.3 B

Unauthorized / Regularized Unauthorized Colonies 567 out of 607 listed unauthorized colonies were regularized till October 1993. 1. Physical: Plans for provision of services shall be prepared by the concerned local bodies. 2. Social: For provision of social facilities, reduced space standards shall be adopted. a) Primary school 800sqm per 5000 population b) Sr. Secondary School 2000sqm per 10000 population c) The following facilities can be clubbed in a composite facility centre (500-1000sqm.)  Multi-purpose community hall - 100sqm.  BastiVikas Kendra - 100sqm.  Religious site - 100sqm.  Police Post - 100sqm.  Health Centre - 100sqm.  Park/Shishu Vatika- 200 sqm.  Area for essential retail outlets e.g., Milk Booth, Fair Price Shop, Kerosene shop, etc. may be provided.  Provisions for informal trade units and weekly market to be made, wherever necessary.

Housing For Urban Poor The category of urban poor would mainly comprise the inhabitants of squatter settlements and informal service providers. Such services could include domestic help, hawkers and vendors, low paid workers in the industrial, commercial and trade / business sectors, etc. Rehabilitation/Relocation of Slum & JJ Clusters So far, the present three-fold strategy of relocation from areas required for public purpose, in-situ up-gradation at other sites to be selected on the basis of specific parameters and environmental up-gradation to basic minimum standards shall be allowed as an interim measure. Sites and services approach based relocation was employed in which resettlement of squatter slums was done on 18sqm and 12.5sqm. plots allotted to eligible persons on license basis. Broadly speaking this alternate approach should have the following components: 1. Resettlement, whether in the form of in-situ upgradation or relocation, should be based mainly on built up accommodation of around 25 sq. m 2. The concept of land as a resource should be adopted to develop such accommodation with private sector participation and investment. 3. Incentives by way of higher FAR, part commercial use of the land and, if necessary and feasible, Transfer of Development Rights should be provided. 4. A cooperative resettlement model with adequate safeguards may be adopted with tenure rights being provided through the institution of Cooperative Societies. 5. The provision of accommodation should be based on cost with suitable arrangements for funding / financing. 6. The sites should be identified with a view to develop relatively small clusters in a manner that they can be integrated with the overall planned development of the area. 7. Suitable arrangement for temporary transit accommodation for families to be rehabilitated should be made.

8. Community Based Organizations (CBOs) and NonGovernmental Organizations (NGOs) should be closely involved in the resettlement process. New Housing for Urban Poor New housing should be in the form of one or two room units. As this category constitutes bulk of the housing stock, this is often done by cross-subsidization. The developers of group housing shall ensure that minimum 15% of FAR or 35% of the dwelling units, whichever is more, are constructed for Community-Service Personnel / EWS and lower income category. The pattern of EWS housing shall be such as to ensure optimal utilization of land in a sustainable manner. For that purpose, multi- storied housing will be preferred.

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

49 01 | By-laws 1.3

Traditional Inner City and Unplanned Areas Special Area and Villages  It is essential first to distinguish between the heritage segment of the area.  The MCD is the nodal agency who should prepare Special Area Redevelopment Schemes for all traditional areas within a time frame.  The basic objective of Special Area Redevelopment Scheme in traditional areas is to bring about in situ improvements which help in improving architectural character of the area as well as revitalizing trade and commerce in the area.  The villages are also considered at par with these as they also have the same traits.  The redevelopment plans should ensure that the permissibility of mixed use zoning at property or within the premise level is compatible to the predominant residential areas.

1.3 C


1.3 A 1.3 B 1.3 C

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

Slum & JJ Redevelopment Regulations and Guidelines for Collective Community Rehabilitation / Relocation In-situ Up-gradation / Rehabilitation of Slum & JJ Clusters and Resettlement Colonies The following guidelines with site-specific relaxations may be adopted as required. Group housing norms shall be applicable with the following conditions:

1.3 G

1.3 H

1.3 I

1.3 J • •

• • • • •

01 | | By-laws 1.3 50 By-laws 1.3

Minimum plot size 2000sqm (facing a min. road of 9m). Maximum density - 600 units per ha. + 10% variation, on residential component of the land. The scheme should be designed in a composite manner with an overall maximum FAR of 400 on the residential component of the land and FAR on the remunerative component of the land shall be as applicable for the relevant land use. Mixed land use / commercial component up to 10% of permissible FAR in the residential component of the land. The minimum residential component of the land area for rehabilitation of squatters has to be 60% and maximum area for remunerative use has to be 40%. Area of dwelling unit for rehabilitation shall be around 25 to 30sqm. Common parking is to be provided which can be relaxed wherever required, except for the parking for remunerative purposes. No restriction on ground coverage, except set backs Schemes / designs should be compatible for disabled. Norms for Social Infrastructure shall be as per social norms of unplanned areas. Norms for Physical Infrastructure shall be as per Infrastructure Requirement for layout at Residential Neighborhood level

Development Controls For Residential Use Zone In the residential use zone there are two sub-zones, RD Residential Area (including villages within Lal-dora located in any use zone) and RF - Foreign Mission.

Sub-division Of Residential Zone (Rd) Into Use Premises The sub-division of residential use zone into use premises and subsequent approval of the layout plans shall be governed by the following norms:

The residential area can have both the plotted and group housing. In case of group and cluster court housing the minimum plot size shall be 3000sqm. (2000sqm for slum re-housing plot with differential infrastructure norms). The provision of requisite social infrastructure shall be governed by the norms for residential neighborhood of 10,000 population. In any residential sub division plan the minimum area reserved for social infrastructure shall be about 7sqm per person.

Notes: These facilities should preferably be located along internal roads with minimum 12 m ROW, unless specified. The development of the infrastructure should be monitored to assess the achievement in the relevant sectors. The open space at the neighborhood level shall be provided @ 4.5sqm. per person.

Electric sub station shall be provided as per requirement. Pole mounted electric transformers for augmenting electric supply in already developed areas are recommended. Non-conventional sources i.e. solar energy etc. is recommended for public areas in all the establishments. Provisions for decentralized sewerage treatment plant and segregated waste disposal shall be made where centralized system is not available. It shall be ensured that no untreated effluent is allowed to exit / spill out of the scheme area.

Planning of the residential neighborhood regarding circulation system, including safety requirements shall be as per the norms of the concerned agencies. Suitable landscape plans for the neighborhood shall be prepared, indicating in reasonable detail, the landscape development of the parks and roadside plantation etc. These are suggestive norms and lower norms could be adopted in built up areas / Special Areas, etc.

Minimum size of plot at cluster level shall be 125sqm. The location of schools and Anganwaris should be made in the layout plan in cluster form to facilitate sharing of common parking space and playground. The planning of physical infrastructure shall be governed by the following norms: • Under ground tank, sewerage-pumping system shall be provided as per requirement. • Rainwater harvesting shall be an integral part of the storm water drainage plan at the time of sanction of layout plan for all the plots. • The natural drainage pattern is not to be disturbed. • Dual pipe system of recycled water is recommended in new areas and redevelopment schemes. • Dhalaos including facility of segregation of biodegradable and recyclable solid waste should be provided.

Source : Master Plan of Delhi 2021


1.3 A

1.3 I

1.3 B

Housing

Plotted housing Low rise and low density housings Generally one plot has one dwelling unit (not more than 3-4, even if more)

Group housing High rise and high density housings One large plot has one or more high rise buildings which accommodate large no. of dwelling units

Means of Access • Means of access should be such that no other building is deprived of its means of access. • No encroachment is tolerable

Cluster court housing Low rise high density housings One large plot has a no. of dwelling units which are not more than 15m high

For multistoried buildings • Building must abut on a min. RoW 9m. • Hard surfaced connection of min. 9m width to the road/street. • If curve in access road, enough width to be provided so as to facilitate a turning radius of 9m. • A motor able road of min. 6m width, strong enough to bear a load of 18 tones. • Entrance gate of min. 5m width with gates folding back against the compound wall. • If archway provided over the gate, min. height to be 4 m. • Access road of 9m and min. 6m wide road to be provided around and between buildings in case of group housing.

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

Housing Norms for Residential plot , Group housing • Min. plot size - 3000 sqm. • Max. ground coverage - 33.3% • Max. F.A.R - 200 • Height - NR(subject to clearance) • Parking - 2.0 ECS/100 sqm built up area

51 01 | By-laws 1.3

Housing

1.3 C


1.3 A 1.3 B 1.3 C

1.3 D

Level

Facility

No.

Per Unit

Total

1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H

Housing Area Population=5,000

1.3 I

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Convenionce Shopping Toilet Housing Area Park Housing Area Play Ground Anganwari Milkbooth

1 20 1 1 1 1

1000 125 5000 5000 200-300 As Per Standered Design Of The Examined Department

1000 2500 5000 5000 400-500

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Primery School Sr.Secondery School Religious Building Electric Sub Station 11kw Banquet Hall Local Shoping Service Market Informal Bazar/ Rehri Bazar Three Wheelar &Texi Stand Neighberhood Park Neighberhood Play Ground Underground Water Tank With Booster Station And Oht Sewage Pumping Station Coaching Classes And It, Language Training Center Dhulio Including Segrigation Dispensery LOCAL WAST WATER Treatment System

1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2000-4000 6000-8000 400 80 800-2000 3000 2000 1000 400 10000 400 10000

2000-4000 6000-8000 800 80 800-2000 3000 2000 1000 400 10000 400 10000

1 1

5000-10000 2000

5000-10000 2000

1 1 1

500 200 As Per Requirement

500 200 800-1200

1.3 J

01 | | By-laws 1.3 52 By-laws 1.3

2.Neighberhood Polution-10,000

13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

1. The density may vary (10% variation permissible) for specific categories as given as given below: a) Category I ( up to 40sqm )-500 DUs/Ha b) Category II ( above 40 –up to 80sqm )-250 DUs/Ha c) Category III ( above 80sqm )-175 DUs/Ha 2. Plot should be on roads facing a minimum width of 18m ROW (13.5m for redevelopment areas and 9m ROW for slum rehabilitation/ special area and villages). 3. Additional floor area up to a maximum of 400sqm shall be allowed to cater to community needs, 100sqm area shall be permissible for senior citizen recreation. 4. The developer shall ensure that minimum 15% of F.A.R or 35% of the dwelling units whichever is more are constructed for community-services personnel/EWS and lower category. 5. Ground coverage up to 40% may be allowed to achieve low rise high density housing without lifts. 6. Levy on additional FAR shall be at approved government rates. 7. Stilts : if the building is constructed with stilt area of non habitable height and is proposed to be used for parking landscaping etc. the stilt floor need not be counted for FAR but shall be counted towards height. 8. Basement, if constructed and only used for parking utilities and services shall not be counted towards FAR.

Source : NDMC Bye-Laws


1.3 A 1.3 B

with maximum coverage 100% subject to light and ventilation conditions. 1. Net housing density permissible shall be 225 DUs per Ha. 2. With 15% variation on either side and could be averaged for more than one pocket. 3. Minimum street in front of pocket to be 12m. 4. No projection outside the building envelope allowed. 5. Each cluster court house is for one dwelling for a single family. 6. Basement : a) basement if constructed shall not be included in FAR calculations. b) basement shall be below the ground floor. Basement area may, however, be extended below the internal courtyard and lift. 7. Stilts : if the building is constructed with stilt area of non habitable height and is proposed to be used for parking landscaping etc. the stilt floor need FAR and shall be counted towards height. 8. Density: for the propose of density calculation, the dwelling units shall be considered to be accommodated4.5 persons and the servant quarter to accommodated 2.25 persons. 9. Servant quarters : no separate quarters blocks or servant quarters as part of main building shall be allowed if the garage block space is merged with the main building. Provision for a servant's room as part of dwelling units within the permissible coverage and FAR shall be allowed with the maximum size of servants quarters as 25sqm and if larger in size would be counted as a full dwelling units.

100 90

90

90

1.3 D

90

80

75

1.3 E

75

1.3 F

70

1.3 G

60 50

50 40

35

35

40

35

40

40

22.5

20

15 3

3

1.3 H

40

30

30

10

40

4

4

6

12

9

9

12 12

12

15

21

18 12

12

3000 to 3750

Above 3750

1.3 I 1.3 J

0 Below 32 32 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 250 250 to 750

Max ground coverage

750 to 1000

1000 to 1500

FAR/10

1500 to 2250

2250 to 3000

No. of Dwelling Units

16 14 12

10

FRONT

8

REAR

6

SIDE- 1 SIDE-2

4 2 0 BELOW 100

100-250

250-500

500-2000

2000-10000

ABOVE 10000 Minimum Set Backs (In Meters)

53 01 | By-laws 1.3

Cluster court housing Minimum size of plot: 3000sqm Maximum ground coverage: 33.3% Maximum F.A.R: 175 Height:15.0m

1.3 C


1.3 A 1.3 B

1.3 J

Building Requirement

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G

S. No.

Building Component

Requirements

Other Requirements

Remarks

1

Plinth

External plinth of min. 45 cm Internal Plinth of min. 15 cm

High enough to provide adequate drainage

Height to be as from the centre of the nearest road/ street

2

Rooms

Min. 9.5 sq. mts. And min. 7.5 sq. mts. For single room

At least 2.4 m wide Max. clear height of 4 m

When providing 2 rooms, one must be at least 9.5 sq. mts.

Kitchen

Min. 4.5 sq. mts 9.5 mts. For attached dinging Min. 2.75 m clear height

Min. 1.5 m wide 2.4 m wide for attached dinging

Means of washing Impermeable floor Min. 1 sq. mts. Window on external wall Refuse chutes for buildings higher than 15 mts.

Impermeable floor Impermeable dado of 0.9 m from floor Sink (means of washing)

Sink not to be provided in kitchen if provided in pantry

Bathrooms

min. 1.8 sq. mts. At least 1.2 m wide Water tight floor

Min. clear height of 2.2 m Min. opening of 0.37 sq. mts. On external wall

Ventilator can be in a shaft Slope not to drain towards a room or verandah Walls/partitions to be made impervious to a min. height of 1 m

Water closets

Min. 1.1 sq. mts. At least 0.9 m wide Water tight floor Water tight and nonabsorbent seat

Min. clear height of 2.2 m Min. opening of 0.37 sq. mts. On external wall

Ventilator can be in a shaft Slope not to drain towards a room or verandah impervious to a min. height of 1 m Can not be used for other purposes

7

Combined toilet and bathrooms

Min. 2.8 sq. mts. At least 1.2 m wide Water tight floor

Min. clear height of 2.2 m Min. opening of 0.37 sq. mts. On external wall

Ventilator can be in a shaft Slope not to drain towards a room or verandah impervious to a min. height of 1 m

8

Loft

Max. 25% of room area

Max. 1.75 m between loft and ceiling

For residential and shops only

1.3 H 1.3 I

3

1.3 J 4

5

01 | | By-laws 1.3 54 By-laws 1.3

6

Pantries

Min 3 sq. mts. 1.4 m wide

1.3 | Bye-law

1.3 C


1.3 A 1.3 B

9

10

11.

Building Components

Requirement

Ledge/taand

Max. 25% of room area Clear height of min. 2.2 m

Mezzanine floor

Store room

Other Requirement

Projections of cupboards up to 0.75 m are exempted from covered area and setback if less than 2 m wide. Must not interfere with lighting and ventilation of part below

Min. height 2.2 m Max. height 2.7 m

Max. 25% of covered area of ground floor Must have ventilation and direct sunlight on at least 10% of its area

Permitted only between ground and first floor Exempted from F.A.R. calculations Must not interfere with the ventilation of space below Can not be converted into a kitchen or unventilated compartment

Size - area not less than 3 sqm Height – not less than 2.2 meter

area more than 3 sqm

Light ventilation requirement extent 10% located side open space shall constructed with in 6m from rear plot line

Size- private garage in residential building should not less than 2.75mX5.4m

12.

13.

14.

Garage private

Garage public

Roofs

Basement

Remarks

Size- calculated based on no. of vehicle to be parked Height- should not less than2.4m Plinth –should not less than 150mm from surrounding ground level Set back- garage shall be behind the building line • It shall be constructed as to permit effectual drainage of the main rainwater . • Sufficient rain water pipes of adequate size joined and fixed so rain water carried away .

• It allowed by the authority and allowed for use as storage, dark room, air conditioning equipment, parking, stack room of libraries. • It shall not used for residential purpose. • For office and commercial purpose sufficient no of entry and exit shall be provided.

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G

1.3 I

1.3 H

1.3 J

corner site it shall be provided within open space located diagonally

Rain water pipes shall be affixed out side of wall

Authority may require to connect rain water pipe to drainage

Height -2.4m at least, adequate ventilation(1 exhaust fan far 50 sqm area) Ceiling height- min.0.9 m and max.1.2m from surrounding ground level

Surface drainage shall not enter basement Wall and floor shall be water tight\ Basement shall not be partitioned Kitchen bathroom

55 01 | By-laws 1.3

S.No

1.3 C


1.3 A 1.3 B

1.3 D 1.3 E

S. No.

Building Component

Requirements

Other Requirements

Remarks

15.

Chimneys

At least 0.9m above flat roof

At least 0.6m above the ridge of sloping roof

Not to be lower than the adjacent parapet

1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I

16.

Lighting and ventilation of rooms

Opening to be 10% of floor area

1.3 J

17.

18.

19.

01 | | By-laws 1.3 56 By-laws 1.3

Window/ventilator should open directly into external air or an external verandah

20.

21.

Ventilation shafts (For W.C.s and bathrooms only)

Parapet

Boundary wall

For rooms opening into an internal courtyard, the minimum dimension should be 3 m For different heights 10m – 3m 15m – 5m 18m – 6m 21m – 7m 24m – 8m 27m – 9m 30m – 10m 35m – 11m 40m – 12m 45m – 13m 50m – 14m 55m and above – 16m

The verandah must not be more than 2.4 m in width Min. space of 9m to be left on sides where no habitable rooms front for heights of 27m and above No portion of any room deeper than 7.5m is assumed to be lit Internal courtyards can have cantilevers of up to 0.75m at a height of 2.2m which is exempted from F.A.R. calculations

Building height 9m 12m 15m Above 15m

Area of shaft 1.5 sq. mts. 3 sq. mts. 4 sq. mts. 4 sq. mts. With mechanical ventilation

Min. width of shaft 1m 1.2m 1.5m

At least 1m high At most 1.5 m high

Hand rails/parapet must for terraces and balconies

Applicable for accessible terraces only

Front compound wall to be 1.5 m max., as from the centre line of the front road/street In row housings, the front boundary can include the side boundary up to the building line

Lifts

NBC

Exits

The travel distance on the floor shall not exceed 22.5m for residential, educational, hazardous and institutional buildings

1.3 | Bye-law

1.3 C

Side walls to be 2 m high (max.)

If exiting on a service road, the side and rear compound walls can be up to 2.2 m high, as from the centre line of the road

No barbed wire or prickly pear to be used along the boundary wall

For corner plot, the boundary wall on both sides of the corner to be 0.75m for a length of 5 m An additional height of 0.75m can be added by fixing railings on the wall Compulsory for buildings over 15 m

Travel distance not to be more than 30m for assembly, business, mercantile, industrial and storage occupancies.

No. of exits to be in accordance with the occupant load, which should be derived from the NBC


1.3 A 1.3 B 1.3 C

S. No.

Building Component

Requirements

Other Requirements

Remarks

1

Water

135 liters per occupant

270 l for a W.C. and 180 l for each additional seat in the same flat

Storage capacity to be 500 l per tenement

2

Water Closet

At least one for a tenement

3

Bathrooms

At least one

4

Sink ( or nahani )

At least 1

At least one for two tenements in dwellings without individual conveniences

Water tap

6

At least 1

Parking

1.3 F

1.3 G

-------

1.3 H

1 with draining arrangement in each tenement 1 with common bathroom and W.C.

1.3 I

Open Ground floor covered Basement Multi level with ramps Automated multi level with lifts

2 ECS per 100 sq. mts. Floor area

1.3 E

1 for 2

Must be provided with a tap `

5

1.3 D

1.3 J

23 sq. mts. Per ECS 28 32 30 16

Other building needs Note : where only one W.C. is provided, the bath and W.C. should be separately accommodated.

18 16 14 12 10 8 4 2 0 10 m

15m

18 m

exterior open space to be left out all side

21 m

24 m

27 m

30 m

35 m

40 m

45 m

50 m

55 m and above

57 01 | By-laws 1.3

6


1.3 A 1.3 B 1.3 C

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

Building Construction Around Airport Building shall not be constructed :1. The land enclosed in approach funnel of the runway with maximum distance of 360m 2. The land comprising with in the runway strip of uniform width of 150m on either side of the central line which extended to 60 m beyond each extremity for runway or associated stop way in case of instrumental runway. 3. The land comprising with in the runway strip of uniform width of 75m on either side of the central line which extended to 60 m beyond each extremity for runway or associated stop way in case of instrumental runway. 4. No building or tree higher than the specified height shall be built or planted within a radius of 20 km from the aerodrome reference point. 5. Every building is subjected to obtain a no objection certificate from the concerned authority. Based On Aerodrome And Ground Aids Take off climb/approach area and surface:Max. height is below 26m and basic strip up to distance a distance of 2285m on the extended centerline of the runway.

01 | | By-laws 1.3 58 By-laws 1.3

Transition surface Maximum height will be 14.5 m shall be measured in vertical plan at right angled to center line of the runway Instrumental runway = 474m non instrumental runway = 400m Inner horizontal surface: Max. height of a structure below the inner horizontal surface = 45m above the aerodrome reference point if the runway length is less than 1525m It will be 45m above the nearest runway and elevation if runway length is 1525m or more. Conical surface Slope in the conical surface is measured above the inner horizontal surface in the vertical plane beyond a distance of 4000m -6100m from the aerodrome reference point.

Corridor Passage, Access To Street Horizontal

Verandah Adjoining Building At Same Level

Type Of Exit

Vertical

Internal Staircase External Staircase Terraces, ramp

Note: lifts and escalators shall not be considered as exits.

If runway length is equal to or less than 1525m and from nearest runway and if runway is more than 1525m. The height applicable will be 45m+5% of the slope of the distance more than 4000m above aerodrome reference point. Outer horizontal surface Outer horizontal surface shall extend from 6100m from aerodrome reference point up to 15240m and applicable height will be 150m above the aerodrome reference point . Exit Requirement  Every building should have sufficient escape according to human occupancy.  All exits shall be free obstruction.  The number, width or protection of exit shall not be reduced.  Exit shall be easily visible and clearly marked.  Fire fighting equipment shall be located clearly along exit.  Alarm devises shall be installed to ensure evacuation of people.  All exit provided continuous means to the exterior of the building.

Doorways • Minimum of two staircase required in building: internal stairways and external stairways • Minimum width of exit in group housing = 1.25m • Minimum width of passage in group housing = 1.25m, D.Us =0.9m • Doorways shall open in enclosed stairways, horizontal exit, corridor, passageway having protection. • Height ≥ 2m, exit doorway less than 1m bathrooms not less than 75cm • Doorways shall open outwards and landing shall not less than 90cm. • Self closing access door • Fire resistance of door ≤ half an hour • Single swing door open in direction of escape.


1.3 A 1.3 B

Occupancy Load

Capacity Of Exit(no. Of Occupants)

Sprinkler allowances When a building is protected with automatic sprinkler system and such a system is not required specifically by the code the capacity per storey per unit width of exit of stairways may be increased by 50%. Fire Safety Regulations Building shall be planned, designed and constructed to ensure fire safety and shall be done with accordance with Para IV Fire Protection of National Building Code of India. The chief fire officer, Delhi fire services give provisions in building from fire safety and fire fighting point of view of occupancy and height of building. Staircase Enclosures 1. Wall a) Enclosed by wall or RCC b) Fire resistant ≤ 2 hr. c) Enclosed on external wall d) Ventilated to atmosphere at each landing. e) No glazing or glass bricks in enclosing wall 2. Door a) Self closing access door b) Fire resistance of door ≤ half an hour c) Single swing door open in direction of escape.

Fire Alarm 1. Mechanism for pressuring the staircase shaft shall operate automatically also with manual operation facility. 2. In residential building shall be equipped with manually operated electrical fire alarm system. 3. One or more call box should be at each floor. 4. All call boxes under the distance of 22.5m 5. It shall be constructed of non combustible materials. 6. It shall be constructed as self contained unit with one side attached with external wall. 7. It shall be enclosed. 8. Stairs shall not be arranged around lift shaft unless the latter is entirely enclosed by fire resistance material. 9. Hollow combustible not permitted. CO2extinguishing system Fixed CO2 fire extinguishing system installation shall be provided as IS :6382-1971 CODE of practice.

1.3 G

Ramp

1.3 H

1m

Normal use

1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 I

1m

10m

1.3 D

8m

1.3 J

Special use

• 1:10 slope shall with all applicable requirements of required stairways as to enclosure, capacity and limiting dimensions • 1:8 slope shall be provide in special use. • Surface shall made of non slippery materials. • Ramp shall directly open into outside open space at ground level. • For building height of 24m, access to ramps from any floor of the building shall e through smoke stop door. Corridors • Min. width of corridors for residential =1m • Other buildings shall be 2m • If more than one staircase connected with corridor there shall be at least one smoke stop door across the corridor. 1m

2m

Residential Building

Other Building

59 01 | By-laws 1.3

Travel Distance

Interior staircase 1. Minimum width =1m 2. min. tread =25cm-30cm 3. Min. headroom passage under landing = 2.2m min. riser = 15cm-19cm 4. Handrails at min. height=90 cm center of tread. 5. Building height>24m access to main staircase shall be gained half an hour fire resisting. 6. no living area directly open to staircase enclosure. 7. External exit door of staircase enclosure at ground level shall be open in open area. 8. Exit shall be provided at 90cm height. Floor indication board placed front of flight and shall be size min. of 0.5mx.5m 9. In case of single staircase it shall terminated at the ground floor level and access to basement shall be separate staircase.

Fire Escape Or External Staircase • Fire escapes shall not be taken into account n calculating the evacuation time of the building. • All escape shall directly connect to ground. • Entrance to escape shall be separate and remote from internal staircase. • The rout shall be free from all abstraction. • Flight width not less than 75cm • tread =25cm, riser not more than 19cm. • No of riser limited to 16. handrails at height of 90cm.

Corridors

Various exits shall be provided based on population in room, area, floor. Occupants loads, capacity of exit, travel distance and height of building.

1. Ventilation a) Permanent vent at top =5% of gross area of enclosure. b) Open able frames at each floor area = 15% of gross area of enclosure. c) Natural ventilation cannot possible, so a positive pressure of 5mm. w.g. by blower.

Corridors

Emergency Exit Staircases

1.3 C


1.3 A 1.3 B 1.3 C

1.3 G

Refuge Area • Height 15m-24m refuge area at immediately above 18m • Height 24m-36m refuge area at immediately above 24m • Above 36m one refuge area per every five floor above 36m • Refuge area shall be provided on external wall as cantilever projections or any other means.(it is not taken FAR)

1.3 H

Lift

1.3 D 1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 I 1.3 J

per every five floor above 36m 36m

immediately above 24m

blower and at lobby pressure shall not less than 5mm w.g. • Mechanism shall b e installed separately from lift shaft. • Exit from lift lobby shall be self closing smoke stop door having fire resistance half an hour. • Lift shall not communicate with basement one lift may permitted but it shall be separate from rest of basement area. Fire Lift  For reach upper floor minimum delay one lift shall be available for the exclusive use for firemen.  Lift shall have area not less than 1.5 sqm.  Lift shall have loading capacity 500 kg (8 person).  Electric supply shall be separately from main supply. It shall automatically trip supply  For building above 15m shall have solid door with fire resistance 2hr.

immediately above 18m

01 | | By-laws 1.3 60 By-laws 1.3

15m

24m

18m

Staircase

Staircase BASEMENT S Source: national building code ,India

 Basement shall be separately ventilated.  Vents with cross section area not less than 2.5%of floor area around the parameter of basement.  Staircase attached with basement shall be enclosed.  Enclosed wall shall have fire resistance not less than 2hr.  If travel distance exceed 18.50m additional staircase shall be provided. Building Services The planning ,designing and installation of electrical installations , air- conditioning , and heating ,installation of lifts and escalators shall be done by national building code, India.

24m

• All floor shall be accessible for 24 hr by lift. • It shall not considered as means of escaping in case of emergency. • Grounding switch at ground floor level to enable the fire services. In case of emergency. • Lift machine room shall be separate and no other machinery installed • Lift shaft shall have fire resistance not less than 2hr. • Shaft shall have vents at top of shaft not less than 1800 sq mm.in clear area. • Landing door in lift enclosure open in ventilated corridor. And have fire residence of not less than one hr. • No. of lift in one lift bank shall not be exceed four. • Shaft of fire lift shall be separated from each other by brick or RCC. • wall shall have fire resistance of not less than 2hr. • If lift in core of building than positive pressure shall be not less than 2.5mm and not more than 3mm w.g. by

Basements

Part Viii Building Services Section 2-electrical installation Section 3- air conditioning and heating Section 5- installation of lifts and escalators

Source: national building code ,India

Electrical Services  Services duct (electrical conduits) : it shall be enclosed by wall having fire resistance not less 2hr.  Door for inspections shall have fire resistance min. 2hr.  If cross section area exceed 1sqm. It shall sealed where it is passes a floor by carrying the through the duct.  The duct shall be sealed at every alternative floor with non combustible materials.  Water mains ,telephones lines, Intercom lines, gas


1.3 A 1.3 B

Staircase And Corridor Lighting  It shall be separate service. And independently connected to main switch.  Staircase and corridor lighting shall be connected to alternate supply 1. From main supply 2. From generator Emergency light shall be provided in staircase and corridor. Alternate sources of electric supply A stand-by generator shall be installed to provide light to corridor and staircase

 A tank of RCC made of adequate capacity shall be provided at lower basement level.

Air Conditioning  Proper arrangement of automatic fire damper A working smoke /heat detector to isolate all ducting.  When automatic alarm operate, air handling units shall be switched off.  Air duct shall not pass through stair wall.  Whenever duct passes through fire wall duct opening shall be Sealed.  Air filter of air handling unit shall be made of non combustible material.  Wet riser installed shall conformed to IS:3844-1966 CODE of practice for installation of internal hydrants in multi-storey building.  Riser shall be fed through booster pump from either of two water sources. Fixed Fire Fitting Installation

Transformers  It shall be house below the ground level in first basement room wall having fire resistant 4hr.  Steel door shall have fire resistance of 2hr.  It shall be protected from high pressure water spray of sprinkler system.

Building above 15m

wet rise

Load Norms For Electrification In Delhi

Category

Existing Load Norms

Proposed Load Norms

DOMESTIC Approved colonies

12KW per 1000 sqf built up area including the load of common services.

12KW per 1000 sqf built up area including the load of common services.

Unauthorized colonies

25KVA per acre. (max. demand)

150 KVA per acre. (connected load )

NON DOMESTIC

15/25 KW per 1000sqf of built up area without /with air conditioning load

20KW PER 1000 sqf Of built-up area including the load of common services

sprinkler installation system

CO2extinguishing system.

Plumbing Services The planning design and installation of water supply drainage and sanitation and the gas supply system. PART IX PLUMBING SERVICES of national building code, India Section -1-Water supply section -2- Drainage and sanitation Section -3-Gas supply Water supply Requirements of water supply in building it depends on the occupancies of building. In group housing building 15m-24m a centrally located tank of 2,00,000 l. Above water is only use for fire fighting and shall not use for domestic use.

Type of building occupancy Apartment building 15m-24m in height

50,000 l

Non apartment building 15m-24m in height

1,00,000 l

Apartment building above 24m

1,00,000 l

Non Apartment building above 24m

2,00,000 l

Requirements

Apartment building height below 15m

NIL

Apartment building height exceeds 15m

Wet riser or down comer

Non apartment building 15m and above in height irrespective of floor area.

Wet riser or down comer

All basement ,sub basement in building 15m and above.

High pressure water spray or foam sprinkler

1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

Per capita water requirement for various occupancies/users

Type of occupancy Type of building occupancy

Water in liter

1.3 D

Residential in living units

Consumption/head/day (liters) 135

Flushing storage capacity

Classification of building

Storage capacity

For treatment having common convenience

900 liters Nett./WC seats

For residential premises other than treatment having common convenience

270 liters nett. for 1 WC seat 180 liters for each additional seat in the same flat

61 01 | By-laws 1.3

pipe or any services line shall not be laid into duct for electric cable.  Separate circuits for water pumps, lifts, staircases corridor lighting and blower pressuring system shall provided from main switch.

1.3 C


1.3 A 1.3 B 1.3 C

Domestic storage capacities

1.3 D

No of floors

1.3 E 1.3 F

1.3 G 1.3 H 1.3 I 1.3 J

Storage capacity

remarks

For premises occupied as tenements with common convinces : Ground floor

NIL

Provided no down take are fittings are installed

Floor 2,3,4,5, and upper floor

500 Liters per tenement

-

For premises occupied as flats or blocks Ground floor

NIL

Provided no down take are fittings are installed

Floor 2,3,4,5, and upper floor

500 Liters per tenement

-

01 | | By-laws 1.3 62 By-laws 1.3

Sanitation Requirements For Residences

Fitments

Dwellings With Individual Conveniences

Dwellings Without Individual Conveniences

Bathroom

1 provided with water tap

1for every two tenements

Water closet

1

1for every two tenements

Sink in the floor

1

-

Water tap

1

1 with drainage arrangement in each tenement 1 in common bath room and common water closet

Sprinklers System Automatic high pressure water spray or foam sprinkler system shall be installed. 1. In basement, sub basement which use for car parking ,storage of combustible articles, laundry. 2. On floor used as departmental stores, shops and traders involving fire risks. 3. In all floor of the building other than apartment building, if height exceed from 45 m. Noise Pollutions Norms The following officer of NCT Delhi have been designated as the authority for the ambient air quality standards. 1. All deputy commissioners, office of divisional commissioner, Govâ€&#x;t of NCT Delhi. 2. All sub-divisional magistrates, office of divisional commissioner, Govâ€&#x;t of NCT Delhi. 3. asst. Commissioner of police control room. 4. All sub- divisional police officers including railways and airports. 5. Chairman and member secretary of Delhi pollution control committee, Delhi. Direction For Users Of Generators Sets 1. The generators sets above the capacity of 5KVT shall not be operated in residential area b/w 10:00pm to 6:00am.

AREA CODE

CAETEGORY OF AREA/ZONE

A

LIMITS IN Db(A) Leq Day time 6AM-10PM

Night time 10PM-6AM

INDUSTRIAL AREA

75

70

B

COMMERCIAL AREA

65

55

C

RESIDENTIAL AREA

55

45

D

SILENCE ZONE (not less than 100m)

50

40

2. The generators sets above the capacity of 5KVT in all areas shall be operated in mandatory acoustic enclosures and other standards prescribed in the Environmental rule 1986. 3. The mobile generators sets in all areas shall be operated in mandatory acoustic enclosures in social gathering and public functions.


2

ISSUE SPECIFIC


2.1 3.2 A

Defining Inclusive and Exclusive Housing

3.2 B

Historical Overview

3.2 C

Today‘s Exclusive City

3.2 D

Inclusivity on the local level

3.2 E

Inclusive Complexes

3.2 F

Government Mandates

3.2 G

Analysis and Conclusion

67 01 | Inclusive Housing 2.1

Inclusive Housing


3.2 A

Defining Inclusive and Exclusive Housing What is inclusivity? Inclusiveness can be better defined by first defining exclusiveness.

Exclusive Housing Exclusive Housing is housing which is inclusive to only one (or some) particular social or economic groups.

exclude

It thus excludes everyone else not belonging to these groups.

1. To prevent from entering; keep out; bar 2. To prevent from being included, considered, or accepted; reject. 3. To put out; expel.

exclusive 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Excluding or tending to exclude. Not allowing something else; incompatible. Not divided or shared with others. Not accompanied by others; single or sole. Complete; undivided. Not including specified extremes or limits, but only area between them. 7. Excluding some or most, as from membership or participation. 8. Catering to a wealthy clientele; expensive.

In today‗s scenario the criteria is generally the spending power, though there are many cases of housing being exclusive to a particular class or religion, for example, Jain only buildings in Mumbai. There have also rare instances of extraordinarily exclusive housing, such as vegetarian-only in Soami Nagar, New Delhi.

Most current housing is geared towards exclusivity. Amrapali SkyBungalows(bottom right) offer private lifts and separate staff and guest lifts. Unitech (bottom left) has a range of ‘luxury’ homes to choose from.

3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

69 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1 01 | |Inclusive

2.1 A


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C

In the western context inclusivity has generally come to mean inclusion of the aged and the disabled, while in most of the developing world it implies economic, religious and cultural integration.

3.2 D 3.2 E

Measuring Inclusivity The level of inclusivity can be measured by:

3.2 F

Household structure

1. The physical proximity between different groups 2. The level of social interaction between the different social or economic groups

3.2 G

Sexual orientation Inclusive 1. including(almost)everything within its scope 2. including the extremes as well as the area between inclusiveness(uncountable) 1. The property of being inclusive.

Level of education Age

inclusivity

01 | |Inclusive 2.1 70 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1

1. the fact or policy of not excluding members or participants on the grounds of gender, race, class, sexuality, disability, etc. Interpreting Inclusivity There are different interpretations of inclusivity. • Including future residents in the entire design process • Including different groups of people: 1. Including all social groups: socially inclusive, but not necessarily economically 2. Including all economic groups: economically inclusive, but not necessarily socially 3. What we term super-inclusivity, or including all different social and economic groups

Cultural, religious or ethnic differences

Economic status and occupation


3.2 A 3.2 B

Inclusive housing does not try to equalize everyone and bring them to the same socio-economic level, but rather accepts and respects their differences. Interpretations of Inclusive Housing Leading from the different Interpretations of inclusivity, there are also different interpretations of inclusive housing: 1. Socially inclusive housing 2. Economically inclusive housing 3. Super-inclusive housing, would include all groups of people, whether of different economic strata, religious beliefs, sex, familial and household structure, jobs or professions, disabilities, age, or even sexual preference. This report shall focus on economic inclusivity, which the designer can somewhat ensure.

Parameters of Inclusive Housing The level of Spatial Integration The proximity between different economic groups can range from adjacent apartments on the same floor or adjacent plots to nearby sectors or zones exclusive to one income level. The level of Social Interaction There is debate regarding the extent of social interaction required. Some sources consider the existence of a ‗community‗ paramount (and so only living next door is not inclusive), while others say that just spatial proximity is sufficient. One might claim that spatial proximity would automatically result in social interaction, but present examples of apartment buildings leave this open to argument.

3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

Inter-inclusivity and Intra-inclusivity Another interpretation of inclusive housing is to integrate the surrounding site conditions and residents with the designed housing.

71 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1 01 | |Inclusive

Inclusive Housing Inclusive Housing is thus housing which is not exclusive to any particular social or economic group.

3.2 C


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E

2.1 B

Historical Overview Western The sense and extent of social stratification was never too strong. However racial and economic segregation have been the major problems.

Islamic Religiously speaking, Islamic society has no social/caste distinction. However, Islamic cities have a strong sense of neighbourhood, often gated. These are based on lineage –Tribals, Sayyids and the artisans/farmers.

Indian Due to the caste system, as well as the diverse range of cultures and religions, Indian cities and housing have been socially exclusive, but economically codependent, hence inclusive.

Roman Insula, an apartment house having an area of 73sqm, located in occupationally divided sectors.

Figure ground –Istanbul Tight, organic neighbourhoods, with cul-de-sacs

Plan of a Vedic village –division based on caste and occupation

3.2 F

01 | |Inclusive 2.1 72 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1

3.2 G


3.2 A

2.1 C

3.2 B

Today’s Inclusive City

Richer

Affluent CBD [city center] HIG housing HIG and MIG housing (commute to CBD) LIG and EWS housing (commute to CBD)

First world and developed cities Suburbanization has led to a long commute; the city remains heavily dependent on transport infrastructure and an extensive public transit system. Third world cities They are considerably different. There is constant migration into the city and also pressure on the LIG and EWS groups within the city to move out to the periphery due to gentrification. The financial worth of the land is measured in terms of distance from CBD, and thus rising land costs, rents and taxes force people out. Even the new housing they find on the outskirts is generally less affordable and still lower in quality than the original settlements inside because of increased demand for housing and inadequate supply.

3.2 D 3.2 E Affluent CBD [city center]

Poorer

LIG and EWS

slums Affluent CBD [city center]

New migrants and those who can not afford housing on the outskirts, but who still need to work in or near the city centre, congregate in slum or squatter settlements closer to places of work.

HIG and MIG LIG and EWS

Richer Affluent CBD [city center] HIG housing MIG, LIG and EWS housing (commute to CBD) MIG and HIG suburbs (commute to CBD)

3.2 G

HIG and MIG

These peripheral settlements are also not well connected to the inside-there is lack of adequate infrastructure and transport linkages. Richer

3.2 F

Affluent CBD [city center] HIG and MIG

LIG and EWS

73 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1 01 | |Inclusive

Poorer

3.2 C


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

Inequity in the Indian City The population of today‗s Indian cities is a microcosm of the nation as a whole —a rich mix of communities, cultures, professions, and income classes from the most deprived sections of society to a middle-class majority. Some 75 percent of urban citizens are in the bottom income segments, earning an average of 80 rupees a day.

Why do we need more affordable housing? There is urgent need for provision of affordable urban housing across all income groups. Affordable housing is a particularly critical concern for low-income groups: in the absence of a viable model that caters to their needs, India will see the continued proliferation of slums across the country. Approximately 42.8 million people or about 15.2 percent of India‗s urban population live in slum settlements. According to the Census of India, 35 percent of urban households live in single room dwelling units and 68 percent of such households have four members or more. Approximately 81 million persons or 25.7 percent of the total urban population are below the official poverty line. The Eleventh Five Year Plan estimates the urban housing shortage of 24.7 million units, with 99 percent of this shortage pertaining to the economically weaker sections (EWS) and lower income groups (LIG). Source: Report of the Government of IndiaHigh Level Task Force on Affordable Housing For All, 2008

01 | |Inclusive 2.1 74 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1

Source India‘s Urban Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining Economic Growth, McKinsey Global Institute, 2010

Source India‘s Urban Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining Economic Growth, McKinsey Global Institute, 2010

Affordable Housing around the world Affordable housing for low-income groups is an important consideration in most cities. Planning mandates in the United Kingdom have generated 20 to 25 percent of all affordable units built over the last decade. South Africa provides free land for houses for its poorest income groups. Singapore provides public housing for more than 80 percent of its population through a dedicated Housing Development Board, using land monetization and interest-rate subsidies to make affordability work.

The Case for a More Inclusive City Thus 1. There will always be different economic groups within the city. All of these need adequate, affordable housing. 2. These groups are equally dependent on each other the rich on the poor for services and goods, and the poor on the rich for livelihood. 3. Large pockets of poorer areas leads to the creation of ghettos, increase in crime and other social issues, and the poverty cycle. 4. Such areas also generally remain ignored and underdeveloped in terms of city services and infrastructure. 5. When these different groups live closer together, the commuting time, expense and effort gets reduced. 6. The pressure on transport infrastructure also gets reduced. The Elusive, Inclusive City As such, some basic characteristics of a more inclusive city –a prerequisite for inclusive housing-are: 1. Higher density, especially around the city centres. 2. A land use pattern which is more mixed, that is, where the place of work and residence are closer together. 3. Better public transit and transport infrastructure, which can support those who still need to commute for work. As such, inclusive cities can ―mitigate the strains and maximize the opportunities‖ of urban living. Quoted from India’s Urban Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining Economic Growth, McKinsey Global Institute, 2010


3.2 A 3.2 B One of the main reasons for the sprawl-leading-to-slumsleading-to-sprawl cycle is the low FSIor FAR limits, which mean that the built up area is spread over a larger region and that the density of people living in close range of the CBDis very less. This situation automatically implies that people have to travel further away from their home for work. This also puts a huge amount of pressure on the already inadequate city-scale transport system.

This establishes the need for a more mixed land use/development plan where the place of work is

closer to the place of residence, and consequently there is lesser pressure on public transit. Here we are mostly talking about the EWS, LIG and MIG groups. Most HIG workers already live close to their workplaces, or can easily afford to commute from their residence to their work place. A more inclusive city, with people of different economic levels and occupations living closer together in generally higher densities, would thus result in the increased proximity of service providers (workers) and service consumers (work place).

What happens on the city scale:

3.2 C 3.2 D

What we want: a completely inclusive mesh of the rich and the poor.

3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

But: there are CBDs and central commercial areas

But: owing to market forces, these area become populated by mostly the rich.

Source: Mumbai FSI/FAR conundrum, The perfect storm: the four factors restricting the construction of new floor space in Mumbai, Alain Bertaud, 2004

To resolve this issue, we need to zoom in to the neighbourhood or local level.

75 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1 01 | |Inclusive

These areas and their surroundings should be high density.


3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

Inclusivity on the local level Inclusivity needs to be achieved on the local level amongst HIG, MIG, LIG and EWS neighbourhoods. Employment and Commute Having these different residential areas close-by reduces commuting time to employment destination and market areas, and thus expense and effort for all economic groups. Infrastructure and development for all Achieving inclusivity on the local level, that is, having neighbourhoods comprising of different economic backgrounds next to each other ensures that development benefits are equally distributed and shared by all communities and not accrued to only one.

Buffer Spaces When different economic groups live close together, the characteristic and design of the buffer space or neutral zone separating them become of paramount importance. These spaces, both ‗no –man‗s land‘ and so ‗everyone‘s land‘ should be areas where all economic groups can interact. Examples are:

Hauz Rani and Saket The importance of buffer spaces can be understood by considering the case of Hauz Rani in South Delhi.

market Bus depot

• Parks and green spaces, which offer equal recreational opportunities for all economic groups • Markets and commercial areas, which also directly offer employment to LIG and EWS groups • Shared facilities like places of worship, hospitals, etc. • Transport nodes like metro stations, roads and paths

Malviya Nagar Hauz Rani

Saket

3.2 B

2.1 D

Shivalik

Jal Board

Police station

open Metro

01 | |Inclusive 2.1 76 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1

Press Enclave Rd.

3.2 A


3.2 A

2.1 E

3.2 B

Inclusive Complexes

1. Social Interaction or Employment Groups of people to want to live in such close proximity if there is a desire for social engagement and shared community spaces (such a mix of housing is possible with variation in plot or apartment size) or if both groups are dependent on each other, usually through some economic activity (separate buildings but in the same complex/vicinity)

2. Affordability A housing complex can only be considered inclusive if atleast some of its units are affordable by a range of economic groups. Affordability within a housing complex can be achieved in the following ways: • Cross Subsidy: This is done by charging the rich with market rates (or auctioning), whereas the poor are given a small subsidy on their smaller units. In this method the builder still makes a net profit as all subsidy negotiations are within the same set of units. • Variation in unit size: This automatically brings in a range of plot or apartment sizes, which translates to a variety of ranges. • Credit/Loan assistance: These are small loans (micro-finance) which are given to low income families so that they can get a house without any delay, potentially caused by inadequate finances. • ‘Self help’ model: This is a development strategy in which basic services such as plumbing and electricity are provided in an otherwise empty site, which is then left free to be inhabited by people. This means that even plot sizes and house typologies are decided unanimously within the group of people. The crux of the idea is that traditional settlements were also unplanned and hence more sustainable. This is an application of that, except with proper services. • ‘Site + Services’ model: In this model, the varied plot sizes as well as service cores (stairs, water, electricity etc.)are provided. The house itself is upto the inhabitant to build. These flexibilities allow personalization, not only in terms of tastes, but also in terms of the amount of money one wants to spend.

• Low rise High Density development: High rises tend to have higher building and maintenance costs (Left) Informal Settlement in Indore; variation of plot sozes. (Right) Artist‘s colony, Belapur; Incremental housing with variation in plot size

3. Incremental Development Affordability on the face of it is one thing. The unit should be affordable in the long term as well. In short, housing will only be inclusive if the poor see it as a long term investment. This is because, land prices are constantly increasing, and families from weaker sections of society tend to increase in size. They usually, cannot afford to buy another bigger space/plot. This leads to problems of overcrowding and unsanitary conditions. The only way a housing complex can maintain inclusivity is by making sure that the poor do not feel the urge to sell their flat/plot and move out. This can be achieved in the following ways:

3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

• Additive Housing: Incase of plotted housing, if adequate space is left, there is a scope of adding to one‘s dwelling, when need be. This can also be done by following a set of guidelines or ideas for adding to one‘s unit. • Flexible spaces: In case of apartments, or even houses, the possibility of dividing a space into larger number of usable units is extremely advantageous. For instance, a one bedroom studio apartment may be designed such that on the birth of a child, the same apartment can be divided into two bedrooms.

77 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1 01 | |Inclusive

Talking of housing complexes, inclusivity is not only something that they ought to achieve with their surroundings, but also within themselves. It is possible to have people from different economic backgrounds residing in the same housing complex. The factors which are imperative for inclusivity to be achieved within a housing scheme are:

3.2 C


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

2.1 Ea

Case Study I : Aranya Group Housing Architect

Vaastu Shilpa Foundation (B.V. Doshi, Ahmedabad)

Client

Indore Development Authority

Year

1989

Type

Site + Services (Plotted Housing)

Site Area

85 sqkm (8.5 HA)

Ground Coverage

58% Residential 6.73% Commercial 23.5% Road space 8.15% Open spaces

No. of Dwellings

6500 Plots (6 sectors)

Population

60,000 (EWS-65%; LIG-11%; MIG-14%; HIG-9%)

01 | |Inclusive 2.1 78 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1

Economic zoning •HIG groups have been placed near the highway •MIG groups are near the arterial road •EWS and LIG are in the middle

(Extreme Left) Plan view of Aranya (Left) Typical Elevation (Below) A photograph of customized housing in Aranya


3.2 A 3.2 B

Most houses have the ‗otta’ (outdoor platform) in front, which becomes a place for social interaction and enlivens the street.

Affordability • Only services (connections + core) have been provided on site. The actual building is left upto the buyer, for more flexibility in terms of budgets and materials. Doshi built some houses just as guidelines which may or may not be followed for future development. •

Low rise high density development model has been adopted with tallest buildings being commercial centers at the ends of the spine, which are 5 storeys high.

Cross subsidy has been provided for EWS and LIG groups by selling HIG plots on market value and auctioning the land for commercial purposes.

A variety of plot sizes have been provided, from 35.32 sqm for EWS to 613.94 sqm for HIG

• There are commercial establishments within the

complex too, which are also a source of employment for the poorer residents. This forms a certain dependency between the groups.

Incremental Development • The architect designed a large number of combinations for the dwellings (80 prototypes)

3.2 D

Extremely diverse

3.2 E

The possibility of vertical expansion and peripheral additions was kept in mind

3.2 F 3.2 G

(Extreme Left) ‘Spine and cluster ‘type plan (Left) Empty site with plots marked out and services provided (Top) Guidelines for future incremental development

79 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1 01 | |Inclusive

Social engagement and dependency • ‘Spine and cluster’ settlement: There is a main arterial road which is a very important economic stimulus, for vendors etc. which binds the colony together. Also, clusters tend to provide middle spaces which are a great for community activities.

3.2 C


3.2 A 3.2 B

2.1 Eb

Case Study II : Artist’s Colony, Belapur

3.2 C

Architect

Charles Correa

No. of Dwellings

5500 Plots

3.2 D

Client

3.2 E

Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation

Population

25000 (500 per HA)

Year

1983-86

Type

Incremental (Plotted Housing)

Site Area

55 HA (100 plots/HA)

Ground Coverage

Approx. 50%

3.2 F

01 | |Inclusive 2.1 80 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1

3.2 G

(Top Left) Elevations (Top) Master-plan of the Artist’s Colony (Right) Panoramic photograph of a part of the colony

Economic zoning •Large and small plots in a mixed, cluster style housing •Incremental model so that people expand their dwellings as incomes increase


3.2 A 3.2 B Affordability • Cost cutting in terms of materials used. • Toilets have been kept detached to reduce plumbing costs • Slight variation in plot size from45 to 75 sq m

Incremental Development • Incremental modules have been adopted so that people can expand their dwellings in the same site with increase in family size and/or income. • Basic additions prescribed by architect – easily replicable by local mistri. What works… • No common walls, less conflicts – respect for private property, with provision of public space • Pedestrian zones and courtyard typology promote community interaction • Additive development manual ensures that the architectural character remains same, but diversity exists

3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

What doesn‘t… • Does not look like a designed intervention as it is very organic, almost dilapidated today • Toilets are detached from the house to save plumbing costs The fact that it is termed ‗Artist‘s colony‘ means that it has been typecast that way, and most residents would belong to creative fields, which takes away from the diversity.

(Left) Schematic cluster plan (Top) Sketches showing the various housing typologies within the colony, along with the increments. (Right) Photograph of a house, today

81 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1 01 | |Inclusive

Social engagement and dependency • Fractal based courtyard clusters, which promote social gatherings • Pedestrian only zone, which encourages children to play and people to mingle • Hierarchy of open spaces from small to large

3.2 C


3.2 A 3.2 B

2.1 Ec

Case Study III : J-K Block Housing, Dilshad Garden, Delhi

3.2 C

Architect

Ram Sharma

Social engagement and dependency

3.2 D

Client

Delhi Development Authority

Year

1975-80

• Neighborhood parks provide the opportunity for interaction

3.2 F

Type

3.2 G

Low rise High Density Cluster Group Housing

Site Area

-

Ground Coverage

-

3.2 E

Affordability Cost variation by staggering apartments and reducing sizes • Hierarchy of economic groups from ground floor upwards, automatically decreases prices of the higher apartments. •

Economic zoning

What works…

• HIG housing on ground floor, MIG in the middle, LIG on top

• Staggered apartments for variation in built-up area for each section

Hierarchy of apartments in terms of variation and prices • Ample light and ventilation due to staggering

What doesn’t… The uneasiness between people from the different groups, due to such close proximity • Encroachment of balconies/ terraces as built-up area is not favorable, as this is not supposed to be an incremental •

01 | |Inclusive 2.1 82 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1

Due to inherent social stigmas as well as a massive difference in lifestyles, the proximity of lower income groups with higher income ones works better when a certain distance is maintained.

(Below) Google Earth Map (Left) Balcoy encroachments and additions (Left Below) Schematic unit plan (Extreme Left) Apartmeent complex and greens


3.2 A

2.1 Ed

Case Study IV : Woodwords Redevelopment, Vancouver, Canada

3.2 B

Architect

3.2 C

Gregory Henriquez Partners

Social engagement and dependency

Client

Government of British Columbia

Year

2010

• Tying up the economic zones with common facilities like markets, gyms etc. • Extremely close proximity – aimed at promoting social interaction across groups

Type

Redevelopment – High Rise

Site Area

11 HA

Ground Coverage

-

3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F

Affordability

3.2 G

• Subsidy for poorer populations What works…

536 market housing units+ 10 units for people with physical Disabilities + 200 non-market housing units + 75 family occupancy + 125 single occupancy Economic zoning • Variety of apartment sizes in the same building and floor

• Flats subsidized for the poor in close vicinity as well as in the same building

• The intention of alleviating poverty and crime from poor pockets of the city through ‗positive gentrification‘ • Tying up the economic zones with common facilities like markets, gyms etc. could work well What doesn’t… • A social experiment, which could backfire. • Such close proximity between economically diverse groups might actually harbour hostility It has been seen earlier how it is not only the rich who might feel uncomfortable living in an economically diverse neighborhood, but also the poor who feel threatened, and prefer their ghettos. Also, inclusivity demands a lifestyle change. Hence, it is important to avoid potential conflicts, and not force such drastic changes.

(Top) Woodwords Redevelopment, Vacouver (Left) Street view (Extreme Left) 3D with zoning

83 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1 01 | |Inclusive

No. of Dwellings


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

2.1 F

Government Mandates In a bid to increase the available affordable housing stock for the urban poor, the government mandates that all private group housing should incorporate a minimum percentage of EWS or community service personnel or LIG category housing. The United Kingdom has also used planning mandates, termed Section 106, since 1981 which require all new housing developments of more than 25 units to build a pre-agreed number of affordable units. While the proportion of affordable units built is project-specific, 15 to 25 percent on average fall into the affordable category. These dwelling units are then handed over to the government which sells or allots them to eligible low income beneficiaries. According to the Masterplan Delhi 2021: • New housing for the urban poor should be in the form of one or two room units.

