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the

BEEFMASTER Pay Weight

a publication dedicated to serving commercial cattlemen and produced by Beefmaster Breeders United FALL 2019

Vol. 5, No. 2

Section 1

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Texas A&M University and Beefmaster Join Forces By Jeralyn Novak, Beefmaster Breeders United Texas A&M University (TAMU) in College Station, Texas is making a change in direction for their beef cattle herd. They have made the decision to upgrade with two new breeds, Beefmaster and Red Angus. Beefmaster Breeders United has been working with TAMU leadership since the fall of 2018 on this project. This partnership demonstrates that Beefmaster cattle are being recognized for outstanding maternal traits, growth, efficiency and adaptability not just in Texas, but globally. “There are multiple reasons why we decided to initiate a herd with Beefmasters,” said TAMU Animal Science Department Head Dr. Cliff Lamb. “Globally, about 70% of the world’s beef cattle are in tropical or sub-tropical regions. It is certainly a reason to have a breed that is

associated with the ability to adapt to those climates.” Dr. Lamb is determined to make the Texas A&M Beef Center a highlight for the Animal Science Department. Dr. Lamb and his team would like to create the best possible cow herd for teaching, research and demonstrations, as well as be a place for visitors and international guests. “We made a decision early on that we were going to establish a reputable Beefmaster herd, along with a Bos taurus based breed, so we could use this as front door to our department,” Dr. Lamb stated. This is a tremendous opportunity for the Beefmaster breed to become a part of a leading agricultural university’s quest to build a premier Beefmaster herd. Beefmaster breeders are currently in the process of nominating their

embryo donations. Embryo selections from the pool of nominated genetics will be made by TAMU personnel. Their goal is to source at least 120 embryos of high genetic merit, based on the approved EPD parameters, to build an early spring calving Beefmaster herd. Their second new herd of Red Angus cattle was initiated last fall and has been set up as a fall calving herd. “The Beefmaster cattle are going to be at our Beef Center and we are going to utilize those Beefmasters to not only teach classes and

educate producers, but we are also going to utilize that herd to do some cutting edge research that will have a positive impact on not only livestock producers in Texas, but around the world,” stated Lamb. According to Lamb, the Beefmaster females in their herd will be of highgenetic merit and with these animals they will investigate some fundamental research associated with reproduction, genetics and carcass-based traits. The department’s goal is to be able to identify things continued on page 4

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Make cows more profitable by leveraging the power of maternal heterosis By Robert L. Weaber, Ph.D., Kansas State University The dramatic increases in cow-calf production system input costs over the last five years has many producers wondering about the value of heterosis in today’s beef industry pricing structure. Many producers are seeking ways to improve cow-calf production efficiency and profitability. Profitability may be enhanced by increasing the volume of production (i.e. the pounds of calves you

market) and/or the value of products you sell (improving quality). The reduction of production costs, and thus break-even prices, can also improve profitability. Better yet, improving the input:output ratio should enhance profit. For commercial beef producers, the implementation of technologies and breeding systems that increase the quality and volume of

production and reduce input costs is essential to maintain or improve the competitive position of the operation. Producers need to know the value generated in their herd by heterosis or hybrid vigor, especially maternal heterosis or the heterosis ex. The use of crossbreeding offers two distinct and important advantages over the use of a single breed. continued on page 5


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Letter From The Editor By Collin Osbourn Fall is just around the corner and hopefully some cooler weather is on the way! It is great to see the change from the dog days of summer heat to a more colorful and comfortable season. With the fall months comes many of the Beefmaster bull sales and the opportunity to buy some of the very best Beefmaster sires that will be offered. In this issue of The Beefmaster Pay Weight you will find lots of upcoming events where you can find these high quality Beefmaster genetics that are backed with proven performance.

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This issue also has several easy to read articles covering many industry topics from bull selection and utilizing maternal heterosis to make more profit, to nutritional requirements for the development of heifers and maintenance of cows. Requests from readers prompted us to include articles on calving, weaning and genomic testing opportunities for commercial cattlemen. We hope you will find this information educational and learn more about the marketing avenues available for fed cattle. Beefmasters are excelling within the beef industry and demand continues to sore with the added heterosis and efficiency that they bring to the herd. Without a doubt

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increased production with added efficiency are areas that we can all improve upon to make our cow herds more profitable. The maternal advantages that we see from the use of Beefmaster genetics continue to expand into new areas improving cow herds in terms of efficiency, longevity, productivity and most importantly profitability. I encourage everyone to read the update on the Texas A&M University Beefmaster herd. This is a great opportunity for the Beefmaster breed as we will be featured as one of the two breeds selected by university leadership to develop a maternal oriented seedstock herd at Texas A&M. We anticipate building a great

herd with Texas A&M that will showcase the advantages of using Beefmaster genetics. I’m looking forward to the upcoming sales and seeing the cattle that will help shape the Beefmaster future. God bless each you this fall in your travels and I hope to see many of you at one of the great Beefmaster events! If you have any questions or comments please contact me at cosbourn@beefmasters.org or 210-732-3132. Enjoy!

Collin Osbourn

Executive Vice President Editor, The Beefmaster Pay Weight

Beefmaster Breeders United

The Beefmaster Pay Weight is a publication produced by Beefmaster Breeders United and dedicated to serving commercial cattlemen. The Beefmaster Pay Weight Team Editor: Collin Osbourn Managing Editor: Jeralyn Novak Contributing Writers: Lance Bauer, Kaitlyn Sarlo Davila, Dr. Andy Herring, Kevin Hill, Emily Horton, Donnie Lunsford, Victoria G. Myers, Jeralyn Novak, Collin Osbourn, Burt Rutherford, Dr. Matt Spangler, Todd Thrift & Dr. Robert Weaber Advertising Coordinators: Carey Brown, Lance Bauer, Dusty Pendergrass, Jeralyn Novak Graphic Designer: Jeralyn Novak

Beefmaster Breeders United Staff Members Collin Osbourn: Executive Vice President Lance Bauer: Director of Breed Improvement & Western Field Representative Brandi Feller: Member Service Data Entry Donna Henderson: Office Manager Jeralyn Novak: Communications Coordinator Dusty Pendergrass: Eastern Field Representative Bonnie Ramirez: Director of Youth Programs, International and Membership Coordinator

For advertisement sales: Contact Jeralyn Novak 210-732-3132 or Carey Brown with Livestock Advertising Network at 859-278-0899 Contact BBU: 118 W. Bandera Road, Boerne, TX 78006 - (210) 732-3132 - info@beefmasters.org Beefmaster Breeders United reserves the right to refuse advertising in any publications. Š 2019 Beefmaster Breeders United. All rights reserved. The contents of this magazine may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or part, without prior written consent of Beefmaster Breeders United.


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“We certainly are excited about this and we certainly that they can take into their value what the Beefmaster other larger herds that belong breed is doing in terms of to the department and utilize helping us get this herd those ideas they developed, established,� said Lamb. then further expand those For more information on technologies on a larger scale the Beefmaster breed contact somewhere else. Ultimately, 210-732-3132 or visit www. distributing that information beefmasters.org. out to livestock producers.

Jeralyn Novak

Communications Coordinator Beefmaster Breeders United

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continued from page 1 First, crossbred animals have heterosis or hybrid vigor. Second, crossbred animals combine the strengths of the parent breeds. The term ‘breed complementarity’ is often used to describe breed combinations that produce highly desirable progeny for a broad range of traits. With useful across breed EPDs and adjustment factors, we can effectively select for improvement in a wide range of traits including carcass traits, while seeking to build environmentally adapted cows that leverage the power and value of heterosis. Moreover, commercial producers continue to receive market signals to increase growth rate, performance and carcass value by downstream value chain participants while simultaneously facing increased production costs and selection of less fit replacement heifers produced by bulls with diminished emphasis on maternal traits or appropriate biological type for the production environment. It is becoming progressively more difficult to find bulls for use in commercial production that meet all the goals of

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being a suitable sire for for Bos taurus crosses and lines that complement the terminal calves and desirable maternal animals. Within Bos indicus crosses. These replacement females due to both the maternal or paternal heterosis estimates are the growing antagonisms in adapted from a report by groups, breeders are able the value chain between traits to make breed/line and Cundiff and Gregory, 1999, in the terminal and maternal individual selections that and Franke et al., 2005. They objectives. A growing summarize crossbreeding produce ideal combinations number of producers seek of breed and heterotic effects experiments conducted in to produce environmentally (i.e. selection for additive and the South-eastern and Midadapted replacement females non-additive genetic merit) west areas of the U.S. and that are appropriate for the Gulf coast, respectively. that maximizes the value or mature weight and lactation profit in the system. Heterosis generates the potential (both of which largest improvement in establish maintenance lowly heritable traits. Heterosis individual selectionsEff thatects produce ideal combinations of breed and heterotic effects (i.e. selection for additive and non-additive genetic merit) that maximizes the value or profit in the system. requirement) in a given Improvements in cow-calf Traits such as reproduction Heterosis and Effectslongevity, essential forage environment and production due to heterosis management system that cow-calf tability, are attributable to having Improvements in cow-calf production duefor to heterosis are profi attributable to having both a cow a crossbredcow calf. The below low detail heritability. the individual (crossbred calf) and leverage heterosis and breedcrossbred both a and crossbred andtables a 1-4have maternal (crossbred cow) heterosis observed for various important production traits for Bos taurus complementarity. These traits respond crossbred calf.crosses. The tables 1-4 estimates crosses and Bos indicus These heterosis are adapted from a report by Cundiff andthe Franke et al., 2005. They summarize crossbreeding experiments conducted One potential solution and Gregory, very slowly to selection below1999, detail individual in the South-eastern and Mid-west areas of the US and the Gulf coast, respectively. Heterosis that may help optimize but heterosis (crossbred and maternal generates the largestcalf) improvement in lowly heritable traits. Traitsgenerated such as reproduction and longevity, essential for cow-calf profitability, have low heritability. These traits respond very the selection of sires through crossbreeding (crossbred cow) heterosis slowly to selection but heterosis generated through crossbreeding can significantly improve an that produce desirable signifi cantly observed for various animal’s performance. The largest economic can benefit (roughly 66%)improve of crossbreeding to commercial producers comes from having crossbred cows (Table 2.) Crossbreeding has been maternal trait attributes important production traits continued onandpage 7 shown to be an efficient method to improve reproductive efficiency productivity in beef cattle. and market targeted calves Table 1. Units and percentage of heterosis by trait for Bos taurus crossbred calves. is to separate this into two Heterosis distinct breeding decisions. Trait Units Percentage (%) Doing so increases the Calving Rate, % 3.2 4.4 Survival to Weaning, % 1.4 1.9 selection intensity of both Birth Weight, lb. 1.7 2.4 sire groups as they are no Weaning Weight, lb. 16.3 3.9 Yearling Weight, lb. 29.1 3.8 longer bounded by the Average Daily Gain, lb./d 0.08 2.6 demands of balancing the Table 2. Units and percentage of heterosis by trait for Bos taurus crossbred dams. trait groups. For many years, Heterosis Trait Units Percentage (%) pork and poultry producers Calving Rate, % 3.5 3.7 have benefited from this Survival to Weaning, % 0.8 1.5 Birth Weight, lb. 1.6 1.8 strategy that allows optimal Weaning Weight, lb. 18.0 3.9 combinations of breeds and Longevity, years 1.36 16.2 line for maternal animals Lifetime Productivity with males selected from Number of Calves .97 17.0 Cumulative Weaning Wt., lb. 600 25.3 combinations of breeds or

