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Erasmus+ - KA 1 Oslo, 27/08 – 31/08/2018 How an effective classroom management can lead to students´ academic performances increase, to early school leaving decrease and to a positive learning environment

Oslo received the participants of the course in bright sunshine and with pleasant temperatures. Teachers from Germany, France, Greece, Croatia, Romania, Spain and Cyprus, who teach different subjects in primary, lower secondary, upper secondary and vocational education at different levels of education, had arrived. The motivation to participate in this course was common for all of us: a heterogeneous, multi- cultural student population, in addition to their sometimes difficult living conditions, make teaching a challenge - time to focus intensely on how we can succeed, through well-designed class management to help our students to feel well looked after in our schools and to have a successful school career. The report presents the learning contents of the course. The course and the results of our discussions are not recorded, questions are not answered, no pros or cons to a thesis stated, recipes are or solutions are not offered. The course topics presented here are intended to provide food for thought, to stimulate reflection on our own behavior in our teaching role and to encourage further discussions. Course Provider: Eruditus, Zürich ........................................................................................................................................................ Interested in a definition?

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Brainstorming, classroom management -why? General components of effective classroom management Classroom Management: How does the teacher organize the students' learning? Teaching and learning self-control Mindfulness - "Whititness" - Emotional Objectivity Classroom Management Techniques: Effective or Ineffective?


The three variables of classroom management Variable A: The classroom How do we perceive our class?


4 5 6

7 8

Variable B: The teachers - the teacher personality Building a good teacher-student relationship Techniques: speaking, listening, eye contact Keep student activity at a high level Suggestions: Learning with fun Discussion topics

9 10 11 12 13 14

Variable C The students Aspects and factors to consider Suggestions / acquaintance Promoting group work

15 16 17


Rules and procedures - basic components and categories Examples: Basic rules and conversation behavior Disturbing behavior - and how to respond Keep calm What would be a good reaction? Challenges

18 19 20 21 22 23


Authority and Power Authority and power in the classroom

25 26


Teaching styles and distinctive features Disturbing behavior and possible causes Why do some students have a problem with authority? What role do the parents play?

27 28


Discipline - preventing and solving problems - models and theories Canter Glasser - Konnin - Skinner Dreikurs - Jones




33 ff.


Brainstorming: What is Classroom Management?        

Of course: school and class related organizing Getting to know the students, ("icebreaker" - classic: Find someone who ..., What have we got in common: three of us, two of us, what is special for one, also: sociogram) Create a positive atmosphere, convey mutual appreciation, build mutual respect and trust, Quite apart from school rules: behavior e.g. Clarify binding by teacher-student contracts Encourage students to achieve their own goals and educational goals, not just through peer review, but also to help students become self-reliant by promoting self-observation and self-assessment Stay in close contact with the other teachers Establish contact with parents and guardians Open the school to the outside - seek / keep contact with the community

Classroom management -why? Aims:   

Make the classroom a safe learning environment To encourage students To strengthen and increase interest, motivation, academic achievement, self-esteem, selfconfidence of the students

General components of effective classroom management refer to    

Rules and procedures Disciplinary interventions Teacher-student relationships Attitude and engagement R. Marzano, J. Marzano, D. Pickering, Classroom management that works

4 Classroom Management: How does the teacher organize student learning?

  

By organizing and controlling what happens in the classroom? or Is it the way the teacher consciously decides not to organize and control? or Is it the way in which the control is delegated or given to the learners?

Classroom management includes a number of tools to achieve positive teacher-student and student-student relationships. Objective: To ensure the cognitive, emotional and social development of the disciples through discipline, where discipline is self-control. School does not punish, school supports and encourages students on their way to self-responsibility. Discipline = "self-control" teach ≠ punish Classroom management means not only maintaining order / discipline in the classroom, but also structuring the learning process. Teaching includes e.g. to  give instructions  secure the students' attention  structure the time management  monitor and accompany the learning process  give feedback  encourage students  make the best possible use of resources

Teaching and learning self-control in order to ensure a successful learning process, basic rules, e.g. Be punctual in class Have all your material Listen, when someone else speaks Be respectful to others Leave the classroom clean (...) But there are some duties for students as well: the willingness to learn active participation in classroom activities and interaction the willingness to cooperate to take over responsibility the willingness to make an effort to organize oneself self-control and self-regulation