01 | |Inclusive 2.1 84 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1

• The developers of group housing shall ensure that minimum 15% of FAR or 35% of the dwelling units, whichever is more, are constructed for CommunityService Personnel / EWS and lower income category. (Below) creation of affordable housing stock in the UK over the past decade (Right) Doon Trafalgar, Housing complex, Dehradoon

According to the Report of the High Level Task Force on Affordable Housing For All, 2008:

Doon Trafalgar, Dehradun Housing complex with EWS reservation

Affordable Housing for EWS/LIG categories: A unit with a carpet area most likely between 300 and 600 sq ft, with (i) the cost not exceeding four times the household gross annual income (ii) EMI/rent not exceeding 30 percent of the household's gross monthly income.

Developed by: Digvijay Real Estate Developers Pvt Ltd (2007)

Affordable Housing for MIG categories: A unit with a carpet area not exceeding 1,200 sq ft, with (i) the cost not exceeding five times the household gross annual income (ii) EMI/rent not exceeding 40 percent of the household's gross monthly income. According to the Guidelines For Affordable Housing In Partnership, Government of India, Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, JNNURM Mission Directorate: • Dwelling units should be a mix of EWS/LIG/MIG categories with the maximum size of a dwelling unit being at 1200 square feet super area, with at least 25% of them for EWS of about 300 square feet. In terms of carpet area, the minimum carpet area for EWS category shall be 25 square metres and maximum carpet area for MIG category shall be 80 square metres. • The sale price of dwelling units should have an upper ceiling in terms of Rupees per square metre of carpet area. The price ceiling would be settled in consultation with the States/UTs for different classes of cities. We argue that affordable housing should provide for a range of size options catering to the needs of households of different sizes and incomes, rather than being limited to a single size. This is especially important when considering the fact that it is the poorer families which generally have larger households.

Site Area: 3.5 hectares Building Structure: G+4 Number of Dwellings: 128 (MIG) + certain %age EWS (as per state laws) Social Structure: 2 stark groups- MIG and EWS •

Physical proximity between MIG and EWS housing at least results in added interaction.

• The design makes no attempt to create a sense of community between the 2 groups. •

Even advertisements do not promote the EWS part.


2.1 G

Analysis and Conclusion So, is inclusive housing feasible? Is it desirable? Pros • Inclusive housing = inclusive cities • Boosts localized economies • Encourages social development Limitations • A community is based on trust and shared interests, which inherently makes it exclusive to a group. • Inclusivity is easier to achieve over smaller ‗bandwidths‘ • The feasibility of inclusive housing depends on the scale on which it is achieved- the city, the neighborhood, the zonal or the complex level. • It mustn‘t be forced and should avoid potential conflicts Cons Safety issues, petty crimes may crop up due to the differences between co-residents • Possibility of a split community - as living together inclusively, at the end of the day, is the individual‘s choice. •

Auroville

Singapore Public Housing

Woodwords Redevelopment Vancouver, Canada

Location

(Pondicherry) Tamil Nadu, India

Singapore

Architect(s)

Roger Ander

Housing and Development Board (HBD)

Strategy for inclusivity

Semi - Urban scale (belief bound)

Variation in sizes (affordability)

Variation in size (affordability) + Subsidy

Site Area

2000 HA (projected) Currently, 650 under Auro trust

-

Built up Area= 1.1 million square foot

Ground Coverage

Approx. 25%

-

-

767

85% of housing in Singapore is a public sector investment

536 market housing units+ 10 units for people with physical Disabilities + 200 non-market housing units =75 family occupancy + 125 single occupancy

Population

2300 (planned for 50000)

-

-

Social Structure

Mixed

Mixed (citizenship condition)

Mixed

Economic diversity

Mixed

Mixed (LIG to HIG)

Mixed

• Community living, in its true sense • Rich subsidize the poor willingly. This automatically makes the community more inclusive

• Strict laws allow people from a particular income group to buy housing proportional to that income. For instance, An LIG household will get a single bedroom flat or higher, whereas an MIG household has to buy a minimum 2-3 bedroom flat, and not a single bedroom one.

• The intention of alleviating poverty and crime from poor pockets of the city through ‗positive gentrification‘ • Tying up the economic zones with common facilities like markets, gyms etc.

• A cult of sorts, which is exclusive to non believers • No private ownership at all, everything is community owned and works on the system of charity

• High density high rise towers tend to be less community oriented, even if they are in a diverse complex. •This housing is only sold to citizens of Singapore, which makes it nationally exclusive.

• A social experiment, which could backfire.

• The community is still very small, despite its 50 years of existence. • Despite its open policy, most of the people who get drawn to it tend to belong to a similar occupational or economical background

• Housing is provided for people regardless of their economic stature, and quality of construction does not differ. The only difference is the dwelling size, which in a way, reduces societal prejudices

• It has been seen earlier how it is not only the rich who might feel uncomfortable living in an economically diverse neighborhood, but also the poor who feel threatened, and prefer their ghettos. •Also, inclusivity demands a lifestyle change. Hence, it is important to avoid potential conflicts, and not force such drastic changes.

No. of Dwellings

Pros

Cons

Analysis + Inference

3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

85 InclusiveHousing Housing 2.1 01 | |Inclusive

Parameters


2.2 2.2 A

Understanding the Basics of squatter

2.2 B

Squatter settlements across the world

2.2 C

Squatter settlements in India

2.2 D

Rehabilitation approaches in India

2.2 E

Lessons learnt from squatter 87 97 | Squatter Settlements 2.2

Squatter Settlements


2.2 A

2.2 A

Understanding the Basics

2.2 B

Introduction Squatting consists of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied space or building, usually residential, that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have permission to use.

2.2 C 2.2 D 2.2 E

Etymology The term ‘squatter’ derives from its English usage ‘squat’ as a term of contempt for a person who had taken up residence at a place without having proper legal claim to it.

Contemporary squatting began with the boom in urban populations post industrial cities, that led to noteworthy in-migration. The lack of affordable housing for the urban poor led them to squat in small plots of vacant land in high density urban centers. Squatters fulfilled the cheap labor and service requirements of the urban wealthy. The tendency to squat in urban areas generally finds its roots in lack of affordable housing in the city and anarchy,

The international logo for squatting

A ‘Hooverville’ in Seattle (1930); early North American squatter settlement

http://www.geographyalltheway.com/igcse_geography/population_settlement/settlement/squatter_settlements.ht m squatters Neuwirth, R. (2004), Shadow Cities: A Billion Slums Squatters, A New Urban World, Routledge others are only a condition of no or ill maintained

infrastructure like sanitation and hygiene.

Are squatters criminals? Squatters do not break the law willingly but by lack of choice. They settle mostly on public land which in theory is not private property, hence in practice it belongs to everybody.

8%

17%

83%

World Population

92%

India Population

89 99 | Squatter Settlements 2.2

Origin In the 19th century, a squatter was a person who occupied a large tract of crown land in order to graze livestock. This type of squatting was pastoral squatting. At first it was done illegally and later under license.


2.2 A 2.2 B 2.2 C 2.2 D 2.2 E

Security

Opportunity identity

ORGANIZATION

100||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2 90

Factors affecting Squatter Housing The lack of tenure security, no legal ownership on the land and fear of eviction by the government officials is a primary feature to tackle which temporary down cap measures are always carried out by a squatter.

Squatter settlement, Manila

Internal Attributes

External Attributes

Religion/Ethnicity

Land Owner

Nature of employment

Tenure security

Length of stay in settlement

Length of stay in the city

Opportunity of employment generally comes from the needs of the neighboring well off areas or the high density of internal population. Most squatter settlements have a very high monetary transaction cycles. However, this economy is largely looked at as informal and extra-legalized. Identity is generally community based in nature, http://www.gdrc.org/uem/define-squatter.html


2.2 A 2.2 B

GROWTH AND SATURATION Pre-consolidation stage can be classified as where the use temporary materials like bamboo, sticks, mud, plastic bags, etc constitute the dwelling unit. Many activities take place outside the hutment in most cases. In the consolidation stage, the structure is more stable with corrugated sheet roofs, mud walls, etc. The entrance of the shelter becomes more defined by giving a raised platform to it. With time, there is an increment in the family size and a need for more space. In this post consolidation stage, the shelter expands vertically or has house extensions spilling onto the street. It has the cooking, washing and sometimes even the bathing area adjoining the shelter. At this stage, the settlement has reached its saturation point and cannot grow further.

Pre-consolidation stage

post consolidation stage

SOCIO-ECONOMIC Shared Resources The community shares the cost and labor of new infrastructure development like sewage, electricity, roads, etc. and its upkeep. Also, resources like usable and potable water are used by the community through common water points dotting the settlement. Self Help, Felt Needs Squatter communities, being not entitled for government infrastructure and services, make do with joint efforts of the residents for acquiring and maintaining basic resource development, Hence appropriately called User Generated Cities, by URBZ, Mumbai. Sustainability Most squatter settlements are generally self sustained neighborhoods. Further, the reuse and recycling of most materials for building, along with a low carbon footprint of all squatters because of their lifestyle makes the settlement a greener neighborhood.

2.2 C 2.2 D 2.2 E

91 101||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2

Features of Squatter Settlements


2.2 A 2.2 B 2.2 C 2.2 D

102||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2 92

2.2 E

ARCHITECTURAL IMPLICATIONS Mixed use Informal sector housing is characterized by the integration of work and living activities. Small shops are interspersed next to, among and within houses. Houses also double as work stations. Functional usage of the space changes constantly through the day. The concept of centralized shopping is obsolete in informal sector housing. It fails to provide the economic and social benefits of ‘living over the store’.

Extension of houses forming small informal shops, Anna Delhi (Authors) StagesNagar, of development of squatter settlements (authors)

Porous street edge (House extensions) Plots in slums are extremely small and many activities cannot be accommodated inside the house. Spaces in front of the house that are normally a part of the public realm, acquire a private character through use, and through various physical modifications.

The simplest of these house extensions is the stoop (an enlarged step) . This can be extended into a platform extension used for cooking, washing, etc. Frequently, the platform is elaborated to become a verandah. With the addition of walls, this becomes a second room. Platforms and porches are a feature of the Indian rural housing that allows greater contact with street life, while being inexpensive.

Extension of houses forming small informal shops, Anna Nagar, Delhi (Authors)


2.2 A 2.2 B 2.2 C

Public spaces Squatter clusters are very compact and have, the maximum amount of built up area possible. The Dwellings are very closely packed and most of them share common walls, making the ratio of area of private territory much higher.

2.2 D 2.2 E

The settlement is punctuated by a series of open spaces. Each cluster of units is woven around an open area featured by a tree, a water tank or a shaded area. These open areas vary in importance and functionality providing a multiplicity of interactions between dwellers.

Tree shaded open space with water facility, Anna Nagar, Delhi

93 103||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2

Incremental Living Over time, with the acquisition of more resources, a squatter dwelling becomes more permanent and expansive with the use of semi durable materials and catering to the needs of a larger family size.


2.2 A 2.2 B 2.2 C 2.2 D 2.2 E

Access roads Because of the large amount of social and domestic activity that happens on the street, the streets are generally wide enough. Larger standards are established in the early life of the settlement and they become narrower as house extensions grow larger.

Vehicles Automobile traffic is naturally enough, extremely limited. They are not served by conventional taxis or buses, neither do they own cars, etc. Typically, they own vehicles that require smaller clearances like mopeds, scooters, bicycles, etc.

104||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2 94

Streets and paths in informal settlements also follow a hierarchy of different widths, finishes and public importance.

500mm wide entry to dwelling unit

1500mm wide street

House Typology and Household Structure • Generally community toilets and water points are provided for by the government. But because of disuse and disrepair and lack of proper sewage and waste disposal, the living conditions become very unhygienic. • Every house hold has electricity, along with an electricity meter. Many families own electrical appliances such as TVs, washing machines, gas stoves etc. • Most jhuggis have 1-2 rooms, often with more than 3-4 pople sharing the space. A large part of the construction is pakka-kaccha. i.e. the floor and walls are pakka whereas the roof is kaccha • Semi open and open spaces play an important role for activities such as cooking, washing, cleaning or just sitting. • Houses are generally kept quite clean from the inside, despite the outside being unhygienic.

1200mm wide street with drain


2.2 A

2.2 B

Squatter settlements across the world TYPES OF SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS

2.2 B 2.2 C 2.2 D

Squatter Settlements differ on the basis of the intention of origin in the following categories:

2.2 E

1. Deprivation based –

Local names for squatter settlements Ranchos = Venezuela Callampas, Campamentos = Chile Favelas = Brazil Barriadas = Peru Villas Misarias = Argentina Colonias Letarias = Mexico Barong-Barong = Philippines Kevettits = Burma Gecekondu = Turkey Bastee, Juggi-johmpri = India

43 storey Centro Financiero Confinanzas (completed, 1994) also known as the Tower of David, is the highest skyscraper in Caracas, Venezuela and has been under squatter occupation since 2007.

A squatter neighborhood in Manila Phillipines (httpwww.urbanlandscape.org.uknealosquatter03.htm)

95 105||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2

Homeless people squatting for housing need stemming from the dearth of adequate affordable housing for the poor provided by the government. Most deprivation based squatters have jobs with a very high rate of money flow in the neighborhood. The urgent need based society is largely driven by unorganized economy. It is the most common sort o f squatting seen in southern countries of Africa, South America, Asia, etc.


2.2 A 2.2 B 2.2 C

2. Political – In the northern countries, where the resources are sufficient for a comfortable life of all the citizens, the nature of squatting is rooted in Anarchy, the loss of faith on the government to provide affordable housing.

2.2 D 2.2 E

3. Entrepreneurial – people breaking buildings to service the needs of a community for cheap bars, clubs etc. 4. Conservational – squatting in monuments with the intension of preserving them because the authorities have left them to decay

106||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2 96

5.

An alternative housing strategy - people unprepared to wait on municipal lists to be housed take direct action.

These generally arise from anarchy, the lack of faith towards the government. Generally seen in the northern countries with higher per capita resources and public housing for all, squatters here generally comprise of the unemployed or the culturally rebellious. A heritage building squatted in by a group of artists in Amsterdam in 2010.

The problem of Squatting has been made illegal by the Dutch government since June 1, 2010, with the homeless being legally allowed to temporarily occupy surplus private houses.


2.2 A

2.2 C

2.2 B

8%

92%

India Population

There is a huge disparity between the percentage of slum population in rural and urban India. While the numbers go up to 34% in Delhi and 52% in Mumbai, the numbers in rural areas is as low as 8%. People migrate to urban areas in an attempt to find employment and improve their own and the lives of their families. Many a time, these laborers come from their villages on a contract but end up staying on in Delhi looking to find more work here rather than in their village. Because of lack of useable capital many of these ventures remain extremely small scale, making it impossible for them to attain an income that would allow them to buy a home, thereby resulting in squatting. Also, since the cost of living is much higher, the same amount of money that could provide secure tenure in the rural areas becomes insufficient in the urban areas.

52%

34% 66% Delhi Population

48%

Mumbai Population

The country had a population of 846.3 million in 1991 out of which 217.6 million lived in cities and towns. The total number of households was estimated at 153.2 million for the same year. As against this figure, the housing stock in the country was of the order of 148 million – 39.3 million units in urban areas (26.6%) and 108.7 million in rural areas (73.4%). India’s National Report for Habitat II Conference in Istanbul estimates that by 2021, the country would face a housing shortage of 44.9 million units and that the investment required for tackling this shortage over a period of 25 years at 1991 prices would be of the order of Rs.6580 billion.

About 70% of the units are estimated to be required for the urban poor/economically weaker sections of society while about 20% is for lowincome groups. About 10% of the urban requirement is for addressing the middle and higher income group segments.

A study conducted by a technical group of the Union housing ministry which was released recently showed India's total housing demand was pegged at 24.71 million at the end of the 10th five year plan (2007-2008). While Maharashtra topped the list with a shortage of 3.72 million houses, Tamil Nadu emerged second with 2.82 million units short. Andhra Pradesh has a shortage of 1.95 million units, Karnataka 1.63 million units while Kerala 0.76 million units.

2.2 C 2.2 D 2.2 E

97 107||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2

Squatter settlements in India


2.2 A 2.2 B 2.2 C 2.2 D

108||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2 98

2.2 E

Squatter Settlements in Delhi From 12,000 slum dwelling units in 1951, the number of these units is approximated to be 0.3 million in 2005. Almost all the slum dwellings are encroachments on land belonging to agencies like the Delhi Development Authority, New Delhi Municipal Corporation, Railways, Delhi Government, Public Works Department & various other organizations. The vegetable vendor, the maid, the milk man, the people who do their laundry and even ironing under the road side trees are all slum residents, forming an important component of any urban household. Among the three approaches of environmental improvement, relocation & rehabilitation undertaken by the Delhi Government, a conditional matrix must be discussed to decide transparent approach to identify which policy should be taken up for which slum.

Both relocation & in situ rehabilitation propose clearing the slum area and providing permanent housing of some sort and are thus seen as more of one time action unlike environment improvement which requires action every few years. The most important condition identified to decide whether relocation or in situ rehabilitation is the best approach for a slum is if the land on which the slum or JJ cluster has come up has the ability to be developed. A lot of slums come up around drains, near railway tracks, river beds etc. Thus, if the land on which they are currently based cannot be developed, there is no option but to relocate them. Other conditions include The slum is in a residential area according to the master-plan, More than 80% of the residents work in areas within 3 km radii of the slum, More than 30% of the residents earn their livelihood within the Slums,etc


2.2 A

2.2 D

2.2 B

Rehabilitation approaches in India: 3 pronged Environmental Improvement Schemes.

Government/ NGO initiated where members of the community attempt to address their needs that they perceive through their own efforts. •provides with financial and technical assistance for the projects. For example, the Urban Community Development (UCD) of 1958, Delhi. These basic amenities, as per MCD’s norms and standards are: 1. Water Supply- One tap for 150 persons 2. Drainage for Waste water and Storm Water 3. Community Bath- One bath for 20-50 persons 4. Community Latrine- One WC seat for 20-25 persons 5. Widening and paving of lanes 6. Street lighting- poles 30 metres apart 7. Community Facilities- Community Centres, Dispensaries, non-formal educational centre

(2)

In-situ up gradation

The in situ up-gradation is undertaken after the area has been notified as a slum area under the Slum Area Act of 1956. The scheme involves replanning of JJ dwelling units in modified layouts by redistributing the encroached land pockets amongst the squatter families. The implementation of this particular strategy is dependant on the landowning agency in question issuing a NOC (No Objection Certificate) to the Slum and JJ Department for the utilisation of land, and also clearance of the project by the technical committee of the DDA. A part of the cost is borne by the government, the land owning agency and the squatter.

*Delhi CDP 2006

These strategies are only “curative rather than Preventive”, they are temporary, and do nothing to actually create availability of new low cost urban housing stock.

In situ rehabilitation at Dharavi, Mumbai

(3)

Clearance and Relocation

This strategy is adopted when the land owning agency whose land has been occupied by slum and JJ clusters, requires the land in question for the implementation of projects “as per requirements in the larger public interest.”

2.2 C 2.2 D 2.2 E

As the CDP (City Development Plan) states, this has been “the mainstay of the policy towards the squatters and JJ clusters” and contributes to about 80% of the government built slum development initiatives. Costs incurred Are mainly of three kinds: •The value of land • The cost of construction materials • Cost of labor for building

99 109||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2

(1)


2.2 A 2.2 B 2.2 C 2.2 D 2.2 E

The cost of resettlement For a dwelling unit of about 25 sq. meters of carpet area (32sq. meters plinth area), in the slum resettlement neighborhood at Dwarka sector 16, the tentative cost sharing proposed by the Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board: (Report: Sheltering Delhi’s Slums, Singh, 2009)

Govt. of contribution =

Rs. 1, 19,000.00

35 %

Beneficiary contribution =

Rs. 60,000.00

17 %

Land Owning Agency contribution =

Rs. 93,000.00

28 %

State Govt. contribution =

Rs. 62,000.00

17 %

Total =

Access to Employment

Bhalaswa

110||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2 100

Rohini

Bakanwara

Papan Kalan

Socio-Economic Integration

Rs. 3, 34,000.00 100 %

Narela Halambi Kala

Squatter living V/s Slum Resettlement There generally exists a sense of socioeconomic uprooting in case of slum rehabilitation dwellers. Despite the upgrading of apparently basic standards of living, the large distance of the resettlement colony from the residents’ previous place of employment.

Madanpur Khadar

Access to security of tenure

AMENITIES

Slums

Resettlement colony

LOCATION

Mixed profile locale

Proximity to highway/ roads

PUCCA HOUSES

25%

90%

PIPED/TAP WATER

93.8%

100%

INDEPENDEN T TOILETS

Less than 10%

50%

DRAINAGE FACILITIES

50%

100%

GARBAGE DISPOSAL

30%

87%

ELECTRICITY

95.4%

100%

The question of Eligibility The bureaucracy in the process of being deemed eligible residents of a squatter settlement are very complex, leading to discrepancies. Family size Because of the non incremental nature of the housing, the process of nuclearization of families and the average household size reduces to just the parents and children that move out after adulthood. Access to basic infrastructure and amenities

Location dependent jobs can affect resettlers to switch their employment mode.

The high cost of resettlement is an incentive to sell the flat and move back to the slum. The Impact Of Slum Resettlement On Urban Integration In Mumbai: The Case Of The Chandivali Project Damien VAQUIER (2010)


2.2 A 2.2 B 2.2 C

CASE STUDY `Sangharsh Nagar` Slum Rehabilitation Chandivali, Mumbai

2.2 D

Rajiv Gandhi National Park

2.2 E

India’s largest slum relocation project. The project was successful for its better understanding of the way persons from the economically weaker sections of the society really live. Chandivali

14 schools, medical facilities, including two hospitals, two large community halls and religious institutions, constitute its social Sangharsh infrastructure. Nagar Wada (Sector)

Pada (Cluster)

Society Location Plan

Site Plan

101 111||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2

Architect: P.K. Das and Associates Completion: 2009 Site Area: 111.2 acres (450,000 m2) Cost: Rs.40,000 lac. Number of dwelling units: 18,362 Dwelling unit area= 22.5m


2.2 A 2.2 B 2.2 C 2.2 D 2.2 E

Inter block open space Typical Floor Plan PK Das and Associates

112||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2 102

Cluster Plan PK Das and Associates

Community Street

Neighborhood Bigger volumes are broken into smaller comfortable ones making their identity more personal, keeping the ground floor porous with double height alleys.

Unit Plan PK Das and Associates

Apartment 6 two room flats on each floor, each of 22.5 m2 carpet area. Comprising of a hall (4.5X3m), kitchenette(2X2.5m), toilet- bath and balcony. There is a community aangan on every floor.


2.2 A

2.2 E

2.2 B

Lessons learnt from squatter

2.2 C

Current Policy

2.2 D

The problem with the restrictive current MCD property titles, which prevent exchange and resale-ability, of the flats allotted to a squatter.

2.2 E

But stringent policy only makes way for more corruption and black marketing mafia in the urban poor housing sector.

Microfinance Basically, banking for the poor, where the urban poor are given loans for small amounts and durations (micro-crediting) and their funds are managed by the micro-financing heads. This helps reduce the black money and the trauma faced by them, for finance. Organizations like Micro home solutions, Delhi and Sarvodaya cooperative, Pune are a few microfinance examples. A luxury housing tower sitting next to a favela slum in Sao Paolo, Brasil Inclusive Housing The Delhi 2021 Masterplan, that has brought private developers into the loop of providing for the housing shortage, also makes it mandatory for private developers to have a component of EWS housing in their housing schemes. this helps reduce the overall shortage of affordable housing in the city. However the degree of inclusive living in the neighborhood is still something that is not addressed cohesively.

No of units in the housing scheme 35%

Built Up Area Ratio: 15% min.

OTHERS

OTHERS

EWS

EWS

103 113||Squatter SquatterSettlements Settlements2.2 2.2

SOLUTIONS


2.2 A 2.2 2.2 A B 2.2 2.2 B C 2.2 2.2 C D 2.2 2.2 D E 2.2 E

Squatter Settlement

Formalized Settlement

Squatter Settlement The settlement is amorphous , and keeps changing in density The settlement is amorphous , and keeps changing in density house plan is open Internal

Formalized Settlement More rigid

Internal house plan is open There is overlapping of functional space inside the house There is overlapping of functional space inside the house The internal circulation space is minimum

Far more structured plan Most functions are segregated apart from the recent dining and cooking activities Most functions are segregated apart from the recent dining and cooking All functional spacesactivities are joined by circulation

The internal circulation space is minimum The use of semi open spaces is considerably higher than average settlements The use of semi open spaces is considerably higher than average settlements

All functional spaces are joined by circulation The closed nature of houses is higher, the use of balconies and open to sky spaces less frequent The closed nature of houses is higher, the use of balconies and open to sky spaces less frequent

The role of the interaction among the community is much higher The role of the interaction among the community is much higher

The rules are generally externally controlled only leading to lesser participation of the residents in the The rules are generally externally controlled only community leading to lesser participation of the residents in the community

114 | Squatter Settlements 114| |Squatter Squatter Settlements 2.2 2.2 104 Settlements 2.2

SPACE REQUIREMENTS Interesting insights are revealed after a SPACE REQUIREMENTS comparison of the are values of minimum Interesting insights revealed after ahousing standards forofdifferent parts the world. comparison the values ofof minimum housing standards forPopulati different parts world. Areaof the Floor area

*Housing Standards of Private Dwellings, 1999, Research and Library Services Division, *Housing Standards of Private Dwellings, 1999, Legislative Council Secretariat, Hong Kong Research and Library Services Division, *Prof. Vinod Gupta Legislative Floor area FloorCouncil Secretariat, CommentsHong Kong *Prof. Vinod Gupta

1572

for 1 Floor area person for 1 (m2) person (m2) 21.34

Floor area for 2 Floor area people for 2 (m2) people (m2) 33.54

4978

1572

21.34

33.54

TOKYO

6027

2187

18

29

39

area for 3 Floor people area for 3 (m2) people (m2) 2 separate 2 bedroom separate s bedroom s 50

TOKYO

6027

2187

18

29

39

50

DELHI

9340

1483

-

-

-

25

DELHI

9340

1483

-

-

-

25

LONDON

on Populati Density on (people Density /km2) (people /km2) 4978

LONDON

(km2)

Area (km2)

Key issues of Squatter Settlers Understanding/ Empowerment/ Emancipation Key issues of Squatter Settlers

More rigid Far more structured plan

for 3 Floor area people for 3 (m2) people (m2) 2 separate bedrooms 2 separate bedrooms

Comments

First world low pressures on First world low affordable housing pressures on affordable housing Single person dwelling units are Single person seen often dwelling units are seen sharing often of Time same space Time sharing of same space

Understanding/ Empowerment/ Emancipation • Acknowledging the extra legality of economic activitythe of the squatters, not as • Acknowledging extra legality of illegality. economic activity of the squatters, not as

illegality. •The pressures of migration of rural populations to the Indian cities for better •The pressures of migration ofeconomic rural populations prospects. to the Indian cities for better economic prospects. •The rampant caste based inequalities that hamper the social of our that •The rampant castecoherence based inequalities neighborhoods. hamper the social coherence of our

neighborhoods. •The tendency of provision of subsidies and aids is inherently different from that of providing •The tendency of provision of subsidies and aids rights. is inherently different from that of providing rights.

“In a warm climate, many of a family’s most essential cooking, sleeping or “In a warmactivities climate,(like many of a family’s most entertaining friends) docooking, not needsleeping to take or essential activities (like within the four walls of box, but can occur in entertaining friends) doanot need to take verandas courtyards. Indian within the or four walls of a Under box, but can occur in conditions, where such spaces are livable for verandas or courtyards. Under Indian more than nine months of a year, pointfor of conditions, where such spaces arethe livable trade off between cost and benefit can be of more than nine months of a year, the point determinedand the most and trade off between cost andeconomic benefit can be efficient patterns of housing identified. " determined- and the most economic and A Place in the Sun efficient patterns of housing identified. " Thomas Cubitt Lecture, A Place in the Sun The Royal Society of Arts Thomas Cubitt Lecture, London 1983 Charles The Royal Society of Arts Correa London 1983 Charles

Correa


106 | Utopian Housing 2.4


2.4 2.4 3.5 A

Introduction: Basics of Utopian Living

2.4 B

Overview of Historical Utopian Ideas

2.4 C

Eminent Utopian Theories and Projects

2.4 D

Housing Projects based on Utopian Concepts

2.4 E

Current Utopian Concepts

2.4 F

Conclusion

107 01 | Utopian Housing 2.4 2.4

Utopian Housing


108 | Utopian Housing 2.4


2.4 A

2.4 A

Introduction: Basics of Utopian Living

2.4 B 2.4 C

Utopia is generally defined as a place of ideal perfection in all aspects of existence (social, economic and legal). Once Humanity knows Utopia is the house it wants to live in, Humanity can begin to build that house. Since Utopia is the blueprint for Humanity's house, the next step is to determine what materials are needed to assemble that house. There are five basic elements to Utopia. These elements are:

Everlasting life

2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

All good and no evil

2

UTOPIA

Concept of Utopian Living

Complete knowledge

Fundamentals of Utopia • No individual could exist without some interaction with other humans, and Humanity will only survive if there is interaction of humans. Therefore, it is fundamental that a society in some form will always be necessary. • All humans are equal in the eyes of society. • it is fundamental that both individuals and societies must contend with the continuing battle of good versus evil.

• Utopia may rightly be called the new paradigm in urban living. • Utopia is a community or society with the ideal socioeconomic and legal systems. Much like an Intentional Community where like minded people come together with a common objective. • The idea evolved from the present explosion of bigger cities which along with the glamour and modern comforts, also brought about several grave concerns regarding fundamental issues of safety, security, law and order and health besides others. • A role model for the towns and cities of the future. They were looking at not just housing and infrastructure that provided shelters, but a complete new living culture rooted strongly in the fundamental values of a healthy civilization - a city that nurtured the fullest growth of individuals and society.

Techniques used by urban designers and planners • the techniques for giving form and organization to specific urban materials(building spaces, open spaces and patterns) • the techniques for composing together urban materials • the techniques for translating the urban project in a plan with a legal function, according to specific laws.

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A perfect balance between the individual and society


2.4 A 2.4 B

2.4 B

Overview of Utopian Concepts

2.4 C 2.4 D

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(Left) Industrial City- Tony Garnier, 1917

2.4 E

In the architect developed the zoning concept, by dividing the city into four main functions: work, housing, Health, leisure.

2.4 F

01 | | Utopian Utopian Housing Housing 2.4 2.4 110

(Top) Garden City- Ebenezer Howard, 1898

Ebenezer Howard believed that the very best of both town and country life should be married together in small Garden Cities, each with its own greenbelt. He promoted well-planned towns with careful land zoning and a quality of life.

(Right) Helix City- Kisho Kurokawa, 1961 (Above) Walking City- Archigram, 1964

Ebenezer Howard believed that the very best of both town and country life should be married together in small Garden Cities, each with its own greenbelt. He promoted well-planned towns with careful land zoning and a quality of life.

The Walking City is constituted by intelligent buildings or robots that are in the form of giant, self contained living pods that could roam the cities.


2.4 A

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2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

(Top) Arcosanti- Paolo Soleri, 1970

Arcosanti is an urban laboratory focused on pursuing lean alternatives to urban sprawl through innovative design with environmental accountability.

(Top) Plug in City – Archigram, 1967

(Above) City in the air – Arata Isozaki, 1970

(Above) Protected Village - Haus-Rucker-co, 1970

A utopian city locked in bubbles

Isozaki proposed for a multilevel urban construction above the city. Massive pylons supported elevated transportation, housing, and office systems as well as parks and walkways,

(Above) Computer-aided city, Arata Isozaki, 1972

In this city, a large central computer determines the function the same as a big brain. Arata Isozaki generates a series Of computerized catalogs of options ranging from neon signs advertising, projectors, isolation kit, educational modules ... The whole city joins through rapid rail equipped with this great center.

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Computer-controlled city designed for change with removable elements plugged into a ‗mega structure‘ service framework.


2.4 A 2.4 B

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2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

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(Top) Pyramid city in the air – Shimizu Corporation, 2004

(Top) Hyper building - Rem Koolhaas, 1996

The model presented here has the distinction of being inflatable and then merge to the technological and visionary project, the fragility and instability inherent in an aerial structure.

(Left) London as it could be- Richard Rogers, 1986

It was the vision for future London, in which he proposed multi level transport system and walkways.


2.4 A

2.4 C

Eminent Utopian Theories and Projects

2.4 B

Possible Problems

2.4 C

Realization

2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

Expandability

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Form


2.4 A 2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

Classification of proposed ideas of a Modern, Utopian city based on composition figures Compact city In compact city, the development of the new, modern parts is designed in continuity with the existent city, sometimes enlarging it according to some preferred directions. The form is given by • The grid of the roads and their hierarchy • The system of open spaces Typical grids: • Quadrangular grid • Circular grid City made by an autonomous nuclei The city made by autonomous nuclei is a radical alternative to the existing city and its ‗spontaneous ‗ expansion. According to this idea, the expansion must be discontinuous and organized in new cities with limited sizes, distinguishable and autonomous from the old city, built far from it and connected through a railway system.

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The garden city by Ebenezer Howard is the diagrammatic proposal, which was translated in diverse projects of new towns and new neighbourhoods. Linear city The linear city is another radical alternative to the existing city and to the compact city too. It can be considered a variant of the garden city, as it is a thin and low density line in the country-side. It has a defined and homogenous breadth without limits of length, and it is organized by a central infrastructure (railways and main road)

Vertical city The vertical city suggests a ‗rational‘ solution for the emerging tendencies: •High densities to save space •Separated levels for diverse transport systems •Vertical zoning to organize diverse activities in the same buildings

1963

------Plug-in–city

1962

------Clusters in the air

Horizontal city The horizontal city has no limits and: • The density is low • The grid is the only way of order • The transport is by car • The functions are mixed

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------Helix city

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------Industrial city

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------Neighbourhood city

Functional city The functional city does not have any recognizable figure. Its form is the result of functional organization. The project concerns the fundamental functions: to live, to work, to move, to rest.

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------Garden city


2.4 A Helix City (Floating City)

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2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

Kisho Kurokawa‘s Helix City was one of a number of metabolist urban visions that was to grow from an existing city outward on the surface of a body of water. Architecture was envisioned as a system of constantly changing 'organisms‗, which are able to integrate new 'living„ spaces. The helical mega structures comprising the city allow for a plug-in style occupation of their levels; the city expands both by adding units within each helix and by

adding new towers. The levels of the helixes were proposed to be completely covered in gardens, allowing for a maximal green surface. Here, urban structures are being developed both vertically and horizontally, and the points of contact are not conscious. The unity-space helix is the prototype of a city with three-dimensional growth potential.

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2.4 F


2.4 A 2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

1898 Total Site Area (2-D; in m²) Total Greenspace (m²) Area: Green space: agriculture Area: Greenspace: lawn Area: Greenspace: park Area: Greenspace: wilderness

7,914,552 0 0 0 7,914,552

Area of Water (m²) Area of Infrastructure (m²)

20,759,381 3,017,093

Total Built Area [footprint; m²)]

17,377,393

Area: Housing (footprint) Area: Industrial (footprint) Area: Public (footprint)

15,895,036 0 1,482,358

Total Population

480,000

Total number housing units Number of people per housing unit

120,000 4.0

Total Area (3-D; in m²) Number of Floors: Housing Number of Floors: Industrial Number of Floors: Public

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49,068,419

673,421,878 40 0 4

Area: Total Built

641,730,852

Area: Housing (3-D) Area: Industrial (3-D) Area: Public (3-D) Area: Open Space (Greenspace + Water +Infrastructure) (3-D)

635,801,421 0 5,929,431 31,691,026

FAR: 3-D Area / 2-D Area (x)

13.72

DENSITY: total population / site area (2-D) (people per km²) DENSITY: total population / total area (3-D) (people per km²)

9,782 713

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This project was prepared as a housing project to be built on the surface of a lake in connection with planning of the New Tokyo International Airport in Narita. The spiral system, or the helix structure, will bring a third order to urban space. The structure of the city must be planned by multiplanar transport system which is centered on activities of daily life. Vertical separation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic, on the roofs of the structure, is provided: the motorways and walks form a transport system which interconnects the structures of the city. A harbour is provided at each unit for use by surface crafts. A spiral escalator system provides a means of vertical transportation between the roof-top and lake transport systems. BUILDING FOOTPRINT PLAN ELEVATION-1

ELEVATION-2

TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN

2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

Each home owner is free to use whatever building materials preferred when constructing their homes on manmade land which has a spiral configuration and is provided with terraces.

DETAIL CAPSULE JOINERY CAPSULE PLAN

2.4 C

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1898

2.4 B


2.4 A 2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

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Walking City

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Great Britain, 1964 Ron Herron (Archigram)

The Walking City was an idea proposed by British architect Ron Herron in 1964. In an article in the avantgarde architecture journal Archigram, Ron Herron proposed building massive, artificially intelligent mobile robotic structures that could freely roam a postapocalyptic world, moving to wherever the structures' resources or manufacturing abilities were needed. Various walking cities could interconnect with each other to form larger 'walking metropolises' and then disperse when their concentrated power was no longer necessary. Individual buildings or structures could also be mobile, moving wherever their owner wanted or needs dictated. Therefore, although this is not a proposal for a floating city, the mobile structures share the same concepts as a moving city like a seastead as they are autonomous and self-sufficient, they can interact with other moving cities, and they operate in a world where no boundaries exist.

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"Walking City imagines a future in which borders and boundaries are abandoned in favor of a nomadic lifestyle among groups of people worldwide." The Walking City is constituted by intelligent buildings or robots that are in the form of giant, self contained living pods that could roam the cities. The form derived from a combination of insect and machine and was a literal interpretation of Corbusier's aphorism of a house as a machine for living in. The pods were independent, yet parasitic as they could 'plug in' to way stations to exchange occupants or replenish resources. The citizen is therefore a serviced nomad not totally dissimilar from today's executive cars. The context was perceived as a future ruined world in the aftermath of a nuclear war.


2.4 A

Plug-in City

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Great Britain, 1967 Peter Cook(Archigram)

2.4 C 2.4 D

Computer-controlled city designed for change with removable elements plugged into a ‘mega structure’ service framework.

The Plug-in City is set up by applying a large scale network-structure, containing access ways and essential services, to any terrain. Into this network are placed units which cater for all needs. These units are planned for obsolescence. The units are served and maneuvered by means of cranes operating from a railway at the apex of the structure. The interior contains several electronic and machine installations intended to replace present-day work operations.

2.4 E

2.4 F

Typical permanence ratings would be:

Bathroom, kitchen, living room floor: 3-year obsolescence Living rooms, bedrooms: 5-8 year obsolescence Location of house unit: 15 years duration Immediate-use sales space in shops: 6 months Shopping location: 3-6 years Workplaces, computers, etc: 4 years Car silos and roads: 20 years Main mega structure: 40 years In addition to the main crane way there are smaller crane ways and mechanized slipways as well as telescopic handling elements. The Plug-in City as a total project was a combination of a series of ideas that were worked upon between 1962 and 1964. The Metal Cabin Housing was a prototype in the sense that it placed removable house elements into a "mega structure" of concrete It is a mega-structure with no buildings, just a massive framework into which dwellings in the form of cells or standardized components could be slotted.

The machine had taken over and people were the raw material being processed, the difference being that people are meant to enjoy the experience.

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2.4 B


2.4 A 2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

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2.4 F

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2.4 A City in the Air (Clusters in the Air)

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2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

One of the most spectacular and important unbuilt projects of the 20th Century was Arata Isozaki's ―

2.4 F

In ‗Clusters in the Air‘ scheme, he proposed cantilevering housing units from a central spine. Isozaki proposed round columns that permitted growth in any direction, instead of a square support system which limits expansion to four directions. • The concept of the clusters was to develop a new way to structure housing around Tokyo. • The Cluster represent leaves from trees which are the housing units and the core represents the trunk of the tree. Joint Core System • Isozaki proposed for a multilevel urban construction above the city.

Arata Isozaki was an architect who mainly designed structures with Metabolist principles. Isozaki‘s City in the Air was created as a counterproposal to an urban city filled with skyscrapers, contained cylindrical shafts, or ―joint cores,‖ which would hold up the smaller, interchangeable components. His later Clusters in the Air had a similar joint core concept. However, instead of having the interchangeable parts in between the joint cores, Clusters in the Air had the interchangeable parts cluster together on the cylindrical towers. A city of these structures would give the impression of being in a forest, with each joint core resembling a tree. This plan would allow for a free flow of traffic and pedestrians on the ground below. Isozaki‘s structures are also indicative of advancements in technology and in engineering.

(Above) Conceptual model

121 01 | Utopian Housing 2.4 2.4

• Massive pylons supported elevated transportation, housing, and office systems as well as parks and walkways,


2.4 A 2.4 B

Arcosanti

2.4 C

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Arizona, 1970 Paulo Soleri

2.4 D 2.4 E

All buildings at Arcosanti are oriented to the sun; the compound is perched on the south-facing edge of its mesa. ―The site design takes into account the position of the sun throughout the seasons and throughout the year‖.

2.4 F

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1972

Located about sixty miles north of Phoenix, Arcosanti is a “prototype urban laboratory” conceived by Italian architect Paolo Soleri (opposite) that presents an alternative to the typical modern American community Soleri designed Arcosanti to take advantage of its site in every way possible. Dramatically situated on a basalt-cliff mesa sixty-five miles north of Phoenix, it lies in the midst of a 4,060-acre preserve, using only twenty five acres for its footprint.

Arcosanti is designed to accommodate five thousand residents when (and if) it‘s complete, all living and working together, sharing resources, enjoying cultural offerings on site, rarely using motorized vehicles, and having as little ecological impact as possible. It exemplifies the principles of what Soleri coined ―arcology‖— architecture and ecology as one integral process.


2.4 A

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2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

A pedestrian-friendly ―city,‖ it squarely addresses the issues of pollution, congestion, and social isolation and embodies Soleri‘s vision for a sustainable urban alternative.

Arcosanti is the exact opposite of urban sprawl which, many are slowly realizing, wastes resources and, according to Soleri, isolates people from each other. He explains that in an arcology, the buildings and their living inhabitants interact as organs in a highly evolved being, with systems working together in an efficient circulation of people and resources.

Soleri designed a community that included places to live, work, and play, making total dependence on automobiles a thing of the past. He imagined Arcosanti as a prototype that would inspire the world.

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2.4 F


2.4 A 2.4 B 2.4 C

Pyramid City in the Air

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Japan, 2004 Shimizu Corporation

2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

Ground foundation area: approx. 800 ha

01 | | Utopian Utopian Housing Housing 2.4 2.4 124

Facilities: Residential buildings, office buildings, etc. (layers 1 through 4) and research centers, leisure facilities, hotels, etc. (layers 5 through 8); approx. 240,000 residential units and 2,400 ha of office space Estimated population: 1,000,000 people (both working and residential) Pyramid City in the Air is a conceptual "city in the air" designed to make the most of nature's blessings, including wind and sunlight, and to serve as a home and workplace for about one million people. A mega truss structure, which also serves as a platform for infrastructure facilities, makes it possible to create a huge, livable pyramid city measuring 2,000 meters high. The basic structure—an assembly of regular octahedral units composed of shafts made from lightweight materials such as carbon fiber—is designed to meet the needs of residents and the surrounding

environment at the same time. The mega truss construction method allows flexible, unrestricted structural arrangement of the facilities, eliminating the need to build massive foundations. The city's basic construction units, each measuring 350 meters per side, contain office buildings, residential complexes, and other facilities, held aloft by structures that provide support from all directions. With each unit capable of enclosing an entire 100-story building, TRY 2004 represents a project of unprecedented scale and proportion.


2.4 A

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Transportation and Distribution Systems

The basic design of the is based on a combination of regular octahedral units, each measuring 350 meters per side. Each octahedral unit is formed by vertically joining two square pyramids at their bases. These units are then combined both vertically and laterally to enable flexible expansion to suit specific purposes.

To move vertically within the city, people will use a continuous circulatory transportation system that incorporates elevators in diagonal shafts. Residents will use a new linear-motor transportation system set up inside the horizontal shafts to move laterally. To move from a node to a building, people will use moving walkways, escalators, or corridors. Those within buildings will use elevators.

Each octahedral unit contains sufficient space to accommodate an entire 100-story office building.

2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

The distribution system established in the city will rely on a continuous circulatory transport system for vertical conveyance. Then, at each node, the automatic transfer loader will place packages onto a container carriage or conveyor belt for automatic delivery in the horizontal direction.

This construction also exposes the interior spaces to abundant sunlight. The three-dimensional trusses are slender pipes, allowing sunlight to reach deep into the infrastructure and creating a highly livable environment.

(Top) An example of residential building

(Above) Flexible-space octahedral unit

(Above) Transport network

125 01 | Utopian Housing 2.4 2.4

(Bottom) An example of an office building


2.4 A 2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

2.4 D

Housing Projects based on Utopian Concepts Unite d‘Habitation

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Marsielles, France, 1952 Le Corbusier

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Garden city

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Industrial city

The aims of the Unite d‘Habitation, declared by Le Corbusier were two fold, ―The first: to provide with peace and solitude before the sun, space and greenery, a dwelling which will be the perfect receptacle for the family. The second: to set up in God‘s good nature beneath the sky and the sun, a magisterial work of architecture, the product of rigor, grandeur, nobility, happiness and elegance. BUILDING TYPE Multi-family housing, concrete structure POPULATIONThere are approximately 1600 residents CLIMATE Mediterranean

2

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1972

(Top) front view of the building (Left) close-up of the front view (Right) Site plan of the housing complex

Design Concept No city or community is complete without the functions and services that accompany housing. Corbusier‘s concept of ―The extended dwelling‖ is evident in the design of the Unite. ―Implicit with Le Cobusier‘s notion of the Unite as a vertical garden city is the ideal that the community should be self-supportive. The collective mechanical services and social amenities, such as the nursery school, day care center, gymnasium and shops that contribute to, and compliment daily life in the individual unit‖ should all be included.

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City in the air

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2011 Walking city


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Le Corbusier designed the community that one would encounter in a neighborhood within a mixed use, modernist, residential high rise. Le Corbusier‘s idea of the ―vertical garden city‖ was based on bringing the villa within a larger volume that allowed for the inhabitants to have their own private spaces, but outside of that private sector they would shop, eat, exercise, and gather together. With nearly 1,600 residents divided among eighteen floors, the design requires an innovative approach toward spatial organization to accommodate the living spaces, as well as the public, communal spaces. Interestingly enough, the majority of the communal aspects do not occur within the building; rather they are placed on the roof. The roof becomes a garden terrace that has a running track, a club, a kindergarten, a gym, and a shallow pool. Beside the roof, there are shops, medical facilities, and even a small hotel distributed throughout the interior of the building. The Unite d‘ Habitation is essentially a ―city within a city‖ that is spatially, as well as, functionally optimized for the residents. Salient Design Features • The buildings large volume is supported on massive pilotis that allow for circulation, gardens, and gathering spaces below the building; 2 • The roof garden/terrace creates the largest communal space within the entire building, and • The incorporated patio into the façade system minimizes the perception of the buildings height, as to create an abstract ribbon window that emphasizes the horizontality of such a large building. (Right) East façade of the building (Left) Latitudinal Section of the building (Bottom) Typical Residential Floor Plan of the building

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2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

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2.4 B


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2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

2

Plan of alternate floors. (Top) Section of units. (Bottom)

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3D view of the building. (Top) Axonometric section of a single unit. (Bottom)

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2.4 A Habitat 67

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2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

"Safdie's dwelling complex 'Habitat' was designed to give 'privacy, fresh air, sunlight and suburban amenities in an urban location.' It was designed as a permanent settlement and consists of 158 dwellings, although originally it was intended to provide 1,000 units. The resulting ziggurat was made up of independent prefabricated boxes with fifteen different plan types.― Habitat 67 was meant to be a demonstration of the implementation of those ideas in the contemporary world. The location was supposed to create an ambience that could promote, by the hand or architecture, harmonic social communication and healthy living in contact with the outer world, no matter if your apartment was on the top floor: all apartments boast a variety of views toward the surrounding space and a vast garden-terrace as large in size as the main interiors, but relatively reduced because the main purpose at the onset was to build economical houses.

Habitat is a model community constructed along the St. Lawrence River in Montreal, composed of 354 prefabricated modules which combine to form a threedimensional space structure. The modules, or 'boxes' as they are known, are connected in varying combinations to create 158 residences ranging from 600 ft to 1,700 sq.ft. Pedestrian streets serve as horizontal circulation throughout the entire complex. Habitat '67 was the realization of Moshe Safdie's thesis titled "A Case for City Living, A Study of Three Urban High Density Housing Systems for Community Development―.

129 01 | Utopian Housing 2.4 2.4

Concept


2.4 A 2.4 B

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They firmly believed that the future of human housing would no longer be the individual house hedged with gardens and aloof from the urban center, but rather a collective housing, the building of communities that would not stay in closed buildings but rather in open urban spaces, city neighborhoods capable of containing all necessary services to make living there more pleasant and desirable.

2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

Terraces

(Top) Section

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In the case of Habitat 67, the mega structure was designed by the very housing units: each and every module consists of a rectangular-shaped tube, with two of its sides made of large reinforced concrete panels that serve as load-bearing walls that can support the upper unit. They were put in place with the help of tall cranes specially designed for this building project.

Block 2

Block 1

(Above) On-site placement of blocks by crane

(Above) Arrangement of blocks

(Top) Arrangement of blocks

Among the many aspects that single out Habitat 67, one of the most outstanding ones is precisely its being the physical concretion of an idea that remains a utopia some four decades later.


2.4 A Nakagin Capsule Tower

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Plug-in-city

Archigram Group, Kurokawa developed the technology to install the capsule units into a concrete core with only 4 high-tension bolts, as well as making the units detachable and replaceable. The capsule is designed to accommodate the individual as either an apartment or studio space, and by connecting units can also accommodate a family.

2011 Walking city

2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

Concept The Nakagin tower had interchangeable, prefabricated apartment units which attached to a service core via a simple cantilever mechanism. Units could theoretically be added or taken away at will without affecting the structural or functional integrity of the unit. The Nakagin Capsule Tower is the world's first capsule architecture built for actual use. Capsule architecture design, establishment of the capsule as room and insertion of the capsule into a mega structure, expresses its contemporaneousness with other works of liberated architecture from the later 1960's, in particular England's

Typical Capsule isometric view

(Top Right) Typical Floor isometric view (Right) Working Desk

131 01 | Utopian Housing 2.4 2.4

Nakagin Capsule tower is a mixed-use residential and office tower designed by architect Kisho Kurokawa and located in Tokyo, Japan. Completed in 1972. Each capsule measures 2.3m Ă— 3.8m Ă— 2.1m and functions as a small living or office space. Capsules can be connected and combined to create larger spaces. The original targets demographic for the building were single businessmen who worked late in the city.


2.4 A 2.4 B

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Service Risers : Fins on the lift shafts

2.4 E

2.4 F

Window Section

Shower Section

Lift Shafts circled by spiral staircase.

Lifted by Crane and bolted with four hightension bolts.

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Desk Section Prefabricated Capsules : Steel truss boxes, clad with galvanized ribbed steel panels.

Large Trucks brought capsules to the site from assembly plants.

Process of building up of Capsule Tower

Advantages of Nakagin Capsule Tower:

Plan

• Mixed-use residential and office with fully selfcontained units. Fitted with utilities and interior fittings before being shipped to the building site. • Has the capacity to create larger spaces. • On site and off site construction - efficient in time.

Disadvantages of Nakagin Capsule Tower: • Occupants cite squalid, cramped conditions and asbestos. The Nakagin Capsule Tower realizes the ideas of metabolism, exchangeability, recycleablity as the prototype of sustainable architecture.


2.4 A

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2006

2011

2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

133 01 | Utopian Housing 2.4 2.4

1898

2.4 B


2.4 A 2.4 B

2.4 E

Current Utopian Concepts (Post 2000)

2.4 C

Fab Tree Hab

2.4 D

Japan, 2008 Terreform One

Organic City

2.4 E

2.4 F

A fully grown dwelling unit. (Top) Stages of growth of a dwelling unit. (Bottom)

01 | | Utopian Utopian Housing Housing 2.4 2.4 134

Concept: This home concept is intended to replace the outdated design solutions at Habitat for Humanity. We propose a method to grow homes from native trees. A living structure is grafted into shape with prefabricated Computer Numeric Controlled (CNC) reusable scaffolds. Therefore, we enable dwellings to be fully integrated into an ecological community. Advantages: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Composed with 100% living nutrients. Make effective contributions to the ecosystem. Accountable removal of human impacts. Involve arboreal farming & production.

5. Subsume technology within terrestrial environs. 6. Circulate water & metabolic flows symbiotically. 7. Consider the life cycle, from use to disposal.


2.4 A 2.4 B The Fab Tree Hab is a living structure single-family home and encompassing ecology. Tree trunks from the loadbearing structure to which a weave of pleached branch ‗studs‘ support a thermal clay and straw-based infill. The Fab Tree Hab plan accommodates three bedrooms (one on the second level), a bathroom, and an open living, dining and kitchen area placed on the southern façade in accordance with passive solar principles.

Renewal

Life sustaining flows

In congruence with ecology as the guiding principal, the home is designed to be nearly entirely edible so as to provide food to some organism at each stage of its life. While inhabited, the home‘s gardens and exterior walls produce food for people and animals. The seasonal cycles help the tree structure provide for itself through composting of fallen leaves in autumn

Water, integral to the survival of the structure itself, is the pulmonary system of the home, circulating from the roof-top collector, through human consumption, and ultimately exiting via transpiration. A gray water stream irrigates the gardens, and a filtration stream enters a Living Machine, where it is purified by bacteria, fish, and plants who eat the organic wastes.

2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

Structure, form, and growth

135 01 | Utopian Housing 2.4 2.4

A methodology new to buildings yet ancient to gardening is introduced in this design – pleaching. Pleaching is a method of weaving together tree branches to form living archways, lattices, or screens. The branches form a continuous lattice frame for the walls and roof. Weaved along the exterior is a dense protective layer of vines, interspersed with soil pockets and growing plants. Scaffolds, cut from 3D computer files control the plant growth in the early stages. On the interior, a clay and straw composite insulates and blocks moisture, and a final layer of smooth clay is applied like a plaster to dually provide comfort and aesthetics.


2.4 A 2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D

Peristaltic City

Manhattan, 2008 Terreform One

Organic City

2.4 E

01 | | Utopian Utopian Housing Housing 2.4 2.4 136

2.4 F

Transportable Units with Textile Reinforced Fluidic Muscles to Execute Peristaltic Action

Peristalsis: The rippling motion of muscles in tubular organs characterized by the alternate contraction and relaxation of the muscles that propel the contents onward.

"Peristaltic city" is a tall building made of a cluster of shifting pod spaces. The pod skins alter the volume locations within. This soft, pliable, sealed, and nonmechanical innovation encapsulates volumetric structures. Textile reinforced hoses execute a peristaltic action. Thus, the modules are enabled to create an articulated motion that is symbiotically connected to an urban armature.

By employing a dynamic spatial application against the traditional organization of core and space, we dissolved the dichotomy between circulation and habitable environments. We have eliminated typological stacking where experiences are vapidly suggested to be diversified by simply designating floors to particular social practices..


2.4 A 2.4 B Ideation: Circulation = Space An inhabitable pocket is contained within a flexible element. It is a module that flows in a vertical communicative field with the surrounding members. Their positioning is determined and managed by a responsive signaling system. Technology: Fluidic Muscle Tectonics

2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

This is a soft, pliable, sealed, and non-mechanical innovation which encapsulates the volumetric structure. Textile reinforced hoses execute a peristaltic action Thus, the modules are enabled to create an articulated motion that is symbiotically connected to an urban armature. Perspective: Urban Window

The peristaltic-fabric is designed as a sequential organization around an ‗urban window‘ condition; a visual gateway to both city and waterfront allowing a selection of interchanging viewing angles and heights. This temporal effect re-reads the city constantly promoting a quality of transparency in the context of urban mass. A micro cosmos is born which inter-relates habitation to light, air, space, and views across scales of individual units, clusters and cities.

(Above) Site Plan of Pods and Solar Chart

(Above) Section of Four Story Pod Spaces.