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British-British, simultaneous improvement British-Continental, in gross revenue stream to or Continentalthe ranch while decreasing Continental crosses. costs of production through Crossbreeding’s reduced replacement impact on profit female requirements. Enhanced profit Enhanced reproductive Table 4. Units and percentage of heterosis trait for Bosefficiency, taurus by Bos indicus in harsh is likely one ofbythe especially 1,2 crossbred dams. strongest motivators environments, favorably Table 4. Units and percentage of heterosis by trait for Bos taurus by Bos indicus Heterosis decreases crossbred dams.1,2 Trait for producers Units Percentage (%)break-even Heterosis 1 to implement 15.4 unit Calving -- cost of production. Trait Units Percentage (%) Rate, % 1 1 % -6.6 -Calving Rate, % 15.4 --Calving Assistance Rate,effective Getting more calves to structured Calving Assistance Rate, %1 -6.6 --Calf Survival, %1 8.2 -market endpoint, marketing crossbreeding systems. Calf Survival, %1 8.2 --Weaning Rate, %1 20.8 -Weaning Rate, %1 20.8 -1 heavier calves and selling The substantial -2.4 -Birth Weight, lb. 1 -2.4 --Birth Weight, lb. 1 -Weaning Weight, lb. 1 3.2 --Weaning Weight, lb. a larger percentage of improvements in3.2 2 2 Weaning Wt. per Cow Exposed, lb. 91.7 31.6 Weaning Wt. per Cow Exposed, lb. 91.7 31.6 the calf crop through the production efficiency 1 1 Adapted from Franke et al., 2005; numeric average of Angus-Brahman, Brahman-Charolais, Adapted from Franke et al., 2005; numeric average of Angus-Brahman, Brahman-Charolais, and Brahman-Hereford heterosis estimates. measured as weaning and Brahman-Hereford heterosis estimates.benefits of individual and 2 Adapted from Franke et al., 2001. 2 maternal heterosis, enhances weight per cow Adapted from Franke et al., 2001. The heterosis adjustments utilized by multi-breed geneticheterosis evaluation systems another in and expected for areheterosis. gross revenue. Increasing exposed supports continued from page 5 (due to a calf) example of estimates for individual maternal (dueThe to a heterosis crossbred dam) adjustments utilized by multi-breed genetic evaluation systems are another breed-group These heterosis adjustments are presented invarious Table 5 below and illustratecrosses. the differencesimproved in revenue while decreasing or profit and example of (Bos estimates individual anexpected animal’s performance. heterosis for various breed-group crosses. In general the Zebu indicus)for crosses have (due to a calf) and maternal (due to a crossbred dam) heterosis. In British-Continental, general theheterosis Zebu (Bos maintaining costs improves operational sustainability. These adjustments are presented in Table 5 below and illustrate the differences in higher levels of heterosis than the British-British, or Continental-Continental The largest economic crosses. for various breed-group In general the Zebu (Bos indicus) crosses have indicus)expected crossesheterosis have higher Improved crosses. profit potential benefit (roughly 66%) of continued on page 18 higher levels of heterosis than the British-British, British-Continental, or Continental-Continental levels of heterosis thanContinental the Table 5. Individual (calf) and maternal (dam) heterosis adjustments for British, is realized through the crosses. crossbreeding commercial European, and Zebuto breed groups for birth weight, weaning weight and post weaning gain. Postweaning producers comes from Birth Weight (lb) Weaning Weight (lb) Table 5. Individual (calf)Gain and (lb) maternal (dam) heterosis adjustments for British, Continental having crossbred cows European, and Zebu breed groups for birth weight, weaning weight and post weaning gain. Breed Calf Dam Calf Dam Calf (Table 2.) Crossbreeding Postweaning Birth Weight (lb) Weaning Weight (lb) Heterosis Combinations Heterosis Heterosis Heterosis Heterosis has been shown to be an Gain (lb) British x British 21.3 18.8 9.4 efficient method to1.9improve 1.0 Breed Calf Dam Calf Dam Calf British x 1.9 21.3Combinations 18.8 9.4 reproductive efficiency and 1.0 3 Heterosis Heterosis Heterosis Heterosis Heterosis Continental productivity in beef cattle. British x Zebu 7.5 2.1 48.0 53.2 28.2 The heterosis adjustments British x British 1.9 1.0 21.3 18.8 9.4 Continental x 1.9 1.0 21.3 18.8 9.4 utilized by multi-breed Continental British x 1.9 1.0 21.3 18.8 9.4 genetic evaluation systems 2.1 Continental x 7.5 48.0Continental53.2 28.2 areZebu another example of British x Zebu 7.5 2.1 48.0 53.2 28.2 (Wade Shafer, Am. Simmental Association, personal communication) estimates for individual (due Continental x 1.9 1.0 21.3 18.8 9.4 to a calf) and maternal (due Continental to a crossbred dam) heterosis. Continental x 7.5 2.1 48.0 53.2 28.2 These heterosis adjustments Zebu 4 are presented in Table 5 and (Wade Shafer, Am. Simmental Association, personal communication) illustrate the differences Table 3. Units and percentage of heterosis by trait for Bos taurus by Bos indicus crossbred calves.1 Heterosis Trait Units Calving Rate, %1 4.3 Calving Assistance, %1 4.9 Calf Survival, %1 -1.4 Weaning Rate, %1 1.8 Birth Weight, lb. 1 11.4 Weaning Weight, lb. 1 78.5 1 Adapted from Franke et al., 2005; numeric average of Angus-Brahman, Brahman-Charolais, and Brahman-Hereford heterosis estimates.

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Successful Weaning: Tried-and-True Transition Strategies By Kevin Hill, D.V.M., Merck Animal Health Fall feedlot success starts long before calves arrive at the feedyard. Pre-shipment management on the ranch is truly the only way to adequately prepare calves for the changes awaiting them after weaning. In addition to optimizing feedlot health and performance, the bestprepared calves will result in the biggest return to the ranch. Because calf buyers want the healthiest calves, providing them with a certified history of health management procedures, especially one verified by your veterinarian, can result in a $15 to $35 per head premium paid by buyers.1 Here are four triedand-true weaning-related strategies to help make the shift to the feedlot as seamless as possible. #1 Spread out the stressors Weaning day is often the most stressful day in a calf ’s life. The roundup, vaccinations, separation from mother, a long truck ride and then landing in a strange pen with lots of new neighbors, is more than any calf should be asked to endure. The key to managing these stressors is to plan ahead and spread out the procedures over several weeks. Preweaning should be thoughtfully planned to begin two to three weeks before weaning and culminate 45 to 60 days after weaning day. This is important in order to minimize stress on a calf ’s immune system and give them the best chance to respond fully to immunizations. Calves also need time to adjust to separation from the cow and new nutrition before adding in other stressors like shipping and commingling. Not everyone can hold calves

for 45 days after weaning, but nearly everyone can utilize some aspects of preconditioning. #2 Examine your vaccination strategy Vaccination programs should include core protection against Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV), as well as protection against the major bacterial causes of pneumonia. Timing is also important. Instead of waiting to vaccinate calves after they

arrive at the feedyard, where they may encounter disease before the vaccine has a chance to take effect, it’s ideal to vaccinate two to three weeks prior to weaning. This allows time for the best protection against respiratory and clostridial diseases. Booster doses can be given 2 to 3 weeks later, when calves have adjusted and are eating well after weaning at home or in a backgrounding yard, or after arrival if going directly to the feedlot.