In order to make it easier for the students, we need to know the different, individual learning requirements and preconditions of our students, have to consider their types of learners, be open to emotional or social sensitivities and circumstances as well as to understand individual stressful situations. General components of effective classroom management do not only include to uphold and implement rules and procedures, but also to make teacher-student relationships positive and mindful. "Mindfulness" means: o a fine sense and awareness of the current, unforeseen situation o a conscious control over our thoughts and behavior in relation to a given situation o to have "eyes in the back" The goal is always to make the classroom a learning environment in which students can feel confident and safe, are encouraged and learn free of fear, interest and motivation arise, selfesteem and self-confidence are strengthened to succeed in school. Stay involved - Withitness Kounin: "The disposition of the teacher to quickly and accurately identify problem behavior or potential problem behavior and act on it immediately." Brophy: Remaining "with it": by continuously scanning the classroom, even when working with small groups or individuals; by intervening promptly and accurately when inappropriate behavior threatens become disruptive. This is a learnable skill. Emotional Objectivity allows the teacher to handle disciplinary questions in a fact-oriented way. When teachers are emotionally non-objective, they run the risk of undermining their entire classroom management system. Not being emotionally objective can lead to two contradictory extreme overreactions: ďƒ˜ an idealizing view of students as wonderful people whose presence alone makes them happy or ďƒ˜ Students are perceived as hostile

The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires. William Arthur Ward

6 Classroom Management Techniques: Effective or Ineffective? o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

lesson planning in detail lessons begin with the words "open your books on page ___". be serious most of the time have a positive, friendly relationship with the students see and use textbooks as resources and teaching aids bring a positive charisma and smile use many worksheets rely heavily on textbooks raise the tone of your voice in anger and frustration enable practical learning activities appear calm and professional at all times added "surprise" elements that students did not know to tests expose students to the class allow many structured discussions of students during the learning process to solve tasks, to let students work together often reuse the same lesson plans from year to year test and verify in the same way as it was taught if necessary, engage in power struggles with students see teaching as a duty deal with misconduct of students in a discrete manner promote critical thinking to increase engagement and increase learning outcomes constantly trying to learn new and better teaching methods set teaching content in relation to the students' reality of life. accept change as a necessary part of growth often express disapproval believe in each student and express that inform the parents about the progress of the students focus on the students' strengths make it clear that you like to teach complain a lot work with colleagues to improve effectiveness try everything to help a student succeed believe in the students' abilities and encourage them over and over again refuse to give up a student Possible? Certainly teaching and learning conditions play a role.


The three variables of classroom management A) the classroom B) the teachers C) the learners Variable A: the classroom Possible problems 1. predetermined facilities/furniture 2. chaos or disturbing behavior 3. Limited space and time when changing a seating order (e.g., at group work)

How to deal with them? 1. No influence: on the type of tables and chairs, arrangement of blackboard, shelves, cupboards in mostly (too) small classrooms, only few possibilities on the arrangement (preferred by the participants: the U-shape) 2. Chaos or disturbing behavior: Exercise behavior: lift chairs / tables and do not push Volunteers take over this task or assign students Do it yourself, e.g. before the lesson starts - if it fits In noisy schools: quiet rooms exercise body language and signals as methods to provide peace 3. Limited space and time effort Keep arranging effort low Use the entire area of the classroom (including the front, where most of the teacher is staying) Only strategically position of the chairs (table corners, corners)

Organizing random sitting - when the teacher decides on the composition of groups: o e.g. order of birthdays, alphabetical order of their first name / first name, hair length, size, shoe size,‌ o Ask students to sit with someone they have not worked with in the last few weeks.

And the teacher: o Standing or sitting? o Is there a link between the teacher's location in the classroom and the student's behavior? O Does the position of the teacher influence one's own sense of authority or even one's own feelings of power? o Which position in the classroom do I prefer in which phase of the lesson?