Here, at West Side rail yards, we imagine a metropolitan assemblage that registers mobility and freedom. As a vibrant set of recombinant programs it operates in section and plan simultaneously. On the ground plane a multistory plinth fits the cluster into the metabolism of the cityscape. The assemblage acts as an elevated setting for cultural and multimodal uses, e.g. auditoriums, esplanades, piers, and parking.

137 01 | Utopian Housing 2.4 2.4

Social construct: Urban Cluster / Mixing Use


2.4 A 2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

(Top) In vitro meat habitat - Terreform One, 2010

This is an architectural proposal for the fabrication of 3D printed extruded pig cells to form real organic dwellings. It is intended to be a "victimless shelter‖.

01 | | Utopian Utopian Housing Housing 2.4 2.4 138

(Top) GEOtube - Thom Faulders, 2009

Geotube is proposed for Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The design of the sculptured tower is built on the realization that the Red Sea water contains high level of salts. Therefore, the Geotube needs a membrane skin that establishes chemical reactions to support the city's energy needs. This building is never complete, it simply changes the form of the surface with large salt crystals taking shape as a balance of positive and negative ions permeates the structure.

(Right) Willow Balls – Terreform One, 2009

We are committed to promoting the principles of ecotourism and responsible travel. It is important to determine if your trip conserves and improves the places you visit. These mini-lodges are composed of prefabricated pleached structures. Each unit has access to composting toilets, gray water systems, and solar powered lighting.

(Left) Mycoform – Terreform One, 2010 (Above) Lilypad - Vincent Callebaut Architects, 2008

Lilypad is the vision for a floating Ecopolis for Climate Refugees, in the year of 2100. It is a prototype for a selfsufficient amphibious city, by architect Vincent Callebaut.

Mycoform structure grown from strains of fungi into a specific 3D fabricated geometry. The main objective of Mycoform is to establish a smart, self sufficient perpetual -motion construction technology.


2.4 A 2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

(Top) Multiplicity - John Wardle, 2008

(Right) Hydro-Net – Iwamoto Scott Architecture, 2008

HYDRO-NET is proposed as an occupiable
infrastructure that organizes critical flows of the city. It provides an
underground arterial circulation network for hydrogen-fueled hover-cars,
removing higher speed traffic from city streets.

(Above) Urban Forest - MAD Architects, 2009

In the proposal Urban Forest by MAD Architects, Chinese cities would contain higher vertical development, coupled to aerial agriculture to support the inhabitants. This structure attempts to follow eastern philosophies of nature-human balance.

139 01 | Utopian Housing 2.4 2.4

In Multiplicity, the idea is to build upwards, not outwards, from Melbourne's city centre. A giant platform above the city is suspended by pylons between buildings, offering a space to grow food and giving shade to residents from rising temperatures in coming years.


2.4 A 2.4 B 2.4 C

(Left) Aqua town - NH Architecture, 2010i

2.4 D

Aquatown would be based off the coast of Australia by 2050, complete with a decoupling of agriculture, manufacturing and residential areas from the mainland - to become a self sufficient water based city.

2.4 E

2.4 F

01 | | Utopian Utopian Housing Housing 2.4 2.4 140

(Top) Ocean city – Arup biomimetics , 2010

Ocean city is a proposed underwater city, spawned from the rising interest in biomimetic practices and materials in the advent of climate change. The design features a collection of specialized organisms or pods. some pods are energy producers, some industrial, and others are used for sustainable farming and food production.

(Right) Plug out city – WORK Architecture Company, 2010

WORKac proposed a series of experimental new housing typologies, stacked in a 45-story building. Each housing type is expressed as an independent section, rotated around the building‘s core to take full advantage of sunlight and views. Each section‘s rooftop is a different ecosystem.


2.4 A

2.4 F

Conclusion

 First is careful consideration of temporal and geographical location. Specifically what  technological practices ranging from modes of governance to media of communication effect social ethos?  Second come questions of property and  production. How can comprehensive planning be matched with corporate or individual ownership and be made capable of incorporating volatile changes in taste especially around everyday appearance and identity?  Third is the definition of community in terms of cultural no less than political and economic consideration. What does urban citizenship require and how should it be encouraged through planning?  Fourth is the education of architects, planners and citizens including instruments to enable meaningful dialogue.  Fifth is the resolution of the opposing demands of community and privacy, of individuality and inclusivity, or of mobility and equity.  Sixth is the durability of the urban scenery central to the sense of belonging. How can change to the civic environment retain artifacts of civic memory that are both representative and inclusive? Seventh, what among the dynamics of change whether natural, technological or cultural must be understood to ensure the social justice and sustainable community in the world's cities?  The Ideal City therefore can lead to action by stimulating greater awareness and appreciation of what needs to be done to achieve sustainable urbanism – and especially how we can ensure the relevance of our plans to regional, local and individual situations and wants. The ideal perspective can help assess the success of planning policy, bring new issues and information to its discussion, and get people thinking. One final level of speculation is possible. The ideal, or optimum actual, city of the 21st century is likely to exhibit the following range of features.

It will comprise active participatory debate and democratic decision-making about the conception and construction of the urban fabric and infrastructure. It will be undertaken as a continuous rather than end game practice, centered on reflexive analysis of the effects of planning and development. It will reconstruct the built environment in response to the changing condition. It will depend as much on the expression of communal values (the Canadian ethic of multiculturalism being an opposite example) as upon speculation or either acquisitive economic preconceived paradigms of design or governance. It will maximize land use and associated resource consumption through the critical application of technology. Buildings may follow uniform organization but will exhibit a variety of scale and form generally arranged in more compact configurations to allow for landscaped private and public precincts, reduced energy use and ecological damage. The governance of the city will thus need to incorporate an equally broad awareness of natural environment, social equity and cultural value. The Attainability Of Utopia Generous „memes‟

A good deal of social and other reforms are conventionally achieved via legislation, tax incentives, and appeals to good conduct. An alternative approach is by introducing good ideas or practices that are ‗contagious‘. The scientific term ‗memes‘ describes habits and other systems that replicate themselves. Catchy jokes, viruses, and gestures can be said to be ‗memes‘, i.e. they are 'contagious'. Optimistically, if we could design memes that are beneficial, could make a Utopian ‗avalanche‘ possible; and how might we start it? Arguably, successful design memes are always desirable, attainable, reproducible, and maintainable in order to make them work. Understanding these conditions will help us to design good memes.

Naming makes the „impossible‟ more conceivable Although practical proposals must always be ‗possible‘ they need not necessarily be ‗thinkable‘. For this reason, having the ‗right‘ theories is not essential to success. However, in some cases good intentions do not get turned into shared actions if they are difficult to grasp or communicate. Many people are mobilized by words, rather than images. A good example is the word ‗genocide‘. Although politicians were alarmed, they were indecisive about what Churchill had called ―A crime without a name‖. In 1944 Raphael Lemkin had the foresight to invent the hybrid Latin/Greek term ‗genocide‘. This enabled the politicians to acknowledge the problem and to address with it properly for the first.

2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

SOME LIMITS TO UTOPIA Does Utopia contain the seeds of Dystopia? Where the domain of the ‗ideal‘ can accommodate the very best of all possible worlds it can also provide models of the very worst. As we may note from the history of the twentieth century, many totalitarian regimes were founded on a Utopian dream. Many people therefore mistrust Utopianism because a fervent idealism usually leads to disappointment, if not to misery and terror. The issue of Utopia's ‗attainability‘ has an even more important one. Many wars have been fought over ideals. As Isaiah Berlin said: "Utopias have their value, nothing so wonderfully expands the imaginative horizons of human potentialities, but as guides to conduct, they can prove literally fatal." Utopia as co-sustainment At the high point of the Arts and Crafts Movement, John Ruskin (1819-1900) valorized the four-fold relationships that usually attend the craft process. This acknowledges how the craftsperson is absorbed in his or her task, his/her relationship with his or her cherished tools, the immediate environment that continuously coproduces all of these elements, and the society that benefits from the work. Whilst the worker enjoys a

141 01 | Utopian Housing 2.4 2.4

The Ideal City prompts us to think about a number of issues and factors.

2.4 B


2.4 A 2.4 B 2.4 C 2.4 D 2.4 E

2.4 F

well-deserved pride in her work, the materials and meanings are revealed in a new way, and the society is co-sustained by the shared experience. There are six connections that make up the whole. The idea of dystopia Since the time of Ruskin, industrial automation has tended to reduce our pride in the making process. It also distracts us from our sense of responsibility to the environment. Karl Marx (1818-1883) blamed capitalism and technology for what he termed 'self-alienation' - a kind of 'dehumanization' - an estrangement in feeling or affection caused by our productive activity. He claimed that we have become alienated from our own actions, from our fellow beings, from Nature, and from the human race as a whole.

01 | | Utopian Utopian Housing Housing 2.4 2.4 142

Will affluence get us to Utopia? How closely does Marx‘s idea of alienation apply to today‘s situation? For one thing, he was mainly interested in the exploitation of the poor. But why are we increasingly escapist in our pleasures? Why are suicide rates rising for the prosperous nations? When individuals become richer they usually become happier. However, when society as a whole grows richer we fail to notice. Recent studies of 'happiness' show that what was once considered a luxury is soon viewed as essential. People quickly adjust to changes in living standards, but although improvements make us happier for a while, the effect soon fades.

Utopia as an escape from reality Because of our faith in technological future it seemed to promise a ‗reality‘ that is closer to the angels than it is to the corporeal realm. Literally speaking, whereas ‗perfect‘ means ‗finished‘ or ‗complete‘, the word ‗pristine‘ describes a condition without stain or blemish. It would seem that Utopia embodies both meanings…i.e. it neatly satisfies the purposes of our plans and it has no ugly or awkward details. Most of us who grew up alongside the horrors of the twentieth century were also raised on the ‗innocent‘ escapism of Walt Disney. Some of his cartoons have been criticized for sanitizing and sentimentalizing the natural world.

Utopian wisdom Here, we must remember that memes may have both good and bad effects. Also, they can become corrupted and/or mutate into something unexpected. This means that they must be monitored and maintained for their integrity to endure. For this reason it is important to build safeguards into a definition. In our definition of Utopian wisdom, for example, it may suffice to say that wisdom cannot be represented usefully as information. We may strive to achieve it, but we would only see it in retrospect. Once we understand that it is an emergent property we will see that individuals cannot own it. Once this happens we may begin to admire it for its social and ecological value alone. Towards a ‗creativity‘ society Today, the so-called ‗creative industries‘ are understood for their potential role in social and economic regeneration in poor areas. True, but the word ‗creative‘ emphasizes unfortunate overtones of ‗individual genius‘ that became applied to artists like Byron and Beethoven. With these exemplars we became fascinated by the fact that rules were broken, rather than why, or whether the new values were appropriate. Consequently it might be useful to reframe the idea of ‗creativity‘ in the more ecological sense of ‗embedding. Creativity and integration As we have suggested, the idea of creativity may need to be re-framed in a more consensual form. However, individuals inform collective actions. Their self-image, perceived role, and value in the world are therefore important. Here, we may learn from the North American Indians and their ability to interpret their dreams in their own way. This is a serious process in which an individual may decide to make an item of clothing that captures the essence of a very special dream. By wearing, say, a T-shirt with their ‗dream‘ painting on it they begin to externalize, and to share some aspect of their inner spirit.

Five seconds of Utopia Practically speaking, there is no need to become a Utopian in the 'purist' sense. Humans are smart enough to believe in something and at the same time to disbelieve it. Hence, we can integrate Utopianism within a practical mission. By scheduling a short phase of radical Utopian dreaming - or envisioning - into the early stages of a project it may be possible to see far beyond our usual short-term habits and methods. How much money or resources might it save? How long does it take? We cannot say in advance. Five days might be enough. But then sometimes, a lot of Utopian thinking can take place in just five seconds. Lifestyle design could change the way we live Here are some suggested aspects of Attainable Utopias. All proposals have been tested separately in different experiments. Therefore nothing listed below is unworkable. Nothing is new. However, what we need to do is to ensure that they can be encouraged and successfully combined at the practical level. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

biological diversity building and other materials that are sourced locally celebration and shared awareness co-sustainable principles cultural diversity developmental change) holistic and integrative health care. inclusive decision-making processes local food production design for adaptability/inclusivity design for growing fondness and attachment by users/inhabitants mainly solar & local economics optimum adjacency of individuals/families for cooperative living/working optimum well-being partnership with natural processes renewable energy systems


23 2.3 2.3 A

Introduction

2.3 B

Factors for Sustaina able and Green Housing design

2.3 C

Legislations buildin Legislations, ng codes and rating systems

2.3 D

Case Studies

2.3 E

Conclusions

145 Sustainable and Green Housing 2.3 1 ||Su ustaina ble an d Gree en Hou sing 2.3 3

SSustain t i able bl and d Green G Housing g


2.3 A

2.3A

2.3 2 3 B

Introduction •promotes conviviality, with people living together harmoniously and in mutual support of each other;

Understanding Sustainability y

•is democratic, democratic promoting citizen participation and involvement, and

The knowledge of sustainability has been profound in the Indian culture. Based on complex experiences of climate, our vedic philosophy evolved certain methods to maximise the use of Panch Mahabhuta or the 5 basic elements of nature, i.e., Jal (water), Agni (fire), Prithvi (earth), (earth) Vayu (wind), (wind) Aakash (space). (space)

Present situation of sustainable housing Low-cost green and sustainable housing has long been an oxymoron that affordable builders have struggled to change (Dean, change. (Dean 1999) •ecologically-oriented construction has mostly been limited ed to o high-cost g cos de developments e op e s

(above) components of sustainability

A community is much, much m more than its physical form A community is com form. mposed of people as well as the places where they liive; it is as much a social environment as a phy ysical environment. Thus, communities must not only y be environmentally y sustainable, they must also be socially sustainable. A socially sustainable mode el•meets basic needs for foo od, shelter, education, work, income and safe living and d working conditions; •is equitable, ensuring that the benefits development are distribute ed fairly across society;

•High funding for superior technology and avant-garde solutions to environmental problems. •A LEED silver or gold rated building costs nearly 5% high as compared to an average building, making green buildings which are not universally affordable. affordable Thus as a trend, most of the green housing projects focus on environmental sustainability but lose out on social and economic aspects.

of

•enhances, or at least do oes not impair, i i the physical, i mental and social well-bein ng of the population; •promotes education, education crea ativity and the development of human potential for the whole population;

(above) examples of sustainable communities: Jaisalmer and Leh

2.3 2 3 E

•is livable, linking "the form of the city's public places and city dwellers' social, emotional and physical wellbeing“

Sustainability: a historical knowledge

Our ancient builders tried to harmonies these five elements in building g planning g and construction so that maximum advantage of these elements can be taken and ill effects can be avoided. They called this science as Vastushastra. The basic principals of Vastushastra is to get maximum advantage out of nature without harming nature.

2.3 D

•preserves our cultural an nd biological heritage, thus strengthening our sense of connectedness to our history and environment;

(above) life cycle cost of green buildings v/s conventional buidings Source: GRIHA

147 | Sustainable and Green Housing 2.3 1 | Su ustainable and Gree en Housing 2.3 3

Sustainable development : ‘meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’ -Brunt Land Report,1987 p , 987

2.3 C


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B 2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

N d for Need f environmental i t l sustainability t i bilit

Salient i ffeatures off green build i dings i

-ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION: Over the couple of past decades, scores of studies confirm that buildings throughout their life cycles are major contributors to environmental degradation and human illness. The requirement of energy, water and production of waste are the th mostt majors j f t factors responsible ibl for f this. thi

•No requirement of air-condittioning •Using Using less water and energy •Re-using water •Generating own energy from renewable energy sources •Use of locally available and a environment- friendly building materials •Use of passive building techn niques •Improved indoor air quality •Reduced use of materials co ontaining VOCs •Reduction in waste and re-usse of waste •Preservation of ecology gy •Strategies for waste and energy e reduction at preconstruction, construction, use and post-use stages of the building.

-SHORTAGE OF WATER FIT FOR HUMAN USE: Maintaining adequate potable water supplies is a basic necessity for the health of individuals and communities. Only about 1% of the water on Earth is fresh water. Only about 20% of current urban water is used for drinking and sanitary purposes, with the other 80% not requiring treatment to potable standards. -RESOURCE RESOURCE INTENSIVE CONSTRUCTION: Important factors for environmental degradation include use of construction materials produced through

1 | Su ustainable and Gree en Housing 2.3 3 148 | Sustainable and Green Housing 2.3

•climatically materials

adverse

and

unsuitable

construction

•bad design g schemes including g building g orientation and layout causing undesirable heat gain or loss horticulture

and

•Orientation •Shading of wall and fenestrations •Thermal properties of the envelope material •Size and position of fenestration •Thermal properties of glass used •Texture Texture of the surface •Mutual shading of blocks •Ventilation •Site planning and layout -preservation of natural topography topography, cover -improve cross-ventilation and natural lighting -discourage use of automobiles

•Materials, waste and recycling -promotion of materials recycled content -discouraging di i use off virgin i i materials t i l -use of locally available materials -waste management and treatment -waste waste reduction

landscape

Average per capita ecological footprint India = 0.8 0 8 global hectares. hectares global average = 2.2 global hectares, developed countries average = 6.43 global hectares. But this can be majorly j y attributed to the fact that 70% of the population of India lives in rural areas and there the energy consumption is almost negligible as compared to the energy consumed in urban areas.

•Surface to volume ratio

•Water efficiency -use of indigenous plant and grass species -use use of rainwater harvesting, harvesting drip irrigation, irrigation water recycling -water efficient fixtures

•resource resource depletion such as ground cover & forests to give way to buildings

•resource intensive maintenance i t

Design variables for sustainable buildings

green

grey

with

•Indoor air quality -natural daylighting and cross ventilation -reduction d ti off volatile l til organic i compounds d (VOC’s) (VOC’ ) -use of geothermal HVAC systems for achieving thermal comfort

(above) factors for sustainable build dings


2.3B

2.3 A

Factors for Sustainable and Green Housing Design

2.3 2 3 B

IIn a climate li t like lik Delhi, D lhi thermal th l comfort f t is i achieved hi d by b preventing direct solar radiation in summers from entering the building. Firstly various methods are used to reduce heat gain of the building as much as possible. Secondly when it becomes unavoidable to prevent at least some heat from coming in, the principles of heat transfer are used, i.e. convection, conduction i and radiation. i i Protection from direct radiation: Orientation shading and insulation of a building are the Orientation, major factors that decide the amount of heat gained by a building. In summers, roof recovers maximum solar radiation while radiation received by the east, west and south walls is also substantial. The roof should not be left directly exposed to sun, and if unavoidable, the roof should be properly insulated. The attempt should be to keep the north and south walls as long as possible while east and west walls should be as short as possible. If windows are unavoidable on east and west walls they y can be p protected by y combination of horizontal and vertical louvers. Besides shading windows the rest of wall surfaces can also be shaded by surface shading i.e. a combination of vertical and horizontal louvers system. system

Heat removal from building g: Convection: Ventilation an nd air movement control the convective heat flow from m the building. Air movement through the living space es relieves the heat stress i imposed d on the th human h body bo d and d also l helps h l in i cooling li the structural mass of the building. Conduction: Conductive heat loss in a building normally occurs through th he floor. floor The temperature of the ground a few meters below is almost constant throughout the year. The magnitude of this constant temperature depends upo on the nature of the ground surface. Radiation: In summers, hea at gets stored in the building envelope, and after sunse et the outer surface of the building begins to cool dow wn by radiation to sky and by convection to the outside air. a

Induced ventilation: The simple principle of this type of ventilation is that solar heat is trapped at the highest point of the building thus causing the upward drift of hot air while cool air remains inside. inside The best example is the solar chimney effect. Also, hot air inside the building or hot fresh air from outside could be cooled to ambient temperatures p by y circulating g it under the ground at depths where the temperatures are constant throughout.

Ventilation Natural ventilation: It is done by opening the windows and other openings in the prevailing wind direction of that particular season. Fa actors such as surrounding landscape location of other landscape, o building the building building, form, orientation with respe ect to wind direction, size of 2 window openings etc. afffect the air flow within the building g

(above) factors for solar passive architecture Sourece: http://ecotecturestudios.com/blog/wp�content/uploads/2009/06/passive�solar�110.gif

(abo ove) use of wind towers and courtyards for inducing ventilation at Natio onal Institute of Renewable Energy, MNES

(left) use of earth air tunnel for passive cooling Source: TERI

2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

149 | Sustainable and Green Housing 2.3 1 | Su ustainable and Gree en Housing 2.3 3

(i)Solar passive architecture and ventilation


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B 2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

(ii)Building envelope Building envelope is the separation between the interior and the exterior environments of a building and serves as the outer shell to protect the indoor environment as wellll as to t facilitate f ilit t its it climate li t control. t l

U-value for wall components

Functions of the building envelope Structural integrity  Moisture control  Temperature control  Control of air pressure  Control of air includes air movement through the components of the building envelope (interstitial) itself, as well as into and out of the interior space

Solar heat gain coefficient fo or openings

1 | Su ustainable and Gree en Housing 2.3 3 150 | Sustainable and Green Housing 2.3

Image

2

(left) components of building envelope

Image

Wall Components p

U value ((W/sqm q K)

230mm thick Autoclaved aerated Autoclaved aerated  concrete 

0.27

200mm cavity

0.31

230mm brick

0.32

200mm concrete

0.50

200mm fly ash brick 

0.65

Other Components

U value (W/sqm K)

4mm clear glass

5.8

Double glass unit with  air in cavity

2.9

Double glass unit with  low‐e coating

1.9

DGU with low‐e and  argon in the cavity

1


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B

(iii)Energy

Green buildings aim at saving energy using energy efficient lighting and HVAC fixtures in conjunction to passive i architectural i design i as well as they generate their own electricity. Techniques for energy efficiency • Envelope • White roof • Radiant barriers • Roof insulation • Wall insulation • Spectrally selective glazing • Wall/Window Shading • Insulated I l t d frame f

• Water Heating –Solar water heaters –Water-to-water heat p pump p • Applicable together with large AC systems that use chilled water • Recover heat from condenser c or chilled water return • 6 to 8 times more effic cient than electric resistance • Lighting -- maximization of use of day ylight. – Efficient lamps and ballasts (CFL, TT-8, 8, TT-5, 5, HPSV) – Automated control for external lighting (astronomical/sensor) – Occupa Occupancy cy Se Sensors so s

On site O it energy generation ti On site energy generation using renewable sources if energy forms an important step in achieving sustainability for a building project. Natures gifts in the form of sun and wind can be efficiently utilized to generate electricity and help in reducing the use of fossil fuels and also reduce the carbon emissions to the environment. i t

(above) energy efficient fixtures- CFLs, C occupancy sensors, VRV systems for air conditioning

2.3 2 3 E

Solar S l power generation ti Solar power is the generation of electricity from sunlight. This can be direct as with photovoltaics (PV), or indirect as with concentrating solar power (CSP), where the sun's energy is focused to boil water which is then used to provide power. Solar power provided 0.02% of the total world energy consumption in 2008. Photovoltaics A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell (PV), is a device that converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. There are many competing technologies, including at least fourteen types of photovoltaic cells, such as thin film, monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, and amorphous cells.

• HVAC • Efficient AC equipment • Heat recovery in AC systems • Precools ventilation air by transferring heat to exhaust air. • Evaporative pre-cooling • Enthalpy control- when enthalpy of outside air is lower than that of return air, the outside air intake is adjusted at the damper. Energy saving around 2-3% • Zero energ energy band banddetermination of comfortable range of temperature. Energy is saved due to reduced hours of operation • Variable water flow system- the system senses change in the demand conditions and varies the pump pressure or flow required. Energy saving around 4-5%

2.3 D

((above)) photo-voltaic p panels p

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Energy is E i a resource that th t gets t used d in i pre-construction, t ti construction, use and post usage phases of the building. Most of the energy used comes from non-renewable sources like fossil fuels.

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2.3 2 3 E

Concentrating C t ti S l Power Solar P (CSP) systems t Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. beam The concentrated heat is then used as a heat source for a conventional power plant. A wide range of concentrating technologies exists; the most developed are the parabolic trough, the concentrating linear fresnel reflector, the Stirling dish and the solar power tower. In all of these systems a working fluid is heated by the concentrated t t d sunlight, li ht and d is i then th used d for f power generation or energy storage.

Wind i d power generation ti Wind power is the conversio on of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity. electricity Wind energy is a free, ren newable resource, so no matter how much is used to oday, there will still be the same supply in the future. Wiind energy is also a source of clean, non-polluting, elec ctricity. Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air pollutants or greenhouse gases. gases Even though the cost of wind power has decreased dramatically y in the p past 10 y years, the technology gy requires a higher initial investment than fossil-fueled generators. Roughly 80% of the cost is the machinery, with the balance being g site preparation and installation Although wind po installation. ower plants have relatively little impact on the environment compared to fossil fuel power plants, there is some e concern over the noise produced by p y the rotor blades, b , aesthetic ((visual)) impacts, and birds and bats b having been killed (avian/bat mortality) by flying g into the rotors.

(above) concentrating solar power system

Unlike fossil fuel based technologies, solar power does not lead to any harmful emissions during operation, but the production of the panels leads o some amount of pollution pollution. In 2000 the energy payback time of PV systems was estimated as 8 to 11 years and in 2006 this was estimated to be 1.5 to 3.5 years for crystalline silicon PV systems and 1-1.5 years for thin film technologies (S. Europe).

(above) rooftop energy generation n using wind turbine

Energy generation using biomass Biomass is produced by green plants through photosynthesis using sunlight. Biomass contains organic matter which can be converted to energy. Energy can be produced from biomass through combustion route and gasification as well as. In combustion route, biomass is burnt to produce steam which in turn is used for p power g generation through g turbines. In gasification process, biomass is converted into producer gas which is used for thermal or electrical application. The technology can recycle bio-waste, be localized, and made available on demand without the need for separate storage. It also provides livelihood opportunities to the local population through various activities—biomass generation, processing, and operation of the plant.


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B

(iv)Water and waste management

Efficient practices in water management include rainwater i harvesting, i grey water recycling i and efficient ffi i plumbing fixtures. Rainwater harvesting provides an alternative source of water and also reduces soil erosion by reducing surface runoff. Efficient plumbing fixtures like dual cistern flushes reduce up to 67% of the water used for flushing. Grey water recycling reduces fresh water consumption by up to 60%.

O site On it water t recycling li

2.3 D

An effective approach to on-site water recycling is the Decentralized Waste water Treatment system (DEWATS)

2.3 2 3 E

DEWATS applications are based on the principle of lowmaintenance since most im mportant parts of the system work without external ene ergy inputs and cannot be switched off intentionally. DEWATS system consists of treatment modules, namely y,

four

basic

technical

• Primary treatment: sedimentation and floatation

(above) root zone system for waste water treatment S Source: TERI

• Secondary anaerobic treatment in fixed-bed reactors: baffled upstream reactors or o anaerobic filters

Solid waste Buildings apart from producing waste water, also produce huge amount of solid waste as a product of daily activities during its usage. Also post-usage, a building gets categorized as waste, posing serious ecological concerns regarding its disposal.

• Tertiary aerobic treatment in sub-surface flow filters • Tertiary y aerobic treatmen nt in p polishing gp ponds DEWATS is a low-cost system m that can be applied to the 2 level of housing complexes for water recycling.

(above) schematic for solid waste disposal

(above) rainwater harvesting

(above) components of DEWATSS

The amount of solid waste generated at the time of demolition of buildings g can be reduced in amount and toxicity by using materials that are environment-friendly, can be recycled and that themselves are recycled or reused by-products of some industry.

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Water W t gets t consumed d continuously ti l during d i b ildi building construction and its operation. NBC states requirement of water in urban areas as 150 to 200 litres per head per day for residential buildings. In India around 884 million people don’t have access to potable water.

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2.3 2 3 E

Water-less urinals - an IIT-D initiative

Green Waterless Urinal

Waterless urinals do away with the requirement of water for flushing g and result in saving g of between 56,800 , litres to 170,000 litres of water per urinal per year. (Source: Jonsson H, Urine separation - Swedish experiences, EcoEng newsletter 1,October 2001) Ad Advantages t off Promoting P ti W t l Waterless Ui l Urinals and d Harvesting Urine: •Enhance efficiencies of sewer lines and wastewater treatment plants • Save enormous quantities of freshwater • Optimize cost of plumbing accessories at supply and consumption ends • Conserve electricity needed for pumping water and wastewater treatment • Replace chemical fertilizers with urine to grow crops • Utilize urine as industrial feedstock to produce fertilizer and other chemicals • Reduce emission of Green House Gases • Recovery of hydrogen for producing energy and fuel

View of the Green Urinal at Micro Model Complex

A Green Waterless Urinal (GWU) facility has been installed at the Micro Model Complex, which is the designated area for undertaking research activities of the Centre for Rural Development and Technology, IIT Delhi. The GWU facilitates diversion of urine collected from the urinal pans to a plant bed of Canna Indica and Pycus planted around the urinal. For enabling uniform distribution of urine to the plant bed, a perforated p p pipe p connected to the urinal is laid along g the plant bed. As urine contains essential plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, these are utilized by the plants for their growth.

Advantages of Waterless Public Urinal •Open and green surroundings provide very good aesthetic environment to users. •Low cost of construction. •Suitable for parks, road side sites, schools, institutions and individual houses. •Structure can be easily repaired at cheaper cost over a period of time. •Safety against any act of vandalism. •Lower level of ammonia smell due to open p surroundings and proper drainage arrangement.

Schematic of the Green Urinal at Mic cro Model Complex Source: Chariar and Sakthivel, 2010

The initial and maintenance cost c of GWUs is also very low compared to o the normal urinals. urinals GWUs can be established at a cost of Rs.500/- to Rs.10,000/- based d on the design adopted. Advantages of Green Waterless Urinal (GWU) • Open and green surround dings provide very good 2 aesthetic environment to userrs. • No waste is generated as urine is led to plant bed. bed • Low cost of construction (exiisting compound walls can be used). • Suitable for p parks, road side e sites, schools, institutions and individual houses. • Requires lesser space and ea asy to install anywhere. • Lower level of ammonia a smell due to open environment environment. Waterless Public Urinal (WPU): A Waterless Public Urinal ((WPU)) has been installed at the t Holistic Food Centre,, a busy food canteen at IIT Delhi. Urine collected is diverted to a storage tank forr recovery of nutrients from urine or to normal sewer line es/soak pit. The WPU is a prefabricated f b i t d concrete t men’’s urinal i l kiosk ki k (for (f 4 users). )

Drawing of Public Urinal Kiosk established at IIT Delhi Source: Chariar and Sakthivel, Sakthivel 2010

Waterless Urinal Odour Prevention Trap – IIT Zerodor

“IIT IIT Zerodor Zerodor”, a waterless urinal odour prevention trap developed at the Centre for Rural development, IIT Delhi. The IIT Zerodor functions based on the principle of a ball valve. The design utilizes differences in specific gravity of urine and the hollow LDPE ball valve used in the trap. In order to enable ease of conversion of existing urinal pans waterless urinals, the design and dimensions of IIT Zerodor are kept similar to waste couplers which are usually fitted to men’s Urinals.


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B

A composting toilet is a predominantly aerobic processing system that treats excreta, typically with no water or small volumes of flush water, via composting or managed aerobic decomposition. This is usually a faster process than the anaerobic decomposition at work in most wastewater systems, such as septic systems. A composting (or biological) toilet system contains and processes excrement, toilet paper, carbon additive, and sometimes, food waste. Unlike a septic p system, y a composting toilet system relies on unsaturated conditions where aerobic bacteria break down waste.

•Maintenance of compostiing toilet systems requires more responsibility y and commitment by users and owners than conventio onal wastewater systems. • Removing the finished end-product is an unpleasant job if the com mposting toilet system is not properly installed or maintained. •Composting toilet systems must be used in conjunction with a gray water system in most circumstances. • Smaller units may have lim mited capacity for accepting peak loads.

Advantages:

• Improper maintenance makes m cleaning difficult and may lead to health hazardss and odor problems. problems

•Composting toilet systems do not require water for flushing, g, and thus,, reduce domestic water consumption. p

• Using an inadequately treated end-product as a soil amendment may y have p posssible health consequences. q

• These systems reduce the quantity and strength of wastewater to be disposed of onsite.

• Too much liquid residual (leach (2 ate) in the composter can disrupt the process if itt is not drained and properly managed. d

• They are especially suited for new construction at remote sites where conventional onsite systems are not feasible feasible. •Self-contained systems eliminate the need transportation of wastes for treatment/disposal.

• Improperly installed or maintained systems produce odors and unproc cessed material.

can

Vacuum Toilets The toilet is hooked into a vacuum sewer system, which may consist of a single sewage tank or a series of sewer lines. lines When someone uses the toilet and flushes it, the flushing action opens a valve in the toilet, and the vacuum sucks the contents of the toilet out for treatment.

Advantages: •They use very little water. •They can use much smaller diameter sewer pipes. •They can flush in any direction, including upward. Since a vacuum system does not use gravity to move the water, there is nothing to stop the sewer pipe from going straight up. •The pipe does not have to go downward also means you can avoid cutting into the floor to put in new toilets.

Airplane toilets use an active vacuum instead of a passive siphon, and they are therefore called vacuum toilets. Because the vacuum does all the work, it takes very little littl water t ( (or th blue the bl sanitizing iti i li id used liquid d in i airplanes) to clean the bowl for the next person. Most vacuum systems flush with just half a gallon (2 liters) of fluid or less, compared to 1.6 gallons (6 liters) for a water-saving toilet and up to 5 gallons (19 liters) for an older toilet.

• Composting human waste and burying it around tree roots and no edible plants keeps organic wastes productively cycling in the environment. environment • Composting toilet systems can accept kitchen wastes, thus reducing household garbage. •Composting toilet systems divert nutrient and pathogen containing effluent from soil, surface water, and groundwater. groundwater Composting toilet schematic dia agram Source: EPA, EPA 1999

2.3 2 3 E

Because the vacuum involved is extremely powerful, a vacuum toilet requires little to no water. Some use sanitizing iti i li id instead liquids i t d off water t t keep to k th toilet the t il t relatively clean.

•They can be put anywhere in the building.

for

2.3 D

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Di d Disadvantages: t

Alternatives To Flushing Toilets Composting Toilets

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(v)Building Materials Embodied Energy: Buildings not only use energy, it takes energy to make them. This is “embodied” energy, which is all the energy required to extract, manufacture and transport a building’s materials as well as that required to assemble and “finish” it. Timber is regarded as a building material with low embodied energy. However, deforestation of the planet is also one of the g gravest environmental issues and only y wood used from sustainably- managed forests is truly green.

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Brick B i k is i the th material t i l with ith the th nextt lowest l t amountt off embodied energy, followed by concrete, plastic, glass, steel and aluminium. From the perspective of embodied energy every building, no matter what its condition, has a large amount of energy locked into it. This is another factor in favour of conserving and restoring old buildings, and for designing long-life, adaptable buildings that easily accommodate change. Also, because the energy used in transporting its materials becomes part of a building building’ss embodied energy, this is an incentive to use local materials.

Total embodied energy in a building Source: Current Science, Vol-87, No. 87, 10 October, 2004

ASTRA Centre for ASTRA (Applic cation of Science and Technology g for Rural Areas) was formed in 1974 at Indian Institute of Science (IISSc), Bangalore, to cater to developing technologies for sustainable development. Recently, this centre has bee en renamed as ‘Centre for Sustainable Technologies’. Technologies’ Materials developed at ASTRA A include: •Fine concrete blocks •Stabilized mud blocks •Steam cured blocks •Composite Composite beam and pane el roofs •Filler slab roofs •Unreinforced masonry vaulted roofs •Lime–pozzolana cement •Containment reinforcemen nt for earthquake-resistant masonry structures

Embodied energy in various walling and roofing systems Source: Current Science, Vol-87, No. 87, 10 October, 2004


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B

Historical development p in building g materials Source: Current Science, Vol-87, No. 87, 10 October, 2004 There has been a huge amount of development in terms of building materials that are environment friendly and are created using recycling or reuse of byproducts or industrial wastes. STRUCTURAL MATERIALS: MATERIALS • Pozzolana Material (flyash/slag/calcined clay) as Blending Material with Cement: Up to 35% of suitable fly ash can directly be substituted for cement as blending material. Portland pozzolana cement saves energy by 20%. Lime pozzolana mixture shows upto 70% savings in energy. Sand and Aggregate from Pulverised Debris: Sand and aggregate from pulverized debris is environment friendly as it is obtained from recycled material, utilizes construction debris, minimizes waste and reduce dependence on virgin natural resources. It is also more economical. •Sintered Fly Ash for Concrete and Mortar: Sintered lightweight aggregate substitutes stone chips in concrete, reducing dead weight. The advantage of fly ash over other lightweight aggregates is that it promotes fuel efficiency p y because the carbon in the ash provides sufficient heat needed to evaporate the moisture in the pellets and bring the pellets to the sintering temperature. •Recycled Steel Forms and Reinforcement Bars: Steel reinforcement can be made entirely of recycled scrap iron.

•Ready Mix Concrete: RMC R is a water reducer, workability enhancer, im mproved resistance, higher strength, less possibility of thermal cracking, economic, and d increased i d durability. d bilit There h i little is littl wastage t att the th RMC plants. Less manpowe er is required in operational phases. •Ferro Cement and Prec cast Components: Precast Components are 85% rec cyclable, levels of carbon dioxide generation is very lo ow, energy efficient, reduces waste during operations, reduces construction cost, eco-friendly, no curing iss required, easy to install, reduces construction time e, stronger than cast-in-situ structures longer life of stru structures, ucture saves reinforcement, ucture, reinforcement structures are waterproof due to less water cement ratio, plastering not require ed from inner side of slabs, better load bearing g capacity, and are corrosion proof. Ferro cement structures are e simple to construct i.e. rich mortar reinforced with chic cken mesh and welded wire mesh. These reduce the wa all thickness and allow larger carpet area. area Bricks/Blocks: Fly y Ash Sand Lime Brickss: High g compressive p strength g eliminates breakages/wasttages during transport and handling, the cracking of plaster is reduced due to lower thickness of joints and d plaster and basic material off the th bricks, b i k which hi h is i more compatible tibl with ith cementt mortar. After proper pointing of joints, the bricks can be directly painted in dry distemper, cement paints, without the backing coatin ng of plaster. Plaster of paris /gypsum plaster can be directly d applied without any backing coat of plaster. Due D to low water absorption property, only sprinkling of water is enough and bricks do not need soaking in water. Aerated Lightweight Conc crete Blocks: These are manufactured by a processs involving mixing of fly ash, ash quicklime or cement and gy ypsum, foaming agents such as aluminium powder. They y reduce dead loads on the super structure thus ind directly helping cut costs significantly.

Phospho h h Gypsum G Based d Blocks: l k Phosphogypsum h h i is generated as a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry. These blocks are ecofriendly, waste utilization and reduction of air, air land and water pollution, energy efficient, cost effective, bulk density is 1000-1100 kg/m3, compressive strength is 2.5-3.0 Mpa.

2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

Burnt Clay Flyash Bricks: Higher strength, 30-40 tonne of fly ash per lakh bricks can be utilized in case of alluvial soils, and 100-125 tonne per lakh bricks in case of red and black soils. soils Energy/coal saving in firing upto 30% since fly ash already contains some percentage of unburnt carbon, better thermal insulation, cost effective, environment friendly, y waste ((fly y ash)) utilization which otherwise poses a serious threat to environment and ecology. Fuel saving in the range of 15%-35% (coal consumption) resulting in a coal saving upto 3-7 3 7 tonne per lakh bricks. bricks Fly ash lime bricks are more resistant to salinity and water seepage. Brick Sun-Dried: Its an eco-friendly y technique, q , energy gy efficient, reduces air, water and land pollution, is economic and energy required for firing is saved. Bricks B i k from f C l Washery Coal W h R j t Freshly Rejects: F hl mined i d coall is i washed to remove impurities prior to its use or processing. This residual waste from the coal washery plants is a hazard to the environment and needs to be disposed or utilized in a manner which lessens its harmful effects on the natural surroundings. With a suitable binder such as cement or lime, bricks and blocks similar to those made using fly ash can be made using this coal washery reject material. These bricks are eco-friendly, waste utilization and reduction of air, land and water pollution, pollution energy efficient, efficient cost effective. effective Building Blocks From Mine Waste and Industrial Waste: It is eco-friendly, utilizes waste and reduces air, land and water pollution, its energy efficient and also cost effective. Generally, mine tailings are accumulated in heaps near the mines resulting into huge hillocks. Thus there is a great potential for utilizing industrial and mine wastes for the manufacture of building materials and products.

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•Precast P t R.C.C. R C C / Ferrocem F mentt Frames: F P Precast t R.C.C. RCC frames are concrete doorframes with welded reinforcement.

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2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B 2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

CBrick: These are bricks manufactured using the Cbrick Machine developed by CBRI. The machine is available with BMTPC and is used for production of quality bricks using flyash – sand –lime, lime flyash –sand sand – cement and cement-sand- aggregate. The bricks manufactured have properties such as compressive strength g of 40-80kg/sq.cm, g/ q , water absorption p less than 20%, and efflorescence free product.

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Calcium Silicate Brick: Calcium silicate bricks made f from sand d off siliceous ili waste t and d hydrated h d t d lime, li generally known as sand lime bricks, are advanced building materials that give higher strength, uniform surface and sharp corners. Production of these bricks consumes about 30% less energy as compared to traditional clay bricks.

C l i Calcium Sili Silicate t B Brick i k

Fl Flyash h Lime Li G Gypsum Brick Bi k

Flyash Lime Gypsum Brick: Fly ash-lime-gypsum ash lime gypsum bricks / blocks are very good products giving the highest strength among various bricks. Advantage of these bricks over burnt clay y bricks: Lower requirement q of mortar in construction, Plastering over brick can be avoided, Controlled dimensions, edges, smooth and fine finish & can be in different colors using pigments and cost effective, effective energy-efficient energy efficient & environment friendly (as avoids the use of fertile clay). Stabilized Compressed Earth Block: The Stabilized Compressed Earth Block (SCEB) Technology offers a cost effective, environmentally sound masonry system. The product, a stabilized Compressed Earth Block has a wide id application li ti i construction in t ti f for walling, lli roofing, fi arched openings, corbels etc. The Stabilized Compressed Earth Block is a masonry unit of cuboidal shape This may be solid or hollow or interlocking. shape. interlocking

Rice Husk Ri H k Ash A h Based B d Insulat I l ting ti t B i k CGCRI (Central Brick: (C t l Glass & Ceramic Research Institute) has developed insulating bricks b from rice husk ash, which can be used for insulattion of all types of industrial furnaces, particularly ceram mic kilns and furnaces in steel and cement plants as well as in non-ferrous and petrochemical industries. Fly Ash Lime Cellular Concrete: C Pelletisation or nodulisation of fly ash and sintering of the pallets or nodules at 1000 - 1300 deg gree centigrade produces this. Unburnt fuel in fly ash nodules supports ignition. Sintered lightweight aggrega ate substitutes stone chips in concrete, reducing dead weight. It is used for load bearing walls, low-rise build dings, and partition and curtain walls. Plaster Calcium Silicate Plaster: Ca alcium silicate refractories are usually derived from calcium c silicate or silicate bearing g minerals such as hornblende, h epidote and diopside often with calcite or o dolomite or wollastonite. Calcium silicate plasters exhibit the following 2 characteristics they are economic, ecofriendly, produce less wastage, wastage have e wide usage, usage smart finish, finish less energy consuming, no on-emmision of VOC and other toxic fumes and gases after application, recyclable, y , safe handling g and usage, g , no skilled man power required, fast drying, durable, less water consumption. Fibre Reinforced Clay Pla aster: Clay Plaster can achieve hi b tt sticking better ti ki properties ti by b reinforcing i f i it with ith fibers. These fibers can be na atural plant (cellulose) fiber or artificial fibers of polyprop pylene. Use of these fibers can reduce plastic shrinka age, reduce permeability, and provide increased impact and abrasion resistance.

Phospho Gypsum Plaster: Phospho gypsum is the waste generated by manufacturing plants of phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphate and hydrofluoric acid, 4-5 million tones is g generated every y y year. It is p possible to profitably utilize this pollutant for making cement, gypsum boards, partitions, ceiling tiles, artificial marble, fibreboards etc. E Eco f i dl friendly, economic, i energy efficient, ffi i t waste t utilization prevents water and soil pollution. Non Erodable Mud Plaster : Mud walls are common specially in rural areas. Erosion of mud walls is the most common problem. Mud plaster stabilizes with bitumen cutback and kerosene lasts longer depending upon the intensity of rain and also provides waterproof, insect and abrasion resistant, hygienic and maintenance free walls. walls It is easy to prepare and apply on walls. It is economic and durable. This reduces annual maintenance cost. Non-erodable mud plaster protects mud walls against dampness. Roofing Bamboo Matt Corrugated Roofing Sheet: Considering the need for developing alternate ecoeco friendly, friendly energy efficient and cost effective roofing sheets, Building Materials & Technology Promotion Council ((BMTPC)) and Indian Plywood y Industries Research & Training Institute (IPIRTI) have jointly developed a technology for manufacturing Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets (BMCSs). For manufacturing BMCS, b bamboo b i to is t be b converted t d into i t mats t that th t are hand h d woven by rural/tribal people, particularly women. Thus, the product is both environment and people friendly.


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B

Bamboo Board Flooring: Bamboo is a critical renewable raw material resource by way off environment friendly, energy‐ efficient cost effective, efficient, effective and dissaster resistant housing. housing Bamboo Board flooring is a good alterrnative to wooden flooring. The flooring blends elegance with toughness, water resistance and ease of installation. The price raange varies from Rs.110 to Rs. 150 per sq ft

Micro Concrete Roofing Tiles: The aesthetic, durable and inexpensive sloping roof alternative. alternative Micro Concrete Roofing (MCR) tiles are made from a carefully controlled mix of cement, sand, fine stone aggregate agg ega e a and d water. a e . MCR C tiles es u undergo de go sstringent ge quality control at every step. They are put through rigorous tests for water tightness, strength, shape and size. MCR tiles are: highly cost effective, durable-they h have th life the lif off concrete, t lighter li ht th than other th roofing fi tiles-they require less under-structure, easily installed, can be coloured to specification, reduce heat gain, do not make noise during rains. rains Cost of roof varies according to span and roof form. MCR tiles are secured to purlins by tying them to the purlins with G.I. wire. The angle of roof slope should be at least 22°. The life span of MCR tile is about 25 years.

Terrazzo / Marble Mosaic Floo oring: Terrazzo flooring is an eco‐ friendly alternative made usin ng waste and recycled material. material Primarily made using chips of broken tiles, stones and various other ceramic articles. Moreovver, variations in its component materials by adding polystyrenee beads can increase its insulating properties. With costs ranging from 20‐30 Rs./Sq.Ft., this is a cheap alternative.

Wood alternattives Timber from Certified Forest / Plantation: The use of plantation timbers and rubber wood and poplar wood have been recognized g as sustainable timber species p which will be available without any future scarcity. They are planted in order to save our virgin wood resources like rainforests. Various timber products such as shutters are available il bl using i certified tifi d wood. d Salvaged Wood: Timber can be salvaged through Furniture re re-use use, Sleeper wood, wood construction debris wood, or other timber. Based on the source of timber to be used it needs to be treated as follows: 1. Wood from furniture re-use needs resurfacing using laminate or veneer, or polishing, paintwork etc. 2. For Sleeper wood chemical treatment is compulsory when human contact persists. persists Surface finishing is required, structural strength is very low, and has only decorative value, it also a limited resource. 3. Construction debris wood requires surface finishing, its structural strength varies based on its past usage and treatment. It is also a limited resource and available sizes, sizes shapes and forms are indeterminable. 4. Timber (used) from any source can be re-used by y converting g into chips p and particles p for particleboards and chipboards. Sawdust and chipped wood can be used as a bulking agent in composting to improve air flow and decomposition

2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

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Flooring Fl i Phospho Gypsum Tiles: T The use of waste gypsum is recommended for producing value added building materials which would definitelyy alleviate the p pollution ggenerated byy the waste gypsum and will provide low co ost eco friendly building materials with novel properties of lightn ness, fire resistance and acoustic effects..

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2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B 2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

Fibre Reinforced Polymer Plastics: Fibre reinforced polymer plastics are made from plastic components, are cheaper and look elegant and pleasing and compete p with wood p products,, made from fiber g glass reinforced plastics, are characterized by installed cost and low maintenance cost, high strength, light in weight, translucency or opaqueness, good resistance t weathering to th i and d fire fi and d versatility tilit off fabrication f b i ti methods.

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Red Mud Based Composite Door Shutters: The Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council have produced a composite, popularly known as Composite Doors & Panels, made out of "Red Mud" (a waste product from aluminium industries), polymer and natural fibres, to replace wood and wood based products in the building industry. Environment friendly technology three times strongest than the wood, technology, wood weather resistant and durable, corrosion resistant, termite, fungus, rot and rodent resistant, and fire resistant.

Coir C i Composite C it board:. b d The These are panels l with ith low l thermal conductivity, better sound insulation and fire resistance, low water absorp ption, paintable, can be laminated, cost effective alte ernative to timber, particle boards and fiber boards, su uitable for walling, door paneling, windows, partitions and a false ceiling. Baggase Board: B B d It acts t as timb ti b ber substitute b tit t for f wood based products, strong,, lightweight; find aesthetic acceptance, contro ols pollution of environment by minimizing the e amount of agro waste, fibrous waste along witth suitable binder under pressure are eminen ntly suitable for making insulation boards, panels, rooffing sheets.

2

Bamboo B b matt tt boards: b d Scientis S i tists t att the th Indian I di Pl Plywood d Industries Research and Train ning Institute (IPIRTI) have developed a cost-effective way of making plywoodlike boards from bamboo ma ats woven by low income, rural women. Bamboo mat boards are currently being used in house construction n (walls, doors, ceilings), transportation (roof and sides of carts), packing cases, storage bins, furniture and, more m recently, in concrete formwork. Bamboo mat boards are an n ideal substitute for thin plywood which is expensive plywood, e because prime quality logs are increasingly scarce and priced very high.

Bamboo mat veneer composites: Economical compared to bamboo mat board for thickness greater than 6mm, wood substitution by about 50%, choice of having g surface with bamboo mat look,, higher g strength g than veneer plywood alone. BMVC is a preferable panel material due to its superior physical mechanical properties compared to Bamboo Mat Board (BMB) and d general-purpose l plywood l d and d on par with ith structural plywood. Finger jointed plantation board: A process whereby Finger-jointed small pieces of timber and off-cuts, which might otherwise have been discarded, are joined together to form longer members creates this product. Fingerjointed floorboards are a better alternative to long, single-length floorboards because long boards usually have come from very large, very old, majestic trees and there are too few of these left. left


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B

(vi)Biodiversity India di is i one off the th 12 2 mega diversity di it countries t i off the th world. The innumerable life forms harboured by the forests, deserts, mountains, other land, air and oceans provide food, food fodder, fodder fuel, fuel medicine, medicine textiles etc. etc Humans have dramatically transformed landscapes to accommodate our needs for housing, transportation, food, fiber, recreation, and a host of other uses. Even places that provide open space, like public parks, hills and water bodies, may have diminished habitat value because of inadequate management, over-use, invasion by harmful exotic species, species or contamination from external sources.

•Justt as housing h i i an esssential is ti l human h need, d so is i biodiversity conservation the need for sustainable development. •Construction, especially through the building of structures, impervious surfaces and roads, destroys and fragments habitat and disru upts ecological processes. The impacts of constructio on activity are not restricted only to the actual buildin ng site but also affect the biodiversity at the site of diisposal of construction waste and excavated material, at the burrowing sites for aggregate, sand, soil for bricks etc.

Conservation of the existing g natural habitats:

•Destruction of natural habitat may result because of absence of co-ordination between the various activities in the construction process. Developing a logical framework that provides a sequence of activities that ensures protection of site biodiversity should be prepared.

2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

•An effort should be made to save as many trees as possible either by retaining them on site or by transplanting them. In may not be possible to transplant all trees that are not being retained. retained •It should be noted that although the emphasis is on conserving and promoting native species of vegetation, if existing non-native trees/exotic species exist on the site; these should not be cut, to be replaced by native species.

2

•The first step is to docum ment the naturally occurring flora and fauna on the site with the involvement of taxonomy experts and othe er experts. •The natural drainage pattern on the site, its topography and slopes are also an important component of the site biodiversity. These should be studied and taken into con nsideration during the design stage. g •Based on the site invento ory report, identify pockets of microhabitats that need to t be left undisturbed. The b ildi building l layout t should h ld be be designed d i d with ith the th aim i off conserving these areas. •A A corridor study of the site and immediate surrounding area to understand the movements of fauna and the impact of construction activity on the path should be conducte ed, especially for those sites closer to hills, i forest f patche es.

(above) map of India showing types of vegetation

161 | Sustainable and Green Housing 2.3 1 | Su ustainable and Gree en Housing 2.3 3

•Prior to development, the e builder should check if any biodiversity sensitive sites are in the near proximity of the proposed construction site site.


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B 2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

(vii)Landscape, top-soil conservation and urban agriculture L d Landscape

T Top soilil conservation ti

Ub Urban agriculture i lt

Landscape planning of a site should be based upon the following principles:

Building activities tend to de estroy the fertile top layer of the soil, thus making it permanently unusable. As a sustainable practice, the top p soil from a construction site must be care fully re emoved, preserved and transplanted to the same site or some other site in order d to t preserve the th preciou i us resource and d decrease d environmental degradation.

Cities today are totally dependent on rural areas for fulfilling their huge food requirement.

• Preserve the existing vegetation • Select S l t each h plant l t to t serve its it intended i t d d function f ti • Group trees to simulate natural stands • Use canopy trees to unify the site • Install ground covers on the base plane to retain soil and soil moisture, define paths and use area and provide turf where required.

Commonwealth Games Villa age New Delhi – efforts age, towards sustainable landscap pe The development consists of o 4000 bedrooms spread across 34 towers varying in heights h (such as; 7 storeys to 9 storeys high).

Thus any development can not be called sustainable in the true sense until it is sustainable in the terms of its food requirements. Rooftop urban farming can be a solution to this food crisis. Benefits of roof top farming are •Insulation of roof, helping in cutting down heat gains

• Utilise shrubs for supplementary baffles and screens

•Recycling solid and liquid waste, thus minimizing the outflow of waste

• Choose as a dominant theme tree a type that is indigenous, g moderately fast g growing, g and able to thrive with little care

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Cities today are growing and encroaching on the rural land, thus making way for a crisis where it may be diffi lt to difficult t feed f d the th booming b i population. l ti

•Potential to give a supply of chemical- free food.

• Use secondary species to complement the primary planting installation and define the spaces of lesser magnitude

Indian Institute of Horticultural research has shown that a terrace measuring 1,200 1 200 sq. sq ft. ft can easily feed a family of five with the perfect soil mixture.

• Use trees to shade the traffic ways, y , but keep p the sight g line clear. • Install screen planting to hide unpleasant views, eliminate li i t glare, l and d reduce d noise i level l l • Consider climate control in all landscape planting • Complement the topographical forms It should be carefully assessed how much area can be available for plantation after meeting the requirements of building, parking, and driveways. By skillful planning, the landscape area and building can be merged together. together

(above) site plan of the games village Source: MNRE and TERI, TERI 2010

•The topsoil of the entire excavated e site has been collected and stored se eparately and special measures have been taken for soil stabilization, such as- stockpiling, mulching, and d so on. •Pervious paving has been provided p extensively in the site .

(above) detail showing green roof


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B

(viii)Integration of systems

2.3 C

All the th t h l i technologies and d systems are worthless until and unless they are practically applied to a real situation. This application needs all of them to come together to work in conjunction with each other to make a sustainable habitat.

2.3 D

2

(right) integration of systems

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2.3 2 3 E


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B 2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

2.3C

Legislations, building codes and rating systems W ld Scenario World S i The industrialized world became interested in the sustainable development concept in the 1960s when, among others, Rachel Carson published her book The Silent Spring. This worked as a catalyst for worldwide acknowledgment of environmental problems. The f following i years more books on the subject j were available and the topic became more and more discussed. Some of the most important events in environmental matters are: •

1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment and in 1976 Habitat debated the need for a changed approach to development

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• 1987 the Brunt land Report – ‘Our Our Common Future’ defined the term ‘sustainable development’ • 1992 the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro produced Agenda 21, a plan for sustainable development in the 21st century and which was aimed to provide a high quality environment and a healthy economy for o a all peop people e in the e world. o d.

The Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.

Recognizing R i i th t developed that d l d countries ti are principally i i ll responsible for the current hig gh levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a resultt of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protoco ol places a heavier burden on developed nations underr the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.” The Protocol Th P t l was initially i iti ll ad d t d on 11 December dopted D b 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of Augu ust 2011, 191 states have signed and ratified the protocol. tocol The only remaining signatory not to have ratified d the protocol is the United States. Other states yet to ratify Kyoto include Afghanistan, Andorra and South Sudan, after Somalia ratified the protocol on 26 July 2010. The five principal concepts of the t Kyoto Protocol are: •Commitments to the Annex-c countries: The heart of the Protocol lies in establishing g commitments for the reduction of g greenhouse g gase es that are legally g y binding g for Annex I countries. Dividing g the countries in different groups is one of the ke ey concepts in making commitments possible, where only the Annex I countries i 1997, in 1997 were seen as having h i t th the economic i capacity it to t commit themselves and their industry. Making only the few nations in the Annex 1 group committed to the protocols limitations. •Implementation: In order to meet m the objectives of the Protocol, Annex I countries are required to prepare policies and measures for the e reduction of greenhouse gases in their respective coun ntries. In addition, they are required to increase the abso orption of these gases and utilize all mechanisms av vailable, such as joint implementation the clean development implementation, d mechanism and emissions trading, in ord der to be rewarded with credits that would allow more greenhouse gas emissions at home. •Minimizing Impacts on De eveloping Countries: by establishing an adaptation fun nd for climate change. •Accounting, Reporting and Review: R in order to ensure the integrity of the Protocol. Protocol •Compliance: Establishing a Compliance C Committee to enforce compliance with the e commitments under the Protocol.

Indian Scenario: Constitution of India: In the 74th amendment from 1992 it is written that all development has to be eco-friendly. eco-friendly Environmental (Protection) Act : The Environmental Act is an umbrella act for environmental protection. The Act was latest updated in 1986 and over the years various rules and notifications has been added. Environmental Impact Assessment: The system takes four diff different parameters in i consideration: id i 1. Biological Environment 2 Environmental pollution 2. 3. Aesthetics 4. Human interest


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B GRIHA(Green Rating for Inte egrated Habitat Assessment)

ENERGY CONSERVATION BUILDING CODE(ECBC)

GRIHA, the national green n building rating system, was developed by TERI afte er a thorough study and understanding of the curre ent internationally accepted green building rating sy ystems and the prevailing building gp practices in India.

The Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Government of India, launched the ECBC (Energy Conservation Building Code)31 in 2007 for commercial buildings with peak demand in excess of 500 kW or connected load in excess of 600 kVA. The ECBC sets minimum energy performance standards for the design and construction of large new commercial buildings. It encourages energy-efficient building systems, such as building envelope; lighting; HVAC; water heating; and electric power distribution, within the building facilities while enhancing thermal and visual comfort, and productivity p y of the occupants. p

The primary objective of the t rating system is to help design green buildings and d, in turn, help evaluate the ‘ ‘greenness’ ’ off buildings. b ildi Th h rating he ti system t f ll follows b t best practices along with nation nal/ international codes that are applicable to the green design of buildings.

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has been promoting energy efficient / solar buildings in the country since its inception in 1982 through wide ranging programmes including research and development, demonstration through construction of pilot projects, development of design tools and supporting capacity building and awareness generation activities. •In order to lead by example, example the Ministry constructed all buildings at its Solar Energy Centre based on solar passive concepts. •The Ministry provided incentives under its Solar Building Programme to prepare detailed project reports for constructing solar passive buildings and partial financial assistance was also provided for construction of such buildings. •In In order to develop the training and awareness material and tools, the Ministry is supporting TERI to develop detailed manuals for trainers and evaluators. •Web-link W b li k tools t l are also l b i being d developed l d to t create t awareness generation through Internet. (MNRE and TERI, 2010)

The green building rating system devised by TERI is a voluntary scheme. It has derived useful inputs from the building codes/guidelines being b developed by the BEE (Bureau of Energy Efficien ncy), the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy), E MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forests), and a the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Standards). The rating system aims to o achieve efficient resource utilization and to enhanc ce resource efficiency and quality of life in buildings. GRIHA has been adopted d as a NRS (national rating system) under the MNRE, MNRE Government G of India, India as of 1 November 2007.

TERI (The Energy and Resou urces Institute) TERI (The Energy and Reso ources Institute), a dynamic and flexible organization with a global vision and a local focus, was establishe ed in 1974. Initially the focus was on documentation an nd information dissemination. Research activities in the fie elds of energy, energy environment, environment and sustainable developm ment were initiated towards the end of 1982.

NATIONAL BUILDING CODE: The National Building Code of India (NBC) is a national instrument which provides guidelines for regulating building construction objects for all of India. The code mainly contains administrative regulations, development control rules and general building g requirements q such as: fire safety y requirements, q stipulations regarding materials, structural design and construction (including safety), and building and plumbing services. A chapter on sustainability is in the process of being added to the NBC. NBC National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development: The National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development were adopted in June 1992 and provide the basis of how to integrate environmental considerations in policies and programs of different sectors. It also encourages sustainable lifestyles and proper management of resources. The Maharashtra (Urban Areas) Preservation of Trees Act :The Group of Ministers (GoM) requires that every local authority constitutes a Tree Authority. This authority regulates g that no tree can be felled without the permission from them. The Tree Authority also supervises when transplanting and compensatory plantation is needed.

2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

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The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)

2.3 C


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B 2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

2 3D 2.3D

Case Studies (i)Magarpatta City, Maharashtra 1960th and d onwards d the th city it off Pune P h reached has h d such h a spread that the area of Magarpatta City was in pressure of being urbanized in an unorganized way. In the mid 1990th all of the 120 Magar families pooled their land together and formed their own development company.

• Water W t preservati tion, in i the th central t l garden d an artificial lake is created to keep the monsoon rainwate er trapped for a longer period of time. time Inc creasing the ground water level as much as po ossible with the use of grass pavers’ bricks.

Magarpatta M tt City Cit is i located l t d in i eastt off Pune, P covering i an area of 400 acres. At the moment 4000 people are living there and eventually, in 2008 when the city is fully developed, 50 000 will live there.

2. Fly ash For all building constructions fly ash based concrete is used. u 3 Solar Energy All wate 3. er heating is powered with solar energy.

5. Wind Direction of wind flows are taken in 5 consideration. The breeze comes in from the south western side and open spaces are created so there is continuously y breeze blowing g through g the area. While constructing the buildings in Magarpatta City scaffolds made of steel are mostly used, but for some smaller ll building b ildi projects j t bamboo b b scaffolds ff ld is i used. d The residences in Magarpatta City are aimed to the Indian middle class, who earn their living by working. Th residences The id comes from f 50 to t 270 m^2 ^2 and d prices i start at 12 lakh rupees.

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The facades of the IT-offices are fully glassed with a construction t ti t h i technique consisted i t d by b two t rows off glasses l separated by an air column. This construction is chosen to insulate the buildings from the outside heat though a fully glassed façade.

2

There are five angles which have been taken in consideration id ti while hil planning l i M Magarpatta tt City: Cit 1. Environment Try to be as eco-friendly as possible, try to maintain a balance. • Plant a lot of trees, trees the norms for Pune City is that for every 100 m2 developed one tree is required, but Magarpatta City is planting one tree for every 50 m2 developed. • Decrease and take care of noise pollution, all around Magarpatta City there is a band of six meters with plants and trees, to absorb sound and dust from the ambient roads, roads along with a high barrier.

Master plan and location of Magarp patta City

4. Garbage Maga arpatta City is collecting their own g garbage ge and do not g give it out to the city of Pune. Segregating S of garbage at source, every aparrtment have two buckets – one for biodegrad dable waste and one for non degradable d d bl waste. w t The Th biodegradable bi d d bl waste is decompo osed and turned into soil which then is used in the agriculture and biogas is prepared fro om decomposing. The non degradable waste is recycled or burnt.

All the buildings in Magarpatta city, named after different flowers, are designed and placed to receive as much daylight y g and air ventilation as p possible. The energy used in Magarpatta city is regular Indian nuclear or hydropower, but every building is also provided with solar panels on the roof tops for water heating heating. Since one of Magarpatta city’s main aims is to take care of their own waste instead of sending it away, every apartment is provided with two buckets for rubbish, one for burning waste and one for decomposing.


2.3 A

(ii) Hunnar Shaala Foundation for Building Technology and Innovations, nnovations Bhuj, Bhuj Gujarat (A Registered Not-for-Profit Corporation)

Green Approaches and Technologies: THE MATERIALS : used d are local l l and d involve i l synergetic ti combinations with least possible energy expended in manufacturing to ensure small ecological footprints. With this perspective, perspective the materials and technologies promoted and used by hunnarshala involve lime, earth, thatch, country tiles along with roof water harvesting, and decentralized waste water recycling.

i)

documenting d ti th i kno their k owledge l d b base i its in it cultural lt l and environmental con ntext; ii) identifying the maste er artisans to link them to market through our pro ojects ojects. Through this process , Hunnarshala hopes that an indigenous vocabulary of architecture would emerge giving local cultural expresssions. Preparing for disasters by learning from traditional building practices: HUNN NARSHALA is engaged in developing technical guidelines for traditional technologies and mainstreaming them as viable option for housing.

DEWATS SEWERAGE TREATMENT PLANT: The DEWATS sewerage treatment plant and the landscaped banks of the rivulet are built with the help of India Today readers and support from Indians in the US through the American India Foundation (AIF). The treatment chambers are themselves designed such that it has become a place for morning walkers to use for yoga, and for children to play in the evenings. evenings The treated water is used to irrigate trees and plants along half a kilometer of the rivulet.

2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

URBAN WATERSHED PROJECT: Hunnarshala foundation, that have designed and promoted the project with the Municipal Corporation and the adjoining residents of the nalla, nalla has developed an urban watershed project with five other NGOs of the city and is confident of recycling more than 60% of the city sewerage g thereby y reducing g 30% % of the requirement q of water for Bhuj.

THE EARTH TECHNOLOGIES with which Hunnarshala has worked include stabilized and non-stabilized mud blocks rammed earth, blocks, earth wattle & daub and adobe. adobe Hunnarshala collaborates with its sister organizations to get inputs particularly on water, renewable energy, bio-diversity. COMMUNITY-DRIVEN HOUSING: HUNNARSHALA helps people get together, develop their own relevant solutions and articulate their plan of actions. actions EMERGING SOLUTIONS are cost effective, culturally and environmentally sensitive. STRENGTHENING LOCAL ARTISANS: New knowledge systems have created specializations, where artisans have been relegated only to skilled labour and the prerogative ti off providing idi th the d i design and d artistic ti ti content is controlled by new educated elite. THIS HAS RESULTED in lack of validation of traditional sciences and its inability to keep pace with fast changing needs of modern times

The h city it has h gone beyond b d providing idi b i services basic i and infrastructure and the green belt.

2.3 C

GREEN BELT: The Green belt has planted high quality organic i Kharek Kh k (Dates) (D t ) along l with ith more than th 126 local species. The entire treatment is based on gravity flow and has no movable parts that need maintenance or technical personnel to manage. manage Recycling sewage transforrms rivulet into Green Belt of Bhuj city :

HUNNARSHALA is exploring i) validation lid i off the h science i off local l l artisans’ i ’ knowledge; ii) redesign products using their knowledge and skills for the contemporary needs;

some of the flora being cultivated in the green belt Aerial view of sewerage treatment plan

View of the new Bhuj cityscape

167 | Sustainable and Green Housing 2.3 1 | Su ustainable and Gree en Housing 2.3 3

THE GENESIS of Hunnarshala lies in the collaborations and associations that were built after 2001 earthquake in Kutch with an objective to capacitate people for reconstruction of their habitat.

2.3 2 3 B


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B 2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

(iii)Vikas Apartments, Auroville Vikas Apartments was the project which was the first development in Auroville to use stabilised earth right from foundations to roof.

Appropriate architecture dessign •Energy intelligent building •Natural ventilation and sun protection p •Integration Integration to the land, land according a to the existing nature, trees, etc. •Adaptation to the climate,, according to main winds directions,, sun,, etc. Environmentaly sound materiials •Compressed stabilised earth h blocks of various qualities •Various V i stabilised t bili d earth th base b ed d materials t i l •Ferrocement pieces in variou us parts of the buildings

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Appropriate building technologies •Stabilised rammed earth fou undations with 5 % cement •Plinths and walls in compresssed stabilised earth blocks •Stabilised rammed earth wa alls with 5% cement •Composite beams and lintells and composite columns •Vaults and domes for floors and a roof, made of CSEB •Paints and plasters with stab bilised earth •Floorings with CSEB tiles, tiles 2.5c 2 5c cm thick with 5 % cement 2

(left) layout plan (right) section thro ough the building

•Ferrocement F t channels h l off 25mm 25 thi k thickness •Ferrocement doors, shelves, etc. of 12mm thickness •Ferrocement plasters for water tanks and ponds •Sparing Sparing use of concrete, glass, steel, etc. Renewable energy sources •Solar water heaters •Photovoltaic Ph t lt i panels l for f the th electricity l t i it (12 V DC) •Surface solar pumps for the gardens •Submersible solar pump and wind pump Water management •Rain water harvesting to aim zero run off during the monsoon •Biological wastewater treatments Earth management •Soil for building was extracted from the site itself •Percolation systems to harvest rainwater •Wastewater treatment pond •Reservoirs for g garden water •Basement floor


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B

BCIL’s Tzed BCIL’ T d Homes H i a Residential is R id ti l campus located l t d in i East Bangalore with 76 apartments, 15 independent homes on 5 Acres of Site Area.

The project claims capital savings of approx 20,000 tonnes of Carbon emissions and operational p savings g of approx 1500 tonnes of Carbon emissions.

Energy •The building has been prrovided with double glazed glass and wall assembly usiing rat trap bond masonry. •Usage Usage of BEE 5 star rate ed air conditioners and LED lighting fixtures for externa al and internal lighting are installed •Solar water heater tha at fulfils 100% hot water requirement of the building g. •The project has installed re enewable energy systems for 4.65% of the annual consum mption of the building. •Provision of energy metters for continuous energy monitoring.

Indoor environmental quality •87% of regularly occupied spaces have necessary daylight. Good airflow circulation is made by providing exhausting systems in bathrooms and kitchen. •Enhanced air ventilations using inverter air conditioners. •Provision of more than 30% breathing zone outdoor ventilation rate to all occupied p spaces. p •Low emitting adhesives, paints and carpets have been used to enhance the indoor environment for its residents. •After After completion of all interior activities, activities the project has done proper building flush out in line with LEED requirement.

Site sustainability features •Well connected with public facilities in terms of transportation •The p project j retains natural topography p g p y up p to 39.94% % of site area. •Provision of high solar reflectance & thermal emittance products and vegetation on roof for 77% of roof area. •Car C parking ki spaces for f th the visitors i it with ith electric l ti charging facilities Water efficiency •The project achieved 18% usage of turf for landscape and drought tolerance of 87%. •Efficient water management techniques for rain water harvesting, grey water treatment for landscaping and flushing. •95% of the waste water generated at site is reused. •Low flow dual-flush toilets, toilets sensor based urinals and other low flow fixtures have been selected to install at site to reduce water consumption by over 20%. •Provision of water meters for continuous monitoring of water usage in the homes.

Resource managementt R •The project has ensured up to 75.2% of total construction waste has been recycled or reused thereby diverting Waste from landfills. •The project has achieved a combined recyclable content value of 17% of total material by cost thereby reducing virgin material exploitation •About 82% % off the total material i cost off the building i i was manufactured and extracted regionally thereby reducing the pollution due to transportation •30% 30% of the wood based materials by cost used in the project were FSC certified products.

(left)) solar water heating (Abo ove) exterior view

(left) minimally plastered interiors

2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

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(iv)BCIL-TZED Homes- E3N sustainability solutions, Bangalore


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B 2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

(v)Lotus Boulevard, NOIDA, NCR Located right off the Noida Expressway in Sector 100, Lotus Boulevard is strategically placed amidst the already developed sectors 46 and 47, thereby establishing itself as one of the most accessible residential estates in Noida.

•Greens: With over 80% of op pen spaces, all balconies and windows have been de esigned to present views from all directions. •Heat Reduction: Insulate ed Roofs and Walls substantially reduce heat ing gress (up to 60%), thereby resulting in substantially lowerr air air-conditioning conditioning loads. •Solar Lighting: Equipped with w the latest in solar lighting systems. •Cross Ventilation: good cross ventilation invites better living conditions . •Cost Reduction: energy efficient e mechanical & electrical equipment.

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•Recycling to Conserve Nature: '0% Discharge Building', innovative Solid Wa aste Management, Waste Segregation System and Eco o-Friendly Infrastructure & Facilities Facilities.

exterior views

•Shuttle Services: Shuttle Bus 2 services from the estate to key y locations nearby y availa able. •Naturally Lit: 100% natural lig ght, thereby cutting down the usage of artificial light by 50%. •Sensor Lights: sensor lig ghts that switch on automatically when you are e around in the common areas,, thereby y reducing g main ntenance charges. g •Healthy Indoor Environmentt: Right from basic ecofriendly construction materia als to odorless paints and t t textures •Water Conservation: Rainwater Harvesting technology, water conserving fixtures & fittings, along with native & low water consu uming plants. •Earthquake resistant structure e compliant to Zone 4

PROCESSES INVOLVED •Air conditioning with minimal power consumption and redundancy •Superior indoor air quality to increase productivity and energy gy levels •Exclusive noise and vibration control measures •Optimized O ti i d use off air i conditioning diti i equipment i t based b d on occupancy •Superior Superior voltage regulation through efficient transformer design •Use of high efficiency motors for all equipment with moving i parts •100% Power Backup •Use of CFLs and energy efficient T5 lamps all across •Water saving fixtures and fittings •Use of recycled water for landscaping •Recharging ground water by unique water harvesting methodologies However the construction and finishing process of the project is highly resource intensive and does not stand up to the needs of social and economic sustainability.


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B MAGARPATTA CITY, CITY MAHARASHTRA

HUNNARSHALA FOUNDATION FOR BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES AND INNOVATIONS, BHUJ, GUJARAT

VIKAS APARTMENTS, APARTMENTS AUROVILLE

BCIL-TZED BCIL TZED HOMES, HOMES BANGALORE

LOTUS BOULEVARD, BOULEVARD NOIDA

2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

PASSIVE TECHNIQUES

Wind direction used to determine orientations, provision for daylight and ventilation til ti

Community driven housing, hence environmentally sensitive

•Natural ventilation and shading •Orientation according to wind i d and d sun

Natural ventilation and daylighting

BUILDING MATERIALS

•Fly ash based concrete •Bamboo scaffolds •Glass facades for IT offices

stabilized and nonstabilized mud blocks, blocks rammed earth, wattle & daub and adobe.

•Stabilised rammed earth •compressed stabilised earth blocks •Ferrocement doors, shelves, etc

Double gazed glass and wall assembly using rat rat-trap trap bond

•Solar water heaters •Photovoltaic panels for the electricity l t i it (12 V DC) •Surface solar pumps for the gardens •Submersible Submersible solar pump and wind pump

•Energy efficient fixtures •Solar water heating •Renewable R bl energy systems for 4.65% of annual energy consumption

Energy efficient lighting and HVAC fixtures

•Percolation systems to harvest rainwater •Biological Wastewater treatment pond •Reservoirs for garden water

•Rainwater harvesting •Grey Grey water for landscape and flushing •Efficient plumbing fixtures

•Rainwater harvesting •Efficient Efficient plumbing fixtures •Gound water recharge

ENERGy

WATER

SOLID WASTE

SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE

•Conventional energy •Rooftop solar water h ti heating

•Artificial lake to trap rainwater •Ground water recharging

•Rooftop water harvesting •DEWATS DEWATS for recycling •Water-shed management

•collecting their garbage •Segregating garbage at source, •Biodegradable waste used for biogas and manure •Rest recycled •1 tree per 50 sq.m. •Water conservation

Recycling or reusing construction waste

Green belt planting local plants based on gravity flow irrigation system

Integration to the land, according to the existing nature trees nature, trees, etc. etc

•Preservation of natural topography •Vegetation Vegetation on roofs •Electric charging facilities in car parks

Daylighting and crossventilation

•Insulated roof and walls •Low VOC paints

Solid waste management and waste segregation system

•80% open spaces •Low water consuming plants

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PARAMETER / PROJECT

2.3 C


2.3 A 2.3 2 3 B 2.3 C 2.3 D 2.3 2 3 E

2.3 E

Conclusions The world has become urbanized and it is an irreversible process. This has resulted in a tremendous pressure on the formal housing delivery sector worldwide.

If the house and services are e too expensive, expensive the poor cannot afford to live there an nd the programme will fail. One concept may be affordable in one part of the world,, but too expensive p in an nother.

Until the late 80's most of the programmes and projects were centralized prescriptive and top-down orientated, b t this but thi has h gradually d ll been b changing h i i the in th last l t decade towards an end user, bottom-up orientation, where government at all levels take the role of facilitating and enabling the market to work. work

Sustainable housing

Today almost 60% of the urban population in the developing world is lacking access to basic services such as water and sanitation and even more prevalent is the absence of electricity.

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Defining sustainability and sustainable urbanisation Meeting the needs of the present refers to the development component of sustainable development which include, and that is important; economical, social, cultural, health and political issues. The second phrase of the definition...without compromising the ability to meet those of the future...is future is mostly referring to the environmental issues. Sustainable Development is therefore much more complex than what is the general perception. p p There has been and still is being presented considerable literature on what might constitute sustainable t i bl urbanization b i ti e.g. the th provision ii off basic b i needs, appropriate technology, urban management and job creation, but seldom has these components been pulled together into an overall framework for sustainable urban housing. The definition of Low-cost (housing) depends on the economical capacity of the target group.

Modern M d h housing i d developmen l ntt has h a major j i impact t on the ecological system. • The master plan of a specific c housing project has to be adjusted to the surroundings. The damage to sensitive landscapes, including scen nic, cultural, historical, and architectural must be minim mized. • A life-cycle-analysis must be b utilized to determine the sustainability of the building materials. In general environmental sustainability y is a matter of minimizing the pollution from the conssumption of energy, water, materials and land, and maximizing the use of recycled materials and rene ewable resources. •

The use of technology has to be in accordance with the local conditions and at the same time be durable, reliable and functionally co onstructed to a modern life. life These can be minimized by developing a simple building concept, which respects local climatic conditions and which dem mands only y a minimum of maintenance. The possibility of maintenance must therefore be taken into con nsideration when choosing building materials and components.

• Human resources have to be developed in the communities, if the programme shall be viable in the long term. This implies community participation, where it is appropriate in all phases of the process. process Capacity building programmes must therefore form an integrated part of all activities with particular attention to improve the capacity of the women. • Environmental and energy issues have to be incorporated at all levels of planning and decisionmaking.


3

CLIMATE & TECHNOLOGY


3.1 3.1 A

Floor System

3.1 B

Framing System

3.1 C

Foundation

3.1 D

Core (for high rise)

3.1 E

Plumbing

3.1 F

HVAC

3.1 G

Electrical

3.1 H

Domestic Gas Supply

3.1 I

Data transfer

3.1 J

Waste Management

3.1 K

Fire protection

177 Structures and 01||Technology 3.1Services 3.1

Structures and Services in High-Rise Housing


3.2 A

3.1A

3.1 B

The Structural Components In A Typical Multi-storey Building

Concrete floors system This is the preferred type of floor slab due to the following reasons • Less vibration and more abrasion and fire resistance • Thermal insulation properties

Floor System • Major work of floor systems is to transfers the floor loads to a set of plane frames in one or both directions. • They also act as a diaphragm to transfer lateral loads from wind or earthquakes.

2.

•In many domestic and industrial buildings a thick concrete slab, supported on foundations or directly on the subsoil, is used to construct the floor of a building. •In high rise buildings and skyscrapers, thinner, pre-cast concrete slabs are slung between the steel frames to form the floors and ceilings on each level.

Frames • This system takes the load of floor systems and is supposed to efficiently transfer it to the foundation. • The system consists of of beams and columns and in some cases braces or even reinforced concrete shear walls

3.

Foundations • Transfers load of the frame to the soil • Type of foundation differs with type of soil on which it is constructed

Note: As the height of the building increases beyond ten stories (high rise), it becomes necessary to reduce the weight of the structure for both functionality and economy. For example a 5% reduction in the floor and wall weight can lead to a 50% reduction in the weight at the ground storey. This means that the columns in the lower storeys will become smaller leading to more availability of space and further reduction in the foundation design.

Reinforcement Design One way slabs • Used when the longitudinal span is two or more times the short span. • needs moment resisting reinforcement only in its short-direction, since loads get transferred from slab to the beams in the short span direction. • However, temperature, shrinkage and distribution steel is provided along the longer direction. Two-way slab • Used when aspect ratio of the slab i.e. Longitudinal span/transverse span is less than 2 • Supported along all four edges. • Needs moment resisting reinforcement in both directions. Hence, main reinforcement runs in both the directions.

Types of pre-cast floor sections available

3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I 3.2 J 3.2 K

179 Structures and 02||Technology 3.1Services 3.1

Floor Systems

The structure of a building can be broadly classified into three following systems: 1.

3.2 C


3.2 A

3.1B

3.1 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I 3.2 J

180 | Structures and Services 3.1 03| Technology 3.1

3.2 K

Structure: Framing Systems Recommended floor systems for housing 1. Precast concrete floors • Speedy erection and require only minimal formwork. • Light-weight aggregates • Necessary to use cast in place mortar topping of 25 to 50 mm before installing other floor coverings. • Larger capacity cranes are required for installation • Usually pre-stressing of the precast elements is also done. 2. Composite Floors • Steel beams bonded with concrete slab in such a way that both of them act as a unit in resisting the total loads. • The sizes of steel beams are significantly smaller because the slab acts as an integral part of the beam in compression. • Require less steel tonnage in the structure and also result in reduction of total floor depth. • These advantages are achieved by utilizing the compressive strength of concrete by keeping all or nearly all of the concrete in compression and at the same time utilizes a large percentage of the steel in tension. Designs to improve the strength-to-weight ratio In all cases the top surface remains flat, and the underside is modulated: 1. Corrugated • Usually where the concrete is poured into a corrugated steel tray. This improves strength and prevents the slab bending under its own weight. The corrugations run across the short dimension, from side to side. 2. Ribbed slab • Giving considerable extra strength on one direction. 3. Waffle slab • Giving added strength in both directions.

Concrete floor slab

Types of frames

Shear connectors

1. Moment-resisting frames

I-beam Composite floor: detail of joint

•Rely on the ability of the frame itself to act as a partially (semi-) or fully rigid jointed frame while resisting the lateral loads. •Flexibility makes them useful in earthquakes, but creates large horizontal deflections called „drift‟ in high rises •Suitable for medium rise buildings having up to ten stories. •Rigid connections used 2. Braced Frames •Simple beam-to-column connections where only shear transfer takes place; take the gravity load such as dead and live loads. •Lateral loads such as wind and earthquake loads are taken by a system of braces. •Usually bracings are provided sloping in all four directions because they are effective only in tension and buckle easily in compression. Therefore only the tension brace is considered effective. •Quite stiff; used in high rise buildings. •Occasionally combined with moment resisting frames. 3. Shear walls •A rigid vertical diaphragm •Transfers lateral forces from exterior walls, floors, and roofs to the ground foundation in a direction parallel to their planes. •Resist the torsion generated by lateral forces (wind, earthquake, and uneven settlement loads, weight of structure and occupants) •Reinforcing a frame by attaching or placing a rigid wall inside it maintains the shape of the frame and prevents rotation at the joints. •Especially important in high-rise buildings subject to lateral wind and seismic forces.


3.2 A

3.1C

3.2 B

•Such trusses may influence the façade of the buildings , the location of mechanical floor. Columns at the perimeter of the building may also have to be increased in size because of increased axial forces due to action of hat trusses. •These core interactive structures are suitable for up to 55 storey buildings. •Eg. Hyatt Center Chicago, Illinois Rigid-Frame Tube with Belt truss •Addition of belt trusses enhances performance of Rigid Frame tube structures. •Location of these trusses in a building may influence façade design. •Eg. Emirates Crown Beach road, Dubai International Marine Club

Bundled Tube structures •The outer and inner tubes act jointly in resisting both gravity and lateral loading •Permits greater variation in massing of structure. •Eg. Sears tower, Chicago, Illinois Frame structures for high rise apartment buildings Rigid frame structures •Rigid frames may be used in combination of shear walls/braced frames to increase their total lateral load resisting capacity •If braced frames/ shear walls are not provided then to resist the Bending moment the sizes of columns may be freezed. •In buildings 20-25 storey high shear walls and braced frames are stabilizing agents due to their structural efficiency •Eg. Ashiyahama Seaside town, Hyogo, Japan Braced core with hat trusses •Core structures can be enhanced structurally by the means of added bracing in the form of hat trusses. Hat trussing involve the perimeter columns of buildings in resisting lateral loads. Improving the stability of the building.

Braced-Frame Tube structures •Efficient load resistance due to the Braces •The diagonal braces have an impact on the façade of the building. •Eg. John Hancock Tower, Michigan avenue, Chicago Tube in tube structures •In this variation of tube structures the perimeters tube interacts with an inner tube, which behaves like a hollow rigid core. •Designed for enhanced structural performance. •Eg. World trade centre, Lower Manhattan, Newyork city

•The choice of material to be used in the construction of foundations depends on the weight of the structure on the ground, availability and terrain. Material used can be Reinforced cement concrete or Brick or Stone rubble masonry. •Depending on whether the soil is hard soil or soft soil, a specific type of foundation is adopted. •The safe bearing capacity of soil should be 180N/mm2 to 200N/mm2. Types of foundations •Shallow foundation •The founding depth is less than the width of the footing and less than 3m. •Generally used when surface soils are sufficiently strong and stiff to support the imposed loads. •Unsuitable in weak or highly compressible soils. •Shallow foundations (sometimes called 'spread footings') include pads ('isolated footings'), strip footings and rafts.

Pad foundation

Strip foundation

Raft foundation

3.1 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I 3.2 J 3.2 K

181 Structures and 04||Technology 3.1Services 3.1

Structure: Foundations


3.2 A

3.1 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I 3.2 J

182 | Structures and Services 3.1 05| Technology 3.1

3.2 K

Types of Shallow Foundations

3. Caissons •Constructed above ground level, then sunk to the required level by excavating or dredging material from within the caisson.

1. Pad foundations •Used to support an individual point load such as that due to a structural column. •Circular, square or rectangular in Plan. •Usually consist of a block or slab of uniform thickness, but may be stepped or haunched if they are required to spread the load from a heavy column. 2. Strip foundations •Used to support a line of loads •Load from a load-bearing wall OR A line of columns, where column positions are so close that individual pad foundations would be inappropriate. 3. Raft foundations •Used to spread the load from a structure over a large area, normally the entire area of the structure. •Situations where column loads or other structural loads are close together and individual pad foundations would interact. •Consists of a concrete slab which extends over the entire loaded area, stiffened by ribs or beams incorporated into the foundation. •Needed on soft or loose soils with low bearing capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area. •Advantage of reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements between loading positions. Deep foundations •The founding depth is greater than the width of the footing and usually deeper than 3m •Major factors necessitating deep foundations :very large design loads, a poor soil at shallow depth, or site constraints (like property lines). •Includes piles, piers and caissons or compensated foundations using deep basements and also deep pad or strip foundations •Timber, steel, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete.

4. Compensated foundations •Normally comprises a deep basement •The stress due to excavation is approximately balanced by the applied stress due to the foundation. The net stress applied is therefore very small.

Shallow foundation versus Deep foundation

Common Pile foundation

Compensated foundation

Note: •If surface loading or other surface conditions will affect the bearing capacity of a foundation it is „Shallow'. •Deep foundations are those founding too deeply below the finished ground surface for their base bearing capacity to be affected by surface conditions

Considerations In Foundation Design

Types of Deep Foundations

Bearing capacity It is necessary that a foundation not be loaded beyond the soil bearing capacity or the foundation will "fail".

1. Piles •Relatively long, slender members •Transmit foundation loads through soil strata of low bearing capacity to deeper soil or rock strata having a high bearing capacity. •Used when for economic, constructional or soil condition considerations it is desirable to transmit loads to strata beyond the practical reach of shallow foundations. •Also used to anchor structures against uplift forces and to assist structures in resisting lateral and overturning forces. 2. Piers •Constructed in situ in a deep excavation.

Settlement Total settlement and differential settlement is normally considered. Differential settlement is when one part of a foundation settles more than another part.

High water table Issues of seepage through the basement, leading to weakening of structure, development of cracks etc. requiring adequate waterproofing and surface and sub-surface drainage. Scour Scour is when flowing water removes supporting soil from around a footing (like a pier supporting a bridge over a river).

Frost heave Frost heave occurs when water in the ground freezes to form ice lenses in sub-zero climatic conditions.


3.2 A

Structure: Core Design

Soft compressible layer

Hard incompressible layer

Pile foundation

Contains: • Elevator shafts • Elevator lobbies • Main & escape stairways • Riser-ducts • Toilets • Fire house cabin • Data cable shaft • Electrical shaft Elevators = MAIN vertical circulation system

Settlement reducing piles

Designer‟s consideration: •Typical floor plate sizes •Typical floor plate efficiency •Staircase positions •Tenancy options •View outward •Maintenance and Escape risers and routes •Structural system options Pad footing

Strip foundation

Raft foundation

Caisson foundation

Floor plate design •Staircase usually grouped with elevators •As means of escape & accessibility •Same goes with M&E riser ducts •Aspects that affect the floor-plate design: •Direction of best views out •Permissible ground floor plinth are •Car-parking grids in relation with floor-plate structural configuration Note: Floor-plate efficiency should not be less than 75%

3.1 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I 3.2 J 3.2 K

183 Structures and 06||Technology 3.1Services 3.1

3.1D


3.2 A

3.1E

3.1 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I

3.2 J 3.2 K

Services: Plumbing Requirements for elevator selection Service 2 common performance criteria: •Average waiting interval (AWI, in seconds) •5-minute handling capacity (in %)

Service core types & placement

For an apartment building Requirements for elevator selection service EXCELLENT SERVICE

GOOD SERVICE

FAIR SERVICE

2 way lobby traffic

50 -55 secs

60 -65 secs

70 -75 secs

5-minute uppeak

7%

6%

5%

Suggested elevator capacity •884kg (13 persons) •952kg (14 persons) •1088kg (16 persons) •1360kg (20 persons) •1564kg (23 persons)

Benefits of a peripheral core position: •No fire-fighting pressurization duct is needed •Good view out •Natural ventilation •Natural sunlight •A safer building in the event of total power failure •Solar-buffers & energy savings

184 | Structures and Services 3.1 07| Technology 3.1

Examples of GOOD & BAD elevator arrangement Two-car grouping •Side-by-side arrangement is best •Passenger face both cars& can react immediately •AVOID separation of elevators •EXCESSIVE separation destroy advantages of group operation Three-car grouping •3 cars in a row is PREFERRABLE •2 cars opposite 1 is acceptable •PROBLEM: location of elevator call button Four-car grouping •Largest practical arrangement for a housing development •2-opposite-2 arrangement is the most efficient

Basic Principles •Potable water • Water supply shall not be connected with unsafe water sources • Ensured against hazards of back-flow •Provision of water supply • Sufficient volume • Adequate pressure •Water conservation • Optimum supply • Reduce wastage •Safety • From dangers of contamination, explosion, overheating, etc. •Fixtures • Mandatory for any dwelling unit: 1 WC, 1 lavatory, 1 kitchen wash place and 1 bathing place •Drainage • Guard against fouling, deposit of solids and clogging • Adequate cleanout spaces •Fixture trap and vent pipes • Trap seals for prevention of sewer gas, other dangerous fumes and vermin from entering • Adequate air circulation through pipes •Foul air exhaust • Each vent terminal shall extend to outer air and installed to minimize possibility of clogging and return of foul air •Accessibility • For cleaning and repair Water supply requirements for residences A minimum of 70-100 L per head daily is considered adequate for urban domestic needs, apart from nondomestic needs as flushing requirements. Note: • Water supply for firefighting purposes shall be provided separately in the building according to population density and types of occupancy


3.2 A 3.1 B

Size of the community

Requirement (in L per hour daily)

20,000 (without flushing)

70-100

20,000-1lakh (with flushing)

100-150

Above 1lakh (with flushing)

150-200

Types of Water distribution systems in Multi-Storeyed buildings 1. Direct supply from mains • Plausible only when adequate pressure from the mains is available round the clock • Not feasible above 2-3 floors 2. Direct pumping system • Water is pumped directly into the distribution system • Depends on a constant and reliable supply of power • Eliminates the requirements of overhead tanks for domestic purposes (except for flushing) and requires minimum space

Water storage Overhead •The bottom of the tank should be placed clear off the terrace slab •Elevation difference between outlet pipe of tank and the highest fixture at the top floor of the building should be minimum 2M Underground •The over flow height should be preferably 600 mm above the external surface level •No common wall between tanks storing safe water and tanks storing water from unsafe sources. •Should not be located in low lying areas

Note •If storage capacity required is more than 5000 L, it is advantageous to arrange it in a series of tanks so interconnected that each tank can be isolated for cleaning and inspection without interfering with the supply of water Types of Water distribution systems in Multi-Storeyed buildings 1. Direct supply from mains • Plausible only when adequate pressure from the mains is available round the clock • Not feasible above 2-3 floors 2. Direct pumping system • Water is pumped directly into the distribution system • Depends on a constant and reliable supply of power • Eliminates the requirements of overhead tanks for domestic purposes (except for flushing) and requires minimum space

3. Hydro-Pneumatic system • Same pump delivers water as required at different during different times of a day • Consumes energy in proportion to work done • Eliminates need for OH tank • May supply water at much higher pressures compared to OH supply 4. Overhead tank distribution • Pumping water to one or more OH tanks placed at top-most location • Water from OH tank distributed to various parts of the building by a set of pipes • Gravity distribution

Direct pumping system

Hydro-Pneumatic system

Overhead tank distribution

3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I 3.2 J 3.2 K

185 Structures and 08||Technology 3.1Services 3.1

On a community level:

3.2 C


3.2 A 3.1 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I 3.2 J

186 | Structures and Services 3.1 09| Technology 3.1

3.2 K

Notes : • A soil pipe, conveying to a drain any solid or liquid filth, shall be circular and shall have a minimum diameter of 100 mm. • Soil pipe shall be situated outside the building or in suitably designed pipe shafts. Distribution Of Water Within The Premises Basic Principles Wholesome water supply provided for drinking and culinary purposes shall not be liable to contamination from any less satisfactory water. There shall, therefore , be no cross-connection whatsoever between the distribution system for wholesome water and any pipe or fitting containing unwholesome water, or water liable to contamination, or of uncertain quality , or water which has been used for any other purpose. The provision of reflux or non-return valves or closed and sealed stop valves shall not be construed as a permissible substitute for complete absence of cross connection. Hot water supply 1. Centralized storage and distribution system Energy sources such as oil , gas , solar panels , etc, used for generation of hot water as these options prove more economical and convenient in heating large volumes of water for storage . OR 2. An individual storage tank in each flat may be provided for supply to hot water heaters. Cold water supply A storage water heater shall be from a cold water storage tank and under no circumstances connected directly to the water main, except the type which incorporates a feed tank with ball valves and overflow pipe arrangement or non pressure type heaters. In the case of multi-stored buildings where a common overhead tank over the stair/lift well is generally installed, it is advisable to have one or more local tank for supply to the hot water heaters. This arrangement

Two -pipe

One -pipe

Single stack

Set of pipes

Two sets 1. Night soil 2. Sullage

One set 1. Both night soil and sullage

One set 1. Both night soil and sullage

Ventilation

Separate Vent pipes for both

Ventilation from top and one Vent pipe

Ventilation from top; No separate vent pipe

Total no. of pipes

4

2

1

Arrangement of toilet

Non-uniform non-repetitive stacking

Uniform and repetitive stacking

Repetitive stacking with space restriction

1. Continuous flow makes it less prone to blockage and makes the system more efficient. 2. Eliminates the need for a gully trap which requires constant cleaning. 3. Less no. of pipes required 4. Two-pipe system may present space and crossing problems which this system eliminates.

1. Ideal in case of limitation of space for pipes on the wall. 2. No More than two toilet connections per floor are allowed in this system. 3. Requires minimum 100 mm diameter stack for a maximum of five floors in a building

Features

1. Sullage water separated as grey water used in horticulture and gardens 2. Re-use as make-up water in cooling towers 3. Use in toilets for flushing 4. Domestic purposes

shall help in reducing the length of the vent pipes. In tall multi-storeyed buildings where the static pressure on the hot water heaters on the lowest floor shall not exceed the rated working pressure of the hot water heater installed. Should the height of the building so require, additional tanks shall be provided on the intermediate floors to restrict the static head to permissible limits.

Plumbing Systems in residential buildings:


3.2 A

3.1F

3.1 B

Services: HVAC

Comfort air-conditioning parameters • Nominal comfortable temperature: 24-26O C • Relative humidity in the range of 50% to 60%. HVAC in Residences Individual houses have unitary systems comprising of window/split air conditions. Some large houses have VRV based splits and some luxury block of flats are provided with air water systems. Treated fresh air introduced though the system is generally balanced with the bathroom extract ventilation to promote air circulation into the bathroom. Air conditioning Categories of split units 1. Exposed units: high wall unit or floor mounted 2. Furred-in units: ceiling suspended 3. Ducted indoor unit: use of ducting for conditioning Air conditioning in individual units Split Air conditioners •Indoor unit • Filter • Evaporator fan for circulation of conditioned air

air

•Outdoor unit • Compressor • Air-cooled condenser with condenser dissipating heat into atmosphere

for

VRF Air Conditioning System •Comprises of different numbers of air handling units (AHUs) which are connected to an external condensing unit. •The refrigerant flow can be varied either by using an inverter controlled variable speed compressor or using more than one compressor. •Energy saving, installation space saving and lesser maintenance cost. •The VRF system consists of an outdoor unit with multiple compressors, a mix of indoor units such as cassettes and high-wall splits and a sophisticated electronic control centre that ensures complete climate control in each zone.

Note: Energy modeling software has shown INVERTER-driven VRF split-systems to be approximately 25% more efficient than traditional systems across several major US cities.

3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I 3.2 J 3.2 K

Functioning of VRFs INVERTER compressors ramp up quickly to meet the cooling or heating demand in the zone, then based on feedback from the system controls and sensors the INVERTER varies it‟s speed to maintain space set-point, saving energy when the unit is only required to operate at part-load condition

187 Structures and 10||Technology 3.1Services 3.1

Basic principles in residential HVAC: • Provision of comfortable conditions fit for human inhabitation. Maintenance of correct atmospheric temperature, pressure, humidity and fresh air movement sufficing oxygen intake and perspiration. • Air conditioning system that enables the occupant to select heating or cooling as required to maintain the room at the desired temperature. • Energy conservation: should not permit over-cooling or over- heating • Provision for operation at a reduced capacity or switching off is essential

3.2 C


3.2 A

3.1G

3.1 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I

Services: Electrical Systems Types of Ventilation systems

Types of Electrical Wiring Mechanical Extract/Natural supply • System comprises of one or more propellers installed in peripheral walls or on the roof OR • Ductwork arranged for general extraction of the vitiated air or for extraction from localized sources of heat, moisture, odours, fumes or dust. • Supply inlet should not be located in the vicinity of exhaust

Underground

Factors to keep in mind while choosing the technique :

3.2 J

11||Technology 3.1Services 3.1 188 Structures and

3.2 K

Mechanical Supply/ Natural extract • Enclosed space maintained at slightly higher pressure than surrounding (to exclude dust smoke etc.) • Discharge of vitiated air by natural means

Combined Mechanical Supply and Extract • Ductwork for both supply and exhaust OR • A common fan with a fresh air inlet on the low pressure side Car park ventilation • 2.5 -5% of the free area in the parking should be area of opening on the walls or slab of the parking • In case of basement parking the same area goes for cross section of ventilation ducts provided • Adequate headroom for installation of ducts • One exhaust fan for 50 sq. m. of Basement area • CO Sensors for Car Park Exhaust

Overhead

Reducing Ventilation Heat Load:

Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers for Pre-cooling Ventilation Air 1.Plate Heat Exchangers • A series of thin Aluminium sheets to transfer heat between two air streams. 2.Heat Pipes • Sealed finned tubes with a wick lining on the inner side. • Tube contains a working fluid, which evaporates from the hot end of the tube and condenses at the cold end, thus transferring heat

•The cost premium for underground raceway installation including manholes if required •The history of outage for direct burial installation •Cost and availability of repair services •Impact of electric service outage in terms of time delays, inconvenience, necessity of digging up lawns and paved areas, and cost impact in the case of commercial facility •Grid level: Electricity generated at power plants is transmitted via high tension cables to substations Safety Measures in Electrical Planning •The electric distribution cables/wiring shall be laid in a separate duct. •An independent and well ventilated service room shall be provided on the ground level or first basement with direct access from outside or from the corridor for the purpose of termination of electric supply from the licensees service and alternative supply cables. •A stand-by electric generator shall be installed to supply power to staircase and corridor lightning circuits, fire lifts, the stand-by fire pump ,pressurization fans and bowers, smoke extraction and damper system in case of failure of normal electric supply. •Transformers : a sub-station or a switch-station shall have separate fire resisting walls/surroundings and having separate access from fire escape stair case.


3.2 A 3.1 B Underground Services Advantages : • Lack of Physical and Visual clutter overhead • Service reliability • Long life Disadvantages : • High cost • Time consuming if it faults Methods of Underground Wiring : • Direct burial • Concrete-encased duct • Direct burial duct Protection from lightning: •Low-rise buildings • Faraday cone: lightning conductor sufficiently high to safe guard a small building coming under its conduction cone • Conductor prism: larger buildings or a couple of them clubbed together; conductor wire grounded by two end pole. •High-rise buildings • Faraday cage: conductor cage embedded in the structure of the building with upward projections to safely discharge lightning.

Distribution of electricity

Location of switch room •In large installations other than where a substations is provided, a separate switch room shall be provided; •This shall be located as closely as possible to the electrical load centre preferably near the entrance of the building on the ground floor or on the first basement level, and suitable ducts shall be laid with minimum number of bends from the points of entry of the main supply cable to the position of entry of the main switchgear. •The switch room shall be also be placed in such a position that rising ducts may readily be provided there from to the upper floors of the building in one straight vertical run. •In larger buildings , more than one rising ducts may also be required for running cables from the switch room to the foot of each rising main. Such cable ducts shall be either be reserved for the electrical services only or provided with a means of segregation , such as call-bell system; telephone installations, fire detection and alarm system. •The electrical control gear distribution panels and other apparatus, which are required on each floor may conveniently be mounted adjacent to the rising mains, and adequate space should be provided at each floor for this purpose. •Insulated conductors while passing through floors shall be protected from mechanical injury by means of rigid steel conduit, non metal conduit or mechanical protection to a height not less than 1.5 m above the floors and flush with the ceiling below. This steel conduit shall be earthed and securely bushed.

3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I

3.2 J 3.2 K

189 Structures and 12||Technology 3.1Services 3.1

Overhead Services Advantages : • Low Cost • Easily Maintenance Disadvantages : • Possibility of outage Overhead Types : • Bare : Used for high voltage lines (2.4 KV and higher) • Preassembled aerial cable : Used for voltage of up to 15 KV • Weatherproof ; Low Voltage circuits (600 V and below)

3.2 C


3.2 A 3.1 B 3.2 C 3.2 D

3.1H

Services: Domestic Gas Supply Monthly Per Capita Consumption of LPG – All Households (kgs)

3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I 3.2 J 3.2 K

13||Technology 3.1Services 3.1 190 Structures and

*Expenditure deciles consist of equal proportions of individuals (10%) ranked by per capita expenditure corrected for inter-state price differentials.

Piped LPG supply system for Housing Reticulated system supplies "gas on tap" though pipelines to unit Kitchens • Installed from centralized cylinder bank or bulk LPG installation • Designed through multiple pressure regulation stages to reach LPG to the users at low pressure to make it safer. • LPG from Cylinder manifold or Bulk Storage is piped through the header & thereafter it branches out to each residential kitchen Advantages of reticulated system • Continuous supply of gas at the turn of tap. • Eliminates cylinder refill booking • No need for cylinder handling and possible damage of the floor/ lift. • Easy and effortless operation with increased convenience. • Increased safety in the kitchen. • Space saving in unit level • Payment as per actual consumption of gas through gas meters. • Saving of time and no need to block money for 2nd cylinder. • Economical

India Development Foundation, March 2004

Types of installation

Meter reading in an apartment building

1. Bulk installation System requirements • Unloading Facilities • Bullets

• • • •

Vaporizer (Capacity to match consumption) Pressure Regulators Valve stations Fire Water Pump House

2. Cylinder bank installation System requirements • Cylinder Bank • Auto change over cum 1st stage regulator • Over Pressure shut of Valve • 2nd regulator (Before Riser) • UPSO cum 3rd stage regulator • Metering Unit Bulk Installation Size of tank will depend on following factors: • Total estimated gas consumption of all appliances / equipments on the system at peak demand. • Physical constraints imposed on the site. • Access for installation of LPG bulk tanks. • Access for deliveries. • Required frequencies of deliveries Dimensions For The Concrete Base Tank size: Length x width x depth (m) 1 x 380 litre = 1.7 x 0.65 x 0.15 2 x 380 litre = 1.7 x 2.3 x 0.15 1 x 1200 litre = 2.0 x 1.0 x .015 2 x 1200 litre = 2.0 x 3.0 x 0.15 1 x 2000 litre = 3.1 x 1.0 x 0.15 2 x 2000 litre = 3.1 x 3.0 x 0.15 1 x 3400 litre = 3.8 x 1.2 x .015 2 x 3400 litre 3.8 x 3.4 x 0.15

Cylinder bank • Space allotment is determined solely by no. of LPG cylinders that need to be accommodated in the bank • Necessary spacing requirements to be met to prevent cluttering and confusions in term of connection Other applications of this system •LPG Gas Geysers / Water heaters in bathrooms. •LPG Fire places and convectors during winters.


Services: Data Transfer

Piped Natural Gas Natural gas is piped through an online-supply system from the gas fields to the consumers through a network of pipes. To enable Piped Natural Gas (PNG), natural gas has to be continuously supplied through long distance transmission pipelines to the city pipeline network. For instance, the Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) pipeline of Gas Authority of India Ltd supplies gas to New Delhi. The backbone of the PNG in New Delhi is the main feeder pipeline that forms a loop around the city The galvanized iron pipeline is connected through contraptions such as pressure regulator, isolation valve, and a meter to the application device. The pressure regulator helps maintain the pressure in the pipeline at the point of application - reduces the pressure from 4 bar to 21 mbar for domestic purpose. Key Benefits of Gas Piping: • • • • •

Corrosion Resistant Leak Proof Jointing Reliability Long Life Aesthetics

3.1J

Services: Waste Management

Telecommunication:

Basic Principles

House wiring of telephone subscribers offices in small buildings is normally undertaken by the telephone department on the surface of walls , but in large multi storied buildings intended for commercial, business and office use as well as for residential purposes, wiring for telephone connections is generally done in a concealed manner through conduits.

•Hygiene, safety and cleanliness are a priority. •Systems should be as simple to use and as intuitive as possible. •In high rise blocks, a caretaker or manager is required. •Systems should aim to maximise source separation and recovery of recyclables.

Television: Individual antennas can be accommodated on the terraces of low- rise housing development; however one Master Antenna is recommended for medium to high rise apartments to prevent mushrooming of antennas on the terrace Master antenna is generally provided at the top most convenient point in any building and a suitable room on the top most floor or terrace for housing the amplifier unit , etc, may also be provided in consultation with the architect/engineer.

Collection

From the amplifier rooms , conduits are laid in recess to facilitate drawing co-axial cable to individual flats. Suitable „Tab Off‟ boxes may be provided in every room/flat as required.

3.1 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I

Segregation

3.2 J Recycle

Reuse

3.2 K

Composting

Disposal

The waste management cycle

Types of waste generated in households • Recyclable waste: – Paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals, certain plastics, news paper, paper , metals, cans, plastics Recyclables

Secondary Segregation

Recycling

Reuse

• Bio-degradable waste: – Kitchen and food waste, waste paper, garden waste, animal wastes (manure).

Biodegradables

Vermicomposting

Compost for Horticulture

191 Structures and 14||Technology 3.1Services 3.1

3.1I

3.2 A


3.2 A 3.1 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I

3.2 J

15||Technology 3.1Services 3.1 192 Structures and

3.2 K

• Toxic wastes – Medical wastes like sanitary napkins, used cotton buds, syringes; paints, chemicals, dyes, electronic wastes,

Toxic Material

Incineration plant

Deep Burial

Treatment of sorted waste The remaining non bio-degradable non-recyclable waste is crushed compacted by machines and ultimately dumped to landfills Waste collection a. On-site Collection b. On-site collection point should be located: • So that collection vehicles do not interfere with the use of access driveways, loading bays or parking bays during collections • Close to waste storage facilities to permit easy transfer of bins to the collection point, if relocation of bins is required. • In a relatively flat area and on the same level as the collection vehicle (i.e. bins should not be placed for collection on elevated loading bays or nature strips/footpaths). • In a position that provides collection vehicles safe access to the collection point and which has adequate clearance and manoeuvring space. • So oncoming traffic can be clearly seen as the collection vehicle leaves the property.

b. Off-site collection Things to be kept in mind while choosing a collection point • The collection point for bulk bins or bins containing compacted waste should be located such that the bins can be accessed with minimal manual handling required. • Underground systems require suitable access for the collection vehicle to enable safe lifting of the underground containers for servicing. Collection points where possible should not be located: • near intersections; • near roundabouts or slow-points; • along busy arterial roads; • in narrow lanes; • near possible obstructions, including trees, overhanging buildings, and overhead power lines; or • where they pose a traffic hazard.

Disadvantages • A large number bins required: large storage area or many smaller areas • Difficult management: time consuming collection and cleaning of so many individual units. • Location of large number of bins on the kerbside for collection.: hindrance to passersby, blockage of pathways. • Manual movement on road required by collection workers: safety risk to collection operators. • Risk of contamination in case of inadequate number of bins.

Low rise housing Option 1: Garbage bins for every unit or a couple of units.

Allocated waste bins to kept in communal storage area and garbage collected from kerbside. Thumb rule for allocation: One 240L bin of each type (i.e. garbage, recycling) per two units. Advantages • Smaller bins: easy to manoeuvre. • Numbering and sharing of garbage bins between residents: increased accountability, increased responsibility. • Kerb-side collection of waste: safe and efficient compared to underground or basement collection • Sorting of waste at unit level: Easy segregation process • Encourages participation in recycling through colocation of garbage and recycling bins. Example illustrating option 1


3.2 A 3.1 B

Some councils may also provide bulk bins for recyclables, such as paper and cardboard, elsewhere the use of MGBs is common for either source-separated or commingled recyclables. Bulk bins and/or MGBs would be stored in a communal storage area. Advantages • Lesser bin storage area required. • Better amenities and maintenance compared to a large number of garbage bins. • Easier to manage and devoid of complexities in usage. • Encourages participation in recycling through colocation of garbage and recycling bins. Disadvantages • Sharing bins between greater numbers of units: Decreased ownership, decreased individual responsibility. • Bulk bins difficult to manoeuvre when full: safety risk to workers. • Access for safe and efficient emptying of bulk bins may be limited. • Onsite collection required: may or may not be available depending on locality. • Risk of contamination in case of delay in collection or inadequate number of bins. • Potentially higher contamination of recyclables if collected in bulk bins. • Bulk bins are generally suitable for paper and cardboard collection, but not commingled recyclables or source separated glass due to glass breakage and safety issues during collection.

Advantages •Simple system: easy to use in disposal and recycling •Encourages participation in recycling through colocation of garbage and recycling bins. •Smaller quantity of waste in interim area: easily monitored for contamination,. •Caretaker can keep check on repeat offenders and help in education Disadvantages •Requires regular transfer of garbage and recycling from the interim storage area to the communal storage area. •Increased responsibility for caretaker as the responsibility of residents decreases. May have to deal with careless cluttering. •Difficult Management: transfer of garbage from interim to communal storage; cleaning and maintenance of interim storage. •In absence of service lifts, common elevators and stairs need to be used to transfer garbage and recyclables from units to interim storage: reduced amenity threat to hygiene.