#3 Implement concurrent parasite control Parasitic infections depress immunity and feed intake, which are extremely detrimental to calf health. Therefore, incorporating deworming into a preconditioning plan is essential. Again, preweaning timing is important (two to three weeks prior to weaning), as is product selection. Many researchers over the past 10 years have documented the avermectin class of anthelmintics as continued on page 10

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EPD %Rank EPD %Rank

EPD %Rank EPD %Rank

EPD %Rank EPD %Rank

CE 6.0 5 SC 0.5 35

BWT -2.1 3 REA 0.24 45

WWT 27.4 30 IMF -0.04 60

YWT 53 20 FAT -0.017 95

MILK 13.5 5 $T 91.53 15

MWWT 27.2 15 $M 20.94 15

MCE 1.5 100

CE 5.2 10 SC 1.2 2

BWT -1.2 10 REA 0.53 15

WWT 50.0 1 IMF 0.02 40

YWT 81.6 1 FAT -0.028 60

MILK 12.2 15 $T 142.16 1

MWWT 37.3 1 $M 33.88 2

MCE 2.6 85

CE 4.9 15 SC 0.8 10

BWT -0.6 20 REA 0.42 20

WWT 51.1 1 IMF 0.08 30

YWT 77.2 1 FAT -0.024 80

MILK MWWT 14.5 40.0 3 1 $T $M 134.93 38.68 1 1

MCE 1.9 100


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is effective. #4 Evaluate economic often not effective at reducing impact of implants worm burdens. Because most No other investment in the commonly used dewormers cattle industry is as consistent are in this class, switching to and predictable as the use a dewormer with the active of growth implants. Because ingredient fenbendazole, the investment is relatively such as Safe-Guard® or small, a positive return is Panacur®, significantly realized within a few weeks improves the efficacy of after implantation. If you eliminating parasites. plan to retain ownership Combining two products for three weeks or more from differing classes at after weaning, consider the once, such as fenbendazole value of using implants. The and an ivermectin, typically return can be as much as $30 achieves reduction of parasite to $40 per head in added egg counts by 99% and is the value. Implanting can be best strategy for slowing the conveniently added to the development of resistance. preconditioning program Consult your veterinarian either prior to or after for the assistance in the weaning. diagnosis, treatment and Data from thousands control of parasitism. This of calf sales prove that should include a plan for preconditioned calves collecting fecal samples command a significant and performing a Fecal premium. But to do so, Egg Count Reduction Test effective communication of (FECRT) to determine if the health programs to potential current deworming program buyers that documents the continued from page 9

health products and practices used on your operation – including dates of vaccinations, parasite control and other treatments – is an absolute requirement to get that premium. For more information on preconditioning programs for healthier and heavier calves, contact your veterinarian and visit www.the-best-defense. com. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION RESIDUE WARNINGS: Safe-Guard Paste and Suspension: Cattle must not be slaughtered within 8 days following last treatment. Mineral and feed through products: 13 days; EN-PROAL Molasses Block: 11 days; Protein Block: 16 days; For dairy cattle, the milk discard time is zero hours. A withdrawal period has not been established for this product in pre-ruminating

calves. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal. For complete information, refer to the product label.

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Technical Services Veterinarian Merck Animal Health

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DOUBLE L 7008 - C941847 L L BRED BY L BAR BEEFMASTERS OWNED BY LARRY LAIRMORE & WHISKEY RIVER L L

EPD %Rank EPD %Rank

CE -0.09 95 SC 1.1 3

BWT 1.6 85 REA 0.87 2

WWT 55.2 1 IMF -0.33 95

YWT 85.5 1 FAT -0.052 2

MILK 9.1 55 $T 145.66 1

MWWT 36.7 2 $M 31.81 2

MCE 0.3 95

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EPD %Rank EPD %Rank

CE 2.8 55 SC 1.1 4

BWT 0.9 60 REA 0.39 25

WWT 39.6 10 IMF -0.10 75

YWT 68.9 4 FAT -0.048 3

MILK 11.0 25 $T 119.40 3

MWWT 30.9 10 $M 23.20 10

MCE 2.9 35

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Bull Selection Principals

By Matt Spangler, Ph.D., University of Nebraska-Lincoln Bull selection does not need to be overwhelming or complex. The key is to understand the various sources of data (information) available to make bull selection decisions and to clearly identify breeding goals. Before you buy a bull, consider what you need to improve. The key questions that every rancher needs to answer are: 1) What are my breeding/ marketing goals? 2) What traits directly impact the profitability of my enterprise? 3) Are there environmental constraints that dictate the level of performance that is acceptable for a given trait in my enterprise?

Once these three questions are answered, bull selection becomes much simpler. The answers to these questions inherently lead a producer to the traits that are economically relevant to their enterprise. We call these traits Economically Relevant Traits (ERT). Fundamentally these are traits that are directly associated with a revenue stream or a cost. All traits that are not ERTs are indicator traits, or a trait that is genetically correlated to an ERT but not an ERT itself. A classic example of an indicator trait is birth weight. Selection to decrease birth weight in an attempt to reduce the prevalence of dystocia is practiced by numerous commercial bull buyers. However, birth weight does not have a

direct revenue source or cost associated with it. The trait that does have a cost associated with it is calving ease (or difficulty). Calving ease is related to the level of assistance needed during a calving event. Although the two are related, the genetic correlation between calving ease and birth weight is only between -0.6 and -0.8, suggesting that birth weight only explains 36-64% of the genetic differences between animals for calving difficulty. Consequently, to reduce calving difficulty, bulls should be selected based on calving ease EPD and birth weight EPD should be ignored.

Basics of Expected Progeny Differences (EPD) Too often seedstock producers and bull buyers get caught up in the actual weights, ultrasound data, etc., when selecting bulls. EPD provide a measure by which animals within a breed can be compared to one another for their genetic potential as parents for specific traits. EPD incorporate multiple sources of information, including full pedigree, an animal’s own record, and progeny information. As additional sources of information become available, the accuracy of the EPD value increases. Why do “good” bulls sometimes have “bad” calves? continued on page 14


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continued from page 11 Why do full siblings sometimes look and perform very differently? One potential reason is the phenomena of Mendelian sampling. Mendelian sampling arises due to the fact that each parent passes a sample half of its alleles to its offspring and every allele has an equal likelihood of being passed on. Perhaps the best example is a set of flush mates. Although all of them have the same pedigree estimate EPD they differ considerably in terms of performance and consequently their EPD, once they have a record, differ due to Mendelian sampling. Relatively recent advances in the use of genomic tools allow more accurate estimates of the relationships between animals, thus capturing part of the Mendelian sampling

variation. This is why the inclusion of genomic information into EPD increases the accuracy of EPD, particularly for young animals. EPD Compared to Raw Data and Ratios Many producers mistakenly place more emphasis on raw measurements than EPD. Raw measurements include the confounded effects of genetics and environment, and consequently, the genetic ability of the animal is unknown. Below is a very simplistic equation describing the phenotype of an animal. P=G+E Where P is the phenotype, G is the genetic effect, and E is the environmental effect. The phenotype is what is seen, or measured, such

as the actual weight or carcass measurement. Both genetics and the environment influence these values, and because we are interested in identifying animals based on their potential as parents, the environment should not be included in the tool used to select animals. Furthermore, actual phenotypes (e.g., weights, ultrasound data, etc.) are not comparable from animal to animal since they have not been adjusted nor do they provide any clue as to how much better or worse an animal is compared to others. A contemporary group ratio does allow for comparison of animals and provides an idea of how much better or worse a particular animal’s adjusted record is compared to others within the same contemporary group. The problem is that a ratio is not useful in comparing animals across herds or outside of the defined contemporary group.

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BIO-ECONOMIC INDEX VALUES Selecting to improve multiple traits simultaneously can be cumbersome, but is necessary given multiple traits act together to inform the profitability of cow-calf enterprises. Just open up any sale catalog and it is easy to become confused immediately. Economic indices can help alleviate this confusion. An economic index is a collection of EPDs weighted by their economic value such that traits with greater impacts on production goals have a larger economic weight associated with them. These tools allow producers to select bulls based on their genetic potential to improve net profit. Note that other species (e.g., swine, poultry) use indexes exclusively to select parent animals. continued on page 15


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continued from page 14

operation. It is also important to These tools have been know the breed average available to the U.S. beef industry for close to a decade values for particular indexes but have yet to reach the level and to use percentile ranks of adoption that they should. to determine how far above or below average a particular When making selection decisions based on economic animal is compared to the rest of a breed. indices, it’s important to A current project at the consider your particular University of Nebraskabreeding objective and Lincoln with collaborators the traits that will achieve desired production goals. For from Kansas State University, the U.S. Meat Animal instance, if your production Research Center, and Theta goals included retaining replacements and selling cull Solutions, LLC, is working to develop a web-based tool heifers and steer progeny at for producers to develop weaning, then an index that their own customizable index assumes all offspring are based on their herd level sold on a grid-based system economics and production is inappropriate for your

D& D BEEFMASTERS Dwight & Dianna Raburn Athens, Alabama 256.777.8568

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levels. This tool would enable indices to be developed by bull buyers and applied, across breeds, to bulls on offer that a commercial bull buyer is interested in. Summary When making selection decisions based on economic indices, it’s important to consider your particular breeding objective and the traits that will achieve desired production goals. Commercial producers have a lot on their plate to simply run a ranch, do not let bull selection become too time consuming. Use the tools that science has proven, rely

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on experts in the field of genetics, and focus time and energy on the tasks that you excel at. For more information relative to EPDs and selection indices, go to www.eBeef.org

Matt Spangler, Ph.D.

Professor and Beef Genetics Extension Specialist University of Nebraska-Lincoln


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Can genomic tests work for the commercial producer? By Burt Rutherford, BEEF Magazine Beyond helping you know the genetic merit of the bulls you buy, genomic tests could help your management as well. The short answer to the question posed in the headline is yes, but it depends. It starts with being able to capture commercial-level data, says Matt Spangler, animal geneticist at the University of Nebraska Lincoln. Spangler was speaking at King Ranch Institute for Ranch Management (KRIRM) Lectureship on genetics recently in Denver. In addition to KRIRM, the symposium was sponsored by NCBA and Colorado State University. Those data can be collected at a packing

plant, feedyard or larger commercial cow-calf outfit. “Capturing large volumes of commercial level data not only enables more accurate EPDs, but it could also enable relationships to be quantified between commercial and seedstock animals assuming both seedstock and commercial animals are genotyped,” he says. Kind of a genomic pedigree, so to speak. “This process could provide a much-needed feedback loop of information in the beef industry and, in return, allow for the potential of managing commercial animals based on genetic potential. I think that’s where we need to head from an industry perspective.” Clearly, however, not all commercial cow-calf

ranchers have the resources to link their genetics with downstream partners like a feedyard or packer. But there’s plenty of interest in getting pull-through demand for improved genetics. Spangler states that coordination as mentioned above is a work in progress. However, commercial producers can leverage the power of genomics today by simply buying bulls with genomically-enhanced EPDs. “If we just know the sire, we’ve accounted for a quarter of the additive genetic differences between animals.” But, he cautions, if commercial producers are going to step into the genomics realm, they need to have an idea of what they’re going to do with the information before they

spend money on the tests. “It’s discouraging to have somebody who spent a lot of money on testing come up to you after the fact and say, ‘Now what to do with it?’ Hopefully that question was asked before the investment was made.” Spangler suggests considering parentage tests, if you’re a commercial producer who wants to dip your toes in the water of genomics testing. This will help you select the heifers to keep back by determining which ones are out of AI sires or sires that are more ‘maternally’ oriented. There are also benefits for your steers. There are several online feeder profit calculators that use the genetic makeup of your herd continued on page 19