Our teacher moves around the room; all over the place she goes. Where will she be headed next? No one really knows. She's here, she's there, she's everywhere, she's walking around. If you close your eyes, you can not guess where next. She's helping me, she's helping you, she's monitoring everything we do, She's over here, she's over there. Our teacher is always everywhere! T. Whitaker, A. Breaux, The 10-minute service Be present in the classroom individual / partner / group work: The teacher notices that a student is not working on a task. He does not stare at him, he does not warn him, and he makes no attempt to embarrass the pupil. As he walks through class, he happens to end up next to that student. Design of the classroom: Decoration provides for an individual atmosphere, through the visualization and exhibition of student work the appreciation of the work becomes clear and the learning from each other helps. Time for reflection:

How do we perceive our class? Please select: o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

a sports hall (for mental training) a garden a reform school a living room a laboratory an exercise machine an operating room a variety show a zoo a prison a multimedia resource center a stage a consulting service a complaints office a factory a (self-service) restaurant

9 Variable 2: The teachers Teachers are responsible for o o o o o o

Providing resources and materials that go beyond the textbooks Effective time management classroom design Teaching and learning strategies The behavior of the students, their safety and well-being, interactions with others, their learning progress Relations in and outside the school (including parents, non-teaching staff, other institutions cf. E.C. Wragg, Class Management in the Primary School

The teacher personality Carl Rogers The teacher can be a real person in relationship with her students. Thus, she is a person to her students, not a faceless embodiment of a sterile tube through which knowledge is from one generation to the next. It is quite customary for teachers to be conscious of the fact that they are in the classroom. " Sue Cowley "Remembering how you feel inside it does not matter ... Your aim is to develop an air of confidence, self-control and a mastery of everything that happens in your classroom. A stage on which to perform ... An audience watching your every move ... A character to step into ... When you're on that stage, "being" the teacher, you're not playing yourself. "

Dave Burgess - "Teach like a pirate"

Can - should - do we have to be actors? Suggestions this video delivers: Movement, fine arts and music, dance and drama, a craft activity, the hobbies and interests of the students can be integrated into the lessons. We should show students why learning a particular content in the real world is important and provides them with choices for autonomy. We can try to find current events / aspects of contemporary pop culture that are related to lesson content and even transform the classroom accordingly. Tension can be built up by bringing a mysterious box / bag whose content is related to the lesson content.

10 Building a good teacher-student relationship o I am friendly, encouraging, open and open-minded o I perceive every learner as an individual o I think of positive experiences with your students o I show empathy o I do not pretend happiness, pleasure or interest o I am culturally sensitive o I avoid sarcasm o I use my intuition and ask myself: what is best in a particular situation o I consider the moment: which task / activity at which time: (early or late lesson, Monday or Friday, before or after class work, after PE, ...)

There is no recipe, I plan, but I do not over-plan: I remain flexible, use my human and pedagogical intuition and always ask myself: what is the best and appropriate in the situation?

Five steps to authenticity o o o o o

I do not define myself exclusively as a teacher I do not pretend to be omniscient I have authority, but I am not authoritarian I have real conversations during which my students feel my interest I remain true to my personality - I remain human

Time for reflection: dealing with personal doubts o o o

Is it okay to be worried about admitting our own limits to the students? Should we be completely honest in situations where we are heavily burdened or disappointed by certain students? Can we really show that we are tired or depressed or ill or just have a bad day?

11 Techniques: speaking, listening, eye contact a) Speech: vary the volume and find the right tone of the pitch Time for reflection: o o o

Am I loud or quiet? What are the moments in class when I feel I am speaking (too) loud? Do I mostly use the same pitch?

b) Forms of listening o Analytical listening - focuses on the language (how the students convey the message) o Supportive listening - focuses attention on the person and on the message; shows empathy; judgment prevention o Conversational listening - includes half-listening and is not appropriate in the classroom A list of bad listening habits could include: o to dominate the conversation o Avoid eye contact, look around or out the window o interruptions o scribble or play with objects o appear emotionless (facial expressions) o ridicule the speaker's ideas Active listening: FOCUS - a technique for active listening F = Face the speaker O = Organize C = Connect U = Use questions S = See pictures Active listening as part of learning nonverbal communication - Indicators of teachers' inner involvement: Eye contact, gestures, facial expressions, movement, expression and way of speech, energy

You have two ears and one mouth. You need to listen twice as much as you speak.

c) Eye contact: relaxed, friendly, not intimidating or threatening o Attract attention from students in different parts of the room o Use eye contact to give instructions. o Eye contact should be avoided during an activity that does not require the teacher's control. When students hold presentations in front of the class, do not keep constant eye contact.