Option 2: install a chute system for garbage, leading to a central garbage room at the bottom of the building. The chute can empty into either a bulk bin or an MGB carousel. However, there may also be a requirement for the chute to empty into a compactor Advantages •Convenient for residents: does not require one to travel between floors for disposal •Encourages participation in recycling through colocation of garbage and recycling facilities. •Improved amenity : reduced transfer of garbage in trafficable areas.

Disadvantages •Chutes are not suitable to transfer bulky items of waste, therefore two means of transferring materials in each block are required (the chute and manual methods). •Requires regular transfer of recycling and bulky waste items (unsuitable for disposal in the chute) from the interim storage area to the communal storage area.

High- rise housing Option 1: provide room for interim storage of garbage (in MGBs) and recyclables (in MGBs or crates) on each floor in an interim storage area. Within the communal storage area, garbage and recycling may be stored in either bulk bins or MGBs

Example illustrating option 1

Option 2: solutions to garbage shoots

3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I

3.2 J 3.2 K

193 Structures and 16||Technology 3.1Services 3.1

Option 2: Bulk bins in larger cluster of units (street or colony level).

3.2 C


3.2 A

3.1K

3.1 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G 3.2 H 3.2 I

3.2 J 3.2 K

Services: Fire Protection •Potential contamination if bulky items or other items that cannot fit down chutes are placed in the recycling stream. •In absence of service lifts, public lifts and staircases used for transfer of bulky recyclables and waste: safety risk; reduced amenity. •Double Management: unblocking chutes, regular inspection of the waste room into which the chute empties. Also, less frequent but regular management of interim storage areas; cleaning of bins and space. •Handling waste from compaction units can be difficult as the bins become heavy. •Possibility of compacted waste getting jammed in the base of the bins.

Possible fire threats in a residential building • Electrical faults • Domestic gas leakage/explosion • Inflammable liquids (petrol, kerosene, etc.) • Lightning

• Case studies show that doors may not be closed or fire stops may be missing. • Therefore, Control by Construction will not necessarily be 100% reliable and • Effective in high rise residential building.

CAUSE

METHOD OF EXTINGUISHING

EXTINGUISHING AGENT

Wood, paper, textile

Cooling

Water

Inflammable liquids

Smothering

Dry powder, CO2 Gas foam

Electrical equipment

Smothering with a dry agent

Dry powder, CO2 Gas foam

17||Technology 3.1Services 3.1 194 Structures and

Ways to control fire 1. Control the combustion process – by controlling either the fuel (construction materials and contents) or the fire environment. • Non-combustible construction and limitations on the quantity and flammability of combustible materials are employed. • However, interior wall and ceiling finishes, carpeting, insulations and furnishings will burn • Thus, the impact of this method is very limited in apartment buildings 2. Control by construction – limits the growth of fire and the movement of smoke using construction elements such as walls and floors. • Fire-rated floor assemblies, apartment enclosures, corridors, shafts, etc are provided to meet this objective. In high-rise apartment buildings • Structural stability for a certain duration under fire attack is part of the strategy.

3. Suppress fire – Usually water is used to extinguish the fire, either automatically or manually. • Standpipe systems provide the water supply for fire fighters, as well as for automatic sprinkler systems. • Interior fire fighting in high-rise apartment buildings is difficult and is not always effective during the time needed for occupant evacuation. • Studies have shown that sprinkler systems are highly reliable and effective, but not 100%. Fire protection standards for high rises •For all buildings 15 m in height or above and apartment buildings with a height of 30 m and above, there shall be a fire control room on the entrance floor of the building with communication system( suitable public address system) •Facilities to detect the fire on any floor through indicator boards connection; fire detection and alarm system on all floors. •For high rise buildings above 60 m in height, provision for helipad should be made. •L.P Gas supply pipes shall be on the external walls, away from the staircases. Structural requirements for fire safety in high rise buildings ( 15 m in height or above ) •All materials of construction in load bearing elements, stairways and corridors and facades shall be noncombustible. •The internal walls or staircase shall be of brick or reinforced concrete with a minimum of 2 h fire rating. •The staircase shall be ventilated to the atmosphere at each landing and a vent at the top; the vent openings shall be of 0.5 sq m in the external wall and the top. If the staircase cannot be ventilated, because of the location or other reasons , a positive pressure 50 pa shall be maintained inside.


3.2 A 3.1 B 3.2 C

Fire Lift • One fire lift per 1200 sq m of floor area shall be provided and shall be available for the exclusive use of the firemen in an emergency. • Lift shall have a floor area of not less than 1.4 SQ M , loading capacity of not less than 545 kg (8 persons lift), with an automatic closing doors of minimum 0.8 m width.

3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

Basements Each basement shall be separately ventilated. Vents with cross sectional area not less than 2.5 percent of the floor area spread evenly round the perimeter of the basement.

Lifts • Wall of lift enclosures shall have a fire rating of 2 h; lifts shafts shall have a vent at the top of area not less than 0.2 sq m. • Lift motor room shall be located preferably on top of the shaft and separated from the shaft by the floor of the room. • The number of lifts in one row for a lift bank shall not exceed 4 and the total number of lifts In the bank( of two rows) shall not exceed 8.A wall of 2 h fire rating shall separate individual shafts in a bank. • Lift car door shall have a fire resistance rating of half an hour. • If the lift shaft and lobby is in the core of the building, a positive pressure between 25 and 30 pa shall be maintained in the lobby and a positive pressure of 50 pa shall be maintained in the lift shaft. • Exit from the lift lobby, if located in the core of the building, shall be through a self closing smoke stop door of half an hour fire resistance. • Providing slope in the floor of lift lobby, shall be made to prevent water used during fire fighting, ect, at any landing from entering the lift shafts. • Alternate source of power supply shall be provided for all the lifts through a manually operated changeover switch.

3.2 I

Fire Safety Considerations In Designing An Apartment Building • Unsuppressed fires in high-rise buildings generate large quantities of smoke that can spread vertically or horizontally through the building, even if the fire is contained to only one room or apartment. A contained, but not extinguished, fire can also generate significant smoke. • Vertical smoke spread is exacerbated by wind and by “stack effect” which occurs when the building's inside temperature is greater than the outside.(caution in winters) • Despite the type of structure (steel or reinforced concrete), most damage, deaths and injuries result from the spread of smoke. • In multiple-death fires in residential high-rise buildings, many fatalities occur in the exit routes (stairways and corridors) due to smoke from a fire elsewhere in the building. • In apartment fires with doors left open or burnedthrough, smoke will spread to the corridors, shafts and upper levels. • Sometimes it may be safer for building occupants to remain in their apartments or rooms rather than to exit through smoke-filled corridors and stair-wells. • Appropriate instructions to occupants during a fire are essential if it is expected that they should take specific actions.

3.2 J 3.2 K

Schematic section showing functioning of fire fighting plumbing

195 Structures and 18||Technology 3.1Services 3.1

The escape route 2BHK apartment building, Aloma County, Pune

3.2 H


3.2 3.2 A

Understanding the Basics

3.2 B

The Climatic Zones

3.2 C

Desert Climate

3.2 D

Alpine Climate

3.2 E

Humid Climate

3.2 F

Tropical Climate

3.2 G

Climatic Analysis of Delhi

Climate 3.2 and Housing 3.2 197 1||Climate

Climate and Housing


Understanding the Basics Defining climate Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the "average weather," or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization . These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system. Defining Housing Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. Social housing is an umbrella term referring to rental housing which may be owned and managed by the state, by non-profit organizations, or by a combination of the two, usually with the aim of providing affordable housing. In some countries, e.g. Brazil and Spain, qualifying families may own a social housing property rather than renting it. Social housing can also be seen as a potential remedy to housing inequality Impact of Climate on Design Due to the various climatic factor, the design today has to ensure to create an environment that can withstand the following. If not designed such that, the building would not only fail comfort and energy but also the structure. The images on the right show the factors of climate that have an impact on the building design.

3.2 B

3.2 A

The Climatic Zones

3.2 B 3.2 C

World Climate The Köppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used system for classifying the world's climates. Its categories are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation. The Köppen system recognizes five major climatic types; • Tropical Moist Climates: all months have average temperatures above 18° Celsius. • Dry Climates: with deficient precipitation during most of the year. • Moist Mid-latitude Climates with Mild Winters. • Moist Mid-Latitude Climates with Cold Winters. • Polar Climates: with extremely cold winters and summers.

3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

India Climate The climate of India defies easy generalization, comprising a wide range of weather conditions across a large geographic scale and varied topography. India hosts six major climatic subtypes, ranging from • desert in the west • alpine tundra and glaciers in the north • humid tropical regions • rainforests in the southwest and the island territories.

(Top) Climate zones of India (right) Climate zones of world

Air Humidity

Precipitation

Wind

Dust

Air Temperature

Solar Radiation

2 ||Climate 3.2 Housing 3.2 Climate and 199

3.2 A


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

Humidity is a term for the amount of water vapor in the air. The humidity is affected by winds and by rainfall. The most humid cities on earth are generally located closer to the equator, near coastal regions. Cities in South and Southeast Asia are among the most humid, such as Kolkata, Chennai and Cochin in India. Humans control their body temperature mainly by sweating and shivering. The United States Environmental Protection Agency cites the ASHRAE Standard 55-1992, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, which recommends keeping relative humidity between 30% and 60%. Traditional building designs typically had weak insulation, and it allowed air moisture to flow freely between the interior and exterior. The energyefficient, heavily-sealed architecture introduced in the 20th century also sealed off the movement of moisture, and this has resulted in a secondary problem of condensation forming in and around walls, which encourages the development of mold and mildew.

4 ||Climate 3.2 Housing 3.2 200 Climate and

Additionally, buildings with foundations not properly sealed will allow water to flow through the walls due to capillary action of pores found in masonry products. Precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, rain, sleet, snow and hail. It occurs when a local portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapour and the water condenses. Areas with wet seasons are dispersed across portions of the tropics and subtropics. Savanna climates and areas with monsoon regimes have wet summers and dry winters. Tropical rainforests do not have dry or wet seasons, since their rainfall is equally distributed through the year.

The Kรถppen classification depends on average monthly values of temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used form of the Kรถppen classification has five primary types labeled A through E. Specifically, the primary types are A, tropical; B, dry; C, mild midlatitude; D, cold mid-latitude; and E, polar.


3.2 C

3.2 A

Arid zone

3.2 B

Traditional architecture of Rajasthan is determined by closed, massive parts of structure with only small facade areas exposed to sun and minimised window openings. East- and west facades have none or only small openings.Massive walls retard and reduce thermal transfer, so -in the ideal case- the heat reaches the interior only at the cool night time. This process is called phase shift and amplitude attenuation.

The traditional houses in Ghadames, Libya have evolved in response to climate, reducing effect of hostile climatic conditions.

Due to the high temperatures, natural air flow cannot be used for cooling the rooms in the most cases, because using natural air flow for cooling requires temperatures below 35°C. Thermal air movements like the stack effect may however contribute to cooling. Higher room heights intensify the stack effect. This cooling method is called wind catchers.

The house is located within a plot area of 31 square meters and has covered the floor area of 64 square meters. The house is three storey's high.

The main concern of the mason was to modify extremes of air temperature and to protect the inhabitants from solar radiation and glare as well as from sand and dust.

The main entrance of the house opens to the public street which is uncovered, but the high walls on the other side of the narrow street generally keep it shady to protect the occupants from direct sunshine. The habitable rooms are on all the floors. However, during the summer night, people always use the roof as living area , enjoying the cool night breeze.

3.2 C PROTECTION AGAINST HEAT ABSORPTION

3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F

IMPROVING MICRO CLIMATE

BASIC REQUIREMENT

PROTECTION AGAINST SOLAR RADIATION

3.2 G

SHADING OFEXTERIOR SPACES

(far left) front façade of a traditional Rajasthan house (bottom left) Zameet house in the old town

3 | Climate 3.2

A wind catcher is a tall chimney-like structure on the roof of a building to create natural ventilation in buildings. The wind tower has several directional openings trapping breezes. The cool brickwork cools down the descending air. The pressure gradient sucks out the warmer air inside the house up through the tower leaving the denser cooler air behind.

201 | Climate and Housing 3.2

Rajasthan: The summer months of May and June are exceptionally hot; mean monthly temperatures in the region hover around 35 °C (95 °F), with daily maxima occasionally topping 50 °C (122 °F). During winters, temperatures in some areas can drop below freezing due to waves of cold air from Central Asia.


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E

3.2 C

Arid zone – Case Study Jaipur, Rajasthan The site lies in the city of Jaipur, capital of Rajasthan. This was the first planned settlement that came up out of the main walled city around the early 20th century.

3.2 F

4 ||Climate 3.2 Housing 3.2 202 Climate and

3.2 G

The building was built during the colonial period and shows elements of influence like the pillars and arches. The design of the house, however, is based on the typical courtyard house of Rajasthan. The building is a typical example of the amalgamation of British and traditional Indian architecture. The building is a perfect blend of facilitating traditional customs with modern times. The house is currently inhabited by a joint family - 14 in all and 3 full time servants. The building is comprised of Two floors. •Ground Floor •First Floor

(top right) ground floor plan (bottom right) first floor plan (Extreme right) building facade


3.2 C

3.2 A

Arid zone – Case Study

3.2 B

The degrees of privacy of the spaces within the house are what is generally seen cross culturally - the public spaces to the front of the house and the private spaces kept toward the back and the upper floors.

3.2 C

The traditional house caters to most requirements of the people living there in terms of degree of privacy, arrangement of different spaces in terms of frequency of use, climatic response and the social structure at that time.

3.2 E

3.2 D

3.2 F 3.2 G

The character of each space is maintained by their placement in the house and the types of openings jails, windows etc. The narrow and steep staircase that leads to the first floor acts as a transition space between the lane outside and house inside. The size of the staircase was reduced to save space as a large number of people used to stay together at that time.Due to the space constraint, storage spaces were incorporated within the walls itself, or stone slabs were cantilevered out.

SUNDLA: It is made by mixing lime kodi (a form of oyster) and wax. When very finely crushed, it is used as a plaster over the walls and roof. This gives it a glossy effect and a plastic finish. Locally available coloured stones mixed with wax and other materials when finely crushed, are used as materials for ornamentation.

5 | Climate 3.2

LIME: Lime was used as the major construction material. It has a good thermal capacity but low thermal conductivity. This works to an advantage during the winters, absorbing heat during the day while radiating the stored heat during the night. The low thermal conductivity prevents the heat of the sun to enter the house during the summers. When mixed with burnt clay and finely crushed, it was used as a material for walls and roofs as it had a good binding capacity.

(top) The plan exposed (bottom left) perspective view (bottom right) perspective view

203 | Climate and Housing 3.2

Building Materials


3.2 A 3.2 B

3.2 C

Arid zone – Response to Climate

3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F

6 ||Climate 3.2 Housing 3.2 204 Climate and

3.2 G

(Top left) Front elevation (Bottom left) Climatic response (Top) Section AA’ (Bottom) Section BB’


3.2 D

3.2 A

Alpine Climate Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for a region above the tree line. This climate is also referred to as mountain climate or highland climate. The climate becomes colder at high elevations—this characteristic is described by the lapse rate of air: air tends to get colder as it rises, since it expands. The dry adiabatic lapse rate is 10 °C per km of elevation or altitude. Therefore, moving up 100 meters on a mountain is roughly equivalent to moving 80 kilometers (45 miles or 0.75° of latitude) towards the pole. This relationship is only approximate, however, since local factors such as proximity to oceans can drastically modify the climate. The main form of precipitation is often snow, often accompanied by stronger winds. India's northernmost areas are subject to a mountain, or alpine climate. An example can be seen considering Ladakh.

3.2 B Ladakh is the highest plateau of the Indian state of Kashmir with much of it being over 3,000 m. It spans the HImalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges. Most of the houses in Ladakh are built at two levels, ground and upper. The ground is reserved for animals and storage of their fodder. The upper level has the habitable space. The houses are made entirely of mud sometimes reinforced with horizontally placed timber members. The walls are either made of sun dried mud bricks or rammed earth system.

Internally, the walls are plastered while flooring could be either in mud or wood. The ceiling height is low and spaces are dimly lit due to small fenestrations The images on the left show typical houses of Ladakh and how they have been constructed keeping climate in mind. The major constituents of creating a climatically suitable house in Ladakh can be pointed as following:

3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

Upper level habitation

Highly insulated MUD houses

Small fenestrations to allow maximum insulation

7 ||Climate 3.2 Housing 3.2 Climate and 205

(bottom right) elevation of a traditional Ladakh house (bottom left) perspective view of Ladakh house


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

3.2 D

Alpine Climate – Case Study Bumthang, Bhutan: Bumthang is a district in central Bhutan. Site Conditions: •Mountainous Region with moderate vegetation • Altitude of 3100m (10,170ft) • Climate - temperatures ranging from 4.4°C in winters to 24°C in summers. The Bhutanese house is a mixture of Tibetan and Chinese Architecture. The house is rectangular in plan and consists of only two storeys. The house is built with rammed earth.

8 ||Climate 3.2 Housing 3.2 206 Climate and

the “Ekra” wall - usually facing the southern side. This wall is essentially made out of a timber frame structure with infills of wooden strips of bamboo with a mud plastered surface. The wall is light and allows considerable structural freedom, which absorbs the frequent seismic vibrations. The ekra wall is located at the top most floor and contains windows usually of two tiers. The two tier windows form a mornal traditional room height, which is not greater than 2.5m. The Cornices Also called Bho. One of the most important characteristics of the Bhutanese architecture is the roof level cornice. It is an elaborate detail without which the traditional house is considered incomplete in it’s form. Besides it’s ornamental value. It mainly helps distribute the concentrated load of the extremely heavy roof. The projected pieces are joist ends. Below these joists are similar false pieces- 300 to 400mm in length. They are added to increase the room height.

(Top) Ground Floor Plan (right) Site plan (right 2) Section through Ekra wall (extreme right) the cornice

2


3.2 D

3.2 A

Alpine Climate – Case Study

3.2 B 3.2 C

During the summers, the sun angle is steep and hence direct sunlight does not enter the house. This in turn results in the rooms inside being cooler. The roof becomes an ideal place to dry vegetables and other stuff.

3.2 D 3.2 E

The house faces the south and therefore in winters it receives ample sunlight. The double layered windows help trap heat inside the house. The rooms thus become warmer.

3.2 F 3.2 G

The ground floor is used without exception, as the cattle barn, storage for wood and food.

9 | Climate 3.2

The first floor is entered via the ground floor, up a steep wooden staircase. The lighting conditions inside the first floor are good because of the many windows. The first floor consists of all the living spaces - the prayer room, the weaving room, the kitchen, the guest room, the bedroom, the verandah and the kitchen store.

(Top right ) Vertical section (Middle right) Horizontal section (bottom right) Front elevation (Top) perspective view

207 | Climate and Housing 3.2

The ground floor rooms have small windows and are poorly lit. The Main Door leads to a room - a transition space. A person has to climb a wooden staircase to enter the living rooms, upstairs.


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

3.2 E

Humid subtropical zone A humid subtropical zone experiences hot summers and temperatures during the coldest months may fall as low as 0 °C(32 °F). Due to ample monsoon rains, India has only one subtype of this climate. In most of this region, there is very little precipitation during the winter, owing to powerful anticyclonic and katabatic (downward-flowing) winds from Central Asia. Humid subtropical regions are subject to pronounced dry winters. Winter rainfall—and occasionally snowfall— is associated with large storm. Most summer rainfall occurs during powerful thunderstorms associated with the southwest summer monsoon; occasional tropical cyclones also contribute. Annual rainfall ranges from less than 1,000 millimetres (39 in) in the west to over 2,500 millimetres (98 in) in parts of the northeast.

A distinctive feature of the typical Vietnamese house is that the main house’s shape always is rectangular along an east-west axis to reduce solar insulation on the wider sides of the building. The roof, having a big slope with gables at both ends, is covered with a lightweight and excellent thermal insulator made from thatch, which holds little heat during the day and cools down at night. The gables are covered by eaves which provide protection from driving rain while allowing ventilation.

West Bengal: The traditional houses of W.Bengal may be divided into the following types:

• • • •

10 ||Climate Climateand 3.2Housing 3.2 208

(bottom right ) Vertical section (bottom) Horizontal section (bottom left) Front elevation (Top) perspective view

Choushala (four rooms on four sides and open space in center. Britighar (house and all rooms fenced within one boundary) Atchala (house with eight roofs, four over the main building and four over the verandahs) Postaghar (house constructedon elevated platform) Dishala Bandh Ghar(house of two large rooms on separate platforms and open space in between) Susthita Ghar (house surrounded by verandhs on all four sides)

1.

2.

The doors and windows are made by bamboo or wood, lining the main facade and providing good ventilation and views for the house. This quality o f openness is also reflected by the large open interior spaces with minimal partitions. Another distinctive feature is that large and deep verandas, next t o t he forecourt, provide sun protection, splashing r ain prevention, channels for ventilation, and buffer spaces between t he outdoor and indoor environment.

2

3.

4.

5.


3.2 E

3.2 A

Humid subtropical zone Case Study

The building is comprised of two floors. · Ground Floor · First Floor

8 9

3

7

RAILWAY STATION

5

3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

4

2

11 1

BANYAN TREE WITH PLATFORM POND

SITE

3.2 D

1

AGRICULTURAL LAND DURGA POOJA MANIDAP

3.2 C

10

6 BUS STAND

The design: Employ lightweight (low mass) construction. Maximise external wall areas (plans with one room depth are ideal) to encourage movement of breezes through the building. Site for exposure to breezes and shading all year. Use bulk insulation if mechanically cooling. Choose light coloured roof and wall materials. Elevate building to permit airflow beneath floors. Consider high or raked ceilings. Provide screened, shaded outdoor living areas.

1. LIVING ROOM 2. OFFICE 3. OPEN TO SKY 4. BEDROOM 5. BEDROOM 6. COURTYARD 7. VEG KITCHEN 8. STORE 9. NON VEG KITCHEN 10. PARKING 11. VERANDAH

11 | Climate 3.2

Location Climate: West Bengal lies under the warm and humid climatic zone. The soil is firm and is of the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plain. The relative humidity of this region is very high. Summers : 30-35 (daytime) 25-30 (night) Winters : 25-30 (daytime) 20-25 (night)

Building Materials: Locally available materials were used for construction: •Bricks made up of clay soil were used for walls. •Wooden beams were used • Brick piers and walls were used to take the load of the building. • All the doors and windows were made up of wood. • Lime plaster was used. • Brass railings were used

209 | Climate and Housing 3.2

Howrah, West Bengal The traditional dwelling analyzed is situated in the Howrah district of West Bengal.The building was constructed in 1880.The structure displays a large degree of colonial influence and is an example of the zamindaari type house.

3.2 B


3.2 A 3.2 B

3.2 E

Humid subtropical zone Case Study

3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F

12 ||Climate Climateand 3.2Housing 3.2 210

3.2 G

(Top left) Front elevation (Bottom left) Rear elevation (Top) Section AA’ (Bottom) Section BB’


3.2 E

Humid subtropical zone - Response to Climate The building is North - South Orientated. The balconies are provided in the East and West, to avoid direct solar radiation around mid - day. v e r a n d a h

entrance

v e r a n d a h

A long, narrow corridor allows for good ventilation within the house. Strong direct sunlight from the clear skies in reflected inside the house by high windows for ensuring adequate light inside the house.

Heat gains could be controlled by: •Decreasing the exposed surface area • Increasing the thermal resistance • Increasing the buffer spaces • Increasing shading • Increasing the use reflective surfaces

3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E

Promotion of heat losses by:

3.2 F

•Increasing ventilation • Increasing the air exchange rate • Decreasing the humidity levels.

3.2 G

Solutions: Use of pale colours on walls, reflective glass mosaic tiles, increased number of exhausts and windows, ventilation with better arrangements of openings and use of wind towers etc.

13 | Climate 3.2

(Top )West balcony (bottom left) Windows and ventilators (Bottom right)British columns

211 | Climate and Housing 3.2

In the east side facade, the balconies have long columns and louvers are provided between them to shelter the inner areas from the sun in summers and to keep rain water from wetting that area.


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

3.2 F

Tropical Climate Orientation and building envelope have a major impact on its heat gain. High-rise building is exposed to overheating in the tropical climate or equatorial region. For a high-rise built form, vertical surface is most critically exposed to direct solar radiation. radiation on vertical surfaces. South orientation is the most critical part to be protected than others parts. By combining different passive solar design strategies - core position, recessing space and self-shading envelope - intensity of solar radiation striking on the high-rise built form can be reduced up to 40%.

Tropical climate refers to zones in a range of latitudes between 5/10° to 35°. The temperatures remain high all over the year and shows an annual wide change in precipitations with wet and dry seasons: The dry season duration is proportional to the latitude to ultimately become a mostly dry area. Savanna grows naturally under this climate. In India and Western Africa, it is characterized by the monsoon. The monsoon seasons in these climates dump tremendous amounts of rain upon the region as well as strong wind rendering even the most robust patio umbrella insufficient for keeping dry.

14 ||Climate Climateand 3.2Housing 3.2 212

In tropical climatic zone, the effect of high-rise open ground floor allows wind flow and natural ventilation. Open ground floor at high-rise building especially highrise residential building was very popular in Malaysia. It was introduced as one of the architectural features or elements that give free space to the ground floor. However, the free space are only to give shades, circulation, parking and communal area for the resident. This allows wind induced cross ventilation in high-rise building in urban hot and humid tropical climate. when a void or open floor is created this would cause strong acceleration of wind. The acceleration of wind is actually due to the channelling of the flow between the two floors (at the top and at the bottom) of the void and sometimes referred to as a venturi effect. The phenomenon that increased the wind speed which consists of an increase in wind intensity due to the void or open floor that produce a convergence of streamline is also known as the jet effect

(Top Most ) flow modification in presence of a void (Top) wind pattern around building with open ground floor (Right) Venturi’s effect


3.2 F

3.2 A

Tropical Climate – Case Study Gondia District, Maharashtra: Gondia District is situated in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. It was created out of the Bhandara district. It is located in the north-eastern part of the state and is bordered by the states of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. Gondia district receives rainfall from South- Western winds mainly in the months of June, July, August and September. July and August are the months during which the maximum rainfall as well as maximum continuous rainfall occurs. The traditional dwelling there varied from small single storeyed mud structures to three or even more, in similar pattern. The study presented is from a three storeyed haveli.

3.2 B Basic House form: Spaces are arranged about a central space which is the main bedroom. The plan is roughly a 7x7 grid with varying wall thickness from 1m and downwards. A stepped pyramidal structure with sloping roof and no open terraces are used such that no water settles on the terrace.

3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

MINI-RES. CLUSTERS CENTRAL HAVELI IN THE CENTRE OF THE ESTATE

15 | Climate 3.2

FARMS

213 | Climate and Housing 3.2

(Top Most ) flow modification in presence of a void (Top) wind pattern around building with open ground floor (Right) Venturi’s effect


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

3.2 F

Tropical Climate – Case Study Climatic Consideration Increase of thermal resistance and capacity by maximizing building depth, the thick walls increase the time lag. Increase buffer spaces using low utility areas like verandahs, courtyards and storages. Low utility upper floors tend to act as a false ceiling and this atic allows increased air ventilation as the heated air escapes from the top. Light wall colors to minimize heat absorption by walls The vegetation outside helps to decrease glare. Overhanging roof towards he north and south to provide projection which protect the house from sun and rain and glare. The planting and layout provide protection from hot and dry cold winds. The main habitable space to be oriented north and south, the major opening towards the north and south to avoid excessive heat gain. The dwelling should be facing a generously proportionate courtyard.

16 ||Climate Climateand 3.2Housing 3.2 214

Courtyard for air circulation. Also acts as light well. Orientation in the SW in accordance with the breeze. Gabled windows in the attic for air circulation through attic. Roof sloped at an angle of almost 45 degrees for rain run-off. The building material s used to make the haveli are all local. The framework is done by teakwood found in the jungles nearby. Wherever the stones are used, it is a local grey granite found in the area. The walls are made up of a mixture of mud and straw along with cow dung. The burnt clay tiles used on the roof are also readily available in the area. Orientation and building envelope have a major impact on its heat gain. High-rise building is exposed to overheating in the tropical climate or equatorial region. For a high-rise built form, vertical surface is most critically exposed to direct solar radiation. radiation on vertical surfaces. South orientation is the most critical part to be protected than others parts. By combining different passive solar design strategies - core position, recessing space and self-shading envelope - intensity of solar radiation striking on the high-rise built form can be reduced up to 40%.

(Top Most ) flow modification in presence of a void (Top) wind pattern around building with open ground floor (Right) Venturi’s effect


3.2 G

3.2 A

Climatic Analysis of Delhi

The traditional dwelling analysed is located in Chandni Chowk New Delhi. The house is about 150 years old and was built for a Sikh family. The house initially comprised of three floors, however the first and the second are now used as residence while the ground floor has been rented to shops. LOCATION - CLIMATE: · The building faces west, and is located along a narrow lane having a number of houses on either side. · Due to the cluster of houses, windows can be provided only on one (in some cases two) side, that faces the lane. · The climate is the primary influence on the size and form of the building. · Delhi has a composite climate, having severe summers and winters. · The building responds best to summers utilizing the ‘stack effect’. · The building does not respond well to winters as no direct sunlight enters the house, the house becomes very cold. · The walls are rather thick (300mm) which delays the heat transfer.

Typical facade

3.2 C

The building is comprised of three floors. The Ground floor is rented out to shops with the first and second being used as residence.

3.2 D

The terrace - which is used at times by the men of the house to sleep during the summers. Children used to fly their kites from here. Round about the centre of the terrace is the ‘mug’ - an opening in the roof slab and was covered with a steel jali.

3.2 E 3.2 F 3.2 G

The traditional house caters to most requirements of the people living there in terms of degree of privacy, arrangement of different spaces in terms of frequency of use, climatic response and the social structure at that time. The character of each space is maintained by their placement in the house and the types of openings jails, windows etc. The narrow and steep staircase that leads to the first floor acts as a transition space between the lane outside and house inside. The size of the staircase was reduced to save space as a large number of people used to stay together at that time. Due to the space constraint, storage spaces were incorporated within the walls itself, or stone slabs were cantilevered out.

street view

Entrance

16 ||Climate Climateand 3.2Housing 3.2 215

SITE: 3055 BURSHABULLAH CHOWK, CHAWRI BAZAAR.

3.2 B


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C

PRIVATE

In the centre of the house is what is called the mug. This what remained of the courtyard after given all the restrictions of space while building the house. The mug functions as a light shaft and extends from the terrace, through the second floor and down till the first floor.

3.2 D 3.2 E

SEMI - PRIVATE PUBLIC NEUTRAL

3.2 F

C

C

3.2 G

C

GUEST ROOM

A’ A

A

16 ||Climate Climateand 3.2Housing 3.2 216

BEDROOM

LIVING ROOM

MUG

B’

B BATHROOM

LIVING ROOM

B

TOILET

C' C'

A’ A

A’

B’

B’

MANDIR

KITCHEN

B

C' (Left) Ground floor plan (Center) First floor plan (Top) Terrace plan


3.2 A 3.2 B PRIVATE

3.2 C

SEMI - PRIVATE PUBLIC

3.2 D

NEUTRAL

3.2 E 3.2 F

(Left) Section AA” (Center) Section BB’ (Top) Section through building

MANDIR

KITCHEN

TOILET

’ LIVING ROOM

LIVING ROOM

BATHROOM

16 ||Climate Climateand 3.2Housing 3.2 217

MUG

3.2 G


3.2 A 3.2 B 3.2 C 3.2 D 3.2 E

BUILDING MATERIALS

RESPONSE TO CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

‘Lakhauri’ or ‘nanakshahi’ bricks - the exterior and interior walls have been made using these bricks with lime-mortar. These bricks are sun-dried or kiln-baked of the dimensions - 10 x 5 x 2.5”

•The area consists of a very narrow lane with buildings on either side. The small width is to height ratio cuts off direct sunlight and thus heat and is well suited for summers. At the same time, the cluster of buildings with it’s compact form, resist heat loss during the winters by reducing exposure to cold winds.

3.2 F

Sagwaan wood - This wood is termite resistant and long lasting. It has been extensively used in all the doors and windows of the house.

3.2 G

Stone pillars & slabs - Pillars carved out of single stone over which a continuous stone slab is placed. Flooring - IPS and terrazzo flooring has been done in the house, while red sandstone is used for the steps. The terrace has intricate tiling patterns decorating the entire floor.

16 ||Climate Climateand 3.2Housing 3.2 218

Ceiling/roof - The roof consists of a sandstone slab resting on steel ‘C’ sections. Wooden battens were also used to support the stone slabs. There is no thermal insulation provided in the roofing structure.

The walls are thick (300mm) which delays the heat transfer or increases the ‘time lag’ factor. Mosaic tiles used on the terrace are coloured pale and have a reflective surface which reflects the sunrays and reduces heat absorption by the roof. The incorporation of the concept of the courtyard which eventually translated into the mug allows air flow to take place within the house. The warmer, lighter air rises up. This creates a low pressure zone inside the house while a high pressure zone in the lanes. Airflow is thus induced moving the cooler air from the lanes into the house, raising the comfort levels within the house in summers

(Extreme left ) Brick construction (Left) Arched doorway (bottom left) Extruding windows and balconies (bottom right) Street view (middle) Perspective View


3.3

Disaster and Housing 3.3 A

Understanding Disasters

3.3 B

Mitigation Measures for Earthquakes

3.3 C

Case Studies

3.3 D

Mitigation Measures for Cyclones/Tornadoes/Hurricanes

3.3 E

Case Studies

3.3 F 3.3 G

Mitigation Measures for Man-Made Disasters

Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4 221 12 | | Disaster

Case Studies


3.3 A

3.3 A

Understanding Disasters.

Natural hazard is unexpected or uncontrollable natural event of unusual magnitude that threatens the activities of people or people themselves (Orense, 2003). Natural hazard may lead to natural disaster if it resulted to a widespread destruction of property and caused injury and/or death. Those natural events that directly affect the ground or cause ground movements are called geotechnical hazards. 2. GEOTECHNICAL HAZARDS 2.1 Earthquakes and Earthquake Related Hazards An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the earth‟s crust that creates seismic waves. At the earth‟s surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. Earthquake shaking or other rapid loading can reduce shear resistance of soil and cause the soil to behave like liquid, the event called soil liquefaction. When a large earthquake epicenter is located offshore, the seabed sometimes suffers sufficient displacement to cause a tsunami. The shaking in earthquake can also trigger landslides and occasionally volcanic activity.

2.2 Landslides and Slope Failures Landslide is a general term used to describe the downslope movement of the soil, rock and organic materials under the influence of gravity. It is a normal landscape process in mountainous areas, but becomes a problem when it results in serious damage that oftentimes approach disaster proportions. As cities and towns grow, roads and highways and other amenities progressively encroach onto steeper slopes and mountainsides.Subsequently, these infrastructures attract further built-up environments. Landslide hazards become an increasingly serious threat to life and property. Catastrophic landslides have recently been increasing in the Philippines even surpassing the combined effects of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. The triggers usually take the form of an earthquake,heavy rainfall and human activities like quarrying and logging 2.3 Volcanic eruptions (S.C.S) A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface. Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling 2 apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust in the interiors of plates, e.g., in the East African Rift, the Wells GrayClearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North America.

3.3 C 3.3 D 3.3 E

(Above) Natural Disasters (Below) Man Made Disasters

Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4 223 15 | | Disaster

1.INTRODUCTION : Hazard may be defined as “a dangerous condition or event, that threat or have the potential for causing injury to life or damage to property or the environment.” The word „hazard‟ owes its origin to the word „hasard‟ in old French and „az-zahr‟ in Arabic meaning „chance‟ or „luck‟. Hazards can be grouped into two broad categories namely natural and manmade.

3.3 B


3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D

15 | | Disaster 224 Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4

3.3 E

3. Hydrological disasters 3.1 Floods A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, it is not a significant flood unless such escapes of water endanger land areas used by man like a village, city or other inhabited area. 3.2 STRONG WINDS (typhoons, hurricanes, cyclones, tropical storms and tornados) Pressure and suction from wind pressure, buffeting for hours at a time. Strong wind loads imposed on a structure may cause it to collapse, particularly after many cycles of load reversals. More common damage is building and non-structural elements (roof sheets, cladding, chimneys) blown loose. Wind-borne debris causes damage and injury. High winds cause stormy seas that can sink ships and pound shorelines. Many storms bring heavy rains. Extreme low air pressure at the center of a tornado is very destructive and houses may explode on contact. Winds generated by pressure differences in weather systems. Strongest winds generated in tropics around severe low pressure systems several hundreds of kilometers diameter (cyclones) known as typhoons in the Pacific and as hurricanes in Americas and elsewhere. Extreme low pressure pockets of much narrower diameter generate rapidly twisting winds in tornados. Tornados may strike suddenly but most strong winds build up strength over a number of hours. Low pressure systems and tropical storm development can be detected hours or days before damaging winds affect populations. Satellite tracking can help follow move ment of tropical storms and project likely path.

3.3 TSUNAMIS A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from Japanese: 洼波, lit. "harbor wave“, also called a tsunami wave train, is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, usually an ocean, though it can occur in large lakes. The principal generation mechanism (or cause) of a tsunami is the displacement of a substantial volume of water or perturbation of the sea. This displacement of water is usually attributed to either earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions,glacier calvings or more rarely by meteorites and nuclear tests. The waves formed in this way are then sustained by gravity. Tides do not play any part in the generation of tsunamis. Tsunamis cause damage by two mechanisms: the smashing force of a wall of water travelling at high speed, and the destructive power of a large volume of water draining off the land and carrying all with it, even if the wave did not look large. 4. Fires Wildfires are an uncontrolled fire burning in wildland areas. Common causes include lightning and drought but wildfires may also be started by human negligence or arson. They can be a threat to those in rural areas and also wildlife. Notable cases of wildfires were the 1871 Peshtigo Fire in the United States, which killed at least 1700 people, and the 2009 Victorian bushfires in Australia.

5. Man Made Disasters

2

Man-made disasters are disasters resulting from manmade hazards (threats having an element of human intent, negligence, or error; or involving a failure of a man-made system), as opposed to natural disasters resulting from natural hazards. Man-made hazards or disasters are sometimes referred to as anthropogenic Sociological Hazards 1. Crime 2. Arson 3. Civil Disorder 4. Terrorism 5. War

Technological Hazards 1. Industrial Hazards 2. Structural Collapse 3. Power Outage 4. Fire 5. Hazardous materials 6. Radiation Contamination 7. CBRNs 8. Transportation

(Above) Propagation of a tsunami. (Below) Earthquake And Volcanic Zones


3.3 A

3.3 B

1. EARTHQUAKE MITIGATION:

1.1 Plan of building 1. Symmetry: The building as a whole or its various blocks should be kept symmetrical about both the axes. Asymmetry leads to torsion during earthquakes and is dangerous, Symmetry is also desirable in the placing and sizing of door and window openings, as far as possible. 2.

Regularity: Simple rectangular shapes, behave better in an earthquake than shapes with many projections. Torsional effects of ground motion are pronounced in long narrow rectangular blocks. Therefore, it is desirable to restrict the length of a block to three times its width. If longer lengths are required two separate blocks with sufficient separation in between should be provided,

3.

Separation of Blocks: Separation of a large building into several blocks may be required so as to obtain symmetry and regularity of each block.

4.

Simplicity: Ornamentation involving large cornices, vertical or horizontal cantilever projections, facia stones and the like are dangerous and undesirable from a seismic viewpoint. Simplicity is the best Where ornamentation is insisted upon, it must be reinforced with steel, which should be properly embedded or tied into the main structure of the building.

5.

Enclosed Area: A small building enclosure with properly interconnected walls acts like a rigid box since the earthquake strength which long walls derive from transverse walls increases as their length decreases

6.

Separate Buildings for Different Functions: In view of the difference in importance of hospitals, schools, assembly halls, residences, communication and security buildings, etc., it may be economical to plan separate blocks for different functions so as to affect economy in strengthening costs.

3.3 B 1.2 Structural design Ductility is the most desirable quality for good earthquake performance and can be incorporated to some extent in otherwise brittle masonry constructions by introduction of steel reinforcing bars at critical sections There are basically two types structural framing possible to withstand gravity and seismic load, viz. bearing wall construction and framed construction. The framed construction may again consist of: 1. Light framing members which must have diagonal bracing such as wood frames or infill walls for lateral load resistance. 2. Substantial rigid jointed beams and columns capable of resisting the lateral loads by themselves. The latter will be required for large column free spaces such as assembly halls.

3.3 C 3.3 D 3.3 E

(Above) Images of Earthquake in Japan

2

(Above) Torsion of Symmetrical Plans (Right) Plan of Building Blocks

Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4 225 15 | | Disaster

Mitigation Measures for Natural Disasters


3.3 A

REQUIREMENTS OF STRUCTURAL SAFETY

3.3 B

1.

3.3 C

2.

3.3 D

3.

3.3 E

4. 5. 6. 7.

A free standing wall must be designed to be safe as a vertical cantilever. Horizontal reinforcement in walls is required for transferring their own out-of-plane inertia load horizontally to the shear walls. The walls must be effectively tied together to avoid separation at vertical joints due to ground shaking. Shear walls must be present along both axes of the building. A shear wall must be capable of resisting all horizontal forces due to its own mass and those transmitted to it. Roof or floor elements must be tied together and be capable of exhibiting diaphragm action. Trusses must be anchored to the supporting walls and have an arrangement for transferring their inertia force to the end walls.

15 | | Disaster 226 Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4

1.3 Ductility Formally, ductility refers to the ratio of the displacement just prior to ultimate displacement or collapse to the displacement at first damage or yield. Some materials are inherently ductile, such as steel, wrought iron and wood. Other materials are not ductile (this is termed brittle), such as cast iron, plain masonry, adobe or concrete, that is, they break suddenly, without warning. Brittle materials can be made ductile, usually by the addition of modest amounts of ductile materials, Such as wood elements in adobe construction, or steel reinforcing in masonry and concrete constructions. 1.4 Deformability Deformability is a less formal term referring to the ability of a structure to displace or deform substantial amounts without collapsing. Besides inherently relying on ductility of materials and components, deformability requires that structures be well-proportioned, regular and well tied together so that excessive stress concentrations are avoided and forces are capable of being transmitted from one component to another even through large deformations. Ductility is a term applied to material and structures, while deformability is applicable only to structures.

1.5 Damageability Damageability is also a desirable quality for onstruction, and refers to the ability of a structure to undergo substantial damages, without partial or total collapse A key to good damageability is redundancy, or provision of several supports for key structural members, such as ridge beams, and avoidance of central columns or walls supporting excessively large portionsof a building. 1.6 CONCEPT OF ISOLATION The above means in an earthquake resistent design emphasized the traditional approach of resisting the forces an earthquake imposes on a structure. An alternative approach which is presently emerging is to avoid these forces, by isolation of the structure from the ground motions which actually impose the forces on the structure.

This is termed base-isolation. For simple buildings, basefriction isolation may be achieved by reducing the coefficient of friction between the structure and its foundation, or by placing a flexible connection between the structure and its foundation. For reduction of the coefficient of friction between the structure and its foundation, one suggested technique is to place two layers of good quality plastic between the structure and its foundation, so that the plastic layers may slide over each other 1.7 FOUNDATIONS For the purpose of making a building truly earthquake resistant, it will be necessary to choose an appropriate foundation type for it. Since loads from typical low height buildings will be light, providing the required bearing area will not usually be a problem. The depth of footing in the soil should go below the zone of deep freezing in cold countries and below the level of shrinkage cracks in clayey soils. For choosing the type of footing from the earthquake angle, the soils may be grouped as Firm and Soft avoiding the weak soil unless compacted and brought to Soft or Firm condition. Enclosed Area Forming Box Units


3.3 A

3.3 C

Mitigation Measures for Earthquake at BHUJ, GUJARAT

The City of Bhuj Bhuj was one of the worst affected towns in the district; almost 50 percent of its walled city alone was considerably damaged. Over 7,000 people perished in Bhuj, most of them in the walled city area, as buildings constructed of stone and mud collapsed on extremely narrow streets. The lack of an effective street pattern was a major obstacle to disaster management in the earthquake‟s aftermath The draft development plan for Bhuj became a comprehensive plan that dealt with the following components: 1. Relocation and Rehabilitation 2. Economic Development 3. Land Development – Land Use Zoning and Development Control Regulations 4. Road Network and Transportation 5. Physical Infrastructure 6. Social Infrastructure 7. Open Spaces, Water Bodies and Environment 8. Heritage Conservation 9. Solid Waste Management 10. Informal Sector 11. Implementation Strategy.

3.3 C 3.3 D 3.3 E

This Map shows the Layout of a Neighborhood of BHUJ before the Land Readjustment Exercise. The streets were narrow with Dead ends and Bottlenecks. Few buildings were standing.(The Plots that are Shaded). During the quake buildings had collapsed on the streets preventing people from escaping and later hampering rescue.

This Map shows the Layout of the same Neighborhood after the Land Readjustment Exercise. The streets have been made wider,continuous, and much safer. The plots where buildings collapsed have been reorganised. Final plots, somewhat smaller than the original plots, have been allocated in roughly the same location as the original ones, retaining overall community configurations.

Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4 227 15 | | Disaster

Five districts in the State of Gujarat were severely impacted in the earthquake in 2001, but the worst affected was Kutch, where more than 90 percent of the deaths and 85 percent of the asset losses occurred. This district is a sparsely populated region, poor in natural resources (in a relatively rich state), and vulnerable to cyclones and drought, as well as earthquakes. The 6.9 magnitude earthquake struck in a second consecutive drought year. Four towns, including the district‟s largest – Bhuj -- and more than 400 villages were severely hit, destroying lives, infrastructure, buildings, the economy, and livelihoods. The death toll was nearly 14,000, and 167,000 were injured. More than 1.2 million homes were damaged or destroyed. So were small enterprises, schools, health clinics, rural and urban water systems, and electricity and telecommunications systems

3.3 B


3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D

15 | | Disaster 228 Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4

3.3 E

1.2.2 Strengthening of Structures It is always advisable to avoid areas susceptible to earthquake hazards like soil liquefaction; however, for certain reasons like space restrictions and favorable locations, construction on these areas can not be avoided. It is therefore a must to design the structure earthquake resistant and its foundation elements resistant to the effects of liquefaction and ground settlement. Emphasis of design should always be on safety over aesthetics and functionality. Odd shaped structures, if possible, should be avoided. Soft story building failures can be prevented by proper planning of architectural form of the building and by emphasizing ductility design of the columns, walls and beams. To decrease the amount of damage a structure may suffer in case of an earthquake, a structure must possess ductility in order to accommodate large deformations, adjustable supports for corrections to differential settlements and having foundation design that can span soft soils.

3.3 C

Mitigation Measures for Natural Disasters 1. LANDSLIDE MITIGATION:

1.1 causes of landslides 1. Geological Weak material: Weakness in the composition and structure of rock or soil may also cause landslides. 2. Erosion: Erosion of slope toe due to cutting down of vegetation, construction of roads might increase the vulnerability of the terrain to slide down. 3. Intense rainfall: Storms that produce intense rainfall for periods as short as several hours or have a more moderate intensity lasting several days have triggered abundant landslides. Heavy melting of snow in the hilly terrains also results in landslide. 4. Human Excavation of slope and its toe, loading of slope/toe, draw down in reservoir, mining, deforestation, irrigation, vibration/blast, Water leakage from services.

1.2 Main mitigation strategies Location planning to avoid hazardous areas being used for settlements or as sites for important structures. In some cases relocation may be considered. Reduce hazards where possible. Engineering of structures to withstand or accommodate potential ground movement. Piled foundations to protect against Liquefaction. Monolithic foundations to avoid differential settlements. Flexible buried utilities. Relocation of existing settlements or infrastructure may be considered.

1.2.1 Zoning, Mapping and Monitoring Observations from previous earthquakes provide a great deal of information about a particular area susceptible to geotechnical hazards. It is important to identify and map areas prone to earthquake hazards of liquefaction, earthquake-induced landslides and amplified ground shaking. The outcome of this observation and assessment is best presented in a zoning map where locations or zones of different levels of hazard potentials are identified. Cities and municipalities especially those highly populated areas are advise to come up with zoning maps. If you are building a structure and want to find out if 2the site is susceptible to liquefaction or landslide, the zoning map will be very useful for this purpose. Engineering geology and geotechnical hazard assessment should be required prior to any development projects especially in landslide-prone areas. With a deeper understanding and monitoring of the movements of unstable

1.2.3 Soil improvement technology Another way of mitigating earthquake related hazards like liquefaction are by improving the strength, density and/or drainage characteristics of soil. This can be done through various ground improvement techniques. Table 1 summarizes the liquefaction hazard mitigation techniques.


3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D 3.3 E

a.) Grouted rip rap

c.) Gabion walls

b) Soil nailing

d.) Vetiver grass in road projects

Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4 229 15 | | Disaster

1.2.4Slope Protection and Stabilization Engineering countermeasures for reducing landslides generally involve the use of slope stabilization methods such as benching, improvement of subsurface drainage, construction of retaining structures, and reinforcement of slopes. Benching is the practice of transforming one high slope into a series of lower slopes with horizontal surfaces in between slopes referred to as benches. The purpose of benching is to reduce the overall gradient of the slope. Installing proper drainage minimizes the destabilizing effects of hydrostatic and seepage forces on a slope, as well as reduces the risk of erosion and piping (Abramson, 1996). In the Philippines, the most widely used drainage technique is the installation of surface drains to carry away surface runoff and prevent it from seeping into the slope. Vegetation like Vetiver grass is also widely used for steep slope stabilization and rehabilitation of degraded and disturbed lands. In the last 50 years, attention has been focused on vetiverâ€&#x;s unique soil conservation properties. It grows both in highly acidic and alkaline soils and its roots can grow to depths of 3 to 4 meters. When planted in single lines along the contour, hedges of vetiver grass are found to be very effective in soil and moisture conservation. Table 2 summarizes some engineering practices for stabilizing and/or protecting precarious slopes. Fig. 14 shows some slope protection and stabilization techniques.


3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D 3.3 E

3.3 D

Mitigation Measures for Natural Disasters 1.CYCLONE MITIGATION:

1.3 Possible Risk Reduction Measures:

1.1Cyclone Cyclone is a region of low atmospheric pressure surrounded by high atmospheric pressure resulting in swirling atmospheric disturbance accompanied by powerful winds blowing in anticlockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in the clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. They occur mainly in the tropical and temperate regions of the world. Cyclones are called by various names in different parts of the world as mentioned in box on the next page.

Coastal belt plantation - green belt plantation along the coastal line in a scientific interweaving pattern can reduce the effect of the hazard. Providing a cover through green Belt sustains less damage. Forests act as a wide buffer zone against strong winds and flash floods. Without the forest the cyclone travel freely inland. The lack of protective forest cover allows water to inundate large areas and cause destruction. With the loss of the forest cover each consecutive cyclone can penetrate further inland. Cyclones are known by different names in different parts of the world: •Typhoons in the Northwest Pacific •Ocean west of the dateline •Hurricanes in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Northeast Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, or the South Pacific Ocean. •Tropical cyclones - the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Southeast Indian Ocean. •Severe cyclonic storm” (the North Indian Ocean) •Tropical cyclone (the Southwest Indian Ocean) • Willie-Willie in Australia •Tornado in South America

15 | | Disaster 230 Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4

2

1.2 General Characteristics: Cyclones in India are moderate in nature. Some of the general characteristics of a cyclone are: 1. Strong winds 2. Exceptional rain 3. Storm surge

Hazard mapping – Meteorological records of the wind speed and the directions give the probability of the winds in the region. Cyclones can be predicted several days in advance. Land use control designed so that least critical activities are placed in vulnerable areas. Engineered structures – structures need to be built to withstand wind forces. Good construction practice should be adopted such as: •Cyclonic wind storms inundate the coastal areas. It is advised to construct on stilts or on earth mound. • Houses can be strengthened to resist wind and flood damage. All elements holding the structures need to be properly anchored to resist the uplift or flying off of the objects. For example, avoid large overhangs of roofs, and the projections should be tied down. • A row of planted trees will act as a shield. It reduces the energy. • Buildings should be wind and water resistant. • Buildings storing food supplies must be protected against the winds and water. • Protect river embankments. Communication lines should be installed underground. • Provide strong halls for community shelter in vulnerable locations.


Structural Specifications 2 1. Imposed Load for design of floor slab and beams: 500 kg/m2. 2. Wind velocity for East Coast of India and Gujarat coast: Basic wind speed 65 m/sec with modification factors K1=1.08, K2=1.05, and K3=1.0 as per IS 875 -standards with specified normal load factors. 3. Wind velocity for West Coast (excepting Gujarat) and Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Basic wind speed 50 m/sec with modification factors K1= 1.08, K2= 1.05,K3 = 1.0 as per IS 875. 4. Roof Terrace: Design for same imposed load as that of the first floor in case of larger than 7 m storm surge height; for lower surges design for 250 kgm-2. .

Building 1. RCC or brick masonry two storied building with or without stilt depending on the storm tide levels is considered suitable. Height depends on the storm tide levels. In view of general soft top soil in coastal areas, pile foundations may be preferable. However, suitable type of foundations should be considered based on local conditions and soil strata. 2. Shape: Any shape (circular, hexagonal, octagonal) is suitable. However, square or rectangular may be used provided the peripheral corners are rounded for improving the aerodynamics of the structure. 3. Doors: Should be opened outwards into a box having four heavy duty stainless steel hinges fixed firmly to the holding medium. 4. Windows: Louver type of window is suggested with non-breakable and non-brittle items made of Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP). 5. Parapet: 6. For RCC buildings: The height of the RCC parapet over the first floor roof will depend upon design storm surge height and may be taken from 0.8m to 1.35 m having holding-pipes on top or inside of the parapet depending on the design surge levels. 7. For masonry buildings: The parapet may be made of brick masonry up to a height of 0.8 m with pipe railing at top.

3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D 3.3 E

Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4 231 15 | | Disaster

1.4 Height of the Cyclone Shelter The total height of the shelter above high tide line should meet the requirement of the design height of the storm surge. The height of the structure may be worked out as follows: 1. A minimum of 1 m should be ensured between the ground level and the high-tide level. 2. Raise the plinth about 1.2- 1.5 m above the ground level. 3. Where needed, add 2.2-4.5 m high stilt depending on surge height. 4. Add one liveable storey of 3.5 m height to the above level so arrived. This will be sufficient for most surge heights 5. Design the roof to act as shelter space with parapet all around in case of larger storm surge in the area.


3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D

Their entry for the Design Against the Elements Competition is a master planned eco community with cluster housing units, two community centres, prayer and mediation space, a library, and lots of open green space. Bio-wells, rainwater collection, grey water recycling, plantations, commercial space are also incorporated to make this a mixed-use, sustainable community.

1. CYCLONE CASE STUDY:Philippines,Manila disaster resistant Housing.

3.3 E

The housing concept is a three-story apartment building built on stilts with an earthquake, wind and water resistant core. This core holds all the necessary elements, like water lines, power, staircases and each apartmentâ€&#x;s kitchen and bathroom. Radiating out from the core are three living pods per floor, inexpensively constructed completely out of bamboo. Each family also has access to the roof and an escape hatch for the most dire of storms. Stilts help the house withstand flooding from storms or monsoons, and should the bamboo living pods get torn off they can easily be reconstructed when the family has time and can afford it.

15 | | Disaster 232 Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4

2

These unique bamboo houses are part of a much larger disaster resistant community concept for the Philippines designed by a group of Indian architects – Komal Gupta, Vasanth Packirisamy, Vikas Sharma, Sakshi Kumar and Siripurapu Monish Kumar

Rainwater is harvested via the roofs and stored in a tank at the bottom of the structure. Emergency food stores and a water tank are kept secure at the top of the building


1. CYCLONE CASE STUDY:Philippines,Manila disaster resistant Housing.

3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D 3.3 E

Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4 233 15 | | Disaster

2


3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D 3.3 E

1. FLOOD MITIGATION:

Flood mitigation involves managing the effects of flooding, such as redirecting flood run-off, rather than trying to prevent it altogether. It is management of people, through measures such as evacuation and dry/wet proofing properties for example. The prevention of flooding can be studied on a number of levels, individual properties, small communities and whole towns or cities. The costs of protection rise as more people and property are protected. Flood Mitigation Strategies: There are two different ways to mitigate floods: 1. Structural 2. Non- Structural Structural measures are in the nature of physical measures and help in “modifying the floods”, while nonstructural measures are in the nature of planning and help in “modifying the losses due to floods”.