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The Beefmaster Pay Weight

continued from page 7 profit assuming constant inventories. A variety of crossbreeding systems yield 20-30% improvements in weaning weight per cow exposed not including the additional value generated through sire selection within breed. This represents a substantial change in output given relatively constant input. Simple examples of a 23% increase in weaning weight per cow exposed using a terminal sire/F1 (two cross) cow can generate $100-150

additional revenue per cow per year. I’m not aware of any set of calves that have generated carcass premiums of $100-150 premium per cow exposed regardless of breed or grid. In today’s calf prices the value of heterosis for a herd of 100 cows is roughly $10,000 to $15,000 per year and represents a decrease in break-even costs of more than $20/cwt on 500 lb calves. Recognize that about 2/3 of the economic advantage of this crossing system comes from having crossbred cows. A wellconstructed crossbreeding

system can have positive effects on a ranch’s bottom line by not only increasing the quality and gross pay weight of calves produced but also by increasing the durability and productivity of the cow factory. While most producers sell calves at weaning, this endpoint doesn’t describe the total economic benefit to either an integrated beef producer that retains ownership to harvest and sells animals on a value based marketing grid or, if calves are marketed at weaning, describing the value of crossbred animals to downstream participants in the beef value chain. In an era of expanding demand for premium quality beef and declining fed cattle and cow herd inventories, it is essential that profit minded producers develop a clear understanding of the economic tradeoffs of concentrating the percentage of one breed in a breeding system and the corresponding decreased heterosis and associated reduced production efficiency. System or operation profit should be the metric by which breeding systems are evaluated. Relying on the value (revenue) per hundred weight of calves or carcasses sold or ‘premiums’ as indicators of profit is naïve. A number of simulation studies have been conducted to evaluate the value of breed differences and heterosis to integrated beef production systems. These projects (Notter et al, 1979; Tomsen et al., 2001) concluded that

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breeding systems which used breed complementarity and individual and maternal heterosis are the most profitable. Mating systems that produced individual heterosis were shown to be more economically efficient than straight-breeding systems. Likewise systems that utilize maternal heterosis were more economically efficient than the use of straight bred dams (Notter et al., 1979).

Robert L. Weaber, Ph.D.

Professor and Extension Specialist Department of Animal Science and Industry Kansas State University

2019 BBU Convention October 24-26 San Antonio River Walk Seminars Trade Show SOCIALS Networking beefmasters.org/ purebred/convention


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continued from page 17 to validate the predicted feedlot success of your feeder calves. Among them are the International Genetics Solutions Feeder Profit Calculator and AngusLink. Bottom line, Spangler says, is that the value of genetics extends far past the seedstock sector and the

selling of bulls. Similarly, the value of collecting data to use in genetics evaluations extends beyond the seedstock sector as well. Large gains in system-wide efficiency could be achieved with improved information and data sharing to enable more accurate selection and management decisions.

WHERE INFORMATION MATTERS. Lawrence “Mak� Makuakane Buffalo, Kentucky ellamaefarms@gmail.com 706-570-7559

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Reprinted with permission.

Burt Rutherford Senior Editor BEEF Magazine

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BERACHIAH BEEFMASTERS Breeding Polled Beefmasters since 1982

Lawrence and Connie Shuey Dale and Karen Shuey

Cassville, MO 65625 417/826-5881 417/773-0151 berachiah@gmail.com

@ berachiah.beefmasters

Charles B. Albright 713-819-5449 chuckb1@swbell.net Lavaca County, Texas


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New Beefmaster Commercial Tool: Igenity Beefmaster By Lance Bauer, Beefmaster Breeders United A seedstock producer’s main goal is to produce animals that will help the commercial cattleman increase his profits and continually improve his cattle. Seedstock producers should be making choices to improve their cattle, so that the commercial cowman can use those cattle to improve his herd. Seedstock producers regularly select cattle for performance and they use EPDs to help improve in areas that their herd is lacking. Commercial cattlemen can use EPDs to select bulls with the performance they need to work on their cow base. With Beefmaster bulls many of these cattlemen are retaining the heifers and using them as replacements. What if there was a way to offer the

commercial cattle producer another selection tool for these replacement females? There is now a way! Beefmaster Breeders United (BBU) is releasing a commercial female chip that will be a tool for selecting commercial females, that are at least 50% Beefmaster. This new way is called Igenity Beefmaster and it is a product that will be offered by BBU as another selection tool for commercial producers. This product will calculate molecular breeding values (MBVs) on heifers that are at least 50% Beefmaster, for the traits that have EPDs. These MBVs will be in a format of a score from 1-10. There will also be a Maternal Advantage Index and Terminal Advantage Index. The Maternal Advantage

will be based on $M and the Terminal Advantage based on $T. The Maternal and Terminal Advantage indexes will be on a dollar basis. These are added selection tools that can be used to help determine which heifers to keep back for replacements. It is also information that can be used to help sell commercial females, if they have the chip run on them. The MBVs are derived from the BBU genomic evaluation, that is run twice a year, and they provide another tool for selecting heifers that perform well, thus making the best replacements. Igenity Beefmaster can also be used as a tool when marketing commercial heifers. Producers can run the Igenity Beefmaster chip on their heifers and use the

results to help add value to replacement females that are being marketed. Beefmaster breeders will be promoting this test to their commercial bull customers so that they can utilize this tool. Commercial producers should add this tool to their toolbox and use it in selection decisions. Animals with scores higher than five are better for the trait that is being evaluated. The Maternal and Terminal Advantages are in dollars, so the higher the dollar value the more valuable the heifer is for breeding. This tool can also be used to identify the sire of commercial females, which is great for the commercial cattleman. For example, if a cowman has five bulls with a group of continued on page 23


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continued from page 21 cows and one of those bulls doesn’t sire any calves, he knows that he has an issue. He can also identify which of the bulls produces the most replacement heifers and continue to use that

bull to build a cow base. The commercial cattleman will also have an idea of where his cows stand and what traits to select for in a bull to compliment his cows. The Igenity Beefmaster Commercial Heifer chip is a great new tool for the

commercial producer and is also valuable in marketing commercial females that are at least one half Beefmaster. This product gives the producer a set of MBVs on a 1-10 scale that can be added to the toolbox as an additional selection tool.

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When the bulls being used have DNA on them the producer can also identify those higher performing bulls, as well as bulls that do not breed as many cows. This is a great product for all commercial bull customers to use and add more data to their cow herd. Igenity Beefmaster will be available to order from Beefmaster Breeders United for $25 per chip, for more information contact the BBU office at 210-732-3132.

Lance Bauer

Director of Breed Improvement & Western Field Representative Beefmaster Breeders United

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BEEFMASTER Pay Weight The Beefmaster Pay Weight

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the

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a publication dedicated to serving commercial cattlemen and produced by Beefmaster Breeders United FALL 2019

Vol. 5, No. 2

Section 2

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Developing Replacement Heifers By Kaitlyn Sarlo Davila and Todd Thrift, University of Florida Heifer development can be daunting: it is often one of the largest expenses of a cow-calf operation. This is due to feed costs, but also in large part due to loss when heifers don’t rebreed. For heifers, calving at two years old is the key to maximizing lifetime productivity. In order to calve at two years of age, heifers need to conceive at 15 months of age and reach puberty at 13-14 months of age. Body weight, body fat and age are all critical factors in when heifers achieve puberty but body weight is the most important factor. 50 to 75 lbs can make the difference between a 50% and a 90% conception rate. Heifers should reach 65% of their mature weight prior to breeding season. This is especially important for Bos indicus influenced heifers. If mature cow size is 1200 to 1400 lbs, heifers need to

reach 780 to 910 lbs by the start of the breeding season. All heifers should reach this target weight, this should not be the average weight of the group of heifers. Heifer weight is important not only for the first breeding, but for the second as well. Even if lightweight heifers are able to get bred they are more likely to experience calving problems and the chances of them getting rebred the following year after the challenge of nursing a calf are practically non-existent. How do I get my heifers to reach this target weight? There are three steps to get you started: 1) Determine the start date of breeding season (based on desired calving date) 2) Determine the expected mature weight 3)Determine required average daily gain

Many producers are One of the most effective unsure of the mature weight management strategies to of their herd. One simple help heifers achieve this and straightforward way to daily gain is to sort them. determine mature weight By sorting light and heavy if you don’t have scales is heifers and feeding them to add 200 lbs to the value separately you can get the weight of cull cows sold. most “bang for your buck” Let’s assume I’ve weaned spent on feed by making sure st 500 lb heifers on October 1 . feed goes to the heifers that need it most. My breeding season begins st As you can see in the April 1 and my mature cow chart, feeding weight 1200 lbs. My heifers Many is producers are unsure of the mature weight of theirheifers herd. One simple separately based size have 183 days to reach their and straightforward way to determine mature weight if you on don't have scalesweight. is to add Th 200eir lbs target to the value weight of cullincreases cows sold. the ADG greatly target pregnancy rate ofseason weight is 780 (1200lbs x onand i . My breeding Let's assume I've lbs weaned 500 lb heifers October st begins=April and my cow weight is 1200heifers. lbs. My heifers have 183 lighter The overall 0.65 7801lbs). Mymature heifers days toto reach their target weight is 780 (1200lbs x 0.65 need gain 280 lbsweight. in 183Their target pregnancy ratelbsincreases as = 780 lbs). My heifers need to gain 280 lbs in 183 days which results in a days which results in a target well. In the first group where target ADG (average daily gain) of 1.53 lbs per day (280 lbs 7 183 days= 1.53 ADG (average daily gain) of heifers were fed together, lbs/day). the average pregnancy 1.53 lbs per day (280 lbs ÷ One of the most effective management strategies to help heifers achieve rate and washeavy 70%heifers but when the 183 daysgain = 1.53 lbs/day). this daily is to sort them. By sorting light and feeding st

them separately you can get the most «bang for your buck" spent on feed by continued on page 26 making sure feed goes to the heifers that need it most.