How do teachers manage to keep student activity high during the lesson? o They plan their lessons and are prepared. o Overplan -The planning is so extensive that a reserve / alternative exists. o They are planning activating tasks that are as short as possible (knowing that it is difficult to sustain a student's attention over a longer period of time). O You plan differentiated tasks for low-performing and high-performance learners. o They offer support for students with learning difficulties. Time for reflection o o o o o o o o o o

Is it easy for me to make eye contact with the students? Do I often use gestures? Which most often? Are my instructions clear? What kind of attention and support do I give to certain students? Am I talking a lot? Do I have any verbal or gestural behaviors, such as saying "OK" often? Do the students understand how I rate their work? How efficiently is the space organized / used? What do students do if I do not observe them in group work? How does it feel to be in a room with me as a teacher?

Teachers should or must o o o o o o o o o o

possess in-depth knowledge of the subject taught by them be well prepared be able to admit mistakes or knowledge gaps be reliable be willing to meet young people and take their interests seriously show understanding of problems, be approachable and trying to figure out the reasons take god care of the quiet, reserved students earn the trust of their students talk, talk, talk with their students accept apologies and forgive.

Problems are either solved - or they stay.

13 Suggestions: Learning with fun What is more interesting? Is it task that asks students to underline the nouns in given sentences or a task which demands from students to speak without nouns? o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Compare characters from stories or historical figures with people who know the students insert short video clips into the lesson Role play activities Turn content into songs or allow students to create their own songs related to the lesson content. Writing stories or developing games reading to students Go on online excursions or virtual vacations and then report on it Carry out excursions on the school grounds Send students to the treasure hunt in the classroom for clues to solve problems Use educational games Competitions where students create their own educational games A llow the students to teach each other Team competitions Have videos created Perform experiments Interviews and expert interviews Invite guest speakers Integrate technology / Web2.0 communicate online with students in other states or countries

Short Summary o o o o o o o o o o o o

Find a way to secure the students' attention Define clear rules and procedures Pay attention to compliance Provide assistance for specific students Keep calm Learn to ignore more Involve students every lesson Teach with pleasure Be in the classroom everywhere Establish links between learning content and real life Enable learning with fun Meet students positively


Is it like this? Topics of our discussion: o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Teachers who are mostly standing in front of the class in the classroom are seen by students as unsafe. Discipline in the classroom also depends on the subject: practical subjects versus theoretical subjects, classroom teaching versus outdoor learning. Homework is often not done with the desired care or not at all. Effects of homework is over-estimated, often by parents. Students behave differently with different teachers. Teachers are reluctant to ask and / or accept colleagues for advice. Dictations and correct spelling are now considered unimportant (curricula). Curricular standards prevent flexibility. The Finnish school system is considered exemplary and very successful, in our countries far too little is adopted. Payment in many countries does not match the importance of the teaching profession. The relationship between parents and teachers is immensely important and does not work without trust in us. Private tuition is a matter of course in some countries. A trusting student-teacher relationship only arises if we take a lot of time for talking in private. Students are not exposed or ashamed. In many countries, colleagues complain about a growing proportion of students who challenge their behavior. Talented students are often neglected. Differentiation: Workload in preparation and large classes make this seem rather unrealistic in practice. We have too many things to do that go far beyond our teaching and take too much time. For today's students, we need more social workers / educators and school psychologists.

A smile can be contagious for even the most disaffected student. A teacher who smiles at every student every day is saying, “I’m happy you’re here, I’m happy to be teaching you, and this is a safe, pleasant environment.” These kinds of environments promote optimal learning and improved behavior.

Todd Whitaker, Annette Breaux, The TenMinute Inservice: 40 Quick Training Sessions that Build Teacher Effectiveness


Variable 3 - the learners

Coming together is a beginning; working together is success. (Edward Everett Hale) Yes, students test if a teacher o o o o

is able to control the class the class has a sense of humor shows understanding for them Can build a communication based on partnership

Aspects and factors to consider: o o o

Students personalities mixed-level classes Number of students in a class

Consideration of individual student personalities o o o

o o

General skills in school subjects Interest and motivation in some subjects and topics Adapt teaching methods to different learning styles, i.e. to take into account sensory preferences (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) and multiple intelligences (linguistic, logical / mathematical, spatial, physical-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic) Personal and social skills disabilities

Differentiation o o o

Offer different learning materials / contents considering different learning and working speed High-performing students get additional tasks, switch to other groups Slow learners get simplified tasks

And we are supposed to take everything into account and manage - the discussion made quite clear that, irrespective of age groups or school type, it is impossible to actually implement this in everyday school life. And yes, the number of students in a class has a very strong influence on the possibilities of differentiation, integration and inclusion in the classroom.