15 | | Disaster 234 Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4

In the structural measures we keep the water away from people and in the non-structural measures to try to keep the people away from water. All of these works can be individually divided into long term and shortterm measures. Structural Measures: a) Embankments: Embankments have been extensively used for protection against floods of important towns and lands. However, the embankments are now the best means of communication in the floodprone areas and are being recklessly used for transportation of materials by tractors and other heavy vehicles. During floods, people shift to the embankments for temporary shelter and often settle down there for good. Thus, embankments and their slopes become permanent settlements to flood victims and their livestock. It messes up proper maintenance, and embankments become susceptible to breaches during floods. Whenever there are lapses in maintenance, the protected areas are exposed to serious flood hazards.

a) Water Shed Management: Timely cleaning, de-silting and deepening of natural water reservoir and drainage channels (both urban and rural) must be taken up. b) Reservoirs: The entire natural water storage place should be cleaned on a regular basis. Encroachments on tanks and ponds or natural drainage channel share to be removed well before the onset of monsoon. c) Natural water retention Basins: Construction and protection of all the flood protection embankments, ring bunds and other bunds. Dams and levees can also be constructed which can be used as temporarily storing space which reduces the chances of lower plains getting flooded. d) Buildings on elevated area: The buildings in flood prone areas should be constructed on an elevated area and if necessary on stilts and platform. However, complete flood control in terms of structural methods of flood protection are neither economically viable nor these are environment friendly. Therefore, non-structural methods are becoming popular in mitigating flood disaster. 2

Non Structural Measures: a) Flood Plain Zoning: Flood plain zoning, which places restrictions on the use of land on flood plains, can reduce the cost of flood damage. Local governments may pass laws that prevent uncontrolled building or development on flood plains to limit flood risks and to protect nearby property. Landowners in areas that adopt local ordinances or laws to limit development on flood plains can purchase flood insurance to help cover the cost of damage from floods. b) Flood Forecasting and warning: These are issued for different areas mostly by the Central water Commission/ Meteorological department and by the State Irrigation/ Flood Department


Flood mitigation at individual houses or buildings involve various “Flood Proofing” or “Retrofitting” methods. 1. ELEVATION: It means raising all or part of the house structure with heavy duty jacks so that the lowest floor is at or above a designated flood protection level. Utilities are disconnected and a new or extended foundation wall,posts, piers or fill is constructed and the house is set on this new foundation. Elevated structures may be above a predicted flood level, but may now be subjected to additional wind forces, undermined foundations and earthquake forces. 2. RELOCATION: Relocation means moving the house to a location that is less prone to flooding or erosion on another part of the same site or a new site. This is the surest way to reduce the risk of being flooded again but may be too expensive. 3. DRY FLOODPROOFING: Dry Floodproofing means to seal that part of the building below the flood protection level so that area is watertight. Making the walls ,doors and windows impermeable to water penetration using sealant systems, preventing back flow from sewer lines and closing vents are some methods to help seal the building. These are typically only appropriate where the floodwaters are less than three feet (3‟) deep because walls may collapse if water is higher than that. This method is not allowed under the National Flood Insurance Program. 4. WET WATERPROOFING: Wet waterproofing is a method which allows water to enter a building, but essential building systems such as furnaces, hot water heaters and electrical panels are relocated or protected and space is available to relocate and store contents. This method may be the least cost flood protection method appropriate for structures with basements or crawl spaces that cannot be protected by other methods.

4. FLOODWALLS AND LEVEES: Floodwalls and Levees mean constructing barriers between house and the flooding source. Floodwalls are usually limited to four feet (4‟) in height and Levees six feet (6‟). Because of water pressure,costs, access, space, and how they look, Zoning Codes may restrict their size and location. Levees are typically compacted , impervious earth with 2:1 or 3: 1 slopes and floodwaters no more than five feet (5‟) deep. Sandbags form temporary levees but are time consuming to build and water seepage will occur so pumps are often necessary to remove water seepage. Floodwalls are engineered barriers constructed of masonry or reinforced concrete but the wall foundations are vulnerable to seepage and erosion. A floodwall can surround an entire house or parts of a house and can be integrated with landscaping.

3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D 3.3 E

2

| Disaster Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4 235 15 |

1. FLOOD MITIGATION:


3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D 3.3 E

1. FLOOD MITIGATION: 5. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Protecting our houses and property from serious floods is a big challenge facing lots of researchers and companies all over the world.There are presently two main innovations to deal with it: floating houses and flood-shield houses. a. CONE-SHAPE BASEMENT b. RAFT BASEMENT

15 | | Disaster 236 Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4

6. FLOATING HOUSE A floating house is a building that can float on the water due to the inherent buoyant forces in a flood. From an environmental view, it seems reasonable because it uses a natural energy force to solve the exact same naturally-occurring problem. These floating houses can generally be divided into two types according to their different modes of movement. One is the „boat‟ floating house that can move freely in both vertical and horizontal directions. Another is the „lift‟ floating house that can only move vertically up or down. These two types can both make use of a special basement or big platform to generate enough floating force to push themselves up. 7. FLOOD-SHIELD HOUSE Besides pushing houses up to let floodwater flow through, researchers also consider covering an entire house with an exterior waterproof barrier to protect the property. Currently, two kinds of such barriers are in use. One employs a waterproof veneer, a facade with waterproof materials that is added to exterior walls and seals all openings, including doors. It is a reasonably inexpensive way to prevent flood damage, but high water pressure causes serious structural concerns to arise in areas where the flood depth may exceed one metre. The other method, already in use in Yalding.

(Above and below) Examples of Floating Houses

2


3.3 A

3.3 D

1. TSUNAMI MITIGATION:

1.1 Land use management:I. Building Placement : A simple precaution against damage from most tsunamis is for all buildings to be placed 2-3 meters above the high tide level (Everingham, 1976). The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) deployed after the 1998 Aitape, Papua New Guinea tsunami recommended the following land use considerations: • Residents should not be relocated in locales fronted by water and backed by rivers or lagoons; and • Schools, churches, and other critical facilities should never be located closer than 400m from the coastline, and preferably 800m in at-risk areas. II. Planting and Environmental Preservation : Preservation of Dunes And Other Natural Barriers:•

Sand dunes and sandy berms topped with shrubs and grasses offer some protection from tsunamis depending upon the height and force of the wave. Once the wave crosses a berm and moves inland it may encounter obstructions or ground features that will cause it to lose energy. Ideally, the ground behind the berm would have an uphill slope to further deter the wave

Mangroves, and stands of dense vegetation can offer some protection from tsunami by not only providing holding capacity for near-shore areas, but by absorbing some of the energy of the waves, catching and holding logs and other debris, and diverting the flow of water.

III. Manmade barriers: Manmade or enhanced natural channels may divert tsunami flooding away from surrounding areas .

3.3 B 1.2 Structural and Design Considerations

3.3 C

I.

3.3 D

II.

Building construction management: While it is recognized that most buildings cannot withstand extreme tsunami loads, multi-story buildings of reinforced concrete and structural steel that are built to withstand local seismic forces and/or extreme wind conditions with limited structural damage, may offer protection from smaller tsunami waves. Tsunami Effects and Design Solutions EFFECTS

Design solution

•Flooded basements. •Flooding of lower floors. •Fouling of mechanical, electrical and communication systems and equipment. •Damage to building materials, furnishings, and contents (supplies, inventories, personal property). •Contamination of affected area with waterborne pollutants.

Choose sites at higher elevations. • Raise the building above the flood elevation. • Do not store or install vital material and equipment on floors or basements lying below tsunami inundation levels. • Protect hazardous 2 material storage facilities that must remain in tsunami hazard areas. • Locate mechanical systems and equipment at higher locations in the building. • Use concrete and steel for portions of the building subject to inundation. • Evaluate bearing capacity of soil in a saturated condition.

3.3 E

Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4 237 15 | | Disaster

Mitigation Measures for Natural Disasters


3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D

EFFECTS

Design solution

EFFECTS

Design solution

Hydrostatic forces (pressure on walls caused by variations in water depth on opposite sides)

•Elevate buildings above flood level. •Anchor buildings to foundations. •Provide adequate openings to allow water to reach equal heights inside and outside of buildings. •Design for static water pressure on walls.

Hydrodynamic forces (pushing forces caused by the leading edge of the wave on the building and the drag caused by flow around the building and overturning forces that result).

•Elevate buildings. •Design for dynamic water forces on walls and building elements. •Anchor building to foundations.

Buoyancy (flotation or uplift forces caused by buoyancy).

•Elevate buildings •Anchor buildings to foundations.

Debris impact

•Elevate buildings. • Design for impact loads.

Saturation of soil causing slope instability and/or loss of bearing capacity

•Evaluate bearing capacity and shear strength of soils that support building foundations and embankment slopes under conditions of saturation. •Avoid slopes or provide setback from slopes that may be destabilized when inundated.

Scour

•Use deep piles or piers. •Protect against scour around foundations.

15 | | Disaster 238 Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4

3.3 E

2

Possible building materials FIRE:Waterborne flammable materials and ignition sources in buildings

Use fire-resistant materials. Locate flammable material storage outside of highhazard areas.

Embankment instability

Design waterfront walls and bulkheads to resist saturated soils without water in front. Provide adequate drainage.


3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D

Japan Before hit by the Tsunami

Japan After the Tsunami

Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4 239 15 | | Disaster

3.3 E


3.3 A 3.3 B 3.3 C 3.3 D 3.3 E

3.3 E

Mitigation Measures for Natural Disasters 1. TSUNAMI CASE STUDY:-

1.1 Tsunami Housing Reconstruction Program Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu, India I. THE EVENT The Tsunami of 26 December 2004 was a disaster of unprecedented magnitude and destruction. Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu, on the eastern coast of India was one of the worst affected districts, and within the district, Tarangambadi and Chinnangudi villages were two of the worst hit.Tarangambadi comprises 1725 households, the majority of which are fisher families. II. THE AFFECT As many as 304 lives of residents of Tarangambadi were lost due to the Tsunami, of which more than 150 were of young children. It also resulted in complete damage of 904 houses, and partial damage of about 266 houses.

1.2 OBJECTIVES •Analysis of damages, sharing them with community •Habitat mapping, to understand the spaces and people‟s needs •Socio-economic survey, to collect information on housing, livelihood, etc. •Awareness creation amongst villagers on safety, location and construction process •Construction of 7 model houses to get feedback from community •Formation of cluster committees to supervise the construction •Training of houseowners to make them aware of their responsibilities in the construction process •Training of engineers and masons to ensure construction quality

15 | | Disaster 240 Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4

III. PROJECT The project objective follows a holistic approach. Beside the provision of physical habitat and community infrastructure the project aims at improving the living conditions of the community, particularly disadvantaged persons and minorities. It is also safeguarding against future tsunamies and other natural calamities. New livelihood opportunities were established and local skills developed. Out of 1000 houses constructed, about 250 were built in-situ. 750 families had to be relocated to a reconstruction area provided by the Government.

2


3.3 A 3.3 B

1.4 BUILDING DESIGN I. CLUSTER APPROACH The project was divided into clusters of 25 50 houses. An elected committee of five houseowners managed the cluster along with a cluster volunteer. They are aided by a team of project engineers, architects and community development officers II. 1000 HOUSES/1000 DESIGNS The project considered a house as a customized product, which has many cultural, economic, technical and political dimensions III. STRATERGY The project tried to overcome the typical limitations of mass housing in the early planning stage. The decision to avoid contractors was part of the strategy. Contractors were used to provide labour, while building materials were supplied by the project. Supervision was done by house-owners, cluster volunteers and engineers. This approach called for appropriate technologies well known in the area, e.g. RCC framing and brickwork filling. IV. CHALLENGES The involvement of the people in the design process, the rights of the poor to have choices, and the allotment of plots before construction were instrumental in creating ownership. However, providing space for all these stakeholders to voice their opinion has necessitated resolving conflicting demands – the administration wanted speedy delivery, the community wanted immediate resolution of conflicts; observers sought no compromise on quality.

PROJECT SCOPE BUILDING COST AND MATERIALS USED Number of houses built: 1000 Number of villages reconstructed: 2 Plot size 9.15 m x 12.20 m: m2 111.60 Built up house area, excluding toilet/bathroom: m2 31.60 Built up house area, including toilet/bathroom: m2 37.40 Construction period: 2005 - 2008

3.3 D 3.3 E

2

Disaster 3.3 and Housing 3.4 241 15 | | Disaster

1. TSUNAMI CASE STUDY:-

3.3 C

1.2PROJECT SCOPE


4

DELHI


4.1 4.1 A

Seven Cities of Delhi

4.1 B

Shahjahanabad: Planning and Spatial Structure

4.1 C

Shahjahanabad: Spatial Hierarchy

4.1 D

Shahjahanabad: Demographics

4.1 E

Shahjahanabad: Beyond the Walled city

4.1 F

Evolution of the city post 1857

245 | Delhi: Traditional 4.1

Delhi Traditional


4.1 A

4.1 A

As many as seven cities evolved in the region collectively known as Dilli/Delhi. New Delhi was the eighth city founded by the Britishers. Favorable location of Delhi made it a capital of many Emperors.

• •

4.1 C 4.1 D 4.1 E 4.1 F

Converging point of trade routes from Lahore, Ajmer, and Patna. Fertile flood plains of river Yamuna. Protection of Aravali Ridge on the west.

Lal-Kot (1060) founded by Anang Pal II Siri (1303) founded by Alaudin Khilji Tughluqabad (1321) founded by Ghiyasud-din Tughlaq

Purana Quila (1533) founded by Humayun Firuzabad ( 1354) founded by Firuz Shah Tughlaq Purana Quila (1533) founded by Humayun

Shahjahanabad (1639) founded by Shahjahan

| Delhi: Traditional 247Delhi 1| Traditional 4.1 4.1

1911…

A journey in time – The seven cities of Delhi

18571911

1533

4.1 B

1354

1321

1303

1060

Seven cities of Delhi


4.1 E 4.1 F

1533

1354

1321

4.1 D

1303

4.1 C

1060

4.1 B

Initial Settlement Anang Pal II built the strongly fortified town of Lal Kot some ten kilometres away from Suraj Kund (built by earlier Tomar Ruler) on a more prominent and easily defended hillock. Original wall of Lal-Kot were 3.6 kms with a population of 5-6000 people. Later Chauhans captured Delhi from the Tomars in mid 12th century. Prithvi Raj Chauhan III further increased the size of Lal-Kot, known as Qila Rai Pithora. • City extended four times. • Walls were 8 kms long. • Had several gates and many structures including a Temple. • A heterogeneous population including bazaars and public spaces, Hauz-i-Shamsi being the most prominent. • Stratified residential spaces.

2| Delhi Traditional 4.1 4.1 248 | Delhi: Traditional

(intach, 2005)

1060

1911…

Lal Kot

18571911

4.1 A


4.1 A

City of Siri On the plains of Siri (present Khel Gaon) and much closer to Mehrauli, the palace fortress was laid out with heavy fortifications and several gates. The settlement came to be known as Siri.

4.1 C 4.1 D 4.1 E 4.1 F

Hauz-i-khas reservoir was built outside the fortified city for water supply of the city. Nothing much is known about the original city pattern of Siri. Only the ramparts remain today.

249 | Delhi: Traditional 4.1

Figure ground for Shahpur Jat (present)

1911‌

1303

18571911

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4.1 B


4.1 A

4.1 E 4.1 F

Built on a hillock in just 2 years during Ghiyasud-din Tughlaq short reign from 1320-1324. A palace cum city complex. •6.25 km Outer wall contain the palace. •Inner walls contain the citadel.

A Gates B Excavated layout of city C Palace D Underground pits E Tanks

4| Delhi Traditional 4.1 4.1 250 | Delhi: Traditional

F Citadel

G Jami masjid H Ghiyasud-din Tomb I Adilabad

1911…

1321

18571911

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1354

1321

4.1 D

1303

4.1 C

Tughluqabad (1321) founded by Ghiyasud-din Tughlaq

1060

4.1 B


4.1 A

4th city of Delhi was created by linking Lal-Kot and Siri by two walls. The city contains: Hauz Khas Adhchini Beghumpur Sarai Shahji

E. F. G. H. I.

1911‌

4.1 B 4.1 C 4.1 D 4.1 E 4.1 F

Seikh Sarai Somi Nagar Chirag Dilli Khirki Satpula

| Delhi: Traditional 251 5| Delhi Traditional 4.1 4.1

A. B. C. D.

1327

18571911

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1354

1321

1303

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Jahanpanah (1327) founded by Muhammad Bin Tughlaq


4.1 E 4.1 F

After ascending the throne Firuz Shah Tughlaq founded a new city for himself at the northern plains of Delhi. The city covered an area of 10 sq miles and included many villages. It comprised: •Localities •Places of education •Sarais •Reservoirs •Canals •Market places •Garden and hunting lodges Only the remains of the citadel days.

are present these

6| Delhi Traditional 4.1 4.1 252 | Delhi: Traditional

Baoli Main entrance Diwan-i aam

Diwan-ikhaas

Jaami masjid Royal palace

1911…

1354

18571911

1533

1354

4.1 D

1321

4.1 C

1303

4.1 B

Firuzabad ( 1354) founded by Firuz Shah Tughlaq

1060

4.1 A


4.1 A 4.1 B

The Site Was Not Virgin Land Once a forest, a 30 km long canal Nahr-i-Bihist or Faiz Nahr, existed before the founding of Shahjahanabad. The canal was built by Firuz Shah, taking water from the Jamuna at Khizrabad, and it flowed through his gardens. The canal was put to reuse by shahjahan.

The area south of Chandni Chowk was also dotted with structures of extended Firuzabad. Salim Garh fort was constructed by Islam Shah before Shahjahanabad. Delhi was an active urban centre even when the capital was Agra during the reign of Akbar and Jahanghir. MOVING CAPITAL FROM AGRA TO DELHI • Congested city of Agra. • Strategic location of Delhi.

1911…

1639-1857AD

18571911

1533

1354

1321

1303

•Shahjahan’s desire to mark an impact by founding a new city inspired by Persian city of Isfahan. • Erosion of river banks of agra due to deep cut ravines causing many structures along the water’s edge to collapse. • Important trade routes. • Delhi had the largest mint after Agra. • Heterogeneous population of Delhi to look after the various functions. • An important religious and pilgrimage centre.

4.1 C 4.1 D 4.1 E 4.1 F

Salimgarh Fort

Faiz Nahar

Road From Lahore

Hunting Lodge

Extension Of Firuzabad

Road From Ajmer

| Delhi: Traditional 253 7| Delhi Traditional 4.1 4.1

1060

Shahjahanabad (Historical Background)


4.1 E 4.1 F

Cityscape Organized At Two Levels: Highly developed spaces encompassing near perfect architectonic symmetry for the royalty and the nobility.

Gardens • The fort surrounded by garden on all sides except outside the Lahori Gate. • Anguri Bagh towards north. • Buland Bagh towards south. • Gulabi Bagh facing west. • Bagh-i-Sahibabad(1650)

Spaces earmarked simultaneously, to be built upon with greater spontaneity by sections of society comprising merchants, professional groups, middle and lower ranking officialdom and the urban poor.

254 | Delhi: Traditional 4.1

1911…

1639-1857AD

18571911

1533

1354

4.1 D

1321

4.1 C

Shahjahanabad: Planning and Spatial Structure 1303

4.1 B

4.1 B 1060

4.1 A

City Wall Initially a mud wall as the city wall. Later constructed in stone and mortar. 11 monumental gateways.


4.1 A

Roads Two major roads were : •

Between lahori gate of the fort and fathpuri masjid(east-west axis) dividing the city into two unequal halves.

Between lahori gate of the fort and Akbarabadi gate(north-south axis)

Photograph of Chandni Chowk during Brithish Rule.

1911…

1639-1857AD

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4.1 B 4.1 C 4.1 D 4.1 E 4.1 F

255 | Delhi: Traditional 4.1

Other than these two there were other 8 important roads.


4.1 E 4.1 F

1639-1857AD

Settlement Pattern • Many localities arranged themselves around the mosques interspersed with bazaar streets. • Bazaar were specialized and so were the localities. • Nobles and members of the royalty built their havelis surrounded by beautiful gardens.

Bazaars Along the main streets there were baazaars, markets for specialised goods. Bazaar towards Lahore Faiz bazar Chowri bazaar etc,

• Merchants lived in houses on top of their warehouse and shop lining the bazaar streets. • Houses intermixed with small houses of troopers, servants built with mud, and thatched with straw.

BUILDING MATERIALS Royal havelies were built with stones. Houses of merchants, traders were mortar

1911…

1533

1354

1321

4.1 D

1303

4.1 C

1060

4.1 B

18571911

4.1 A

in stone and

10| |Delhi Traditional 4.14.1 256 Delhi: Traditional

Jama Masjid and the Bazaars

Mosques Mosques were important part of planning. •Initially, there were two important mosques: Fatehpuri masjid and Akbarabadi masjid. • Jama Masjid was constructed in1650 due to growing population.


1911‌

1639-1857AD

18571911

1533

1354

Some Traditional Terminology And Hierarchy A bazar is a market place with a mixture of residential and commercial uses. A mohalla is a section of the town or city with residential land commercial activity fronting the street(may include a few housing typologies. Mahal in shajahanabad is a large house of Muslim noblemen. It is an Islamic style building. Havelis and kothis are medium size houses for Hindu noblemen. Koocha, Persian term for alley or lane. abodes of specific castes and communities can be seen. Serai, Persian for inn or lodging for Muslim pilgrims and travellers

4.1 B 4.1 C 4.1 D 4.1 E 4.1 F

Important Localities Maliwara Kucha-i-Chelan Farrashkhana Gali Rajan Imam ka Kucha Katra Nil Charkhenwalan

| Delhi: Traditional 257Delhi 11| Traditional 4.1 4.1

1321

1303

1060

4.1 A


4.1 A 4.1 B

4.1 C

2.4 A

Spatial Hierarchy

2.4 B 2.4 C

4.1 C 4.1 D 4.1 E 4.1 F

At the neighborhood level the city of Shahjahanabad was defined by the following elements: •Thanas/wards/Mahallahs •Streets/bazaars and chowks • Individual havellis

2.4 D

Thanas and Mahallas: •The city was divided into 12 thanas (wards) each under the control of a thanadar. •Each Thana was again subdivided into several Mahallas (neighborhoods). •The spatial system of the city was based on an extensive hierarchical organization which allowed a heterogeneous population to live together.

2.4 E 2.4 F

Mohalla

Koocha

Katra

12| Traditional 4.1 4.1 258 Delhi | Delhi: Traditional

Residential

Business

Slum

Gate leading to Mohalla

The local representatives of the different social and ethnic groups aligned their buildings and the adjoining streets in a functional manner. The Mahallahs were sealed, homogeneous units within the city. They could only be reached by means of several gates.

The alleys in the Mahallah were therefore semi-private space, while the courtyard houses were private space separated once again from the outside world by a gate.


4.1 C

4.1 A 4.1 B

Spatial Hierarchy

4.1 C

4.1 D Koocha The literal meaning of the term is lane or alley. During Mughal period the Koochas were probably exclusive residential areas of the Muslims or Hindu.

4.1 E 4.1 F

Katra Every neighborhood or Katra is marked with a gateway which is the only access to the whole neighborhood, these gateways develop a sense of territory as well as a privacy to the Katra .

Business Katra

Katras entrance gateway

Katra Neel

Slum Katra

| Delhi: Traditional 259 Delhi 13| Traditional 4.1 4.1

Residential Katra


4.1 A

2.4 A

4.1 B

2.4 B

4.1 C

2.4 C

4.1 D

2.4 D

4.1 E 4.1 F

Katra is the predominant building typology of Shahjahanabad They were used as residences for artisans and craftsmen. central courtyard was used for production and storage of goods

Central courtyard Common space and entrance

1-2 storey multi family dwelling

14| | Delhi Traditional 4.14.1 260 Delhi: Traditional

Derived from havelis, katras housed soldiers and poor relations

8000 in number 20 to 50 families per katra.

2.4 E 2.4 F


4.1 A 4.1 B 4.1 C

Havellis:

4.1 D

The members of the imperial household who lived outside the fort/palace built large mansions (havellis) on the model of the imperial design of the Red Fort.

4.1 E 4.1 F

Haveli 1850AD

As a rule these city palaces accommodated not only the owner and his family, but also their numerous followers, servants and craftsmen with their workshops (karkhanas). The internal organization of the space within the havellis was therefore also based on the strict distinction between the public, semi-private and private space Haveli 1910AD

Delhi: Traditional 261 15| |Delhi Traditional 4.14.1

Unable to support the lavish lifestyle of the grand mansions, many owners chose to subdivide and sell or rent their properties. The drawings reflect the fragmentation that occurred in the Haveli Bangash Khan in little over a half century:


4.1 A

4.1 B

4.1 D

Shahjahanabad: Demographics

4.1 C 4.1 D

42.67

4.1 E

As Per 17th Century Plan

4.1 F

167.25

16||Delhi 262 Delhi:Traditional Traditional4.1 4.1

21st Century Condition

450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0

Residential

COMMERCIAL

Commercial

RESIDENTIAL

1857 post 1960 1971 1947

THE FALL IN POPULATION REFLECTS THE SLOW CHANGES IN LAND-USE FROM RESIDENTIAL TO COMMERCIAL

Land Use Mapping

Religious Institutiional Green Mixed

Built-unbuilt Relationship


4.1 A 4.1 B

Slum area(improvement and clearance) act,1956 covering the whole settlement has failed to improve the living conditions. 1960-70s residents were rehoused in 4-5 storey flats around Shahjahanabad.

Number of dwelling unit Area per dwelling Total number of families Floor space per family Total population

50 14 sqm 105 7 sqm 510 sqm

4.1 C

4.1 D 4.1 E 4.1 F

Ultimately rehabilitation were sold or sublet. 7th 5 yr plan gave up on demolition and rebuilding and adopted renewal, redevelopment and repair of housing stocks in historical areas.

2600 KATRAS owned by slum wing of delhi development Authority(acquired at the time of partition) as evacuee's property.

2/3 of these katras are occupied by tenants at

Plot area 450 sqm Built up area 350 sqm Total floor area 700 sqm Central courtyard 100 sqm Terrace area 350 sqm Total open area 450 sqm

very low rent.

Floors pace /per Open space/per Total space/per

1.5 sqm 0.8 sqm 2.5 sqm

| Traditional Delhi: Traditional 4.1 17|263 Delhi 4.1

RENT CONTROL POLICY AND EXTENSIVE GOVT OWNERSHIP. This caused overcrowding and deterioration of life. Low rent means low income and therefore lack of incentive to keep the place in shape(MAINTENANCE)


4.1 B

4.1 C 4.1 D 4.1 E 4.1 F

4.1 E

Shahjahanabad: Beyond the Walled city 1533

4.1 A

1639-1857

Extensive Sub-urbs Well planned gardens with habitation of professional people and wholesale markets. Idgah, established by Shahjahan to the north-west of the city. The old garden of Karol Bagh from the time of Firuz Shah Tughlaq to the south-west of Idgah. A grain mart was set-up in Paharganj by Shahjahan. South of Paharganj was Raisina Hill and a locality known as Rikabganj populated by horse-stirrups. Subji Mandi north west of Shahjahanabad.

Shahdara

Karol Bagh

18| Traditional 4.1 4.1 264 Delhi | Delhi: Traditional

Ecological Balance Of Shahjahanabad High density areas of city and its suburbs with large tracts of forests and gardens.

Sabji Mandi

Sadar Bazaar

Banjaras living west of Salimgarh before Shahjahanabad shifted to east of Jamuna inhabiting Shah-dara.

Idgah

Paharganj


4.1 F

4.1 A

Evolution of the city post 1857

4.1 B 4.1 C 4.1 D 4.1 E

1. 2. 3.

Cantonment buiilt ner daryaganj area. Bunglowos , hospitals and churches built towards east of the Faiz Bazzar. Administrative activities shifted to Kasmere gate.

1. 2.

Extensive demolition post mutiny. Introduction of Nayi Sarak.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Railways caused more demolition. 2 Town hall was constructed in place of Begum-Ki-Sarai and Victoria tower was constructed in front of it. Elgin Road suitable for motor vehicle was constructed linking Faiz Bazar and Chandini Chowk. New types of institution like bank and offices came up. The area south of the wall between ajmeri gate and Delhi gate was leveled and a green belt was created

265 | Delhi: Traditional 4.1

4.1 F


4.1 A 4.1 B

4.1 C 4.1 D 4.1 E 4.1 F

Jehanara’s garden complex got cleared with introduction of Railway Line and Town Hall.

1850 AD

266 | Delhi: Traditional 4.1

Area in front of Jama Masjid got cleared by the British

Area in front of the Red Fort and Lajpat Rai Market


4.1 A 4.1 B

1850 AD

4.1 C 4.1 D 4.1 E 4.1 F

Artist’s impression 1800

Present Situation

Chandni chowk present

Delhi: Traditional 267 21||Delhi Traditional 4.14.1

Chandni chowk 1857


4.3 4.3 A

Introduction

4.3 C

Physiographical

4.3 C

Transport

4.3 D

Water Supply

4.3 E

Sewage and Waste Management

4.3 F

Power

269 | Delhi: Larger City Concerns 4.3

Delhi : Larger City Concerns


4.3 A

4.3 A

4.3 B

Introduction Urbanization occurs naturally from individual and corporate efforts to reduce time and expense in commuting and transportation while improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation. Living in cities permits individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity, diversity, and marketplace competition. Infrastructure is the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. •

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The physiography of Delhi is dominated by three main features: • The river Yamuna • The ridge • The flood plains These factors have largely influenced development and densities around the city.

4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E

housing

4.3 F

Technical Structures

Transport Water Supply Sewers & Waste Disposal Electrical Grids Telecommunications

Viewed functionally, infrastructure facilitates the production of goods and services, and also the distribution of finished products to markets, as well as basic social services such as schools and hospitals; for example, roads enable the transport of raw materials to a factory.

Master Plan is the blue print for the future. It is a comprehensive document, long range in its view, that is intended to guide development in a region for the next 10-20 years. • The master plan sets public policies regarding growth and development. • The information and concepts presented in the master plan are intended to guide local decisions public and private use of land, as well as provision of public facilities.

Delhi: Larger 271 city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3

These facilitate the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions.


4.3 A 4.3 B 4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E

city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3 272 Delhi: Larger

4.3 F

4.3 B

Physiographical The area under Delhi can be divided into following physiographic features: the ridge and its forest, undulating surfaces, plains and flood plains, the Najafgarh drain and the Yamuna River. Ridge is a part of the Aravalli Range, entering Delhi from the South, bifurcating into two and finally spreading itself into a wider tableland. The ridge is divided into Northern Ridge (Delhi University), Central Ridge, South Central Ridge (Mehrauli) and Southern Ridge (Map 1). The Northern Ridge has an area of 87 ha, the Central Ridge has an area of 869 ha, the South Central Ridge has an area of 626 ha and the Southern Ridge has an area of 6,200 ha including 1900 ha of the recently notified Asola Wildlife Sanctuary. The width of the Ridge varies from 50-100meters at Wazirabad to as wide as 2.5 km near Chanakyapuri. The total Ridge area in Delhi is approximately 22.9 sq km. In 1912, when Delhi became the capital of British India, the Ridge was declared a forest under the Indian Forest Act 1913 and a similar status was extended to the Central Ridge in 1942. Further, in 1980 the Northern Ridge and Southern Ridge were also declared as reserve forests. At present, only two segments of the Ridge – the Northern Ridge and the Southern Ridge – remain as green buffers. The Yamuna flood plains cover an area of 161 sq km, extending up to a maximum of 14 km from the river in the north. It has been subdivided into three categories: new Khadar or the current flood plains, old Khadar or the earlier flood plains and Bangar or the upper alluvial plains. Most of the river feature shave been obliterated by land reclamation as well as land leveling of the urbanisation process. The Najafgarh drain flows in a northeast direction and joins the Yamuna near Wazirabad. A century ago, the Najafgarh drain reportedly covered an area of 22,663 ha and was 4.2 meters deep. Since 1940onwards it has been drained and cultivated to the extent that it has completely lost its sheen. Source : Urban Design Study, 5th Year Studio, SPA Delhi 2010

Contour Map of Delhi


4.3 A 4.3 B

Yamuna

• Delhi Ridge is an Extension of Aravallis- The Oldest Mountain Chain In the Country.

In summers, the river, is a stream of sand. A few thin threads of water drain through its center. And then the rain falls, in July, and the sandy bed of Yamuna disappears. Trees that have progressed too daringly into the once dry bed raise marooned heads from the rushing water.

• Extends into Delhi from Haryana at Tughlakabad Bhatti mines- Dera Mandi axis moving north, covering parts of Delhi Cantonment. Lutyen's Zone and culminating at Delhi University. • Ridge provides a natural boundary between sands of Rajasthan and Delhi city. • Ridge Management Board was constituted under the chairmanship of Chief Secretary. Delhi for supervision on protection and management of Ridge. • Ridge Management Board was constituted under the chairmanship of Chief Secretary. Delhi for supervision on protection and management of Ridge.

4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E 4.3 F

When the monsoons are especially intense, the water comes to level with the ring road. However, the Yamuna seldom breaches its bank . The last time it touched the ramparts of the red fort was perhaps centuries ago. The rains though, creates fertile islands in the middle of the river where farmers grow vegetables. These farms can be reached by boats that take tourists from one shore to another. On weekends, it is as if the entire Delhi, from both sides of jamna-paar, has gathered on the river. Thousands of country boats float.

Source : Urban Design Study, 5th Year Studio, SPA Delhi 2010

Delhi Topography

Yamuna Flood Plains

Delhi: Larger 273 city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3

Delhi Ridge


4.3 A 4.3 B 4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E

city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3 274 Delhi: Larger

4.3 F

Catchment Area Depending upon the river flow level down stream, it takes about 48 hours for Yamuna level in Delhi to rise. The rise in water level also causes backflow effect on the city's drains. The city also experiences floods due to its network of 18 major drains having catchment areas extending beyond the city’s drains. A close analysis of the flood zoning pattern reveals that the high risk zones are the areas that have earlier been identified as unplanned or poorly planned areas having high population densities and sub standard housing structures. These include areas of north Delhi, and trans Yamuna area. Some of the colonies that have come up in these areas are at levels 3 to 4 meters below the 1978 flood level. • The drainage network is well laid out along most of the heavily built-up areas. • Housing locations depend on the availability of adequate drainage by the nallas or sewer. • Most development has been witnessed along preexisting nallas only. • Areas lying in the Catchment Zones are Inadequately Drained and known to get water logged, and unfavourable for habitation.

Source : Urban Design Study, 5th Year Studio, SPA Delhi 2010


4.3 A 4.3 B 4.3 C

Drainage/ Nallas On the basis of topographical characteristics and existing drainage network, NCR of Delhi has been divided into five drainage basins namely Najafgarh, Alipur, Shahdara, Khushak Nallah and Mehrauli.

4.3 D 4.3 E

These are catered to by 7 drains namely:

Supplementary Drain

Nangloi Drain, Najafgarh Drain, Khushak Drain, Barapullla Drain, Palam Drain, Shahdara Drain And Hindon Drain.

Nangloi Drain

To improve the drainage system of Delhi, effluent treatment plants should be provided at outfall of drains and aeration units at interceptions with advanced techniques for maintenance of drains. A time bound action programme for augmentation and capacity revision of existing and new drains (due to increase in run off from urban extension) is also vital. Check dams and depression/lakes may be designed for increasing ground water table and as storm water holding points wherever needed. • As is evident, the drainage network is well laid out along most of the heavily built-up areas. • Housing locations depend on the availability of adequate drainage by the nallas. Hence most development occurs along pre-existing nallas only. • Efforts are required to adequately service the areas which lie in the catchment basins and are lacking in terms of drainage and sewerage.

Shahdara Drain

Najafgarh Drain

Hindon Cut

Najafgarh Drain Barapulla Drain

Palam Drain Najafgarh Drain

Khushak Drain

Source : Urban Design Study, 5th Year Studio, SPA Delhi 2010

Delhi: Larger 275 city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3

• • • • • • •

4.3 F


4.3 A 4.3 B 4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E 4.3 F

Soil Soil is the layer of broken rock particles and decaying organic matter on the surface of earth, which is essential for the growth of plants. The kind of soil in a region determines the depth of foundations, earthquake vulnerability and general stability of structures. Delhi is composed mainly of alluvial soil with ranging age. Its physiographic distribution is:   

Alluvial plain on eastern and western sides of the ridge Yamuna flood plain deposits Isolated and nearly closed Chattarpur alluvial basin NNE-SSW trending Quartzitic Ridge.

city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3 276 Delhi: Larger

The ridge region is mainly quartzite stone and is hence hard and impenetrable. Inferences • As is visible from the map, very little construction activity has occurred over the quartzite ridge region. This limits location for housing projects • Major construction activity has taken place in the region of high alluvium concentration. But low yield prospects. • Regions with high yield are relatively free of construction activity. • Groundwater availability is also determined by the penetrability of soil, hence areas with harder soil conditions such as ridge have limited groundwater resources, hence limiting scope of construction activity due to lack of availability of water.

Soil Profile Vs Figure Ground


4.3 A 4.3 B

District wise forest cover of delhi

District Central Delhi East Delhi New Delhi North Delhi North East Delhi North West Delhi South Delhi South West Delhi West Delhi Total

Geographic Area 24.68

Forest Area 2.27

( Area in Sq. km. ) Percentage of Forest Cover 9.20

63.76 34.90 59.16 60.29

1.57 9.73 3.18 1.85

2.46 27.88 5.38 3.07

8.37

1.90

249.85 420.54

52.51 30.09

21.02 7.16

129.52 1.483.00

1.76 111.33

1.36 7.51

440.31

The total green area in Delhi can be divided into the following hierarchy: • Regional parks • district parks • neighbourhood parks • city forests, historical landscapes • Sports complexes • Landmark greens • Green belts. • Tot lots etc

5th

Source : Urban Design Study, Year Studio, SPA Delhi 2010

4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E 4.3 F

Delhi: Larger 277 city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3

Green Areas In MPD 62, a green belt was planned around the urban fringe of the city which was to act as barrier to city growth and as an interface between town and country. It was in the form of large farm houses with small scale agriculture. The master plan 2021 provides for up to 15-20% of land in Delhi to be used as green / lung spaces. However, As per the state of forest report 2001, Delhi has 151 sq.km. As forest and tree cover that is 111.33 sq.km. And 40 sq.km. Respectively which constitutes only 10.2% of the Delhi's geographical area of 1,483 sq.km.


4.3 A 4.3 B

4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E 4.3 F

4.3 C

Transportation In most of the metro cities the transport system are either road based or rail based mass rapid transport system (MRTS). Road based system • low capacity • relatively lower speed • Covering more land area

After independence, Delhi had emerged as a bi-nodal city, where Connaught place in new Delhi and Chandni Chowk in old Delhi were the major commercial business districts. This lead to unidirectional haphazard movements of the masses.

Delhi MPD62

Rail based system • high capacity • high speed • linear, so covering lesser land Depending on the transport system, various activities get distributed spatially in a certain pattern or structure, including housing.

city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3 278 Delhi: Larger

Three basic form are: • linear- e.g.. Mumbai. • Grid- e.g. Chandigarh • Centripetal- e.g. Delhi

Households Community centre

District centre

District centre

Regional centre

In this, the lower level tends to get attracted towards upper level. Foe instance, Household, the lowest level gets attracted toward community centre or district centre for job or other convenience.

Chandni chowk Connaught place

2 master So the most important concern addressed in first plan was to decentralize the places of employment to keep the traffic movement manageable and thus minimize friction. For this Delhi was divided in to eight planning divisions and each division was supposed to be self-contained in terms of employment, residential places and other requirement. The hierarchy which was to be followed was bottom upwards- the housing cluster is built around a nursery school or tot-lot.

Source: goel.s.,2000, impact of Delhi MRTS on urban form and structure, thesis study, SPA Delhi

Consequences Another major thing which happened because of increasing traffic on roads was, development of more district centers to localize the needs of the settlement in kalkaji, lajpat nagar, r.k. puram, etc. This was done to reduce workplace-home distance, hence reducing traffic on roads. One more major reason for the congestion on roads was inadequate public transport, which is why people wanted to stay close to their work places. Which gave rise to a situation where people wanted a single family house rather than a large open plot. Because MPD 62 could not meet up the traffic demands , the plans were taken to a next level in MPD2001. Key features MPD 2001 • New railway to avoid traffic • Mass transport to be multi modal • Full usage of ring rail • MRTS on high density corridors

Key features : MPD 62 which effected transportation: • Reduce journey time i.e. to make sure that work to home distance is minimized. • Shahadra to be developed as a new sub city of 7 lakh people. Delhi MPD62

Source: goel.s.,2000, impact of Delhi MRTS on urban form and structure, thesis study, SPA Delhi


4.3 A 4.3 B The reason behind radial cum circumferential pattern of growth of the city was the nature of transport system, which was part sectoral part circumferential. But the idea of developing the individual sectors which were divided as self contained pockets failed to some extent.

49%

Key features MPD 2001 •Each MRTS station node will have an influence area of 2 to 3 sq.km. each. •The residential density along MRTS corridor will range from 600 to 900 pph. •The avg population density along MRTS corridor will be 375-360 pph gross (residential land use will be 37-40% of the total land use distribution at city level and 45-50% at scheme level.) •Therefore, 70-80% of the population will be residing in the proposed high density corridor( 1km on either side of the corridor or 2-3 sq.km around each of the station nodes) •The population distribution and density gradients will be more uniform from core to periphery, with significant increase at periphery and middle.

4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E 4.3 F

34% 17%

2 There was a dip in population distribution from 49% at the core to 34% in the middle and 17% towards the periphery. Which shows that the idea of decentralising the population failed to some extent.

Influence area:2-3 km radius

node

So, to meet all the transport demands, MRTS was proposed which comprises of: •Existing ring rail •Metro rail corridor •Dedicated bus transport corridor Source: Goel.S.,2000, Impact of Delhi MRTS on urban form and structure, thesis study, SPA Delhi

city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3 Delhi: Larger 279

Influence area: 1 km on both sides


4.3 A 4.3 B

4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E

city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3 280 Delhi: Larger

4.3 F

Metro As cities grow in size, the number of vehicular trips on road system goes up. This necessitates a pragmatic policy shift to discourage private modes and encourage public transport once the level of traffic along any travel corridor in one direction exceeds 20,000 persons per hour. Importance of metro system • A metro system is often viewed as the backbone of a large city's public transportation system as the volume of passengers a metro train can carry is very high. • A metro system makes transportation less difficult, reduce crowds on roads, decrease buses and pollution. • Metro systems have often been used to showcase economical, social, and technological achievements of a nation, especially in the Soviet Union and other socialist countries. • During the Cold War an important secondary function of some underground systems was to provide shelter in case of a nuclear attack.

The number of personal motor vehicles has increased from 5.4 lac in 1981 to 30 lac in 1998 and is projected to go up to 35 lac by 2011. With gradual horizontal expansion of the city, the average trip length of buses has gone up to 13 km and the increased congestion on roads has made the corresponding journey time of about one hour.

2


4.3 A 4.3 B Inter Zonal Analysis - Increase Land Values • Zones A, B, C, D have above average growth rate till 2000, due to locational advantage. • Since 2000, only B maintained its average growth rate, as compared to A,& C, as it has residential component, whereas zones A & C have more commercial areas. • With coming of Metro, the zones in vicinity of Central Zones (A,B,C,D) also have above average growth rate in land values. • The zones which were far from theses prime zones, also attained land value increase. • Zones G,H,K, have higher growth rate as compared to the zones in vicinity of central zones. • Zone E has seen significant increase in commercial growth.

4.3 E 4.3 F

Land value changes analyzed in belts along The metro line: A <500 B 500m-1000m C >1000m • Zone ‘A’ shows saturation in residential areas as there is no effect of distance on land values. • In the peripheral zones ‘E’, ‘H’ and ‘K’ which are in developing stage; impact is clearly visible. 2 • There is an average decrease of 8-10% and 15-18% in values as we move from belt ‘a’ to belt ’b’ to belt ‘c’ respectively .

Impact • The impact of metro on residential land value is less as compared to the commercial properties. • For Residential area, on an average land value within 500m of metro line increased by11.3%. For Commercial area, on an average land value within 500m of metro line increased by 18.1%. • Threshold limit for the residential properties is approximately up to 500m from metro line, whereas limit increases up to approximately 800m for commercial properties. • Increase in land value is highly dependent on the income of the people occupying the area / These are also the areas which are planned

4.3 D

Delhi: Larger 281 city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3

Dividing the metro network into Zones

4.3 C


4.3 A 4.3 B

4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E 4.3 F

Metro vs BRT Delhi, the national capital with the population of about 12 million is, perhaps, the only city of its size in the world, which depends almost entirely on buses on it sole mode of mass transport. Bus services are inadequate and heavily overcrowded. Delhi has more registered vehicle than the total number of vehicles in Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai put together.

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), also known as High Capacity Bus System, is one of the cost-effective mechanisms for cities to rapidly develop a public transport system. BRT can be integrated with other forms of public transport systems like Metro System, Mono Rail and Light Rail etc. "BRT is a high-quality bus based transit system that delivers fast, comfortable and cost-effective urban mobility through the provision of segregated right-ofway infrastructure, rapid and frequent operations, and excellence in marketing and customer service." -(ITDP Planning Guide)

city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3 282 Delhi: Larger

To meet the growing demand of public transport system, GNCTD decided to build 6 BRT Corridors in Delhi, besides the expansion of Metro rail in Delhi, by 2010. The construction work on first BRT corridor in Delhi, a 14.5 km stretch from Dr. Ambedkar Nagar to Delhi Gate, was completed in 2008. The work has been already completed on the stretch from Ambedkar Nagar to Moolchand, and the stretch of the corridor is under trial run. In total, the Government plans to build 26 BRT corridors in the Delhi, covering a total length of 310 km by the year 2020. By 2010 seven corridors which have been planned under phase I will be completed.

2

These are as follows: • Ambedkar Nagar-Delhi Gate • Shastri Park - Karawal Nagar • Moolchand - Jahangirpuri • Nizamuddin - Nand Nagari • Rajender Nagar - Pragati Maidan • Kondli - Gokulpuriat • Jamia - Tilak Nagar

Source :BRT Website Times of India News Paper


4.3 A 4.3 B

4.3 C

Bus Rapid Transit “All the fuss about the “6.5 kms of confusion”, as one user of the BRT corridor addresses it, is not deterring the Delhi government to use this vehicle to solve the commuting woes forecasted in Delhi. It might be recalled that Delhi is expecting it’s population to increase by more than 10 million people, 2 million dwelling units and more than 50,000 families migrating into Delhi every year. Add more than 1000 vehicles being registered in Delhi and the increasing affluence in the surrounding cities of NCR. The perfect recipe for chaos is ready.

4.3 D 4.3 E 4.3 F

Now specifically to the BRT corridors under proposal –  Are they required, or aren’t they? The Delhi government think tank seems to find merit that the BRT is the way forward. If I have to add a rider, it would be a caution flag not to repeat the mistakes of the Ambedkar stretch till Moolchand, and to factor in the gargantuan nature of the problem, growing on a daily basis. RITES carried out the need & feasibility analysis, and seems to deduce that Delhi would require another 375 kms of BRT. Holy cow !!! 375 similar to 6.5 would be suicidal. Nevertheless, as facts stand, 5.6 kms would be added to the existing BRT corridor, and 16 new corridors totaling almost 369 kms would be added over the next 11 years. No one is yet questioning on the fund-ing mechanism for these. Remember, these are internal city roads, and not toll expressways. Most identified stretches, per estimates, would carry a vehicular traffic of more than 5000 units per hour, In either direction.”

2

New BRT Corridor proposed in Delhi Source: Navbharat Times Dated: 22nd May 10

High capacity bus system corridors for NCT of Delhi

Delhi: Larger 283 city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3

What do the planners chose? Pretend unpreparedness & do an “ostrich act”? Maybe, no. Some quarters of the planners and intellectuals decide to act, and work on the Delhi Master plan MPD 2021. The MPD 2021 document was notified by the government way back on Feb. 2007 vide the S.O No. 141. The government of India gazette notification is available for the public on the offi-cial websites of DDA and other agencies. It is no longer a mystery document. The MPD details are available online too.


4.3 A 4.3 B

4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E 4.3 F

4.3 C

Transportation: Railways Ring railway is a circular rail network in Delhi, which runs parallel to the ring road. 1. Single line of ring railways was introduced in the capital in 1975 with diesel- hauled service. The double line, working with electric traction, came in 1982 during the Asiad games. The services began with eight trains and now stand at 13. 2. EMU (electric multiple unit) service for a round trip from Hazrat Nizamuddin takes approximately 100 minutes. 3. The system is not popular amongst people and a total failure as far as public transport is considered.

Popularity The system is not popular amongst people and a total failure as far as public transport is considered. Delhi Ring Railway is considered as an example of failed mass transit system. The major reasons for failure of the system

city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3 284 Delhi: Larger

The major reasons for failure of the system are: • Lack of proper connectivity, • Less population density in areas of reach. • Absence of integration with feeder bus operations The network is now utilized as a freight corridor and limited passenger train. Services are available during peak hours. Opportunities 1. The central location of the ring railway covers the core of the city 2. Commuters per day 4000 8.5 lakh - opportunity to ‘generate a new vision to reshape the city’ The strategic location of the stations at the intersection of the major transverse road axes - Opportunity to create an urban corridor along the prime locations of the city. 3. Metro network intersects the ring rail - Opportunity to integrate the metro network with the ring railway. 4. Land along to the ring consists of vacant plots and leftover spaces. 5. Land adjacent to the ring is sparsely populated Opportunity to develop an urban corridor along the rail. 6. Areas around the stations are undeveloped and underutilized. 7. The ring is treated as a backyard on both the sides Opportunity to generate an urban character at the stations as well as along the track

2

are lack of proper connectivity, less population density in areas of reach. The network is now utilized as a freight corridor and limited passenger EMU train services are available during peak hours.


4.3 A 4.3 B

Socio‐economic profile of cycle-rickshaw drivers in Delhi • Most cycle rickshaw drivers (also knows as ‘rickshaw puller’ or Chaalak’) consist of poor migrant people who are unskilled, uneducated, small/landless farmer who come to cities to opt for either plying rickshaw every year during lean agriculture period or as a preferred full-time job over other available options such as daily wage labourer, construction/factory worker etc. • According to a recent study (2006-07) carried out by ITDP India of around 1100 cycle rickshaw drivers in Delhi, around 54% are landless labourer and over 30% are small/marginal farmers. • A Cycle Rickshaw Driver normally works for 6 to 8 hours daily (flexible working time) and earns anything between Rs. 100 and 300 per day. • Education wise, 49% rickshaw drivers were illiterate, 9% literate, 19% had completed primary education, 13% middle school, and 6% are Matriculate and around 4% have studied up to 12th class and above. Benefits • Providing efficient feeder service & bringing thousands of passengers daily to and from Delhi Metro Stations. • Helping tourism. • Cheap way of Carrying goods everyday. •Due to its benefits its global acceptance is increasing and it is becoming popular among tourists as well as environmentally conscious locals as a pollution-free PediCab or Green Pedal Taxi in western countries.

Cyclists in the city Nearly 32% of all commuter trips in Delhi are walking trips. Road-based public transport, including chartered buses, accounts for 42% of all trips. Of the total commuter trips, around 11% are by slow modes of transport, such as cycles and rickshaws, 5% by cars, and 12% by motorized two-wheelers. The share of trips by motorized two wheelers increased significantly from 1981; during the same period, the share of bicycle trips declined considerably. The decline in overall share of bicycle trips does not reflect reduced demand for bicycles because, as the population has increased, the absolute number of bicycles on the road has also increased. Recent sample surveys from the resettlement and unauthorized colonies and the jhuggi jhopri clusters (in which 60–70% of the population is estimated to live) indicate that these citizens still depend largely on walking (19%) and cycling (38%) to get to work “To maintain the shares of affordable and environment-friendly modes of transport in the city, introduction of commuter-friendly systems must take priority over the introduction of clean technologies. 2 Infrastructures for pedestrians should be created to ensure safe approaches to bus stops, and road usage for public transport vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists should be prioritize” Source: “Transport and land-use policies in Delhi” -- by Geetam Tiwari

Current situation In spite of several benefits, cycle rickshaw is largely ignored by policy makers and transport planners. They face many problems like the following: • Not being allowed to enter parking areas, or gated communities. • The Cycle rickshaw drivers being uneducated, poor, and ill-informed about their legal rights are subjected to undue harassment and exploitation in the hands of municipal & police officials.

4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E 4.3 F

Recently cycle rickshaw has been banned in Chandni chowk and arterial roads of Delhi. Unfortunately without any of the following measures: • Conducting any detailed study/analysis to understand the social, environmental, economic and transportation implications of ban on affected people and the city; • Giving any opportunity to the rickshaw community to present their side & problems; opportunity to the rickshaw community to present their side & problems; and • Providing any alternative for thousand of dependent short-distance commuters. Following Delhi, several other Indian cities are also planning to ban or curb cycle rickshaws instead of finding solutions based on the principals of equity, justice and sustainability.

Delhi: Larger 285 city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3

Cycle Rickshaws A zero-emission and energy-efficient vehicle which provides comfortable, safe, low-cost and hassle free transportation. • Ideal for short distance trips. Can compliment & integrate very effectively as a low-cost feeder service to public transport system providing point -to-point service . • Does not cause safety/accident risk in the residential areas/ near schools. Saving huge Government investments & PARKING related problems in a lot of Indian cities


4.3 A 4.3 B

4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E 4.3 F

Possible solutions by ITDP India 1. Cycle Rickshaw is environmentally, socially and economically a very sustainable mode of transport for commuting and carrying light goods to short distance . Banning them would create bigger environmental and socio-economic problem in Indian cities.

8.

Conduct specially designed training programmes/ workshops and disseminate useful information regularly amongst the rickshaw drivers on various relevant topics such as: following traffic rules, safe driving, behaviour with commuters etc. in association with traffic, police, rickshaw community, NGOs and RWAs.

Walkability Walkability is defined as the ability of the average citizen to lead his/her life (work and leisure) by relying on walking as the main mode of transport. This involves infrastructure such as side-walks and foot-paths, under/over passes, shade, street-lights, safe road crossings, and more.

2. Since the Cycle Rickshaw is present in many cities while providing clean/low-cost transportation and work/food for a big chunk of Indian population, we should accept their immense contribution to our transportation needs as well as social & economic structure.

9.

Devise/start welfare schemes, soft loan facility and innovative programmes for rickshaw drivers to make them owners of their vehicle for rickshaw drivers to make them owners of their vehicle and to improve health, education and socio-economic status of rickshaw drivers and their family members.

3. The solution lies in Integrating Cycle Rickshaw along with other NMT modes such as cyclists, pedestrian etc. into city transport system and including them in all urban transport planning and policies.

10. Encourage & support more R&D work to further improve and modernize the design and technology of Cycle Rickshaw to make it more efficient, lighter, safer, comfortable and aesthetic.

Note, however, that this is not the same as pedestrianisation but a much broader framework of thinking. For instance, creating sidewalks in a sprawled urban form would not necessarily make the city walkable. Thus, embedded within “walkability” are several other concepts such as density, mixed use, public spaces, access to public transport, security and so on.

city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3 286 Delhi: Larger

4. Why not create segregated NMT lanes wherever possible otherwise painted lanes (continuous) or alternate routes for cycle rickshaw and bicycles to co-exist in a democratic, equal & humane country. 5. Devise effective operational & traffic management plan for cycle rickshaw so that it can compliment the existing system.