Average Daily Gain Pregnancy rate

Fed Together Light heifers Heavy heifers 1.25 lb/day 1.47 lb/day 60%

80%

Fed Separately Light heifers Heavy heifers 1.23 lb/day 1.80 lb/ day 79%

90%

Adapted from Varner et. al, 1977

As you can see in the chart, feeding heifers separately based on size greatly increases the ADG and pregnancy rate of lighter heifers. The overall pregnancy rate increases as well. In the first group where heifers were fed together, the average pregnancy rate was 70% but when the heifers were fed separately the average pregnancy rate for both groups increased to 84.5%. There are three main strategies for feeding heifers to this target weight: steady, rapid early and rapid late. There are advantages and drawbacks to

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continued from page 25 heifers were fed separately the average pregnancy rate for both groups increased to 84.5%. There are three main strategies for feeding heifers to this target weight: steady, rapid early and rapid late. There are advantages and drawbacks to each strategy. The steady gain strategy is Steady

Body Weight

Rapid early

Weaning

the most straightforward. As outlined in the example above, heifers maintain a steady ADG over the entire feeding period in order to reach their target weight. However, the rapid early and rapid late strategies can

be used to take advantage of cheaper feed that is only available at certain times. In the rapid early strategy, heifers are fed to achieve a much higher ADG in order to reach the target weight sooner and once heifers have reached their target weight they are just fed to maintain their weight. However, at a heavier weight, heifers’ maintenance requirements will also be higher Rapid Late and more feed will be required. The rapid late strategy is the opposite. Heifers are maintained until closer to when the Breeding breeding season starts and then fed to quickly gain to the target weight. The advantage of the rapid late strategy is that heifers will not gain until later so they will be maintained at a lighter weight for longer and require less feed for maintenance.

This strategy can also take advantage of compensatory gain. However, this strategy can be quite risky. If heifers are not able to gain weight quickly enough to reach target weight they may not reach puberty before the start of the breeding season. What matters most is not how you feed your heifers, but that you feed them. As mentioned earlier, body weight is the most important in getting heifers bred. You have to feed them to breed them! While body weight is the most critical factor in heifer development, age and body fat are also important. Age is especially important in Bos indicus influenced cattle, such as Beefmasters. Bos indicus heifers reach puberty later than Bos taurus heifers which can make reaching puberty in time for the first breeding season a challenge. Feeding Bos indicus influenced heifers to at least 65% of their

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mature body weight helps overcome this challenge. Recent studies suggest that Bos taurus heifers can reach puberty at as little as 50% of their mature body weight. Selection for early puberty, especially through selecting on scrotal circumference in bulls, has enabled these heifers to reach puberty earlier and at lighter body weights. Heifer development is not just about nutrition, it is also a result of the selection. This selection occurs when you decide which heifers to keep and also earlier when you choose the bulls to use in your herd and sire these heifers. Because it can be difficult for Bos indicus heifers to reach puberty earlier, some producers choose to wait and breed them as two years olds to calve at three. In harsh environments, such as South Florida, this may be the only continued on page 27


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continued from page 26

management as well. Don’t option. However, by holding throw away all your hard work of developing these these heifers back you not heifers by kicking them only have to wait an extra back out with the cow herd year to recover the cost of as soon as they have their developing them, but you also remove any opportunity first calf. First calf heifers also need a good plane of to select them to breed and nutrition. They not only calve earlier. need to be in a good enough The final consideration for developing heifers is body body condition to breed fat. A proper body condition back but they also have the extra nutrient requirements score is essential both for of both nursing and still reaching puberty and for growing to their final mature breeding back after the size. Much like sorting your first calf. It is important to heifers based on size helps remember that by correctly them to gain more efficiently, feeding heifers before your first breeding season you are keeping your heifers sorted off from your mature cows setting them up for success enables them to be more not just for their first calf productive. If possible, but for the calves to come. heifers should be managed Generally, a body condition separately at least until they score of 5 is recommended are bred with their second for females to be able to get calf. bred. It is recommended that first calf heifers be at a minimum body condition score of 6 when they calve. First calf heifers often lose a body condition score when going through the challenge Kaitlyn Sarlo Davila of nursing that first calf while Department of Animal Science still growing. By developing University of Florida them to a body condition score 6 at calving they can still be at a body condition score 5 by breeding and rebreed successfully. With so much emphasis placed on this first breeding season it is Todd Thrift also important to remember Department of Animal Science that your first calf heifers are University of Florida going to need some extra

Headings Beefmasters Registered Beefmasters For Sale JESSE HEADINGS 20262 HIGHWAY EE - SEDALIA, MO 65301 660-287-2820 - JPS@OHCMAIL.ORG

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Ranching on the Pecos: A prescription for healthy rangeland By Donnie Lunsford, USDA-NRCS What does the Pecos River, a pharmacist, downhill skiing, and ranching have in common? If you live near Pecos, that would be John Rediger of JR Land and Cattle Company. Rediger is a man of many talents from being a National Standard Race (NASTAR) ranked skier, a drug store owner, pharmacist, father, husband, and producer of quality Beefmaster cattle. Ranching is an iconic piece of West Texas heritage and Rediger has more than embraced it. Since Rediger was a boy, he knew he had a connection to the land born from the time he spent with his father riding horseback across the land, working cattle on hot dusty days and cold wet ones, or checking cattle during calving season. He’s still enjoying ranching more than 60 years later at 71 years old. “It’s the love of the land,

love what you do, but really it is a passion. It’s like my skiing, it turns into an obsession,” said Rediger “I only had Saturday afternoons and Sundays because I was working at the pharmacy during the week. That fence might have taken me two years to get built, but it was fun work when you are at the ranch.” He added “The shortest path to success is to roll up your sleeves, and the biggest factor you can give the ranch or farm, is your shadow.”

Rediger walks among the herd to check for injuries, calves, and overall health of his cattle by assessing their overall body condition.

pany was founded in 1961 by John’s father, John Rediger Sr. and his friend R. D. Passion turns to obsession Rediger was born in Hous- Hildreth. John Sr. and R. D. ton with an asthma problem. operated the 340-acre ranch, His father followed a doctor’s while Rediger pursued his pharmacy career. Rediger advice and moved the famiand his father operated their ly to a drier climate in West Texas. After living in a couple pharmacy during the day and West Texas towns and at the ranched during the evenings beginning of his sixth-grade and weekends. John became a partner when Hildreth deyear, the Rediger family setcided to retire from ranching. tled in Pecos after buying a In 2009, Rediger took over drug store. J R Land and Cattle Com- sole operation of the ranch. Today, he runs more than

9,000 acres with one herd of Beefmaster cattle, while also working to phase out the ranch’s commercial cattle herd. Ranching and developing a quality high-performing beef herd continues to feed his passion. He and his father began raising Beefmaster cattle more than 45 years ago and never looked back.

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continued from page 29 Rediger keeps detailed records on his purebred cattle. When selecting bulls and heifers, he has a criterion of desirable traits he evaluates when purchasing his cattle. In other words – he buys the

started out by buying cows in the middle, how long would it take me to get them to the top,” emphasized Rediger. Stewardship - the only option Rediger knows that a

Keeping proper records is required for running registered cattle. Having gentle cattle is also a desirable trait that helps him easily inspect for injuries, ear tag numbers, and overall body condition to ensure his herd is moving in a positive direction.

best of the best. “You can’t go first-class on a second-class ticket. If I

rancher’s most important product is the quantity and quality of available forage. The cow is just the harvester.

His mission is stewardship of the land. He has continued to pursue his stewardship goals by utilizing a rotational grazing system for his cattle, improving water distribution, building more cross-fencing, reducing brush encroachment, and enhancing wildlife habitat. This has also led to an influx of quail which had been in decline for many years. In turn, through successful improvement of his land and its management, Rediger is able to raise and market high-quality Beefmasters. “I began improving my land and the land I lease by utilizing the NRCS (Natural Resources Conservation Service) and their programs,” explained Rediger, “I began with a hundred acres of herbicide to control my mesquite and creosote brush. Then while walking through that pasture, I had the proof is in the pudding moment when

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side oats gramma showed up which I had never seen in this pasture - ever.” A combination of herbicides is used to treat mesquite, creosote, and other undesirable brush species that can encroach on lands that have been historically overgrazed or unmanaged. Once these plants are eliminated or reduced, a stand of grass often returns naturally without having to reseed the area. “I have now treated over 1,200 acres and you can see where you stopped spraying like drawing a line in the sand. But you still have to have your grazing management in place including rotating your herd, but also go back and spray by hand to keep the pastures waist high in grass and the brush out,” he said. “Learning to have the right stocking rate was the hardest continued on page 31


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based on the recommendation of the NRCS when developing a grazing plan. “Rotational grazing, spraying herbicide and adjusting to the correct stocking rate made sense after witThis area was sprayed a few years ago to remove nessing how creosote bush and mesquite allowing the native grasses such as Alkali Sacaton, bluestems, and muhlies to return. my land and cattle thing to learn. I now run one cow per 200 acres where his- responded to my new mantorically others run one cow agement. There is nothing better than looking over my to 80 acres. You must know cattle while riding my horse and see what kind of grassbelly high in grass,” Rediger es you are growing, and not reflected. be afraid to move the cattle when needed. You can’t graze Finding management sucby a calendar.” cess in rough dry country Utilizing the “take half Most days Rediger begins leave half ” grazing method, by saddling up and going for he monitors his grazing of a ride to check cows, fenckey grass species to approxes, and water troughs. His imately 6 inches in height largest and most rewarding

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responsibility is watching his more than 37 acres of ripariland respond to grazing. an area located on the Pecos “Today I own and lease River watershed by fencing some of the roughest and off access to the river and driest areas in Texas. Many of stream from his cattle. This these places didn’t have any conservation practices also water developed, fencing to enhances wildlife habitat and help me keep the cattle in the improves the water quality in those riparian areas. He also proper pastures, and overall built six earthen stock water had been abused. So, I had ponds for wildlife and liveto build it and improve it stock in areas where water through sweat, blisters, and wasn’t readily available. blood. We are always trying to do what is best for the continued on page 33 land.” Rediger has installed more than 26,000 feet of livestock pipeline, 50,000 feet of Rediger stands at his gate on a cool interior winter morning as the morning light fencing to improve grazing begins to creep over the horizon to distribution and rotation. begin his day of checking water, fences, He is working to restore and cattle.