16 Important: o o o

Assertive body language (eye contact, keep moving Do not ignore disturbing behavior Accept differences and different learner types

Suggestions: ďƒ˜ When students say, "You know all about it anyway," I point out that's not the case. ďƒ˜ When a student asks a question and I do not know the answer, I simply say "I do not know". ďƒ˜ When students give up or find no ideas, I do not neglect them, instead asking questions that help them think ahead and follow the lesson.

You cannot motivate every student. Do you agree with this statement or are there arguments against this thesis?

Getting-to-know you Add to your personal list, if unknown: a) Anagrams Take a post-it and write an anagram with your name on it. When you're done, get to the flipchart / board and stick it on. When all the notes are pasted on, one of the students comes to the flipchart, chooses a random note and writes this anagram on the board / flipchart. The rest tries to guess whose name it is. If the name was guessed correctly, the participant whose name it was, comes out and chooses another note and so on. (more difficult: the anagram must consist of a meaningful word / meaningful words) b) Mnemonics Arranging chairs in 2 rows, The participants split into two groups and take their seats opposite. Everyone should have a partner. Each participant thinks of a word that best characterizes his personality (something true and memorable to himself). This word must begin with the same initial letter as the name. "I am Sara and I am athletic." The partners share their information, and then all the students move one place until everyone introduces him/herself and finally gathers all the information.

17 Promoting group work

Do not walk behind me, I might not lead. Do not walk in front of me, I might not follow. Just walk beside me and be my friend. o o o o o

Creating synergy effects (e.g. one-time dictation of a sentence, filling gaps in partner, small group work and with the whole class) Use humor to change the atmosphere Deviate from the plan if it requires a situation (see Intuition) Change speed / learning speed Get the students moving

Notes for teachers: o o o o o o o o o o

Respond appropriately Promote cooperation Open versus closed questions Give hints to solve a task Assist: ask for similar answers (until the right solution is found) Emphasize what was right Ask why a found solution is the right one Respect the decision of students not to answer Incorporate passive pupils more strongly: draw name lists, distribute objects - with each answer an object back into the box Addressing students in a formal way in other languages than English when they show disruptive behaviour

Passive students in particular are in need of support and encouragement, the cause of their passivity is often high personal demands, fear of mistakes, low self-esteem and fear of failure caused by strong criticism and pressure in families.

18 Rules and procedures - basic components of classroom management A rule regulates a grave offense. Example of a rule: We do not exercise violence. When a student breaks a rule, a consequence follows. A procedure is simply a way to do something the same way every time. Examples of procedures are how to leave the classroom, how to ask for permission to speak, how to get permission to speak, how to work in groups, what to do if you need a sharp pencil and how to hand in papers. Todd Whitaker, Annette Breaux, "The Ten-Minute Inservice"

Aspects that must be considered in the rules:     

Not more than five Negotiate with the students Formulate positive make visible in the classroom insist on compliance with the rules

The most content teachers have   

the least discipline problems the most pleasant behaviors in school the fewest rules, but insist on compliance

Categories - at secondary level : a) General behavior in the classroom:  how to take or leave the seat  materials  speaking and listening  respect and politeness  respect of the property of others b) Beginning and end of the lesson  presence / absence  address students,  who have missed the work of the previous day due to absence  who are late at the beginning of the lesson  finish the lesson with an homework announcement c) Transitions and interruptions  exit the room or return  alarm drills  break times d) Use of materials and equipment  distribute / collect / store materials


e) Group Work o movement in the group o roles and responsibilities in the group o the relationship of the group to the class o communicating the group with the teacher f) Lessons o attention of students during presentations o student participation o talk to each other o get help o leaving the place without permission o behavior after completing the work R. Marzano, J. Marzano, D. Pickering, Classroom management that works Examples Basic rules: o o o o o o

Be punctual Turn off your mobile phone. Use laptops / PC / mobile only for assigned tasks. Ask for permission if you want to leave the classroom. Ask if you did not understand something. Do not try to distract or annoy your classmates.