2

6. Use them for as inexpensive feeder service for Buses/ Metro, Local/ Inter-City Rails, Taxis/ Auto Rickshaws. Promote it in the residential areas, around historical sites, wildlife areas and shopping malls etc. 7. Provide them adequate parking/ halting stands near bus shelters/ terminals; railway stations and taxi/ auto-rickshaw stands.

source: http://assets.wwfindia.org/downloads/urbanisation_report.pdf

The focus in Indian cities seems to be on building roads and not in investing in infrastructure for non-motorised transport systems. Indeed, many Indian cities appear to be deliberately working against walkability. In many cases, side-walks have been swallowed by “roadwidening” schemes. For example, in Delhi, the total funds allocated for the transport sector doubled from 2002-03 to 2006-07 – however 80 per cent of the earmarked money went towards schemes aimed at widening or extending roads in one form or another!


4.3 A

4.3 D

4.3 B

Water supply

With the population of Delhi increasing from 0.4 mn in 1911 to 13.7 mn in 2001, there is an ever-increasing pressure on the water resources. Improvements in living standards and access to sanitation facilities are also leading to an increase in per capita demand levels. Commercial and industrial demands put together have also grown from 567 kilolitres in 1992–93 to 1478 kilolitres in 1996–97. Delhi Jal Board, constituted under Delhi Water Board Act 1998, is responsible for production and distribution of drinking water in Delhi. The Board is also responsible for collection, treatment and disposal of waste water/sewage in the capital, Delhi Jal Board has provided about 17,15,037 lacs water connections up to 1.4.2009.

A document’ Delhi – A Fact File published by the National Capital Region Planning Board (1999) presents the following key findings: • The level of supply is the highest in the cantonment area at 509 lpcd, almost 18 times the level of supply in the Mehrauli area. • Narela and Mehrauli, the peripheral areas of the city have very low levels of water supply, at 31 and 29 lpcd respectively. • The level of supply in South Delhi is low (148 lpcd) considering the high demand from a largely medium/high-income residential area.

4.3 D 4.3 E 4.3 F

The supply to all segments of the city’s population is inadequate, whether it is slums or high-income residential areas, whether it is residential or industrial areas. Water supply is intermittent in most of the zones of the municipal corporation and water pressure is low. As a result, households have to invest in compensatory strategies such as private boreholes or hand pumps, electric motors, and water filters. The cost of these strategies is as high as 6.5 times the amount paid to the Delhi Jal Board.

The treatment capacities of Delhi Jal Board (DJB) have increased from 42 mgd in 1951 to the current production level of 631 mgd. Despite this, the average current shortfall is about 200 mgd (as calculated using the DJB’s supply norms and average losses estimated at 15 %). However, the percentage of UFW (Unaccounted – for Water) calculated from the difference between water produced and pumped is 1082 mld, as high as 35 to 40 per cent, reflecting problems in management of available resources.

Sources: Profiling “Informal City” of Delhi, water aid India 2005 (MPD 2021)

Delhi: Larger 287 city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3

Delhi gets over 86 per cent of its water supply from surface water through the Yamuna river, whose flow is largely diverted upstream in Haryana and Punjab through canals for irrigation purposes. Despite interstate agreements and regular meetings of the Upper Yamuna River Board, there are regular conflicts, regarding the sharing of water allocated to each state and particularly to Delhi. Other sources of water supply to Delhi, through different interstate arrangements, include the Himalayan rivers and sub-surface sources like Rainey wells and tube wells.

4.3 C


4.3 A 4.3 B 4.3 C

Key issues identified are: • Need for interstate agreements with neighbouring states in matters of resource sharing • Capacity augmentation • System Inefficiencies • Distribution inequalities • Quality Risk • Promotion of water conservation policies • Pricing and cost recovery

4.3 D 4.3 E 4.3 F

city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3 288 Delhi: Larger

Inferences • Overhaul of ancient water supply systems is essential to reduce transit leakages • Recharging ground water resources by means of rain water harvesting. • Need to reduce dependence on Yamuna as major water source. • It is also important to increase the capacity of the current systems in order to achieve greater efficiencies in terms of supply. Impact on housing With the increasing scarcity of water supply and the observed lack of adequate systems, it is necessary that housing developments take place only in areas that have adequate supply of water, or where this supply can be assured. Creating high density housing in an already infrastructure-wise loaded region would only aggravate the problems.

Water zones in delhi and supply in mgd


4.3 A

4.3 E

Sewage and Solid Waste Management

4.3 B 4.3 C

With the population rising at an alarming rate, the amount of wastewater generated by domestic and industrial activities is increasing. There is growing lag between wastewater discharges and treatment capacities. Further, due to inadequate infrastructure for wastewater collection and other operational problems, even the current capacities of Sewage Treatment Plants (are underutilised. Unabated discharge of treated and untreated wastewater from different sources is responsible for excessive deterioration of surface water quality.

4.3 D 4.3 E

The existing capacity of sewerage system in Delhi is grossly inadequate, as only about 55% of the population is covered under organised conventional sewerage system and about 15% under on-site sanitation systems. Rest of the population does not have proper access to sanitation facilities. The increasing pollution in the river Yamuna is also a major indicator of lack of sewerage treatment facilities. Delhi alone contributes around 3,296 mld of sewage through drains out falling in the Yamuna. This is more than that of all the Class II cities of India put together. The low perennial flow in the Yamuna and the huge quantity of waste it receives have given it the dubious distinction of being one of the most polluted rivers of the country.

• Sewage and waste disposal systems are a basic hygiene requirement of any residential unit. • There is a need for decentralized waste and water management systems to reduce load on government systems.

Sources: Profiling “Informal City” of Delhi, water aid India 2005 (MPD 2021)

Delhi: Larger 289 city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3

4.3 F


4.3 A 4.3 B 4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E

city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3 290 Delhi: Larger

4.3 F

Solid waste collection and disposal is the responsibility of STP Municipal Corporation of Delhi, New Delhi Municipal Council and Delhi Cantonment Board in their respective areas. In 1996, the amount of waste generated was estimated at 8000 tonnes per day, out of which 30 per cent remained uncollected. The main sources of waste are households (around 45 %), markets and hospitals (around 26 %) and industries (around 13 %). Over the years, solid waste has been dumped at 12 large landfill sites. At present, there are three landfill sites – Bhalaswa, Gazipur, and Okhla, all of which are located at the city’s periphery. The landfill sites are neither prepared before being used for disposal/dumping of waste nor is an environment impact assessment carried out while selecting them, resulting in irreparable damage to the land and water resources in the area.

Existing Landfill Sites for Waste Management

Water (MGD)

Sewerag e (MGD)

Power (MW)

Solid Waste (ton/day)

Requireme nt 2001

1096

877

3265

7100

Availability 2001

785

384

2352

4900

Projected requiremen t 2021

1840

1472

8800

15750

Additional requiremen t

1055

1088

6448

10850

Sources: Profiling “Informal City” of Delhi, water aid India 2005 (MPD 2021)


4.3 A

4.3 F

4.3 B

Electricity

4.3 C

The Delhi Vidyut Board was formed by the Government of NCT Delhi in 1997 for the purpose of generation and distribution of power to the entire area of NCT of Delhi except the areas falling within the jurisdiction of NDMC and Delhi Cantonment Board. On July 1, 2002,The Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB) was unbundled into six successor companies: Delhi Power Supply Company Limited (DPCL)- Holding Company; Delhi Transco Limited (DTL) TRANSCO; Indraprastha Power Generation Company Limited (IPGCL) - GENCO; BSES Rajdhani Power Limited (BRPL) - DISCOM; BSES Yamuna Power Limited (BYPL) DISCOM; North Delhi Power Limited (NDPL) - DISCOM.

4.3 D 4.3 E

Delhi’s requirement of power in the year 2021 as tentatively estimated by Delhi Transco Ltd, is 8800 mw based on 16th Electricity Power Survey of India, CEA. To meet this demand, the concerned agencies need to augment the power supply and improve the transmission and distribution system. A 400 kv ring is being set up around Delhi to draw power from northern regional grid. The additional power requirement would be met from local generation and allocated share from the grid system. The projected arrangement for both local generation and central allocation is given in the Table. The actual requirement should be monitored and arranged as per seasonal demand.

The additional power requirement would be met from local generation and allocated share from the grid system. In the reform process for power sector, the Delhi Vidyut Board has been formally unbundled into successor companies for managing the distribution, transmission and generation functions. After the privatisation of distribution system the power generation may also be privatised with regulatory controls on tariff structures. Load management techniques should be adopted and schemes to minimise power thefts/losses by improved metering arrangements should be enforced. Non-conventional energy sources like recovering energy from sewage, solar energy should be used for street lighting, traffic signals, hoardings. etc.

Inferences • Applying energy and resource saving techniques at macro and micro level in order to reduce dependence on grid • Consumption Rate change bars to discourage mindless usage of Electricity. • Need to shift to non conventional sources of electricity in order to meet demands • Make Provisions to overcome Electricity Shortfall experienced in Summer months.

Delhi has a Composite Climate, and this bears a direct effect on the Electrical Consumption of the State across the seasons. The 4 Summer months (May-August) reflect an energy consumption of more than half of the annual consumptions. This is mostly due to shortfall in generation capacity especially during peak demand times, which occurs around afternoon and in evening in summers. This spike in energy requirement causes power shortages and also increases reliance on nonrenewable sources of energy to meet the growing demand.

Delhi: Larger 291 city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3

4.3 F


4.3 A 4.3 B 4.3 C 4.3 D 4.3 E

city| Specific 4.3 City Concerns 4.3 292 Delhi: Larger

4.3 F

Problems in the Electricity Sector in Delhi

In recent years, the performance of the power sector in Delhi has deteriorated dramatically due to various reasons: • In spite of increasing demand, no new capacity has been added. • T&D losses (Transmission and Distribution losses) have increased from 7 percent in 1953 to 23 percent in 1989 and have now reached a level of over 50 percent. About 18 percent are transmission losses and 32 percent are lost due to power theft. • Maintenance has been neglected which has lead to inefficient working equipment. • Commercial losses of DVB have increased sharply in the recent years. (From Rs 207 crore in 1993 to Rs 1,103 crore in 2000)

The problems of the electricity sector in Delhi can be divided into three sections: • Demand-Supply Imbalance • Transmission and Distribution losses • Financial Position In 2003, the city introduced electricity reforms with an eye to reduce the AT&C losses, power cuts, power theft and other problems that the sector was reeling from. 6 years from then, the reforms, having progressed slowly amidst lots of setbacks and hiccups have largely succeeded in achieving most of, if not all, their targets. Distribution and Generation were privatized, while transmission was given to separate govt. owned company, Delhi Transco Limited.

The only solution to the current situation is capacity addition, giving more freedom to consumers to choose their discoms (distribution companies) and supply side management. If supply situation can improve, the prices will no longer be needed to be regulated. And if customers have the freedom to choose their discoms, they will prefer the discom offering best quality and price. Sufficient supply will also make sure that discoms don’t end up buying expensive power through IEX, where power is sometimes purchased at rates as high as Rs. 14/unit. In order to improve the supply situation, Delhi has to invest in power plants outside NCR, or enter into more long term PPAs. Current budgetary allocation of only 431 crores is insufficient for this purpose. Delhi has invested in power projects (Thermal, Hydel) outside NCR region and will get power from these projects in the coming years. The largest of these projects, Damodar Valley Project, will add upwards of 2000 MW to Delhi’s capacity and will certainly make Delhi power sufficient. Impact on Housing • Erratic Power Supply necessitates need for backup power generators, which increases net cost of housing. • Delhi is divided in Zones and Time slices. Each time slice in a zone is allocated a certain electric capacity; this establishes certain areas as more energy reliable than others. • Barring of Unit consumption, necessitates adoption of Sustainable installations to keep the electricity bill in check, by minimizing consumption of more expensive electrical units.

It impressively shows the growing peak demand of energy over recent years on one hand, and the stagnant power supply of their own power plants on the other. With compelling logic, this leads to an increased purchase capacity.


5

INDIAN SUBCONTINENET


296 | Himalayas 5.1


5.1 5.1 A

Overview

5.1 B

Earthquake Zones

5.1 C

Northern Zone

5.1 D

Central Zone

5.1 E

Eastern Zone

5.1 F

Analysis and conclusion

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 297

Himalayas


298 | Himalayas 5.1


5.1 A

5.1A

5.1 B

Overview

According to the modern theory of plate tectonics, their formation is a result of a continental collision along the convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The main Himalayan range runs west to east, from the Indus river valley to the Brahmaputra river valley, forming an arc 2,400 km (1,500 mi) long.

The range consists of three coextensive sub-ranges, with the northernmost, and highest, known as the Great or Inner Himalayas. Climate The Himalayan region mainly experiences two season winter and summer. The average summer temperature in the southern foothills is about 30 degree Celsius and the average winter temperature is around 18 degree Celsius.

In the middle Himalayan valleys the average summer temperature is around 25 degree Celsius while the winters are really cold. On the higher region of the middle Himalayas the summer temperature is recorded at around 15 to 18 degree Celsius while the winters are below freezing point.

Land use Large scale land use transition for maximizing the benefits to meet the rising demands for food and other ecosystem services for the well being of the societies has been the main problem confronting sustainable development in the mountain areas. Agro-forestry is one of the favoured land management systems in the mountains.

People Enormous variations in the tribes, cultures, economic patterns and lifestyles of the people. This is because the people living in the Himalayas are greatly influenced by the topography, economic pattern and the climatic conditions. As of now there are only three different ethnic groups residing in the Himalayas comprising of the Negroids, Mongoloids and the Aryans.

Agro-forestry is accepted as one of the sustainable management systems for provisioning functions adopted by the mountain communities in the region. Such systems conserve soil by improving the fertility levels and erosion, provide quality water for local consumption, fodder for livestock, fuel and timber for use as energy and construction materials, and traditional crops for food security.

The ethnic tribes residing in remote areas have stuck to their traditional cultural identities which get reflected in their way of living.

Proper analyses of finite resources based on real data may lead to implement effective plan for sustainable use of the same in the mountain regions.

The Great Himalayan region in the north consists mainly of the Tibetan Buddhists while in the eastern Himalayas in India and nearby areas of eastern Bhutan people practice religion and culture similar to those living in northern Myanmar and Yunnan province in China. In western Kashmir, Muslims with their cultures similar to that of Iran and Afghanistan are mostly seen.

The Hindu-Kush Himalaya (HKH) mountain chain extending over 3,500 km length across the countries of Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar, cover an area of about 43 lakh sq.km. This region is generally considered underdeveloped in the respective countries and though rich in natural resources, the status of infrastructure development, which contributes to the livelihood status, is also poor.

5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

There are about 40 million people living in the Himalayan region with Hindus of the Indian origin mainly dominating the Sub Himalayan and the Middle Himalayan valleys.

The climatic condition at region above 4880 m is below freezing point and it is permanently covered with snow. During the winter the snowfall is really heavy while the summers are much more mild and soothing The regions of Ladakh and Zanskar situated in the North of the main Himalayan range are unaware of the monsoon season. (Top) Himalayas Physical Map (Left) Pie chart showing land use patterns

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 299

Introduction The Himalayas are among the youngest mountain ranges on the planet.

5.1 C


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C

The Himalayan range has a vast variety of architectural variety which we have divide in three zones for study

5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Northern Zone

The Himalayas in the Indian Subcontinent

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 300 Himalayas

2

Central Zone North-eastern Zone


5.1B

5.1 A

Seismic Zones

The region in India is seismically one of the six most active regions of the world. The high seismicity in the region is attributed to the collision tectonics between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate in the north and seduction tectonics along the Indo-Myanmar range in the east. Geomorphologic ally, NE India is located in an earthquake prone zone (zone V) of the Indian subcontinent. In this region earthquake comes with land sliding flood and along series of smaller magnitude earthquakes.

Zone V : Covers the areas liable to seismic intensity IX and above on Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. This is the most severe seismic zone and is referred here as Very High Damage Risk Zone. Zone IV : Gives the area liable to MM VIII. This zone is second in severity to zone V. This is referred here as High Damage Risk Zone. Zone III : The associated intensity is MM VII. This is termed here as Moderate Damage Risk Zone. Zone II : The probable intensity is MM VI. This zone is referred to as Low Damage Risk Zone. Zone I : Here the maximum intensity is estimated as MM V or less. This zone is termed here as Very Low Damage Risk Zone.

Construction practices in the Himalayan region are still on the lines of the traditional methods. Most of the construction taking place in the region makes use of traditional materials like stone masonry or burnt bricks With improvement in the economic condition RC framed buildings are also being constructed. Although these buildings make use of reinforcements little attention is paid to incorporate seismic resistant features in the building design.

5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Even in villages people construct RCC houses without paying attention to appropriate methodology and scheme. Lack of a proper approach coupled with ignorance of traditional earthquake resistant construction practices has made the Himalayan region increasing vulnerable.

2

(Top) Earthquake Zones Map (Left) Table showing states.

01||Himalayas 5.15.1 Himalayas 301

The Himalayan frontal arc flanked by the Chapman fault in the west constitutes one of the most seismically active intra-continental regions in the world.

5.1 B


5.1C

5.1 A

Northern zone

5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Pakistan Occupied Kashmir • Himalayas exist majorly in the part of Kashmir under Pakistan, P.O.K. • The facilities provided are high as the people are up to 90% literate. Hunza And Baltistan Location

Upper Himalayas

Climate

Cold and dry

Accessibility

Karakoram highway passes through

Population

consists majorly of Shia Muslims

Construction materials

Stone, wood,

• The Hunza valley is situated to the north of the Hunza River. • Promoted as a tourist place due to the beautiful scenery around the hunza valley.

302 Himalayas 01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1

• Essentially an extension to Jammu and Kashmir under Pakistan.

Vernacular design • Hunza valley consists of clustered housing on the slopes. • The houses exist on the slope in succession such that the roof of each house can be accessed by the house above. • The houses are made with stone and clay bricks. • The settlement is also placed around a pond of water which caters to their needs.

The vernacular was built to reduce severe damage in earthquake with stone and wood, lacking in contemporary development.


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C

Contemporary design • Multistorey multi functional buildings. • Mostly cluster typology with a mix of vernacular and contemporary architecture • Good contemporary architecture comprises of wood and brick architecture with colonial influences.

5.1 E 5.1 F

Contemporary house built in traditional ways

Contemporary development happening in the same clusters where the house is reconstructed in brick and concrete which is unable to take earthquake loads. This deviation in the construction typology has lead to great losses in earthquakes, hence a mixture of the two is used, where wooden dhajji is mixed with bricks for tying hence leading to a safe design

Street scape

Cator and Cribbage joint

Bhatari Construction`

01| Himalayas 5.1 5.1 | Himalayas 303

Earthquake Protection • Vernacular architecture consists of pebble and wood architecture called bhatari in Pashto similar to that of Srinagar. • Horizontal wooden beams are used to tie the structure together. • It is similar to taq construction in Srinagar except that small stones are laid into the wall without the mortar. • Another construction typology is known as cator and cribbage

5.1 D


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E

Jammu And Kashmir • Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India which lies in the upper Himalayan region. • Case study of LADAKH and SRINAGAR districts undertaken to understand the architecture prevalent in the state

5.1 F

.

Vernacular design Traditional local houses in Ladakh have evolved over the centuries, the harsh climate and a thriving Buddhist culture being the two main influences. They are mostly three storeys high and East facing (considered auspicious) .

Ladakh Location

Upper Himalayas

Climate

Extreme cold with occasional rains

Accessibility

two land routes to Ladakh in use are from Srinagar and Manali

Population

Population of 260,00 consisting majorly of Tibetans

Construction materials

Stone and mud, wooden beams, thatch covered roof

Mud and stone were major load bearing elements. Load bearing walls ,tapering towards the top. Wooden bracing used for reinforcement. Sub structure-random ruble masonry with mud mortar. • Wooden flooring and ornate columns. • Flat mud roof supported over a mesh of willow twigs serves as storage for fodder and firewood.

304 Himalayas 01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1

• • • •

• Ground level: The ground floor is animal shelter (helps to warm upper levels of the house). Courtyards around the house act as pens for animals. • First Floor: Consists of kitchen, bedrooms (husband and wife sleep separately from children), food storage area, toilets and washing area • Top Floor: Roof courtyard, family chapel (elevated position important, steps up), guest room/bedroom and summer room Walls • Up to 1.5 feet thick • Four feet deep foundations (not verified) • White washed with limestone Materials Used • Ground level: Stone • Upper levels: Sun dried mud bricks plastered with fine clay ‘markala’

Ladakh- Shey Palace 17th century

Roof and Floors • Constructed from poplar beams, willow branches, yagdzas (similar to heather) mud and earth • Flat roofs (generally little rain, snow can be removed easily) • Grass piled on roof over walls (protects from any precipitation) • Prayer flags displayed on roof (signifying Buddhist households) Openings • Small windows and doors (to reduce heat loss) • No openings on north elevation (reduces heat loss) • Entrance door with high threshold (to cope with snowfall) • Ornate carving on timber lintels and window surrounds

View of a housing cluster

Kitchen • Heart of house – The family spend most of their time here, a place for family gatherings and celebration • Size: Large (6.5m x 4.5m in the case study house, anecdotally informed that this is not much larger than average)


5.1 A 5.1 B

Degree College, Leh • Contemporary design • South orientation of the hostel rooms(slightly angled) to allow for solar heating. • Use of 0.3m thick adobe wall for first floor and rubble masonry on ground floor. Which provides insulation from cold. • Solar panels for heating requirements.

• A good example of modern architecture as the materials are vernacular used in an optimum way, along with the use of glass which helps absorbing more heat for the extreme cold.

• Climate responsive architecture helps in lowering the heating costs that is incurred in the vernacular houses.

5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Section through hostel

Site plan

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 305

Hostel ground floor plan


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Srinagar • Srinagar is the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir and lies in the upper Himalayan region. • It lies on the edge of Dal lake.

Location

Upper Himalayas

Climate

Cold and wet

Accessibility

two land routes to Ladakh in use are from Srinagar and Manali

Population

Population of 10,94,000 consisting majorly of Tibetans

Construction materials

Stone and mud, wooden beams

Vernacular architecture • Traditionally buildings were present along the edge of the river and the streets running between two rows of housings. • Vernacular architecture consisted mainly of wooden and mud architecture. • In the contemporary setting, the street is along the river with the houses going backwards. • River-borne traffic enters the city through ghats which are major centres of cultural exchange. • The buildings are interspersed at intervals by gardens. The skyline of Srinagar city dotted with spires

306 Himalayas 01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1

The elevation of houses along the Jhelum riverfront.

Closely placed houses in the streets

• The two hills of shankaracharya and Hari Parbat, river Jhelum and Dal lake evolve the physical form of the city. • Maximum density was along the river. • Towers of religious importance mark the skyline. • 3rd century B.C.- Buddhism under Ashoka • Stone architecture- Hindu religion • 14th century B.C.- Islam

Closely placed houses in the streets

Section through the old areas

Section through the newer areas


5.1 A 5.1 B

Housing along jhelum river front • Jhelum river-front housing is low income housing. • The boats moored along the river are called doongas. • They can be both single or double storied. • Linearly aligned wooden super structure. • Kitchen is at one corner. • Timber paneled walls and partitions. • Semi open able gabbled roof with wooden shingles

Earthquake protection • Dhajji and Taq style of construction were prevalent • Srinagar receives earthquake of a high scale. • Vernacular construction techniques help in supporting vibrations in the structure and less damage is done to the building.

• In rural settlements, some of the houses are brought down and built in brick without timber bracing and large windows very unsafe in earthquakes.

Contemporary architecture

• Mostly the housing is still cluster based built in random rubble with CGI roofs on timber instead of stone/ wooden shingles.

• The plan shows that the hostel is planned around a central space with roads running to each hostel block. • The roofs are sloping built from green corrugated G.I. sheets. • The construction is completely R.C.C. • G+2 structure on a high plinth.

Some houses are plastered with brick cement mortar to make it look modern which weakens the structure due to moisture and kills the vernacular.

National institute of technology(hostel), Srinagar

5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Brick houses in old settlement

Plaster cladding on old construction

Jhelum hostel Chenab hostel

Taq construction

Doongas lined along the river

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 307

Dhajji construction


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Himachal pradesh • Himachal Pradesh comprises of many districts and majorly lies in the middle Himalayan region. • Case study of Shimla, Lahual & Spiti and Chamba districts undertaken to understand the architecture prevalent in the state. • Consists of 7 hills spread along the landscape Shimla Location

Middle Himalayas

Climate

Cold and wet

Accessibility

NH-22 from Kalka Narrow gauge railway line

Population

1.6 lakhs(approx)

Construction materials

Stone and mud, wooden beams

Vernacular • 1815-1864- European style. • Material used was Indian or local i.e. wood, stone.

308 Himalayas 01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1

Contemporary • The newer architecture is mostly in R.C.C. due to non-availability of wood for construction. • Colonial influence as it was the summer capital for the britishers.

The mall road

• Shimla was a village earlier which came into notice due to its climate and location wrto the roads. • Shimla gained importance as a hill station which grew rapidly along the entire length of the ridge. • The mall road is the pedestrian artery(top), while the cart road is vehicular(bottom) • Houses occupy the south side of the hill, due to ample sunlight while the northern side is covered with forests.

View of the southern slope of Shimla, which is densely packed with houses and poses a lot of pressure on the hill.


5.1 A 5.1 B Contemporary architecture

5.1 C

Lahaul and spiti

Jaypee university of information technology, Solan • Contemporary housing(hostel complex) • RCC Framed Structure with brick concrete plaster. • 10-11 storey concrete structure on a south facing hill providing beautiful views. • The building is cut into terraces towards the southern side providing for spill-outs. • Built using earth berming.

The high rise hostel complex built in RCC in a hilly region, linearly along the access roads.

Lies to the east of Chamba district in north of Himachal Pradesh. Location

Upper Himalayas

Climate

Cold and dry

Accessibility

Through the rohtang pass

Construction materials

Stone and mud, wooden beams

5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

In India, the oldest earthen building is Tabo Monastery, in Spiti valley - Himachal Pradesh. Built in adobes in 996 AD earth, it has withstood Himalayan winters since then.

Cotemporary architecture

views of the hostel

Solar trombe wall system at Tabo Monastery, Spiti

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 309

• Contemporary examples are addition of glass Trombe wall that help enhancing the heat captured.


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Chamba

Vernacular architecture

Chamba district lies in the north of Himachal Pradesh. Location

Middle Himalayas

Climate

Cold and wet

Accessibility

Via pathankhot or banikhet

Construction materials

Stone and mud, wooden beams

• The traditional Kath- Kona style which is the interlinking of wooden planks with stones filled in between. • Store rooms made out of tight interlinking of thick wooden planks which stop moisture from entering. • Some construction which was earlier done in stone with timber beams, has been taken over by concrete beams.

310 Himalayas 01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1

Concrete construction which is commonly followed in most of North-India, people in hills are also blinding following not considering the impacts of this.

Section of a house wrto street

Vernacular house cluster in Bharmaur village, Chamba district


5.1 A 5.1 B Contemporary guest house in Chamba, built with bricks and plastered on top

PWD Circuit house, chamba • Contemporary design(govt. rest house) • RCC Framed Structure with brick concrete plaster. • G+1 structure with sloping CGI roof • Built on the flat land in the main bazaar in Chamba valley along the river bank • Located in front of the chougan where the mingar fair is held every year. • Grid pattern of planning, located in the main chowk of Chamba district, example of contemporary architecture of Chamba This zone in the Himalayan region consists of mostly wooden and stone housing typology for vernacular and a mixed RCC and wooden typology in the contemporary which has evolved particularly because of lack of vernacular building materials and ease of construction

Some exceptions being Ladakh, Spiti, which are inspired with Tibetan architecture due to the nearness to the Tibetan border

Elevation of PWD circuit house

Uttaranchal

5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Case study of village MUKHBA in Uttarkashi district of Uttaranchal state has been taken up to study the vernacular architecture of the region and the evolution to contemporary. Location

upper/middle Himalayas

Climate

Cold and wet

Accessibility

1.2 km from the national highway road from Uttarkashi

Population

Small population consisting majorly of Hindu Brahmins

Construction materials

Stone and wood

• The houses are built along the slope facing the eastsouth-east direction. • The houses are usually linear in shape with a verandah on the longer side. • The rooms with thick walls provide refuge from the cold conditions outside while conserving inner ht.

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 311

Contemporary architecture

5.1 C


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Spatial organization in a house: • The ground floor is used for domestic animals. • The first floor has living areas. • The second floor kitchens. • food grain storage are stand alone structures which are present in the open front yard

Earthquake factors: • The structural system of the walls consists of alternating horizontal bands of wooden beams and stone masonry that support a sloping wooden roof. •

The intermediate floors are made of wooden rafters with board, and the floor of the verandah is supported by wooden columns.

The traditional crafts of building construction is still alive and practiced extensively but easy availability of alternate construction material coupled with scarcity of wood can turn things around in a few years

Kitchen area

Living areas

Area for cattle

View of Mukhba village

Section through a typical house in Mukhba village

Settlement pattern

Contemporary architecture

312 Himalayas 01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1

• Similar to himachal, the architecture in upper Uttaranchal consists of Kath kona construction and is majorly cluster type. • This typology is being greatly replaced by R.C.C construction with G.I. sheeting in roof as visible in the picture above. • While in the foothills of Himalayas it follows R.C.C. construction with flat roofs. • The houses are in planned geometry loosing the organic character of streets. Elevation of a vernacular house

• Houses now have G.I. sheets as the easiest roofing material • These pictures show how the earlier settlement was organic and houses placed linearly along the streets.


5.1 A

5.1D

5.1 B

Central Zone Modern architecture was more inclined towards utility and function

Nepal Located in the upper Himalayan region with the major peaks.

Climate

Extreme cold in mountains, moderate in plains with average rainfall

Accessibility

Major trade route between Tibet and India

Population

Population of 3,000,000 consisting majorly of HIndus

Construction materials

wood(earlier), R.C.C.

• The skyline of Kathmandu has changed from sloped houses to multi-storey housings in the core settlement. • The city lies in the mountain valley due to which it is mostly flat agricultural land, now occupied under housings.

5.1 F

The outburst of population in Kathmandu

• The density in Kathmandu is very high. • People began settling around major trade route between India and Tibet. • Huge walled palaces were constructed at major locations which lead to the settling of people along the streets. • The access roads are narrow. • More and more housing in the main city lead to sprawls, mushroom settlements and amorphous spaces around the core. •

Vernacular architecture comprised of courtyard as a social space.

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 313

Upper Himalayas

5.1 D 5.1 E

Kathmandu Location

5.1 C


5.1D

5.1 A

Central Zone

5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Lo Manthang • Lo-Manthang was the capital of the ancient Kingdom of Mustang. • An ancient fortified village complex on the upper western part of Nepal, lies in the dry cold climate zone. Although politically part of Nepal, Upper Mustang is linked by religion, culture, and history to Tibet. • The village is noted for its tall white washed mud brick walls

Location

Upper Himalayas

Climate

Cold and dry

Accessibility

Jomsom highway

Population

Around 7000,mostly Tibetan culture

Construction materials

Brick, wood, mud

314 Himalayas 01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1

• Tightly packed houses fill most of the available space • Within the walls are about 150 houses built among narrow streets • The people strictly follow the Buddhist culture due to great influence from Tibet.

The settlement is like a typical tibetan settlement with clay and thatch houses.

It is situated on the Nepal China border and hence has a lot of influence from China. The settlement is spread in the form of a dense cluster in the upper himalayan valley

Arial view of a cluster in Lomanthang


5.1 A

5.1E

5.1 B

Northeast Zone Introduction

5.1 C

Earthquake activity

Northeast India refers to the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States and Sikkim.

• Northeast India is seismically one of the six most active regions of the world, the other five being Mexico, Taiwan, California, Japan and Turkey.

Northeast India is ethnically distinct from the rest of India and has strong ethnic and cultural ties with Southeast Asia. Linguistically the region is distinguished by a preponderance of Tibeto-Burman languages.

• It is placed in zone 5, the highest zone, of the seismic zoning map of India.

The region is known for its unique culture, handicrafts, martial arts, and scenic beauty. Problems include insurgency, unemployment, drug addiction,

5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

• It lies at the junction of Himalayan arc to the north and Burmese arc to the east. The region has experienced 18 large earthquakes (M >7) during the last hundred years including the great earthquakes of Shillong (1897, M=8.7) and Assam-Tibet border (1950, M=8.7)

Climate Northeast India has a predominantly humid sub-tropical climate with hot, humid summers, severe monsoons and mild winters.

2

(Top) Political Map (Above) Zone Map (Far Left) Climate Graph , (Left) Seismic Zones of India

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 315

Along with the west coast of India, this region has some of the Indian sub-continent's last remaining rain forests. The states of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim have a montane climate with cold, snowy winters and mild summers. and lack of infrastructure.


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Meghalaya Case study of Shillong

Location

Eastern Himalays, avg. altitude 4,908 feet (1,496 m) above sea level

Climate

Temperate summers, cold winters. Heavy rainfall.

Accessibility

NH 40 links it to Guahati. Airport at Umiam.

Population

1,31,179 (2011 census)

Traditional Architecture

Traditional Settlement Pattern

Features

• Originally a small village called Laban. Weekly markets held.

• The vernacular architecture here is developed in such a way that natural disasters can be combated.

• Houses scattered across the hills. Organic patterns. Non-dense. • Governance under a King called the Syiem of Mylliem. • Houses were constructed in wood or stone. • Highly backward till the advent of the Welsh missionaries.

Adopted the upturned boat roof form which is inherently capable of withstanding the harsh monsoon winds and incessant rainfall.

• The structural system consists mainly of post and beam timber frames having pillars buried into the ground. • The floor is supported at intervals by limestone or wooden pillars. • They are not usually built on hill tops. •

They have symmetrical oval shapes which are devoid of sharp corners, thereby avoiding stress concentrations which is a major source of failure at wall corners during earthquakes.

• Nails are not used in the constructions, and the grooves and tongues that are utilized allow for dissipation of seismic loads.

Being aerodynamically friendly, these upturned boat roofs were best suited to withstand the squalls and storms of the region.

• The roofs are made of light materials so that fatalities from failed roofs are limited.

316 Himalayas 01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1

Winds bend around the boat shape, making it difficult to affect the structure.

The slope is such that water completely drains off

Internal layout


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C

Roofs

5.1 D

• The roofs are sloping suitable to the climate.

• •

5.1 E

Roof is covered with dried straw. Usually replaced twice year.

5.1 F

Gable is exposed and ornamentation is done on it.

• The gable breaks the monotony of straight lines by ornamenting it with various designs.

Section through a Khasi House

Purlin

Foundations • The foundation consists of stone masonry footing over which wooded beams are placed. • The height of the footing is kept enough to allow air to pass through to prevent the main beam, cross beams and wooded planks from dry rot.

Beam

2

Column Roof Detail

Beam and Post Detail

Foundation

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 317

Rafter


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Evolution to Contemporary

Features

Though thatch is much firmer and retains more warmth, the G.I became a popular substitute since it is low maintenance and fire resistant.

• The building is of two storied house.

The development of a cement factory in Mawsmai brought hollow cement concrete blocks which are now placed in the lower half of most walls (insulation from dampness).

• 1st floor is connected with a timber stair case.

Houses still retain the sharp division between private and semi private spaces.

• Walls are of timber frame work, inside those panels ikara used to fill.

Assam Style House:

• Building is symmetrical on both side.

• Open spaces in front (chotal) and back side (bari) of the house.

• These ikaras are cut in size of the panel and laid vertically.

Before the British the building constructed by kings was very uneconomical and the construction system was very difficult.

• The horizontal members usually bamboo.

They had started a special type of construction, which finally become the typical building type and called” Assam type house”.

• Then it is plastered in both side with mud mortar.

• After putting the ikara it is left to dry for few days.

• 3 layers of plaster are done alternatively after dying of each coat.

318 Himalayas 01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1

• Finished coat is of liquid mix of mud and cow dung.

(Left) An Assam style house (Centre) The front entrance (Top) Plan (Above) Elevation


5.1 A 5.1 B

Modern settlement patterns Most buildings now made in RCC. No particular planning. Plotted housing. Houses built on slopes. Where necessary ground is leveled. Retain sloping roofs. Deep foundations used. Sometimes retaining walls are used. Max. height is G+4. Housing:

• Most housing present is plotted housing. Group housing either govt. funded or institutionally funded and is at present very few.

• There is no real use of traditional knowledge in today’s rampant construction. • The buildings are not very safe since they are built on slopes that are highly susceptible to earthquakes.

5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

• The scenic beauty is ruined. • The lack in planning makes expansion difficult. • There is no use of local materials or traditional materials in construction. Instead there is a rampant use of RCC.

• RCC buildings max. height 5 storeys. • Construction is happening at A site near NEHU which is the proposed New Shillong.

(Far Left) A hostel (Top Centre) The front entrance (Centre) Settlement patterns in Shillong (Left) View of Shillong, (Top) University Hostel

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 319

• • • • • • • • •

Observations:

5.1 C


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E

320 Himalayas 01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1

5.1 F

MANIPUR â&#x20AC;&#x201C; NAGALAND BORDER

Case study of Tamenglong:.

Location

Eastern Himalayas

Climate

Temperate summers, cold winters. Heavy rainfall.

Accessibility

Road network to major cities.

Population

1,11,493 (2001 census)

Traditional Architecture of Tamenglong:

Settlement pattern:

The olden structures of Tamenglong have a distinct vocabulary of Naga houses, which were mainly constructed of wooden logs, mud flooring, thatch roofing tapering towards the rear side and mud plastered or flattened bamboo walling.

Like most traditional hill settlements, houses are clustered in small groups to form villages. Each village is located close to one another and exchanges trade, etc.

A typical house would contain only two rooms and the front room would have attic for storage of belongings as well as habitable spaces. The other space would be kitchen.


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C

Experiment At Tamenglong – A Typology For The Hills

5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Contemporary Buildings

Column Erection

Masonry till plinth

• RCC buildings.

• After the treatment the area which would be anchored is bored and steel bars of 8mm diameter are driven at three points for anchorage.

• After the column erection, the masonry works are being carried till the plinth.

• Once again no traditional knowledge is used. • Most commonly used system of construction. • Once again not very safe since the region is an earthquake zone 5.

• Columns are located at the centre line of the trench and is held on temporary tripod for concreting. The column concreting is done with a mix of 1:2:4, ratio for cement : sand : aggregate.

• While pouring the concrete mix, it shall be rammed properly for avoiding any voids in the composition. • Proper curing for minimum 14 days shall be done.

• Random rubble masonry in 1:4 is being carried out. • Two inches depth Damp Proof Course is being laid in 1:3 at the top of the foundation walls. • Proper curing for the masonry works is being carried out.

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 321

• Disrupt the natural beauty of the place.


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Bahareque surfacing

Inner walling construction

Truss fabrication

• Bamboo is being flattened and being treated with Boric-Borax acid for the attack of the borer.

• Inner side of the wall is being prepared by using traditional walling system.

• These flattened bamboos are fixed on the bamboo panels for creating the surface for plastering.

• Bamboo grid is prepared using 25mm by 6mm thick bamboo slats, which are being woven and nailed to the panels.

• Trusses are fabricated on the 1:1 drawings which are being drawn on the floor for easy and accurate fabrication.

• Flattened bamboos are being nailed and wound with G.I wires for fastening. • Only the outer walling is done in bahareque style, inner side of the walling is done in the traditional style of walling construction.

• Two rooms are being plastered with mud, cow-dung and straw paste while two rooms have 15mm thick cement plaster on top as mud paste.

322 Himalayas 01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1

2

• Gusset plates are made out of the 25mm thick wooden planks, since the amount of rainfall is very much. • Trusses are fabricated and kept for the erection.


5.1 A 5.1 B

• People started settling more in clustered around the dzong for security and because it was a place of importance.

Thimphu, Bhutan • The city, situated in the west-central part of the BHUTAN, is in the inner Himalaya Mountains at about 7,000 feet (2,000 m) above sea level. It sits in broad fertile valley of Wang Chu river.

• As a result of Shabdrung initiating similar structures all over the country the settlement took a pattern, where there's a fortress and settlement around the fortress .

• Agriculture was the main occupation on the fertile soil of Wang Chu .

Middle Himalayas

Climate

Cold and wet

Accessibility

Via pathankhot or banikhet

Constructio n materials

Stone and mud, wooden beams

• Bhutan's landscape ranges from subtropical plains in the south to the Sub-alpine Himalayan heights in the north, with some peaks exceeding 7,000 metres (23,000 ft).The state religion is Buddhism .And about a quarter of Hindus.

5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

• And this took place only in the 15th to 16thcentury almost at the end of the medieval period • Shabdrung started what is called the Bhutanese great architecture(DZONG) which also played an important part in the settlement pattern of the country.

Evolution of settlements • Earlier settlement of Thimphu consisted of basically families or groups of farmers clustered together to provide each other of the human resource and to ensure security from outsiders. • The settlement were mostly on the upper side or on the western bank of the river(Wangchu) 2

Early settlements by ngalopas {people belonging to the Tibetan origin} with their traditional dwelling forms.

The Tibetan influx into Bhutan started around 8th and 9th century onwards with its architecture incorporating Tibetan style.

When Buddhism became a prominent religion in the country a lot of great fortress where being built for the security of people in the valleys. • The fortress was called Dzong and were built mainly to defend amongst the Tibetan invaders. Thimphu Dzong was also renovated and made bigger by Shabdrung.

(Far bottom Left) Map showing location of Bhutan in the Himalayas; (Top Center) Wangchu river; (Bottom Centre)Traditonal houses;(Above) Trongsa Dzong

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 323

Location

5.1 C


5.1 A 5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

Settlement Typology in Thimphu

• Settlement Typology in Thimphu is of a Buddhist Typology. • A centralized dzong and dense clustered around the dzong, away from the main settlement consists of clusters of small numbers of houses with a monastic school. • In the main settlement the people have their paddy fields far away from their residents because mostly the people working in the dzong settled around the dzong. • This was the settlement pattern after Shabdrung and before monarchy.

The highest point

The middle Q

- The residences

• The settlement drastically changed because the profession of the people started changing from farmers to engineers, doctors, etc.

The lower

- Commercial

Other side

- The royal Bhutan Army cantonment and some residential areas

• From houses surrounded by paddy fields to houses surrounded by other houses, the settlement pattern changed. • The lower side of the city is the commercial area where we find the shops, restaurants, stores and hang out spaces.

324 Himalayas 01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1

Settlement Pattern (Early Growth)

The end of the city

– The Royal Family

-Villages

(bottom) Buddhist Settlement typology; (Top Center) View of the city; (left bottom)Section; (Above left) Lower residential area; (Top) Upper residential area


5.1F

5.1 A

Analysis and conclusion

5.1 B 5.1 C 5.1 D 5.1 E 5.1 F

BALTISTAN SRINAGAR

LADAKH LAHAUL & SPITI CHAMBA SHIMLA MUKHBA LOMANTHANG THIMPU MEGHALAYA

• The Himalayas through our study can be divided into two climate zones: • Cold and dry • Cold and wet

• The yellow zone indicates the cold and dry belt of Himalayas along various states lying on the same altitude. • The orange zone indicates the cold and wet belt of Himalayas along various states lying on the same altitude.

ASSAM TAMELGONG

• The analysis indicates that similar architecture exists along the same altitude in the Himalayan ranges despite of being present in different states and following different cultures.

01||Himalayas 5.1 5.1 Himalayas 325

KATHMANDU


6

INTERNATIONAL


6.1 6.1 A

Introduction to South America

6.1 B

Physical Features and Climate

6.1 C

History

6.1 D

Case Study – Favelas, Rio, Brazil

6.1 E

Case Study – Housing Element, Chile

6.1 F

Case Study – Housing Pedregulho, Rio de Jenario

6.1 G

Case Study – Nueva Democracia, Maracaibo, Venezuela

6.1 H

Case Study – Jai Housing Complex, Argentina

SOUTH AMERICA

6.6

South America America 6.1 6.1 329 12 | | South

South America


6.1 A

6.1A

6.1 B

Introduction to South America

6.1 C Area (km²)

Population (July 2009 est.)

Population density per km²

Argentina

2,766,890 km2

40,482,000

Bolivia

1,098,580 km2

9,863,000

Brazil

8,514,877 km2

191,241,714

Chile

756,950 km2

16,928,873

22/km² Santiago

1,138,910 km2

45,928,970

40/km² Bogotá

283,560 km2

14,573,101

Falkland Islands

12,173 km2

3,140

French Guiana

91,000 km2

221,500[

2.7/km² Cayenne

Guyana

214,999 km2

772,298

3.5/km² Georgetown

Paraguay

406,750 km2

6,831,306

1,285,220 km2

29,132,013

3,093 km2

20

Suriname

163,270 km2

472,000

3/km² Paramaribo

Uruguay

176,220 km2

3,477,780

19.4/km² Montevideo

Venezuela

912,050 km2

26,814,843

Colombia Ecuador

Peru

South Georgia

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_America

6.1 D

Capital

6.1 E

14.3/km² Buenos Aires

6.1 F

8.4/km² La Paz and Sucre

6.1 G

22.0/km² Brasília

6.1 H

53.8/km²) Quito 0.26/km² Port Stanley

15.6/km² Asunción 22/km² Lima

0/km² Grytviken

30.2/km² Caracas

• South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers. • Its population as of 2005 has been estimated at more than 371,090,000. • South America ranks fourth in area, covering approximately 12% of the Earth's land and fifth in population.

South America America 6.1 6.1 331 13 | | South

Country


6.1 A 6.1 B 6.1 C 6.1 D 6.1 E 6.1 F 6.1 G

14 | South America 6.1 332 | South America 6.1

6.1 H

South America highest waterfall,

is

home

to

the

world's

Angel Falls in Venezuela; the largest river (by volume),

the Amazon River; the longest mountain range,

the Andes (whose highest Aconcagua at 6,962 m);

the driest place on earth, the Atacama Desert;

the largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest; the highest capital city, La Paz, Bolivia;

the highest commercially navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca;

and, excluding research stations in Antarctica, the world's southernmost permanently inhabited community, Puerto Toro, Chile.

mountain

is


6.1 A

6.6 B

6.1 B

Physical Features and Climate Frequent tectonic activity, especially earthquakes, reminds one that the mountains are geologically active. The Andes also tend to be narrower from west to east. •

In the eastern part of South America there are some highlands that are older in geologic terms. To the north are the Guiana Highlands, and to the south are the Brazilian Highlands. The largest of the river systems in South America is the Amazon (Rio Amazonas). Amazon system drains a sparcely populated tropical area.

Most of South America lies in the tropics

• Due to its large size, the climate of South America varies with each region, determined by their own geographical location, ocean currents and winds. •

The Andean regions of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia share in common - from May to November - the driest and coldest time of the year.

• As you move away from the Equator and reach higher altitudes, temperature changes more dramatically, from below the freezing point in the dry season to around 28°C (82.4°F) or more in the wet season.

6.1 C 6.1 D 6.1 E 6.1 F 6.1 G 6.1 H

• Rain is spread more or less evenly throughout the year. • The Amazon river basin has the typical hot and wet climate suitable for the growth of rain forests. There, climate turns hot and humid - with temperatures in the range of 70 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit.

The physical environments of South America range from the Atacama Desert of to the dense Amazonian rain forest from snow capped volcanoes of the Andes Mountain Range to hot vast subtropical grasslands. •

The most prominent physical feature in South America is probably the Andes Mountains. The Andes occupy the western part of the South American continent and run generally from north to south.

South America America 6.1 6.1 333 15 | | South

• Further down south, Chile and Argentina have temperatures below freezing during their winter months and incessant winds throughout the year. Buenos Aires weather can get unbearable hot and humid during summer.


6.1 A 6.1 B 6.1 C 6.1 D 6.1 E 6.1 F 6.1 G 6.1 H

6.6 C History

Pre-Columbian civilizations The rise of plant growing and the subsequent appearance of permanent human settlements allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America. The Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533. The Inca civilization was highly distinct and developed. Inca rule extended to nearly a hundred linguistic or ethnic communities, some 9 to 14 million people connected by a 25,000 kilometer road system. Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain. Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture.

European colonization Beginning in the 1530s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal. These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies. European infectious diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus) — to which the native populations had no immune resistance—and systems of forced labor, such as the haciendas and mining industry's mita, decimated the native population under Spanish control. After this, African slaves, who had developed immunities to these diseases, were quickly brought in to replace them.

Independence

16 | South America 6.1 334 | South America 6.1

The South American won their independence at the end of 1823 in the Spanish American wars of independence. Simón Bolívar of Venezuela and José de San Martín of Argentina were the most important leaders of the independence struggles.

In the Portuguese colony of Brazil, Dom Pedro I (also Pedro IV of Portugal), son of the Portuguese King Dom João VI, proclaimed the country's independence in 1822 and became Brazil's first Emperor. After some quarreling with Portuguese loyal garrisons in Bahia and Pará, this was diplomatically accepted by the crown in Portugal, on conditions of a high compensation paid by Brazil.


6.1 A 6.1 B 6.1 C

The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th century.

6.1 D

Some democratically elected governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay were overthrown or displaced by military dictatorships in the 1960s and 1970s.

6.1 E

To curtail opposition, their governments detained tens of thousands of political prisoners, many of whom were tortured and/or killed on inter-state collaboration.

6.1 G

6.1 F

6.1 H

Economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies. Colombia has had an ongoing, though diminished internal conflict, which started in 1964 with the creation of Marxist guerrillas (FARC-EP) and then involved several illegal armed groups of leftist leaning ideology as well as the private armies of powerful drug lords. Many of these are now defunct.

Revolutionary movements and right-wing military dictatorships became common after World War II, but since the 1980s a wave of democratization came through the continent, and democratic rule is widespread now. Nonetheless, allegations of corruption are still very common, and several countries have developed crises which have forced the resignation of their governments, although, in most occasions, regular civilian succession has continued this far.

International indebtedness turned into a severe problem in late 1980s, and some countries, despite having strong democracies, have not yet developed political institutions capable of handling such crises without recurring to unorthodox economical policies.

The last twenty years have seen an increased push towards regional integration, with the creation of uniquely South American institutions such as the Andean Community, Mercosur and Unasur.

HISTORY

South America America 6.1 6.1 335 16 | | South

These leftist groups smuggle narcotics out of Colombia to fund their operations, while also using kidnapping, bombings, land mines and assassinations as weapons against both elected and non-elected citizens.


6.1 A 6.1 B

6.6 D

Case Study â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Favelas, Rio, Brazil

6.1 C 6.1 D 6.1 E 6.1 F 6.1 G 6.1 H

A favela is the generally used term for a shanty town in Brazil. In the late 18th century, the first settlements were called bairros africanos (African neighbourhoods).

17 | South America 6.1 336 | South America 6.1

This was the place where former slaves with no land ownership and no options for work lived. Over the years, many freed black slaves moved in. . Even before the first "favela" came into being, poor citizens were pushed away from downtown and forced to live in the far suburbs. However, most modern favelas appeared in the 1970s, due to rural exodus, when many people left rural areas of Brazil and moved to cities. Without finding a place to live, many people ended up in a favela

The houses are usually made first from wattle-anddaub, a mixture of sand and clay, and eventually to the use of wood, brick and sheet metal. Usually the first settle near the bottom of the hills and as time goes by the hill fills upward

Each favela has its own community complete with grocery markets, clothing stores, pharmacies, repair shops and other types of small businesses. This varies depending on the location of the favela and by the size of its population


6.1 A 6.1 B 6.1 C

Rural-urban migration

6.1 D

Push • Lack of electrical, water and sewage services. • Hard work, long hours and little pay for farmers. • Shortage of education, health and welfare services. • Chance of natural disasters leading to crop failure.

6.1 E 6.1 F 6.1 G 6.1 H

Pull • The availability of schools, doctors, hospitals and entertainment. • A greater variety of jobs with higher wages. • Improved housing. • More reliable sources of food. • More enjoyment of life.

Problems caused by Shanty Towns No services i.e.. Doctors, water, toilets, electric. Disease can spread quickly. Crime. No education. Fire hazards. Rubbish/pollution. Houses situated on unsafe land. No social life. Low standard of living.

Land use in Rio

South America America 6.1 6.1 337 18 | | South

• • • • • • • • •


6.1 A 6.1 B 6.1 C 6.1 D 6.1 E 6.1 F 6.1 G 6.1 H

6.6 E

Case Study – Elemental Housing, Chile Situation at hand To settle the 100 families of the Quinta Monroy in the same 5,000 m2 site that was illegally occupied for the last 30 years; located in the very centre of Iquique, a city in the Chilean desert.

Row houses instead of high rise a high-rise building is very efficient in terms of land use, but the proposed type of blocks expansions needed that every house could at least double the initial built space.

Areas: Land: 5.025m²

Initial house: 36m² Expanded house: 70m²

19 | South America 6.1 338 | South America 6.1

Initial duplex: 25m² Expanded duplex: 72m² 93 units of housing built

Arial view of the site before and after the construction


6.1 A 6.1 B 6.1 C 6.1 D 6.1 E 6.1 F 6.1 G

Prototype 1

Prototype 2

Prototype 3

Prototype 4

Prototype 5

Prototype 6

South America America 6.1 6.1 339 19 | | South

6.1 H


6.1 A 6.1 B 6.1 C 6.1 D 6.1 E 6.1 F 6.1 G 6.1 H

First, to achieve enough density - without overcrowding - in order to be able to pay for the site, which because of its location was very expensive. To keep the site meant to maintain the network of opportunities that the city offered and therefore to strengthen the family economy Second, the provision of a physical space for the â&#x20AC;&#x153;extended familyâ&#x20AC;? to develop has proved to be a key issue in the economical take off of a poor family. In between the private and public space, introduction of the collective space, conformed by approximately 20 families. The collective space (a common property with restricted access) is an intermediate level of association that allows surviving fragile social conditions. Third, due to the fact that 50% of each unitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s volume will eventually be self-built, the building had to be porous enough to allow each unit to expand within its structure. The initial building must therefore provide a supporting, (rather than a constraining) framework in order to avoid any negative effects of selfconstruction on the urban environment over time, but also to facilitate the expansion process.

19 | South America 6.1 340 | South America 6.1

Instead of designing a small house (30 m2), providing a middle-income house, out of which we were giving just a small part now. This meant a change in the standard: kitchens, bathrooms, stairs, dividing walls and all the difficult parts of the house had to be designed for a 72m2 house.

Elevation

Section

Section


6.1 A

6.6 F

6.1 B

Case Study – – Pedregulho, Rio de Janerio Architect Affonso Eduardo Reidy.

• It is a large 850 foot-long building, with its 272 apartments.

Construction Built between 1949 and 1951

• It takes centre stage in a broader development scheme consisting of four apartment blocks, an elementary school, a gymnasium, a swimming pool, a health centre, playgrounds, a laundry, and a day care centre.

The Pedregulho housing development was intended as a model for subsidized lower-class housing.

• Pedregulho’s third floor open corridor—the building’s main entry via bridges—provides communal space while allowing the building’s full seven stories to function without the aid of elevators.

6.1 C 6.1 D 6.1 E 6.1 F 6.1 G 6.1 H

• The building shares an intimate and sophisticated relationship with its sloping site. Perched on sturdy pillars, the building approximates a contour line with its floor-plate and allows the ground to flow fluidly beneath it. Congregation Space

Corridor

Bridge

Health centre

Housing blocks Section

Play grounds

Laundry

School Site plan

South America America 6.1 6.1 341 19 | | South

Pool


6.1 A 6.1 B

6.6 G

Case Study â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Nueva Democracia, Maracaibo, Venezuela

6.1 C

The dwellings

6.1 D

Nueva Democracia is a 900 unit affordable housing project in Maracaibo, Venezuela.

6.1 E

The design objective was to reduce the amount of public land while increasing the amount of semiprivate land owned by groups of families.

6.1 F 6.1 G 6.1 H

The jointly owned spaces, condominiums, have been modified by its owners, which are the families around them, while serving as spaces for social interaction Houses were designed to grow from small 30 m2 houses with multiuse spaces, up to two-story 140 m2 dwellings, depending on the possibilities and needs of the families. Condominium The Condominium, represents an organizational model that reinforces the spatial limits and sense of ownership of the families in a territory that is their own and recognizable. This space is an extension of the private space into a shared common space, but shared and owned only by a group of identifiable neighbours.

19 | South America 6.1 342 | South America 6.1

The concept of condominium has worked very well, most of Nueva Democraciaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dwellers have a strong sense of belonging to their specific condomiums.

Urban layout of Nueva Democracia

The dwellings are conceived as a unit that can grow. They are designed to evolve from 30 m2 with a multiple use living/sleep space, a bathroom and laundry space, up to a 130 m2 house with five bedrooms, living room, dining room, kitchen, laundry room, backyard, front yard and internal patio, porch and a place to park the car.