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stream to give sanctuary to to relieve the desert allowing In order to fight drought and insects, birds, and other wild- the flowers to bloom. life including a covey or two the lack of forage, Rediger of quail. From colorful lantaplanted an improved Giant na, Turk’s cap, desert willow, “Cowboy” bermudagrass to tall oaks, and many more, an area where he is able to this garden changes from the irrigate to allow the cattle desert to an oasis. Rediger is to have green leafy forage Donnie Lunsford packed with high protein, so proud of his garden that he Public Affairs Specialist has turned into his own area his cattle continue to reach USDA-NRCS desired gains while reducing for relaxing and enjoying all the wildlife buzzing around. grazing pressure native pas“One of my favorite things tures. I enjoy the most about getting away and going to the BUCKNER POLLED BEEFMASTERS Building an oasis for birds ranch is to sit on my porch and pollinators and either drink my coffee in Rediger has always put Polled by Intent, Not by Accident his own sweat equity into his the morning or a cold beverage in the evening and just Polled Individuals For Sale. pastures, but also his ranchwatch the hummingbirds, the The Product of 5 Generations of Planned Polled Genetics. ing headquarters. Thornton, Texas (254) 747-2199 bees, my scaled and bobwhite Located on the eastern www.bucknerpolledbeefmasters.info edge of the Chihuahuan Des- quail broods and anything else that enjoys my pollinator ert, the ranching headquargarden.” ters has been transformed Today, Rediger can see the from just a ranch house and tall grasses, hear the calls of Ranch Located in Tilden, Texas outbuildings into a native BBU Env the blue quail whistling in the ironmen tal Award garden filled with shrubs, BOB & BONNIE SIDDONS Winner 2005 distance, see the life around W in 512/261-5327 Home ners o grasses, and wildflowers Perform f the McAllen a 361/274-3700 Ranch the Pecos River, and smell Test - th nce Award Gain ree years including a little man-made in a row 512/217-3400 Mobile the rain when a storm comes

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More Spring Considerations for Commercial Herds By Dr. Andy D. Herring, Texas A&M University Last issue we discussed some nutrition, health, and animal ID considerations that should be part of our spring-time thoughts, and that impact cow herd productivity and profitability annually. A large transition during spring occurs in our pastures as cool-season forages transition toward maturity and warm-season forages begin their growing seasons. This issue we conclude our two-part series with discussion of some pasture utilization and management considerations to help achieve overall herd production goals. Number of pastures The amount of land dictates the animal numbers that can be supported on any operation, but the number of pastures dictates many of our herd management options, and potential flexibility. The potential to have different breeding groups, manage different nutritional groups, isolate animal groups (such as sick vs. healthy, keep bulls away from heifers, etc.), and have grazing management options is based on how

many pastures exist, as well as their layout. Figure 1 shows some different pasture layouts and associated animal management considerations. Low pasture numbers is a typical limitation of many smaller operations. If there is only one pasture, or a small number of pastures that all share fence lines, it is almost impossible to have a controlled breeding/calving season because bulls have no way to be kept separated from cows. This also presents challenges for regulating the breeding age of heifers produced in the herd. Small herds have a higher cost per cow when they purchase a piece of equipment, but the cost of cross fencing per cow may not be prohibitive. Very large operations with large pastures also tend to have few numbers of pastures. If an operation in New Mexico or west Texas establishes two miles of cross fencing, the cost per cow is likely to be much more expensive as compared to two miles of cross fencing in east Texas or much of the Gulf Coast, even if the

A

B

C

D

Figure 1. Examples of 8-pasture layouts. Contact between groups of animals, rotation of pastures, location and access to water, costs of cross fencing, etc. are all important considerations related to usefulness and therefore the sustainability of the management system. Circles indicate water sources. Examples C and D allow for only 1 group of animals. Examples A and B can utilize multiple groups of animals, but only example B provides for potential isolation of groups.

fencing had the exact same cost, such as $25,000. This cost per cow is relative to how many cows will benefit from the expense, and how many cattle an amount of land will support is its carrying capacity. Stocking rate and carrying capacity A major consideration of any grazing-based operation is how many animals the land will support. This concept is known as the carrying capacity (the number of animals the land will typically support without causing damage). Stocking rate is the number of animals the manager places on the

land for a specified amount of time. Both of these concepts are commonly expressed as number of acres per cow per year (a cow and the calf she produces through weaning is considered an animal unit, or AU). It is in the manager’s best interest to have stocking rate well-matched with carrying capacity to avoid excessive input costs and to avoid reduction of carrying capacity long-term. continued on page 36

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continued from page 35 Table 1 shows some relative animal unit comparisons for different types of livestock. If a ranch had an annual carrying capacity of 200 cows, it would alternatively support 572 yearling heifers (0.7 AU each) when the heifers are kept for 6 months. In the southern half of the U.S. carrying capacity may range from one acre per cow annually (or less) to

www.beefmasters.org Table 1. Relative animal unit equivalent comparisons Type of animal Mature cow (lactating) Replacement heifers (18 to 24 mo) Replacement heifers (12 to 18 mo) Replacement heifers (6 to 12 mo) Weaned steers and bulls (6 to 12 mo) Young bulls (12 to 24 mo) Mature bulls (over 24 mo) Mature ewes Mature nannies/does (goats) Mature gelding horse Whitetail deer

100 acres per cow annually. This possible range is largely driven by rainfall amount and pattern, soil type, forage type, and grazing management. In areas that receive at least 30 inches of rainfall, improved forages are common because they provide for higher forage production. Most areas that receive 25 inches or less typically rely on native

Animal unit equivalent 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.6 1.2 1.6 0.20 0.17 1.25 0.15

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In the southern half of the USA carrying capacity may range from 1 acre per cow annually (or less) to 100 acres per cow annually. This possible range is largely driven by rainfall amount and pattern, soil type, forage type, and grazing management. In areas that receive at least 30 inches of rainfall, improved forages are common because they provide for higher forage production. Most areas that receive 25 inches or less typically rely on native rangelands for grazing unless they have access to irrigation. This discussion also assumes we are managing permanent, perennial pastures as opposed to annually planted forage crops (such as wheat and other small grains, etc.). There is pressure to run more animals on a fixed land resource to generate more income. Many cow-calf producers are better at tracking traits generating income than those related to expenses, however, increased cattle numbers that lead to increased supplemental feeding, additional weed/brush, or reduction in animal health are usually not cost-effective. In all regions of

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continued from page 36

photograph in a specified rangelands for grazing unless location in the pasture on the they have access to irrigation. same day each year (or every This discussion also assumes two years). This will show we are managing permanent, the plant species amounts and diversity over time, perennial pastures as opposed to annually planted and a picture is worth more than 1,000 words when the forage crops (such as wheat and other small grains, etc.). amount of brush cover or weed invasion is monitored There is pressure to run this way. Effective and more animals on a fixed efficient pasture management land resource to generate typically involves some more income. Many cowaspect of rotational grazing. calf producers are better at Grazing management tracking traits generating There are three primary income than those related to expenses, however, increased classifications of pasture use relative to their grazing cattle numbers that lead management. Continuous to increased supplemental grazing where the pasture feeding, additional weed/ brush, or reduction in animal is never rested (i.e. animals are always present). Deferred health are usually not costeffective. In all regions of the rotational grazing where the pasture gets some rest U.S. there are local experts but is usually grazed for a through state Extension longer amount of time than offices or USDA Natural it is rested. Short duration Resource Conservation grazing where there is a high Service (NRCS) that can stocking density of grazing assist cow-calf producers animals for a short amount of in developing stocking rate time, and then the pasture is guidelines for the specific aspects of any operation, and rested for 5 to 8 times as long as it was grazed. All three of help determine cost-benefit analyses for cross fencing and these grazing management gazing management options. strategies (Figure 2) can be used effectively in any region, Last issue we mentioned and, all three approaches that animal identification

Continuous Grazing

Deferred Rotational Grazing

Short Duration Grazing

Entire land area is one single pasture.

Few number of cross fences used to provide several pastures.

Many cross fences used to provide many small pastures

Pasture is not rested.

Each pasture is rested, but is grazed as long or longer than it is rested.

Each pasture is rested much longer than it is grazed.

Grazing selectivity is highest.

Grazing selectivity is reduced.

Grazing selectivity is minimized.

Example: Animals left on pasture all the time

Examples: a. Merrill (4-pasture) deferred system – 3 herds in 4 pastures, rotated every 4 months, so that each pasture is rested in in different times of years.

Examples: a. High Intensity Low Frequency (HILF) animals graze smaller pastures for 15 - 30 days, then pastures rested for 90 - 180 days

b. South African Switch Back – 2 pastures with one group rotated on odd number and offset times of year (5 months, 7 months)

b. Rapid rotation (HIHF) - pastures (cells) very small and grazed for ≤ 7 days, rested for 30 - 60 days; most labor intensive and most potential for increases in overall carrying capacity (and production per acre); most potential for wrecks if not managed.

Figure 2. Three land areas of equal size, but with different numbers of pastures and different grazing management. Dots represent animals.

and record-keeping is important for production efficiency and profitability, and record keeping of pasture conditions over time are also important. This may be done by simply taking a

can result in wrecks for the operation if not managed appropriately. It must be kept in mind, what the proper overall stocking rate is for the grazing land, relative to its carrying capacity. Several studies have

documented that not many performance differences exist among these grazing management approaches when most production traits are evaluated “per animal.” For instance, there will be little to any improvement in traits such as calf weaning weight or cow fertility among these grazing approaches when proper overall stocking rates are utilized. However, there is more potential to improve pasture conditions, reduce supplemental feed costs, and possibly stock more animals when rotational grazing is utilized

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over continuous grazing. When continuous grazing is employed, and especially when pastures have a wide variety of forages, there will be selective grazing by animals. Even when plants have equal nutritional value, some just taste better than others and will be overutilized, and others that are valuable will be underutilized. Also, if there is a wide variety of plant species distribution, terrain or soil type, or changes in slope within the pasture, animals will selectively use some of continued on page 39


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purchased feedstuffs. They these areas more than others. cost of winter-feeding of hay is typically more expensive Rotational grazing can help than allowing cows to harvest provide for more uniform pasture utilization by grazing “stock-piled” winter pasture. These stock-piled pastures animals. Another major advantage are typically low in protein, so protein supplementation of rotational grazing is will be needed. However, promotion of health plant having enough forage to root systems. The amount stock-pile for winter is of plant material visible directly related to stocking above ground is directly rate. Furthermore, it may be proportional to the amount more cost effective to overof plant below ground (the seed warm season pastures root system). If pastures are with cool season forages continually grazed short, than purchasing hay. It is the plants never develop as recommended that all cowvigorous root system, and calf producers perform some this limits the potential type of cost and income growth of plant material comparisons where total than can be produced for grazing. When grazing plants income and total expenses are evaluated, and that are allowed to grow toward include year-round pasture maturity, they will have considerations. better root systems; in turn, Many operations may plants with more developed want to consider what the root systems can cope with cost and income is for each and rebound quicker from pasture. It is possible that adverse environmental some pastures have different conditions such as drought, annual expenses than others, fire, or grazing. and different pastures also Cattle can almost always provide for more grazing be fed less expensively days than others. It is also when they are allowed to likely that some pastures harvest grazed pastures are more suited for certain rather than consuming

uses than others (such as growing weaned calves, calving pastures, etc.), and recognition of this concept is part of the art of effective pasture management. Non-grazing uses of pastures Not everything about effective pasture management is directly related to grazing and animal nutrition. Some cattle managers have found out the hard way that the pasture that had all of its brush removed was a great hay pasture, but it had no cover for cows to hide in when they were calving, so the cows were not as content, or more problems with predators resulted. The pasture with no trees or brush may be great for forage production, but if there is no shade for cattle during the summer heat, its peak forage production may not be effectively utilized by grazing animals. Tall dormant grass in winter and early Spring is undesirable for its nutritional value, but may be a great place for newborn calves to bed down and get away from low wind chill values.

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When there are areas of the pasture that provide natural ways for cattle to cope with environmental stressors, the animals can self-regulate their activities, and there is lower chance to see losses in performance traits or health problems. Parting thoughts About 70% of the beef herds in the U.S. are springcalving, and this relates to forage growing season and forage production, but this concept alone guarantees nothing about production efficiency, or profitability. Effective cattle managers look at all the pieces of the management puzzle, and how all the pieces fit together to make the overall picture; each individual piece is not that useful as it stands alone. Grazing land managers are likely to become more important in the future as grazing lands are great “carbon-sinks,” meaning that grazing plants take in excess carbon that is the concern of many groups for climate change. continued on page 40


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agricultural uses (data from USDA-National Agricultural Our general public is a big Statistics Service Agricultural proponent of environmental Census). The loss of U.S. stewardship, and effective agricultural lands due to cattle pasture managers urbanization should be not only have the potential part of our national food to increase production security and sustainability efficiency and profitability conversations. There will be in their herds, but to also be a continual need for more participants in a great success effective and efficient use of story to non-agricultural our cattle grazing lands to audiences, including our keep beef prices affordable, beef consumers, regarding and because there are likely resource management. to be less of these lands We live in the current age available in our future. of “sustainability” and environmental concerns about rising sea levels and loss of coastal lands due to global warming. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), from 1996 to 2011, roughly Dr. Andy Herring 20 square miles of dry land Animal Science Department and wetland were converted Texas A&M University to open water along the U.S. Atlantic coast (information was part of EPA’s third Dr. Herring teaches beef cattle edition of Climate Change production courses. He is also Indicators in the United the author of the textbook States). During this same Beef Cattle Production time frame (1997 to 2012), Systems, published by CABI. there were 40.2 million acres (62,851 square miles) of U.S. land converted from agricultural use to noncontinued from page 39

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Succeeding with the Beef Quality Assurance Program By Emily Horton, Extra Dimension Marketing “The Beef Quality Assurance program helps keep the industry as a whole on the same page, from the cow-calf producers through stocker operators up to the feedlot,” said Chris Hargis, Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) certified Beefmaster breeder. Hargis is a fifthgeneration rancher and a third-generation Beefmaster breeder in Waurika, Oklahoma. “We’ve been here on the homeplace since the state land run in 1901,” Hargis said. “It’s a small family ranch; just me, my wife, and two young kids. We’re a performance driven operation; I want functionality and performance.” Back in the 1960s, Hargis’

dad and granddad were also looking for functionality to meet the performance needs of commercial buyers. “In 1966, Granddad went to Lasater’s bull sale and picked up his first Beefmaster,” Hargis said. “To this day our primary goal is raising bulls for the commercial producer that will put gain on their calves.” Hargis explained the BQA program is all about record keeping, consistency, and added value. “The states are coming together and it’s becoming the same program nationwide, especially in the larger cattle raising regions,” Hargis said. “If you want to really break it down, it brings uniformity to the ‘mom and pop’ producers, to the set of 10-15 head. Through BQA

they’ve all been through the same program, which is going to help those producers put several smaller sets together to sell a larger set at a premium. “It’s one thing to say I sold calves to this guy last year, but there is a lot of added value when you have the records on what they were given, what they’ve been treated with, what they can expect, and how they may need to move forward in the future. “When the cow-calf guy sells to the stocker operator and the stocker has the information to know what he’s getting into, that helps him save money in the long run. Which means he’s probably going to be willing to spend a little more money upfront because of the quality

and consistency he’s getting rather than a bunch of puttogether calves he doesn’t know anything about.” According to the Beef Quality Assurance website, Colorado State University recently conducted a study measuring the monetary value of having a BQA certification. The study determined BQA certified producers obtained a premium of $16.80 per head or an estimated $2.71/cwt on beef calves and feeder cattle marketed through video auctions. “Even at our local sale barn with eared-cattle, if you drop off a load of weaned calves that have been backgrounded for 30 days, had two rounds of shots, been wormed, etc., they’re continued on page 42


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continued from page 41 going to sell for a premium and that’s what BQA is teaching,” Hargis said. “If you’ll spend a little bit of extra time, your calves are going to bring more.” Going through the BQA certification program adds value to your operation, whether you’re a purebred producer or a commercial producer. The BQA certification program trains producers on what needs to be done, how it should be done, and why it should be done. “I really enjoyed going to the certification program with an instructor,” Hargis said. “They had live cattle going through a chute. They took them through and explained why they were doing each thing. They discussed a vaccination triangle and explained why it’s important to change out needles. I feel like you get more out of having a live instructor where you can interact with someone rather than just going through the online certification.” Hargis explained the certification program “wasn’t just a list of does and don’ts.” “They’re showing you why you should do things a certain way,” Hargis said. “Just seeing the look on people’s faces when they see the explanation and learn why things are done was great. Reading through the

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information may not do it, but actually seeing things done, you’ll realize why it’s important.” According to their website, BQA programs are active in almost every state in the U.S. and certification is free. BQA courses focus on educating and training producers, farm advisors, and veterinarians on “good management practices that are standard operating procedures designed to meet the United States food production system’s needs.” State BQA programs are voluntary, locally led, and administered through organizations such as state beef councils, Land Grant Universities and state cattle associations. BQA certification is also offered online free of charge. To learn more about Beef Quality Assurance or to become a BQA certified producer, visit www.bqa.org.

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Signs of the Season - Calving Season Countdown By Victoria G. Myers, Progressive Farmer As calving season nears, most producers have a list they carry in their heads of those items they need to have on hand. Common things like colostrum, plastic sleeves, calf-feeding bottles and calf pullers are always top of mind. What about forages? That’s what veterinarian Mary Ellen Hicks says she’s thinking about. It’s an unexpected answer from an animal-science professor. But, it’s a key element Hicks considers in her role working with students and the beef unit at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College (ABAC), in Tifton, Georgia. Hicks’ husband, Doug, is ABAC beef unit manager. Together, they watch over the herd that provides hands-on education for animal-science courses. As a professor, Hicks says

there aren’t many questions she hasn’t heard when it comes to calving. “Every cow can be a little different, and they can fool you,” she says. “We teach students that first they have to know what is normal behavior for that animal, and then you start looking at the parameters that help you know she is close to calving. You won’t know what’s abnormal till you know what’s normal. That’s important.” PLAN FOR FORAGES Because feed is the No. 1 expense in most cow/calf operations, Hicks says improvements in grazing efficiency won’t only save money but will lead to improved overall animal health. “We work to align calving season to take advantage of high-quality forages here at ABAC,” he says. “If you take

care of that, you’re not worrying about bringing feed to the cows.” Fitting a cow herd to the environment is a little bit like putting together a puzzle. Hicks says the picture is different for every operation. Fall calvers, for example, may have some advantages if they are in fescue-growing regions and can take advantage of good fall forages. Hicks says in their area, spring calving fits the environment better. “We can’t grow fescue well here. By the fall season, we don’t have the quality we need in forages. Our bahiagrass is playing out. The bermudagrass is going dormant. If you want to have a fall-calving herd here, you have to plan to bring in feed for those cows and watch your stocking density. “Rather than do that, we

take advantage of winter covers like wheat, rye, ryegrass or clovers,” she says. “The key is what can you produce, and when can you produce it? That’s the first thing you should really be considering when you are trying to make your calving operation more efficient.” CONTROL THE SEASON A controlled breeding season equals a controlled calving season. For some producers, controlled breeding means 60 days, for others, 90. There is no magic number. “If you think about how calves will market once you wean them, it makes it easier. If you can sell a half or a whole load of calves, and they are all within 25 pounds of each other, that is a market advantage,” she notes. continued on page 44


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continued from page 43 “The shorter the season, the more strenuous it is, and you have to run a tight ship on management. I tell producers to rely on their marketing plan, forage availability and time resources when

planning for a controlled calving season.” She also believes the cows a producer chooses have to fit their plans and the environment. “If you have a cow that doesn’t play on your team, you have to be willing to let her go. She may be a really

T5

good fit to play on someone else’s team. She just isn’t working for you.” THE 30-DAY PLAN About a month before calving should begin, Hicks says it’s time to get ready. Calves can start dropping two weeks earlier than the

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calendar says they should if a calving-ease or low-birthweight bull is used as a sire. At this point, she says make sure calving supplies are on hand and clean. Look at body condition on the cows. Assess forages and nutrition. continued on page 45