6.6 A

Incremental growth

• In the first stage the house is an "I"; • then a living room is added to convert it into an "L"; • and then a bedroom, to generate a "C", which encloses an internal courtyard that contributes to ventilate spaces. • Growth in stages 5, 6 and 7 is in the second level. Many variations can be done without much problem due to the flexibility of the plan. • Bathrooms, kitchen, and laundry are grouped together and the plumbing and electrical connections for the second floor were installed in the first stage.

Bedroom

Courtyard Living room Stage 1

Stage 2

Living room Stage 3

Adapting to the hot and humid climate of Maracaibo was an important project consideration.

6.6 C

The houses did have some thermal capacity but unfortunately no insulation. The most important strategies implemented to achieve thermal comfort were natural ventilation through windows to promote evaporative cooling from the body and shade to reduce solar gains inside the house. Key components were the interior courtyard and the shaded "condominium" open spaces. These two strategies have worked well but unfortunately when many of the owners have covered the courtyard or back yard to convert them to interior spaces, reducing air circulation inside the houses. Many of these spaces are now air conditioned, but because they are poorly insulated they require a lot of energy for cooling, so the owner can’t always afford to operate them. The increase in enclosed air conditioned spaces also reduces air flow overall and increases air temperatures around the houses. By being flexible and permitting growth, the design has been successful, but some limits should have been established in cases in which the modifications would negatively affect the performance of the house (e.g. not permitting them to close the internal courtyard). Due to the increase in the heat island effect, and construction of more apartment towers that block the cooler north-easterly lake breezes, the people that live in Nueva Democracia are increasingly dissatisfied with thermal conditions inside dwellings.

6.6 D 6.6 E 6.6 F Green roof implementation

To improve them several solutions have been proposed and detailed through construction documents. There are five main strategies that can be implemented, the first four in their homes and the last one in the condominium spaces.

6.6 G 6.6 H

• Reduce heat gain through windows. Several strategies are proposed which include internal or external shading elements, pergolas, trees, or extending the roof. • Increasing insulation through the roof. In equatorial latitudes the highest thermal gains are in the roof so it is important to reduce the thermal gains through it. A proposal for internal insulation was prepared. • Increase cross ventilation by adding • shaded windows. • Install an extensive vegetated roof in the horizontal concrete slab or in sections of this slab (see fig 4). This is easily done because the flat section of the house was designed to support a second story. This green roof will act as solar protection for the slab with all the additional benefits of green roofs. Furthermore research indicates that in milder climates the thermal mass of the green roof can be used for cooling. • Increase the area of exterior green surfaces`while reducing paved heat absorbing areas and promote the planting of more trees. This will also reduce the temperature of the surfaces

South America America 6.1 6.1 343 19 | | South

Depending on the form of the lot, two types of houses were proposed: in the rectangular plot the house had seven stages of growth while in the trapezoidal it had four.

6.6 B


6.1 A 6.1 B 6.1 C 6.1 D 6.1 E 6.1 F 6.1 G 6.1 H

6.6 H

Case Study – Jai Housing Complex, Argentina Jai housing complex, Argentina is located in the Hacoaj Club where the highway reaches the Tigre Delta and city and landscape meet. The building, therefore, has the value of urban boundary— the end of a landscape. For this reason, the adopted proposal consists in minimizing the impact by dividing the complex into three articulated towers with empty spaces between them.

This proposal not only allowed the phasing of the project, but also produced a volume without live arises which blended into the landscape. Moreover, the “fanlike” disposition that accentuates the corner characteristic situates all the living rooms facing North, with views to the club and the islands. The entrance to the building is on said corner through a portico facing an atrium where the automobile and pedestrian access meets and from where one reaches a distribution hall leading to the centres of the three towers.

19 | South America 6.1 344 | South America 6.1

On the third floor, which functions as transition between the base and the towers, a complementary service area was projected including reception rooms, locker rooms, saunas, a swimming pool, and a laundry room. The 21 apartments rise above this transition floor.


6.4

South East Asia Country Profile Of South East Asia

6.4 B

Brunei

6.4 C

East Timore

6.4 D

Cambodia

6.4 E

Indonesia

6.4 F

Malaysia

6.4 G

Laos & Thailand

6.4 H

Vietnam

6.4 I

Singapore

6.4 J

Case Study

2

South East East Asia Asia 6.4 6.4 347 01 | | South

6.4 A


6.4 A

6.4 A

Country Profile Of South East Asia Country

Area (km2

Population (2009)

Density (/km2)

6.4 B 6.4 C

GDP per capita GDP USD (2009) Capital (2010)

6.4 D

Brunei

5,76

428,000

70

10,405,000,000

$31,238

Bandar Seri Begawan

Burma

676,578

50,020,000

74

34,262,000,000

$701

Naypyidaw

Cambodia

181,035

14,805,000

82

10,871,000,000

$813

Phnom Penh

6.4 F

East Timor

14,874

1,134,000

76

590,000,000

$588

Dili

6.4 G

Indonesia

1,904,569

240,271,522

126

539,377,000,000 $3,015

Jakarta

6.4 H

Laos

236,800

6,320,000

27

5,598,000,000

Vientiane

6.4 I

Malaysia

329,847

28,318,000

83

192,955,000,000 $8,423

Kuala Lumpur

Philippines

300,000

91,983,000

307

160,991,000,000 $2,007

Manila

6.4 J

Singapore

697

5,076,700

7,023

182,231,000,000 $43,116

Singapore (Downtown Core)

Location of south East Asian countries

Thailand

513,120

67,764,000

132

312,605,000,000 $4,991

Bangkok

Climatic condition of south East Asian countries

259 (2011)

104,600,000,000 $1,168 (2011) (2011)

331,210

88,069,000

Demography of south East Asia Burma Cambodia East Timor Indonesia Laos Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

Hanoi 2

• The equator cuts through the middle of the south East Asian region. Within 5°-6° north and south of the equator, high humidity and temperature are common, with little seasonal variations. • Away from the equator, seasonal rainfall produces distinct wet and dry seasons. Summers are rainy. • The climate in Southeast Asia is mainly tropical–hot and humid all year round with plentiful rainfall. • Southeast Asia has a wet and dry season caused by seasonal shift in winds or monsoon. • The tropical rain belt causes additional rainfall during the monsoon season. • The rain forest is the second largest on earth. • An exception to this type of climate and vegetation is the mountain areas in the northern region, where high altitudes lead to milder temperatures and drier landscape. • Other parts fall out of this climate because they are desert like.

SouthEast EastAsia Asia6.4 6.4 349 1 ||south

Vietnam

$984

6.4 E


6.4 A 6.4 B

6.4 B&C Brunei

East Timor

6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G

Contemporary house

The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor • The small country of 15,410 km² (5,400 sq mi) is located about 640 km (400 mi) northwest of Darwin, Australia. • East Timor is one of only two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being the Philippines. • It is placed 120th by Human Development index (HDI).

6.4 H 6.4 I

2 ||south 350 SouthEast EastAsia Asia6.4 6.4

6.4 J

Geography Brunei is an independent sultanate on the northwest coast of the island of Borneo in the South China Sea, wedged between the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.

History • Brunei was trading with China during the 6th century, and, through allegiance to the Javanese Majapahit kingdom (13th to 15th century), it came under Hindu influence. • Japan occupied Brunei during World War II; it was liberated by Australia in 1945. • Brunei has one of the highest per capita incomes in Asia, and the sultan is believed to be one of the richest men in the world. Urbanization Urban population: 79% of total population (2009)Rate of urbanization: 2.8% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Traditional house

2

Geography • The local climate is tropical and generally hot and humid, characterized by distinct rainy and dry seasons. • The capital, largest city. Demography • The population of East Timor is about one million. • It has grown considerably recently, because of a high birth rate, but also because of the return of refugees. • The population is especially concentrated in the area around Dili.


6.4 D

6.4 A

Cambodia

6.4 B â&#x20AC;˘ Cambodia is one of the three countries of former French Indochina and a member country of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The population of Cambodia in 2005 was 14.8 million, 20% of whom lived in urban areas. â&#x20AC;˘ Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the country was ravaged by civil war under the Khmer Rouge, whose policies resulted in the near total depopulation of urban centers and the genocide of more than 3 million people.

Country development Profile, Cambodia HDI rank of 177 countries(2003)

177

Population (2005)

14.83(million)

Urban population

2.93(million)

Population largest city

Phnom Penh, 1.17(million),2005

Slum population in urban area

1.7 million(2001)

The 52-storey International Finance Complex will consist of 737,000 square meters and cost a whopping $1 billion. The project will include a main office tower which is 53 storeys tall, making it the tallest building in all of Cambodia once completed. This tower will be surrounded by 6 smaller steel and glass buildings, each standing 32 floors tall. Overall there will be housing for an international school, a conference center, 1,064 apartments and 275 serviced apartments. The Gold Tower 42 development in the Cambodian post, designed by a polish architect. Built as the first ever skyscraper in Cambodia, Gold Tower is a 42-storey tower and currently under construction on the Sihanouk Blvd along the way to the Lucky Super store. The building is be 3 times higher than the tallest building in the country right now. The tower will feature state of the art technology, a high tech security system, walk in closets, fully fitted kitchens and all the usual luxuries that can be expected from a $240 million development.

6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H 6.4 I 6.4 J

The Gold tower

72%

% of urban population under national poverty line(1997)

21.2%

Traditional building in Cambodia

2

International Finance Complex

South East Asia 351 3 || south East Asia 6.46.4

Slum population % in urban area


6.4 A 6.4 B

6.4 E

Indonesia

6.4 C

Introduction • Indonesia is the most populous country in Southeast Asia. From the 1970s until the mid-1990s, the country experienced a period of rapid economic development and urban growth. • However, the 1997 Asian financial crisis had a major impact on the economy, and a period of civil and regional unrest followed shortly thereafter. • These events led to pressure for greater democratization and decentralization.

6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H 6.4 I

4 || south East Asia 6.46.4 352 South East Asia

6.4 J

Country development Profile, Indonesia HDI rank of 177 countries(2003)

110

Population (2005)

225.31(million)

Urban population

107.88(million)

Population largest city

Jakarta, 13.19(million),2005

Slum population in urban area

20.88 million(2001)

Slum population % in urban area

23%

% of urban population under national poverty line(1997)

n.A

Country Context • Indonesia is a 5,000 kilometer (km) long archipelago of more than 17,600 islands. • This sprawling country had a population of around 225 million in 2005, the fourth most populous country in the world. • The population is culturally very diverse with over 300 local languages. Traditional house • In Indonesia, the construction of the house symbolizes the division of the macrocosm into three regions: the upper world, the seat of deities and ancestors. • The typical way of buildings in Southeast 2Asia is to build on stilts, an architectural form usually combined with a saddle roof. • Another characteristic is the forked horn on the roof, which is considered to be a symbol of the buffalo, regarded throughout the region as a link between Heaven and this world. 1. The Long Houses of the Dayak: • The Dayak, some of the original inhabitants of Borneo, build long houses on stilts, using ironwood for the structure and tree bark for the walls; the floor are simple planks of wood placed side by side. • The length of these houses was 110 meters (over 360 feet) and today they generally range from 10 to 70 meters (33 to 230 feet).

Long House - before 1920, Tumbang Malahui, Central Borneo.

• The long house forms a center for both social life and for rituals. • The long houses were decorated with representations of water snakes and rhinoceros birds. • They were connected with the myth, for water snake is associated with the underworld and the rhinoceros bird with the upper world of the good spirits. 2. The Houses of the Minangkabau: •

It has three main areas: immediately after the entrance comes a middle ares, where there is normally a central post; adjoining this the anjuang, and the bedrooms (biliak).

• Opposite the anjuang is the kitchen and in front of that a large space (pangkalan), where visitors are received Rice store - Minangkabau architecture, Pagaruyung near Bukit Tinggi, Sumatra.


6.4 A

Case Study

6.4 B 6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H 6.4 I 6.4 J

Architect: Aboday Architects (Indonesia) Location: Jakarta, Indonesia

• Also with spacious balcony that they have, people are expected to grow their own mini garden vertically, or even growing trees on their ‘open to sky’ protruding balconies. • 64 units apartment ranging between 180 sqm to 460 sqm (for the penthouse), with each spacious private space and service area; this apartment is an epitome of landed house that stacked on top of each other creating a home in the sky.

South East Asia 353 5 || south East Asia 6.46.4

• When most of apartment buildings in Jakarta always been identified by the use of “polished” materials, Aboday is 2 interested in creating a high rise building with more ‘textured’ look.


6.4 A 6.4 B

6.4 F

Malaysia

6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E

Introduction During the past 15 years, Malaysia has experienced rapid urbanization and its economy has undergone major changes. These changes have led to a significant influx of rural people and migrants to urban centers, bringing about

6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H 6.4 I 6.4 J

pressure on local and state governments to provide land for development and infrastructure and housing for growing urban populations. Country Context Malaysia consists of two distinct land regions: Peninsula Malaysia, which shares common land borders with Thailand and Singapore; and the eastern states of Sabah and Sarawak in northwestern Borneo, where it shares a common land boundary with Brunei Darussalam and Indonesia.

• Beside the two towers there are the Penang Performing Arts Center and entertainment complex, an observatory a world-class convention center. Penang Global City Center

• The Penang Global City Center has an entrance that is a vast public arena in the form of a plinth.

• The project covers 400,000 sq. m. of retail complex, 100,000 sq. m. of convention center, 75,000 sq. m. of Performing Arts Center (0,000 sq. m. of condominium, 50,000 sq. m. of Hotel and Service 2

• Apartments, 25,000 sq. m. of offices, 1,500 sq. m. of Observatory, and 190,000 sq. m. of parking.

6 || south East Asia 6.46.4 354 South East Asia

Country development Profile, Malaysia HDI rank of 177 countries(2003)

61

Population (2005)

25.33(million)

Urban population

16.48(million)

Population largest city

Kuala Lumpur, 1.39(million),2005

Slum population in urban area

0.26 million(2001)

Slum population % in urban area

2%

% of urban population under national poverty line(1997)

n.a

Traditional building

• Penang Global City Center designed by Asymptote in Malaysia. • The design of Penang Global City Center accommodates two iconic sixty story towers. • These two high rise buildings include luxury residential units and five-star hotels.


6.4 G

6.4 A

Laos

6.4 B

Thailand

HDI rank of 177 countries(2003)

133

Population (2005)

5.92(million)

Urban population

1.28(million)

Population largest city

Vientiane, 0.78(million),2005

Slum population in urban area

0.70 million(2001)

Slum population % in urban area

66%

% of urban population under national poverty line(1997)

26.9%

Traditional

2

6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G

Introduction Thailand has grown impressively in recent decades, particularly in comparison with its neighbors in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). The past few years have seen the economy rebound and poverty rates falling again, particularly in urban areas.

6.4 H 6.4 I 6.4 J

Country Context In many ways, Thailand has become the economic gateway to the GMS with 21st out of 88 in the Human Poverty Ranking (2003), Thailand is economically more advanced than most of its neighbors and constitutes the sub region most developed and largest market. Country development Profile, Thailand

Contemporary

HDI rank of 177 countries(2003)

73

Population (2005)

64.08(million)

Urban population

20.82(million)

Population largest city

Bangkok, 6.60(million),2005

Slum population in urban area

0.25 million(2001)

Slum population % in urban area

2%

% of urban population under national poverty line(1997)

10.2%

South East Asia 355 7 || south East Asia 6.46.4

Country development Profile, Laos PDR

Country Context • The Lao PDR is a landlocked country with an area of 236,800 square kilometers (km2). • It shares borders with Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Yunnan Province of the PeopleÊs Republic of China (PRC). • Mountains cover approximately 70% of the land area is covered by mountains. • The Mekong River traverses the entire length of the country from north to south. • Some 1,865 kilometers (km) of its total length of 4,000 km is within the Lao PDR or on its border with Thailand and Myanmar.

6.4 C


6.4 A 6.4 B

6.4 G&H Thailand

Vietnam

6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G

Introduction

6.4 H

Viet Nam is a long, narrow country with an area of 331,000 km2 and a population in 2005 of approximately 83.6 million. Ravaged by more than 30 years of war and civil conflict since the 1940s, it remains one of the leasturbanized countries in Asia.

6.4 I 6.4 J

Traditional house in Thailand

2

1 || south East Asia 6.46.4 356 South East Asia

Contemporary house in Thailand

However, the advent of doi moi (renovation) in 1986 triggered the transformation of the nations economy and accelerated a process of rapid urbanization, much of which is not sustainable. The modern Socialist Republic of Viet Nam was formed with the reunification of the southern and northern parts of the country at the end of the Viet Nam War in April 1975. Country development Profile, Vietnam HDI rank of 177 countries(2003)

108

Population (2005)

5.92(million)

Urban population growth

1.28 (annual)

Population largest city

Ho Chi Minh City (2005, million) 5.03

Slum population in urban area

9.20 million(2001)

Slum population % in urban area

47%

% of urban population under national poverty line(1997)

26.9%


6.4 H&I Vietnam

6.4 A

Myanmar

6.4 B 6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H 6.4 I 6.4 J A block of flats in down-town Yangon, facing Bogyoke Market. Much of Yangon's urban population resides in densely populated flats.

2

â&#x20AC;˘ Viet Nam has one of the highest urban residential housing and population densities in Asia. â&#x20AC;˘ Historically, the pattern of development was determined by the property tax system, which was levied on the width of street frontage and the desire by landowners to maximize yields from land development. â&#x20AC;˘ The pattern of urban development outside the more formally and mainly colonial planned areas of cities is one of very narrow streets, with plot frontages ranging from 2.5 meters (m) to 5 m, many less than 35 m2 in area and ranging from two to five storeys in height.

Climate Much of the country lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator. It lies in the monsoon region of Asia, with its coastal regions receiving over 5,000 mm (196.9 in) of rain annually

A Yangon apartment building

South East Asia 357 8 || south East Asia 6.46.4

Residential Development


6.4 A 6.4 B

6.4 J

Singapore

6.4 C

.

6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H 6.4 I 6.4 J

Some 5 million people live in Singapore, of whom 2.91 million were born locally. Most are of Chinese, Malay or Indian descent. There are four official languages: English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil. As of 2010, 5.1 million people live in Singapore, of whom 3.2 million (64%) are Singapore citizens while the rest (36%) are permanent residents or foreign workers

1 || south East Asia 6.46.4 358 South East Asia

Case Study Concept Architect

2 Office for Metropolitan Architects (OMA)

Resident Architect

RSP Architects, Planners & Engineers Pte Ltd

Landscape Architect

ICN Design International

â&#x20AC;˘ The Interlace Singapore is a 99-year leasehold condominium development situated on a huge eight-hectare site bounded. â&#x20AC;˘ There will be 31 interconnected six-storey blocks stacked around large-scale courtyards, holding 1,040 apartments that include two-bedroom to four-bedroom units, penthouses and garden houses.

Developer : CapitaLand Location : Depot Road District : 4 Site Area : Approx 80,769 sqm (approx 869,320 sqft) Plot Ratio : 2.1 Total Units : 1,040 units + 8 retail shops Car park Lots : 1,132 parking lots(inclusive of 10 handicapped lots) and 76 strata lots (2 lots per garden house) Tenure : 99 years Typical Unit Sizes 3-bedroom : 1,593 to 1,905 sq ft 3+study bedroom : 1,873 to 2,121 sq ft 4-bedroom : 1,981 to 2,443 sq ft Guide Price: from S$1,250psf


6.4 A 6.4 B 6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H 6.4 I 6.4 J

SouthEast EastAsia Asia6.4 6.4 359 10 ||south

2


6.3 6.3 A

Geographical location and History

6.3 B

Urban Overview

6.3 C

Traditional Housing

6.3 D

Evolution of contemporary housing

6.3 E

Case Studies

MiddleEast East6.3 6.3 361 1 ||Middle

Middle East


6.3 A

6.3 A

6.3 B

Geographical Location and Climate

6.3 C

Location The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and North Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East.

6.3 D 6.3 E

Countries in the Middle East •Iran •Sudan •Algeria •Morocco •Libya •Jordan •UAE •Lebanon •Palestinian •Kuwait •Oman

•Qatar •Bahrain •Iraq •Saudi Arabia •Yemen •Syria •Israel

2

City

January (Low)

January (High)

July (Low)

July (High)

Amman

4°C

12°C

18°C

32°C

Baghda d

0°C

16°C

24°C

43°C

Cairo

8°C

18°C

21°C

36°C

Damasc us

0°C

12°C

16°C

36°C

Dubai

15°C

23°C

30°C

39°C

Jerusale m

5°C

13°C

17°C

31°C

Riyadh

8°C

21°C

26°C

42°C

Tehran

-3°C

7°C

22°C

37°C

Temperatures of the Middle eastern cities

Middleeast East6.3 6.3 363 2 ||Middle

The Middle East generally has an arid and hot climate


6.3 A 6.3 B 6.3 C 6.3 D 6.3 E

6.3 A History

The worlds earliest civilizations, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, originated in the Fertile Crescent and Nile Valley regions of the ancient Near East. The Near East was largely unified under number of empires including the Roman Empire. However, it would be the later Arab Caliphates of the Middle Ages, or Islamic Golden Age which began with the Arab conquest of the region in the 7th century AD, that would first unify the entire Middle East as a distinct region and create the dominant Islamic ethnic identity that largely persists today.

3 ||Middle 364 Middleeast East6.3 6.3

(Top) Ancient ziggurats in Iran then known as Mesopotamia (Bottom) Babylon city

2

(Top) Founding of Jerusalem after WW I

The modern Middle East began after World War I, when the Ottoman Empire was defeated by the British Empire and partitioned into a number of separate nations, initially under British and French Mandates. Other defining events in this transformation included the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the eventual departure of European powers, notably Britain and France by the end of the 1960s.


6.3 A

6.3 B

6.3 B

Urban Overview

6.3 C 6.3 D

Islamic City Islamic cities were designed under on the principles of Sharia(The Law of Islam)

Other factors in city planning include the effect of climate and pre-islamic civilization

6.3 E

Planning Principles •

• Distinction between the private and public spaces • Public areas usually at the centre of the city

Natural laws expressed in the adoption of courtyards, terrace, narrow covered streets and gardens

• The streets being wider at these areas • The main mosque, the main madrassa and the main market are located in this part

Beliefs which gave mosque the central position and also led to the separation of public and private spaces as well as male and female spaces

The Sharia law which set certain laws to determine forms and design of Islamic buidlings

Social principles of organizing groups of the same ethnicity in same quarters

Jerusalem

2

• The private spaces consists of residential areas where the streets are narrower

Middleeast East6.3 6.3 365 4 ||Middle


6.3 A 6.3 B 6.3 C

Absence of correlation between the Islamic design principles and the morphological characteristics of he modern Islamic cities led to economic, social and identity crisis of the urban communities

Global communication and infrastructures led to a the rapid growth of Middle Eastern cities

Population increase leading to overcrowding in the cities. Thus, squatter settlements grow up on the edges of town.

6.3 D 6.3 E

Need For Housing • Low income people live in overcrowded and unhygienic conditions • Preserve urban/rural land use balance-to preserve its agricultural land. • Social and cultural needs-a focal point of worship/gathering • An alternative to urban expansion process through vernacular architecture

• Rapid Urbanization in the region resulted in a lot of migration into urban cities as well as the degradation of rural land due to Urban encroachment. Problems : • • • • • •

Degradation of CULTURE and TRADITIONS such as privacy and Islamic family life. ECOLOGICAL degradation Threats to the Rural society Urban encroachment into agricultural land Unhygienic conditions in the old village No central focal point/worship place

5 ||Middle 366 Middleeast East6.3 6.3

2


6.3 A 6.3 B Present Statistics • 55% of the population living in cities. • Usually the population inhabits one or two big cities in a country; the most extreme example being Africa’s largest city, Cairo.

6.3 C 6.3 D 6.3 E

• Population of the Nile Delta and Valley exceeds 1 500 per square mile and is the highest in the world, with Cairo having 23 000 per square mile. Beirut holds over 60% of the Lebanese people, Israel and Kuwait have an urbanization rate of 90%, the least urbanized country Sudan still has a rate of 25%. • The Middle East expected economic growth rate is at about 4.1% for 2010 and 5.1% in 2011.

Middleeast East6.3 6.3 367 6 ||Middle

The Middle Eastern region faces an enormous growth of cities at a rapid rate without enjoying the same economic growth, rising living standard, equal distribution and political participation as it is usually found in cities


6.3 A

6.3 C

6.3 B 6.3 C 6.3 D

Traditional Housing The spatial characteristics of traditional houses reflect natural, geographical, and cultural needs.

Facades- Attached units providing continuity in façade with a central courtyard. Generally low-rise with two storey at the most.

6.3 E Cultural Response Elements of Arab Islamic designs in housing •

Central foci – a mosque with several minarets and adjacent market

Streets – Narrow lanes to prevent vehicular penetration and thus provide privacy which Islam demands. It also serves passive cooling purposes.

7 ||Middle 368 Middleeast East6.3 6.3

The houses are multi functional as they can be used for residential economic and service 2

The majority of traditional houses are introverted, or look inwards.

• All the spaces were arranged around an open, rectangular courtyard that formed the link between different areas of the house.

Privacy measures are incorporated into the design of the main entrance to provide the isolation. It is not possible to clearly see inside the house (the courtyard) when the street door is opened

The interior decorations and motifs on the facades are a form of Islamic art. • arches and patterns are seen in the detailing • geometry of form in the general body as well details


6.3 A 6.3 B 6.3 C

Courtyard Houses

6.3 D

Courtyard houses have several advantages in the Middle East. • Climatic response • Social gathering and public interaction • Privacy from outside world • Close knit society

6.3 E

Climate Response Climatic problems are harsh sunlight and temperature in the summer; diurnal fluctuations of temperature; low humidity; limited water supplies; and dusty, sandy winds.

Passive cooling in courtyard houses

Middleeast East6.3 6.3 369 8 ||Middle

Traditional Housing Plan

• The courtyard houses were surrounded by high walls (the average thickness of the walls is 50 cm to protect the inhabitants from both the extreme heat in summer and any disturbances caused by outsiders. • The space is designed for users in a way that blocks sunlight in summer and allows sunlight in the winter. • In the summer, the spaces in the south part of the courtyard are used. These spaces are cooler because they face north and are not exposed to direct sunlight. • The ceilings of the rooms are high, and there are wide windows that are always kept open in summer. They also have additional upper windows close to the ceiling.


6.3 A 6.3 B 6.3 C

Passive cooling in the streets

6.3 D

Wind-tower is a tall structure with vertical openings in all directions, with internal walls arranged diagonally so that any breeze is forced downwards and up again before it can escape. This creates a circulation of air in rooms used in summer. Rooms used in winter were not provided with windtowers. Wind-towers were square in plan. They were built around an armature of wooden poles, which stabilize and reinforce the structure, and whose projecting ends were usually left to serve as scaffolding for maintenance.

6.3 E

The narrow streets are shaded with walkways using arches or covering the streets with cloth.

The most widely used spaces in summer are the iwans which are located facing north due to which the space remains cool throughout the day.

9 ||Middle 370 Middleeast East6.3 6.3

Wind Towers

This semi-open space faces the courtyard, has high ceilings, and contains a small pool inside or in front of it.

The top half of the wind-tower was an enclosed funnel that accelerates the descending air into a room below. There is a special room specially designed for very hot days. This is the serdab, a special room placed underground.


6.3 A 6.3 B 6.3 C

Yemen Mud Housing

The streets are too narrow for traffic to pass through. The lack of cars provide peace and lack of pollution. The tightly packed nature of the houses also means that from a distance they appear as one block – a fortified design that made attackers think twice. Constructed out of mud bricks made from local clay, standing between and 5 and 11 storeys tall soaring over 100 feet high.

Shibam city bird’s eye view

6.3 D 6.3 E

2

Middle East 371 10 | | Middle east 6.3 6.3

• The cluttered and chaotic old city in Yemen is filled by houses which are enormous - often seven or eight storeys - tall extravagantly decorated towers, crowding one another into the already-narrow alleys. • The houses create a strong visual impact from the sea in the south. • Sprawling rows of tower houses and detached dwellings along the coastal areas, in the mountains and highlands, and port cities of Yemen is a main feature of the cities in Yemen. • The difference of climatic conditions and topography of each region in Yemen plays a great role in the design and construction of the houses. • For instance, the traditional house in the coastal region is characterized by an open planning concept to generate cross ventilation through the internal spaces. • While in the mountain region, the house design is dominated by the high towers and many windows in order to capture the sunlight to warm the internal spaces.

• Beehive homes in syria keep the heat out with their thick mud brick walls • They have very few, if any, windows • The high domes of the beehive houses also collect the hot air, moving it away from the residents sleeping at the bottom of the house. • Hamas is supporting the mud-brick housing. • They’re using combinations of mud, sand, salt, and straw, and in some cases rubble to forge bricks and build basic homes. • These have already been said to have withstood elements of winter rains and harsh summer sun.


6.6 A 6.6 B 6.6 C 6.6 D

11 | Middle East east 6.3 6.3 372

6.6 E

In this typical example, • the ground floor is for the animals and storage; •

the first floor for the living rooms and bedrooms;

• above that would be the kitchen. • The top floor contains a the mafrai: This is the large room where the owner of the house meets his friends, and it is usually the only decorated room in the house.

Source: Study Yemeni Houses, Ahmed Binhabet


6.3 A

6.3 D

6.3 B

Evolution of Contemporary Housing • Neighborhoods lost their mixed use social and economic functions and changed to strictly residential districts. • Land parcels were reduced in size and shaped more geometrically, mostly in rectangular forms.

The architecture of the transitional and contemporary periods saw the emergence of different styles, depending on new building technologies and various other influences. • Apartment buildings became more prevalent. • Each household had smaller living areas and a shared courtyard (as opposed to the individual courtyard of traditional houses) • The central courtyard is now located in the front and multi-storeyed apartment buildings became the dominant type of preferred housing • The biggest change was the assignment of single functions to the living spaces, transforming the multifunctional character of the room.

6.3 C 6.3 D 6.3 E

Apartment building in Iran

• Electrical and mechanical systems were introduced to the buildings for the first time. • kitchen and service areas, which were usually far from living spaces, received the benefit of new sanitary facilities and could now, be located closer to the main living areas. 2 Housing district in Cairo

Housing trend in Iran, Mahta

Traditional

Contemporary

Privacy

Vehicular Access

Socialization within neighbourhoods

Convenience of rapid movement

Adaptation of built form to the physical environment

Appreciation for foreign housing styles eg. detached villa and high rise

Continuity of building style and physical appearance

Enhancement of personal identification with housing through ornamentation

Middle East 373 12 | | Middle east 6.3 6.3

Comparison between Traditional and Contemporary


6.3 A 6.3 B 6.3 C 6.3 D 6.3 E

6.3 E

Case Studies Al Jarudiya Housing Project The village of Al-Jarudiya is located in the south west portion of the Qatif oasis, approximately 3 kilometers from the principal oasis town of Qatif. The planner in Saudi Arabia have difficulties in data collection tasks and there are no census data. Neighbourhood plan The Al Jarudiya plan is based upon an appreciation of traditional set of Arab-Islamic values for the development of neighbourhoods and towns. These are: • The need for family prayers • The need to maintain and enhance A sense of neighbourhood social community • The importance of introducing passive cooling features in the design and construction of the house • The importance of providing A visual distinction between Public And Private Space`

13 | Middle East 6.3 374

Hierarchy Of Spaces • The neighbourhood spaces are free of vehicles and accessible only by pedestrian movement except in cases of emergency needs. • The quarter is composed of several neighbourhoods, defined by a bounding set of surrounding streets which can have vehicular traffic movement. • A pedestrian spine running through each house and a central spine providing a continuous strip of social activity.

Housing Blocks The arrangement can be classified as low rise high density development. It conforms to the form and spirit of the traditional vernacular style. Each house contains either a central courtyard or terrace. Living spaces in the houses consist of three basic forms: • The courtyards or terraces • Covered outdoor spaces which are open to the terraces or courtyards • The rooms Each unit has two entrances, one for the family and one for visitors. A separate room to receive visitors is provided facing the street. In essence, two circulation systems are provided one for visitors and the other for family members.

2


6.3 A 6.3 B The following is an example from the Development of New District in Doha, Qatar.

The planning policy here looks into producing better privacy and security and it also represents a more Islamic solution, particularly in providing a more introverted, private development for the families living there.

6.3 C

On the first floor level, lighting is with high level windows protected by quarter spherical shades that both protect from the sun as well as giving privacy. ` The same type of solution can also be used to ensure that houses don’t overlook each other’s gardens`

6.3 D 6.3 E

The unit gives considerable privacy from the front and. The boxes would have perforations to improve ventilation and lighting.

2

• The provision of solid devices for preventing views into neighbours’ gardens,

• Use of mushrabiyah to allow in light while giving some degree of privacy to occupants.

Middle East 375 14 | | Middle east 6.3 3.6

It shows two stories of development with a third storey containing both a roof facility for enjoyment by the family as well as an area for plant and equipment at the other end.

The main entrance to the house is the larger one to the left of the diagram, and the majlis is to the right, associated with the vehicular entrance. The access to the majlis should be quite separate from the women’s entrance. Women of the house moving round the building to enter either through the kitchen or through a separate entrance.

• The incorporation of ventilation for air flow around windows, and the


6.3 A 6.3 B 6.3 C 6.3 D 6.3 E

Iraq Housing Project

Housing Project In Husiyah Village In Iraq

In light of its Iraq's ailing infrastructure, the war-torn country is looking abroad to foreign investors in an effort to re-build from the ground up.

• One neighbourhood in the city, is made up of all the elements of a traditional Iraqi village, such as a mosque, market shops, coffee-house, school and houses, with the addition of a park and immaret, or administration centre.

• UN funded housing apartments to come up to house the millions left homeless. • Electricity and running water are normal features of all Iraqi villages in rural areas. • Mud huts in remote places are rapidly being replaced by brick dwellings • Traditionally, Iraqis have lived in single family dwellings, but in the last 15 years, the government had built a number of high-rise apartments

Separation of pedestrian and vehicular circulation, and for the types of housing provided for different classes of people, including farming and non-farming families as well as government officials, and tradesmen.

• Vernacular houses with stone basements designed to trap cool night air for recirculation through the house during hot summer days, indicating that they be used as models for single-family houses, with the old system incorporated into the new designs.

15 | Middle East 6.3 376

2


6.3 A 6.3 B 6.3 C

Real Estate Over the years, real estate development has come up in the Middle East by virtue of its natural resources in the Gulf region. These developments catered to high income people with high end tastes for luxury

As the elite markets reach a saturation point, these developers shifted their focus to low and middle income consumers who have housing shortages. Huge developments in the housing construction, the housing market still suffers from a large demandsupply gap due to the rapid expansion of the expatriate community along with the domestic community and rapidly declining household sizes

6.3 D 6.3 E

Middle East 377 16 | | Middle East 6.3 6.3

Places such as Qatar, Bahrain and Dubai offer luxury estates. With expatriates from all corners of the world making the Middle East their new home, the region is becoming truly cosmopolitan.


6.4 6.4 A

Biskupin

6.4 B

The â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Carpathian Rusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

6.4 C

Industrial Revolution

6.4 D

Coping with War I : Incremental Housing

6.4 E

Coping with War II : Megablocks

6.4 F

Post-Coping: Austria

6.4 G

Post-Coping: Serbia

6.4 H

Current Ventures

01 | | Eastern Eastern Europe Europe 6.4 6.4 379

Eastern Europe


6.4 A

6.4 A

Biskupin

6.4 B 6.4 C

Reconstruction of a house, Biskupin, Poland.

6.4 D

The windowless dwelling was entered off streets paved with split logs, and similar materials were used for floors surrounding the central hearth. Walls were logs anchored in upright posts, and roofs were thatched. Stalls for domestic animals were located just inseide the entrance with living space for the family centred around the hearth.

6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H

Marian Moffett, Michael W. Fazio, Lawrence Wodehouse: A world history of architecture

Location: Present day Znin, Poland.

Moderate climate: Temperatures: 0ยบ C to 22ยบ C. Rainfall: 530mm annually, falls throughout the year.

Plan of Biskupin, Poland, 1000-500BCE. The community derived its basic protection from being located on an island on a lake. All houses follow a similar plan with their doors facing towards the south. The black dots indicate the location of the hearths. The only public open space is just inside the entrance to the enclosure Marian Moffett, Michael W. Fazio, Lawrence Wodehouse: A world history of architecture

Fortifications and houses, Biskupin, Poland. The gatehouse guarding the only entrance through the enclosing wall. Marian Moffett, Michael W. Fazio, Lawrence Wodehouse: A world history of architecture

Eastern Europe Europe 6.4 6.4 381 02 | | Eastern

Geographical zone: Central Plains,


6.4 A 6.4 B 6.4 C

The â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Rusynâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; community, originating in the eastern Carpathian Mountain region (present day Ukraine, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia), spread to countries such as Serbia, Romania and Croatia.

6.4 D

The basis of Rusyn society throughout its entire existence has been the village. Therefore, what can be considered original Rusyn architectural monuments are to be found in villages. Until the twentieth century, the basic building material among Rusyns was wood, whose versatility is no less than that of stone.

6.4 E 6.4 F

Rusyn dwellings. The most important elements for houses were strong walls and roofs, in order to protect dwellers from the severity of the changing mountain climate, to preserve internal heat, and to guarantee the long-term storage of provisions. A characteristic feature of traditional Ukrainian wooden domestic architecture is its extremely simple plan configuration, designed to simplify the construction of walls and especially roofs, which, when made of wood or thatch, require the simplest forms to drain rainfall best. Hence the elongated rectangular plan without projections or setbacks of most village housing. The ratio of length to the depth of the structure ranges from 1:1,4 to 1:2,25 in the northern and forest-steppe regions and from 1:2 to 1:3 in the south. The structure was constructed from large beech or oak logs with a four-sided sloped roof covered with straw sheaves.

6.4 G

03 | | Eastern 382 Eastern Europe Europe 6.4 6.4

6.4 H

The main facade of the building always faced south, and it is here that the en- trance and windows were located. Along the entire length of the front part of the house ran a gallery supported on consoles or posts. Usually this gallery was defined by a light balustrade, its entrance directly facing the door to the dwelling. The interior walls were covered with clay and white-washed. In the living space, just to the left of the door, was an earthen stove; under the window a large bed; to the right were benches; and in the center a table. Small windows punctuated the front and side walls under the porch; neither the entry vestibule or the pantry had any windows Virtually until the second half of the twentieth century the basic model for domestic dwellings throughout most of *Carpathian Rusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; was a tripartite structure.

Paul R. Magocsi, Ivan Ivanovich Pop: Encyclopedia of Rusyn history and culture

Long house plan. 1.entry vestibule. 2.living space. 3.pantry 4.stable 5.thrashing floor 6.shed 7.hay and grain storage


6.4 B

6.4 A

Carpathian ‘Rus’

6.4 B 6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H

Wishart, david J. : Encyclopedia of the Great Plains

Rusyn dwellings. In the far eastern and far western parts of Carpathian Rus a significantly different domestic architectural style evolved. Among the ‘Hutsuls’ at the eastern edge of Subcarpathian Rus there existed the so-called ‘grazhda’, or homestead with an enclosed courtyard (khata z grazhdoiu). This was an architectural complex composed of a house and farm buildings linked together by a high wooden wall. The result was an enclosed space, usually in the form of a square, with a single large gate providing the only entry way into the complex. The house was on the northern side of the complex with its windows facing into the courtyard. The farm buildings (stable, sheep-fold, pantry) were located along the other three walls of the courtyard. A few of the Hutsul homesteads had a covered courtyard, of which one part near the house was well maintained, while the other part was left for work connected with the adjacent farm buildings. This architectural complex reflected well the settlement pattern of the Hutsuls and their livestock-raising economic activity, operated and carried out by large families whose several generations often lived within a single homestead.

Construction Techniques An ancient preference for log construction was transferred to the Plains by skilled Czech carpenters. Log dwellings(rouben)were characterized by wall beams planked on the inside and outside faces. Interior log partitions were dovetailed through the exterior walls, and many structures utilized mortised vertical timbers for door and window jambs. Several incorporated the old common rafter roof with tie beams. Some Moravians also made earthen walls using unfired clay brick, puddled clay and rammed earth, and lime mortars as nogging between the studs for stability and thermal mass. In most Czech lands, houses were oriented with their narrow gable ends facing the public street. On the Plains, where farms were dispersed rather than tightly clustered into rural villages, the front gable was often reoriented to the rear, where it faced the farmyard. Early modernized houses retained traditional characteristics while becoming modestly enlarged. Most common was the one-and- one-half-story crosswing house (uhlov), which provided bedrooms in the loft and a kitchen, parlor, and chamber (storage room, often with a bed) on the first floor.

FAO Corporate Document Repository Europe’s housing problem: major events Industrial revolution (first half of the 19th century) Constant and rapid rise in population and a steady increase in industrial population led to an ever-growing need for more housing accommodation. World Wars I and II (first half of the 20th century) The war damage amounted to: 2,800,000 dwelling units totally destroyed 2,900,000 dwelling units partially destroyed; 8,900,000 dwelling units slightly damaged.

Eastern Europe Europe 6.4 6.4 383 04 | | Eastern

Paul R. Magocsi, Ivan Ivanovich Pop: Encyclopedia of Rusyn history and culture


6.4 A 6.4 B 6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H

Austria 1890 Vienna in the late 1800s was the capital of an empire of 50 million. The middle of the century had witnessed the rise of the bourgeoisie, and the “glamorous construction of the Ringstrasse boulevard with its historic buildings, which expressed the demand of the new bourgeoisie for representation and for its own history” The Ringstrasse apartment blocks were fashioned as palaces on the outside, and comprised of one room tenements on the inside. The housing misery became a political issue and resulted repeatedly in turmoils, until the collapse of monarchy and the rise of democracy in the 1920s. The reconstruction carried out thereafter, gave the city the name “Red Vienna”.

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Wolfgang Förster: 80 years of social housing in Vienna

Austria 1920s The collapse of the Habsburg monarchy and the introduction of a new universal suffrage set the stage for major reform activities. Private rental housing was put to an end; all land was owned and commissioned by the government that placed the need for an acceptable standard of living above all else. Architects were commissioned for new housing projects. The houses were larger, had basic amenities such as toilets, and there was variety in design. Housing estates became a symbol of power”and the “right to its own history” of the labour class was recognized. There were 2 types of apartments: the smaller (35sqm) apartment consisted of a room, a kitchen, toilet and anteroom. The larger apartment (45sqm) had an additional bedroom. Later, bigger apartments (57sqm) were made, incorporating balconies in the previous layouts.Light and ventilation was maximized by creating large green courtyards.


6.4C

6.4 A

Industrial Revolution

6.4 B

Post war shortage of building material The high price of timber, and its shortage during the first four postwar years, gave a strong impetus to the trend to save timber wherever possible. Even such timber-producing countries as Austria and Poland reported shortages due to overexploitation of forests during the war and to the leek of hauling equipment. Other countries reported timber shortages due to the low level of imports, which in turn is a result of shortage of foreign exchange.

6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.8 4 6.4 G 6.4 H

While Poland suggested economy measures and utilization of waste as a remedy for the timber shortage, Austria suggested increased imports of coal, modernized equipment, and skilled foreign labor. Attempts were made to save timber in two ways: by using substitute materials, and by a more economical use of timber. Austria 1920s Karl Marx-Hof is one of the best-known municipal tenement complexes in Vienna, built between 1927 and 1930 by city planner Karl Ehn, a follower of Otto Wagner. It held 1,382 apartments (30â&#x20AC;&#x201C;60 m² each) and was called the Ringstrasse des Proletariats, the Ring-road of the Proletariat. (Vienna's principal Ringstrasse, dating from the 1850s, surrounds the city centre and had been intended as a showcase for the grandeur and glory of the Habsburg Empire). Only 18.5% of the 1,000 metres long, 156,000-m² large area was built up, with the rest of the area developed into play areas and gardens. Designed for a population of about 5,000, the premises include many amenities, including laundromats, baths, kindergartens, a library, doctor offices, and business offices.

Substitution in the long run frequently proved selfdefeating, as many types of substitutes were in themselves uneconomic. Some measures of substitution, however, particularly the use of entirely new materials, seem to have come to stay. Concrete joists and floor boards on solid filling have been substituted for timber in floors, and a wide range of other substitute materials such as wallboards, aluminum, and other floor coverings have been used either in association with or instead of concrete. Strategies such as Incremental Housing (Poland), and Panelaks (Czechoslovakia) were a direct outcome of the conditions imposed by the war: the need to rapidly house a huge mass of people, and the shortage of building material used thus far

FAO Corporate Document Repository

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Typical apartment plans: Karl Marx Hof


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6.4 H

BROAD STATISTICS


6.4 D

6.4 A

Coping With War I: Incremental Housing

6.4 B The situation in Poland was different from the rest of eastern Europe. There wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t the same pressure on the land like in the other countries. As a consequence, the traditional scheme continues to be adopted to date, Traditional models of incremental housing - village houses in the central north-central region of the country, became the inspiration for the emergency shelters built immediately after the WWII.

6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H

Warsaw Ghetto city fabric as it was in 1938.

Warsaw during WWII 67% housing stock destroyed.

Former Warsaw city Ghetto area city fabric as rebuilt in the years 1945 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1955.

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Global University Consortium Exploring Incremental Housing


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6.4 H

“Grass roots” – Incremental self help houses on Warsaw city outskirts from 1945 on. Global University Consortium Exploring Incremental Housing


6.4 A 6.4 B 6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G

“Grass roots” – Incremental self help houses on Warsaw city outskirts from 1945 on. Global University Consortium Exploring Incremental Housing

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6.4 H


6.4 A 6.4 B 6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G

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6.4 H

“Grass roots” – Incremental self help houses on Warsaw city outskirts from 1945 on. Global University Consortium Exploring Incremental Housing


6.4 A 6.4 B 6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G

Emergency incremental housing: present day Global University Consortium Exploring Incremental Housing

LK Container House. Assembled with 2, 3 or 4 standard containers. One container is equipped with a service core: kitchen block and bathroom. Rectangular blocks are covered with a sloping roof in order to obtain house like look. Ventilated space between container ceiling and roof plays the role of thermal insulation space. Limited house area is compensated with an adjacent open space.

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6.4 H


6.4 A 6.4 B

6.4 E

Coping with War: ‘Panelaks’

6.4 C

Czechoslovakia Miroslav Drofa designed the first high rise residential building in Zlin, Czechoslovakia in 1946. The first group of buildings included 5 8-storey tower blocks, square in plan, with four 68sqm apartments aranged around a central core. The plan called for Bata construction methods, including a reinforced concrete structure with glass and brick infill.

6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H

Prague-Hostivař, the Czech Republic. Košík Housing Estate

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Petržalka, Bratislava, Slovakia

Ghetto of Chánov, Most

Panelaks (Czechoslovakia) / Panelhaz (Hungary) / Panelki (Bulgaria) were tower blocks made of pefabricated sections, built all across Europe as the primary form of post war housing. The reigning principles were the tremendous housing shortage at the time, and the desire to create and project the image of a collectivist, egalitarian society by providing affordable housing to all. As a result, panel housing looked the same everywhere, responding to no factors other than these requirements. They formed “sleeper cities” with little or no conveniences and amenities.

Towering paneláks in the Kamýk area of Prague

Kimberly Elman Zarecor: Manufacturing a Socialist Modernity: Housing in Czechoslovakia, 1945-1960


6.4 A 6.4 B 6.4 C 6.4 D

‘Megablock’ (45 and 70): Serbia 1973-76 These were planned in the 1960s, at a time when developing an urbanized structure (in which shopping centres and sociial institutions are planned) was secondary to the immediate need for mass housing. The result was another ‘sleeper city’. The blocks were planned for 32000 inhabitants in an area of 160hac, with approximately 8000 apartments. Construction of both blocks was completed in a record 3 years each. Given the large scale of volumes, the development nevertheless had large open areas which lay vacant for many years until the end of socialism when immigrants settling there took the initiative of seting up indigenous establishments (markets and community facilities) in these areas, creating the likes of a mixed use situation. These not only provided for basic needs but also mitigated the ‘sleeper city’ character of the blocks.

6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H

Section: block 45

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ETH Studio Basel et al: Megablocks - Adaptation to new realities

6.4 E


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1973

6.4 D

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Zazelazna Bramaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; estate, Warsaw 1965-69 Nineteen 16-storey blocks formed this new district, each block consisting of 15 storeys of 28 flats and providing 420 flats for about 800 inhabitants. The total estate population was planned to be over 15,000 inhabitants. Built between 1965 and 1969, the estate was a prestigious address in the 1960s and early 1970s.

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1982

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Poland

1990

It changed drastically in the 1980s when the more economically active and better-off families moved out. Now, the majority of its inhabitants are the elderly, with a small percentage of young couples renting studio flats and lower income immigrants renting from owners. Some blocks are dilapidated, especially the common areas. The estate was built for one huge co-operative but is now divided among several smaller ones. Limited technical improvements include providing additional thermal insulation, and by one co-operative, improving living standards by changing facades and adding verandahs. Two office towers are currently under construction in the eastern part of the estate and a 20storey hotel and a 30-storey office tower are planned. No parking spaces have been provided for residents who have been obliged to fence in courtyards to prevent their use by office workers. These were formerly playgrounds and, as the weakest participants, children are now excluded from them.

R. Turkington, R. van Kempen, F.Wassenberg (eds.): High rise housing in Europe


6.4 F

Petrzalka, Bratislava 1975-90 Petrzalka is situated on the right bank of the river Danube in an area of former rural settlements, gardens and forests. Between 1975 and 1990, 41,000 municipal and cooperative dwellings were erected, creating the largest housing estate in Slovakia. 130,000 people live there at an average density of 185 per ha of built-up area. The original intention was to create a good quality residential area for 60,000 people, but the enormous demand for housing combined with its proximity to the city centre resulted in a change of priorities. The outcome was the construction of this giant, mono-functional, overpopulated neighbourhood with inadequate infrastructure and few labour opportunities. About 1,100 high-rise blocks of 5 or more storeys represent more than 90% of all dwellings. Whilst the flats are generally more modern and better designed than in most other high-rise estates in Bratislava, the structures are very ‘compressed’; public green space is limited and overused, and the environment is impaired by a dense transport network. There is a lack of parking spaces and the shopping, service, cultural and sports infrastructures are incomplete. Schools are mostly overcrowded, and the number and type of health facilities are inadequate. Petrzalka is the biggest dormitory estate in the country and is poorly regarded by its population. R. Turkington, R. van Kempen, F.Wassenberg (eds.): High rise housing in Europe

Hungary This high-rise housing estate was created in the early 1970s as part of the redevelopment of Csapó utca. The older inner-city was replaced by high-rise housing creating an unusually central location for such estates. The majority of the older area was simply bulldozed and replaced with 10-storey blocks, which fit neither the existing urban structure nor the street network of this former agricultural and trading centre. A large proportion of the new residents of the estate was recruited from older people who had lived in the small single-family houses demolished during redevelopment. The remainder were mostly younger families with two or more children. This represented an interesting social mix when compared with other estates dominated by younger residents. As Debrecen was never as industrialised as Miskolc, and has a strong service sector, the economic downturn after 1989 has not been felt so strongly. Unemployment and out-migration have been lower and there is more demand for housing in this small-scale and inner-city location.

Dieselgasse Residential Development, Vienna, 1997 Designed by Martin Kohlbauer, It is inspired by the residential estates of the 1920’s (Red Vienna period), especially Hoffmann’s 1925 “Klose-Hof” in Döbling, where the inner court is characterized by the presence of a tower. Kohlbauer’s design is composed by a linear slab, connected via a bridge on stilts to a large building hosting two towers in its interior courtyard. The linear slab, the courtyard block and the central towers form a single system where 360 apartments are connected to 386 underground parking spaces on two levels, three kindergartens, green areas, commercial spaces and a restaurant at ground floor. The architect carefully designed an urban-type layout, through the organization of public spaces meant to improve the overall quality of life. The ground floor plan is meant to be porous, permeable on all sides, through the introduction of a number of public pedestrian routes. The connection is made more visible by the establishment of a number of interior and exterior “visual markers”, capable of producing a strong relationship between dwelling and city.

6.4 B 6.4 C 6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H

R. Turkington, R. van Kempen, F.Wassenberg (eds.): High rise housing in Europe

Carola Clemente and Federico De Matteis (ed): Housing for Europe

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Slovakia

Post Coping: Austria

6.4 A


6.4 A 6.4 B

6.4 G

Post Coping: Serbia

6.4 8C Bežanijska Kosa

6.4 D

“It distincts itself from the rest of Novi Beograd as it has no skyscrapers, but smaller, more 'humane' buildings and its population was 19,036 in 2002.” Wikipedia In the 1980s new districts emerged—districts such as Bežanijska Kosa, a preferred location for Belgrade’s intellectual, artistic and athletic elites. The district is dominated by single-family homes, row housing and small- to medium-scale apartment buildings, many equipped with private or semi-private yards

6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G

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6.4 H

In Belgrade, social stratification patterns exhibited clear spatial continuity throughout the 20th century. The areas of Dedinje and Senjak, for example, which were built in the early 1920s as bourgeois suburbs and which house the Royal Palace and most embassies, later became home to the majority of the socialist party top echelon. In these areas, the single-family villa with a lush green yard enclosed by decorative semitransparent fencing was the most common dwelling form. This type of housing stood in sharp contrast to areas such as Novi Beograd (New Belgrade), which were built from the 1950s to the 1970s and are dominated by very large collectivist residential towers amidst vast public green spaces.


6.4 H

6.4 A

Current Ventures

6.4 B 6.4 C

Zlota 44 Located in Warsaw, Zlota 44 represents a new direction for high-rise residential living in Poland. Zlota 44 is a soaring 54 floor high rise that includes 251 residential units. In 2008, Zlota 44 was awarded CNBC Europe & Africa Property Awards in 4 categories: Architecture, Redevelopment, High- Rise Architecture and High-Rise Development. The project is currently under construction and scheduled for completion in 2010. The design of Zlota 44 is inspired by Warsawâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history and as a response to its destruction and postwar Russian reconstruction. The tower provides a form in which a new skyline can be read â&#x20AC;&#x201D; moving away from the corporate architecture that has kept Warsaw a tabula rasa. The building, both symbolically and physically, offers a new light to the city with its eastern face sculpted by the path of the sun to provide needed daylight to the surrounding buildings.

6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H

Floor plans

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Studio Daniel Libeskind - Studio Profile


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6.4 H

Residential building, 2007 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2009, New Belgrade Aware of the impossibility of a balanced, integrated solution, re:a.c.t came up with a dual response to suit the setting: on one side the dominating mega-structures, on the other side the desired closed street facade, which in reality is highly dissected. The architects have produced a building that engages in a dialogue with the contrasting surroundings, turning a dynamic face to the street and a serene, light face to the mega-structures. Almost all of the 105 apartments have loggias, an important feature that brings the outside world closer to the inhabitants while simultaneously preserving their privacy. Vusinic, Vesna: Report


6.4 A 6.4 B 6.4 C

Royal Palace, Sofia, Bulgaria The newly developed quarter is located in the southern part of Sofia - in close proximity to all diplomatic residences. A great advantage is the nearness of the beautiful Vitosha Mountain. Vitosha is situated in the centre of south-western Bulgaria. The quarter is situated between the ring road to the south, "Simeonovsko shosse" Blvd. to the east and the Metropolitan zoo to the north. In the past this was a village zone and this has been reflected in the infrastructure. The initial villa builds - up dates from the sixties. At present the quarter is built with 4-5- storey blocks of flats and one-family houses with modern architecture.

6.4 D 6.4 E 6.4 F 6.4 G 6.4 H GROUND FLOOR PLAN THIRD FLOOR PLAN

One of the remarkable new quarter sites is the luxury tourist complex “Royal Sofia”. The complex ensures comfortable and enjoyable living. Besides the luxury apartments, have been built, saunas, a gym, as well as shops, underground car parks and cafeteria. There will also be a wonderful view of the mountain from almost all apartments.

The building of the residential complex “Royal Sofia” will have a total of 25 apartments.

SECOND FLOOR PLAN

FOURTH FLOOR PLAN

FIFTH FLOOR PLAN

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FIRST FLOOR PLAN

Profile for Beeravelli Chetan

Housing book spa 2011  

Housing book spa 2011  

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