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continued from page 44 Consider whether you need to move some cows or heifers closer to the house where you can watch them. Get mentally prepared to look for signs of calving. “A lot of this is pretty basic,” she says. “Things like ‘Do I have my emergency phone numbers available?’ If I plan to give some vaccines, maybe some scours vaccines if there have been issues in the past, do I have those covered? It’s basic. It’s about being ready.” PHYSICAL SIGNS Hicks says she and her students have some very specific parameters they watch to help them know when a cow is close to birth. She stresses these are indicators, not guarantees. “Look at the udders, the vulva and the cow’s behavior. There are a lot of resources on this, but nothing is a guarantee. Some believe once she loses her cervical plug, the cow is going to start calving. I’ve seen that happen a week out. If you watch your cows

as they get close to calving, they will teach you what you need to know. Everyone can be different, and they will fool you. Different breeds will look different as they get close to calving.” Once the cow is in labor, Hicks says to keep in mind that every 20 to 30 minutes, some progress should show. If that’s not the case, call your herd veterinarian. NEWBORN BEHAVIOR The clock is also an important tool after a calf is born. Hicks says once that baby is on the ground, make sure the placenta is off its nose. If it’s not, you have to gently remove it. Within 15 to 30 minutes, that calf should start to attempt standing. It’s OK if he’s wobbly as long as he’s up. Within an hour, he should be nursing. “I tell my students it’s so important at this point to be patient. Just hang on. We don’t want to jump in there and run the mama off. Note whether the cow is paying attention to her calf, and if that calf is getting up. We try

to get a visual identification tag on the calf and weigh it. The tags identify if it’s a bull (left ear) or heifer (right ear). We record who the dam is, weight and sex of the calf. We also like to record color and markings. “It’s important to add, just because you go to the pasture with the intent of putting in IDs doesn’t mean that’s going to happen. Be patient and read the animal’s behavior. If you go out and the situation doesn’t present itself, you have to go back and do it later.” POST-CALVING It’s easy for a cow to lose body condition after calving, which can make rebreeding challenging. This is where it becomes critical to match the cow’s efficiency to available forages. “We have a group here of about 30 pairs, and the most acreage they have is in the neighborhood of 16 to 17 acres. We don’t bring a lot of feed to them. Their efficiency matches the forage that’s here. We’re looking at body

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condition scores on them of 7, and some will be 1,400 pounds.” Hicks says they move cows into groups where those that are more high maintenance will get more attention, and their body condition can be closely monitored. “If I put the wrong type of cow in the wrong environment, she starts to lose body condition. She just doesn’t fit. That will work against your goals, so it’s something to be aware of,” says Hicks, adding that at ABAC, they forage-test everything. “If we harvest forage, we test it. We want to match it to the needs of the right group of cows. They are all at different nutritional levels. You need the information to make the best decision. You need to know the cows. You have to be patient and take the time to learn. Put your puzzle pieces together the right way, and it all just fits.” Myers is a senior editor for Progressive Farmer. Reprinted with permission.


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2019 - 2020 Beefmaster Sale Calendar September 14, 2019 - Arkansas BBA Fall Classic Graded Sale, Damascus, AR September 21, 2019 - J & T Farms & San Gabriel Beefmasters Production Sale, Rockdale, TX September 27, 2019 - Beef on Forage - Florida Bull Sale, Arcadia, FL September 28, 2019 - Flint Hills Classic, Paxico, KS September 28, 2019 - Live Oak BBA “Perfect Pair” Futurity and Sale, Three Rivers, TX October 05, 2019 - Isa Beefmasters 58th Performance Tested Bull Sale, San Angelo, TX October 05, 2019 - The Beefmaster Network Performance Sale IV, Raymond, MS October 11-12, 2019 - South Texas BBA Buccaneer Classic, Robstown, TX October 12, 2019 - OHOA Fall Roundup Sale, Locust Grove, OK October 19, 2019 - Beef on Forage Beefmaster Bull Sale, Brenham, TX October 19, 2019 - Carr & Others Fall Sale, Floresville, TX October 26, 2019 - President’s Council Sale, San Antonio, TX November 01, 2019 - Maternal Compass Beefmaster Commercial Female Sale, McAlester, OK November 02, 2019 - Louisiana Beefmaster Cowboy Classic, Lake Charles, LA November 02, 2019 - Red River Beefmaster Bull Sale, Bonham, TX November 09, 2019 - Purple Premium Sale, Nacogdoches, TX November 16, 2019 - Collier Farms Beefmasters Performance Bull Sale, Brenham, TX November 23, 2019 - Cain Cattle Co. Production Sale, Wiggins, MS December 07, 2019 - Lone Star BBA Fall Sale, Sulphur Springs, TX January 11, 2020 - Live Oak Bull Sale, Three Rivers, TX February 08, 2020 - San Antonio Livestock Show & Rodeo Beefmaster SUBASTA, San Antonio, TX February 22, 2020 - Second Beefmaster Border Classic, Edcouch, TX March 21, 2020 - Beef on Forage - Texoma Bull & Female Sale, McAlester, OK March 21, 2020 - Live Oak Spring Sale, Three Rivers, TX March 28, 2020 - Emmons Ranch Annual Bull Sale, Groesbeck, TX April 04, 2020 - Collier Farms Advantage Sale, Giddings, TX April 04, 2020 - Louisiana Beefmaster Rose Capital Classic, Shreveport, LA May 09, 2020 - Miss Mid-America Futurity & Central States BBA Sale, Locust Grove, OK May 16, 2020 - Swinging B Production Sale at Tenroc Ranch, Salado, TX June 06, 2020 - Emmons Ranch Production Sale, Fairfield, TX June 13, 2020 - Wallen Prairie Ranch Power & Performance Production Sale, Lockwood, MO June 27, 2020 - Clark Jones & Cottage Farms Southern Tradition XX Production Sale, Savannah, TN September 05, 2020 - Third Beefmaster Breeders Harvest Production Sale, Location TBA September 12, 2020 - Arkansas BBA Fall Classic Graded Sale, Damascus, AR September 19, 2020 - J & T Farms & San Gabriel Beefmasters Production Sale, Rockdale, TX September 25, 2020 - Beef on Forage - Florida Bull Sale, Arcadia, FL September 26, 2020 - 3rd Annual Flint Hills Classic Bull Sale, Paxico, KS September 26, 2020 - Live Oak BBA “Perfect Pair” Futurity and Sale, Three Rivers, TX October 03, 2020 - Lyssy’s Heart of the Herd Production Sale, Luling, TX October 03, 2020 - Isa Beefmasters 59th Performance Test and Sale, San Angelo, TX October 17, 2020 - Beef on Forage Bull Sale, Brenham, TX November 06, 2020 - Beefmaster E6 Commercial Female Sale, McAlester, OK *sale catalogs posted online a few weeks before sale date at www.beefmasters.org/purebred/calendar.php*


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Advertisers’ Index Breeder Advertisers Alabama Arrow T Beefmasters...............................................................................15 D&D Beefmasters.....................................................................................15 Arkansas Lairmore Beefmasters...............................................................................10 Heritage Cattle Company.........................................................................40 Hood Beefmasters......................................................................................5 California Walking M Cattle Co...............................................................................18 Florida Beef on Forage Beefmaster Bull Sale ........................................................3 Frenzel & Meacham, LLC.........................................................................22 Idaho Johnson Beefmasters................................................................................19 Kansas Flint Hills Classic Sale ..............................................................Back Cover Hurla Cattle Co.........................................................................................21 Kentucky Channarock Farm.....................................................................................29 Ella Mae Farms..........................................................................................19 Louisiana I-O-C Beefmasters & McKenzie Beefmasters........................................36 Louisiana BBA Cowboy Classic Sale.......................................................17 Missouri Berachiah Beefmasters.............................................................................19 Cedar Springs Beefmasters......................................................................44 Headings Beefmasters..............................................................................27 Mountain View Ranch..............................................................................40 Wannabe Beefmaster Farm........................................................................9 Wallen Prairie Ranch..................................................................................5 Vaughn Family Farms...............................................................................25 Mississippi Brock Clay Farms........................................................................................2 Cain Cattle Co...........................................................................................24 North Carolina Adam Taylor Farms..................................................................................27

Oklahoma Dance Creek Beefmasters.........................................................................19 Frenzel & Meacham, LLC.........................................................................22 Hargis Ranch.............................................................................................40 Hood Beefmasters.......................................................................................7 Kreger Ranch.............................................................................................35 Maternal Compass Commercial Female Sale.........................................8 Oklahoma Beefmasters............................................................................27 Ozark & Heart of America Fall Roundup Sale.......................................38 Simon Creek Beefmasters..........................................................................4 Vaughn Family Farms...............................................................................25 Tennessee TA Beefmasters.........................................................................................40 Jones Beefmasters.....................................................................................43 Texas 3B Beefmasters..........................................................................................36 AllStar Beefmasters..................................................................................34 Arrowhead Ranch.....................................................................................33 Bar G Ranch..............................................................................................45 Beef on Forage Beefmaster Bull Sale ........................................................3 Blau Beefmasters.......................................................................................42 Buckner Polled Beefmasters....................................................................33 Buena Suerte Ranch..................................................................................19 Collier Farms....................................................................................12 & 13 Colvin Beefmasters...................................................................................11 Flying B Ranches......................................................................................31 Frenzel & Meacham, LLC.........................................................................22 Gattis Cattle Co.........................................................................................26 Golden Meadows Ranch...........................................................................16 Isa Cattle Co. Beefmasters.......................................................................15 Radwanski Beefmasters...........................................................................18 Red River Beefmaster Performance Group ............................................14 San Pedro Ranch.......................................................................................32 SFA Purple Premium Sale.......................................................................30 Swinging B Ranch.......................................................................................6 T5 Ranch....................................................................................................44 Wittenburg Beefmasters...........................................................................41

Industry Advertisers Ag-Pro........................................................................................................37 Bush Hog....................................................................................................33 Elgin Breeding Service.............................................................................28 John Deere.................................................................................................20 NextGen Trading......................................................................................40 NCBA Cattle Industry Convention........................................................39 Ragland Mills.............................................................................................23 Service Line, Inc. Cattle Feeders...............................................................4


Profile for Beefmaster Breeders United

The Beefmaster Pay Weight - Fall 2019  

A publication dedicated to serving commercial cattlemen and produced by Beefmaster Breeders United.

The Beefmaster Pay Weight - Fall 2019  

A publication dedicated to serving commercial cattlemen and produced by Beefmaster Breeders United.