Conversational behavior: o o o o o o o o o o o o

Listen actively and attentively. Ask for clarification if you did not understand something Refrain from interrupting someone. Challenge, but be respectful. Practice criticism of ideas, not of people. Express an opinion, but justify it. Take responsibility for the quality of the discussion. Refer to the previous speakers in comments and work on one common understanding. Avoid monopolizing the discussion. Speak from your own experience without generalizing. If you are personally attacked during a discussion, mention it immediately. Consider everything that is said in the class as strictly confidential.

Cf. Brookfield & Preskill, 2005

20 Disruptive behaviour

The penalty for laughing in a courtroom is six months in jail; if it were not for this penalty, the jury would never hear the evidence. H.L Mencken

Misconduct - list shortened Playing with objects, making inappropriate sounds, not listening, inappropriate language, insulting, ignoring, arguing, asking inappropriate and insincere questions, passing notes, copying from classmates, cheating, not respecting others' property, taking materials that belong to someone else's, food or chewing gum, applying make-up, brushing hair, using headphones, sleeping or dreaming, denying performance, invading others' personal space, threatening others, behaviors or acts that suggest sexual harassment, telling lies ....

Misdirected goals (acording to Dreikurs): 1. Attention: the need to the need to get special attention 2. Power: the need to make other students do what a student wants, or show that they do not do what others want 3. Revenge: the need to hurt others as much as you feel hurt by others 4. Retreat: the need to be left alone

How to respond - teacher reactions      

Make eye contact with the student in question Approach Indicate by a physical signal (facial expressions / gestures) that a particular action is inappropriate. Address the student and ask them to stop disturbing behavior - ideally as private and subtle as possible If a student simply "deviates from the task" but does not misbehave, remind him/her of the desired appropriate behavior If a student does not respond to more subtle interventions, tell the student to stop the unwanted behavior.


Keep calm and do not lose control

Messages that you submit when you lose control: I lost control of my own emotions. I allowed you, a student, to control my feelings. Indeed: It is okay to lose control when you're really annoyed with someone. But You should be able to control your feelings and anger, you should not yell at a pupil, as a teacher you should have your gestures and facial expressions under control.

Pretending NOT to see sometimes can be a very successful strategy. " (Todd Whitaker, Annette Breaux - The Ten-Minute Inservice)

Advantages • This gives you, the teacher, the opportunity to calm down. • It guarantees that you do not pour oil into the fire and a conflict escalates further. • It allows you to think and decide what to do as you continue to teach in class. • It gives you the opportunity to manage the situation it. • It offers the possibility to talk individually with the pupil after class and thus to take the audience.

Our students are passive, aggressive, oppositional, hostile (behavioral disorder): There are many reasons for misconduct: the lack of connection between school and real life, fear of failure, failed relationships, no goals, disappointment and discouragement, lack of motivation and lack of appreciation.

Lack of social recognition? Let us transfer responsibility. Social isolation? Group work - as often as possible and with changing composition - helps to establish and intensify contacts.

We should not take misconduct personally; not always do things right, but do the right thing. Strategies from books do not always help; we must also use intuition and educational experience. Only when all participants know each other as well as possible, we as teachers have a chance of success. We do not stand a chance without parental support - no matter what techniques we use.


23 Challenges Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Already in 19998, the estimates ranged from 2 percent to 9.5 percent - that's one or two or three students per class (Barkley, 1998). Hyperactive children need help to focus and identify which behaviors are right and praiseworthy. Develop non-verbal signals with these students to remind them of desirable behavior, oral spoken memories can be embarrassing to their peers and more likely to expose them. These children need confirmation if they have done something right. A friendly nod, a short smile or an encouragement can help a lot.

The Media Generation: Characteristic behavior of our students

o have only a short attention span - often distracted o do not listen and interrupt o act impulsively and show a lack of foresight o are restless (movement, noises) o tend to conflict o have difficulty organizing time and personal space o show irritable, negative thinking o have difficulty expressing feelings or showing empathy o stand out due to lethargy, apathy, lack of motivation


The cause of the increase in this type of problem has been seen in excessive television consumption, video games and movies, affecting children from dysfunctional families.

Bullying - possible first reactions

o Identify the behavior: It's mean you make fun of me. You have to stop it. o Use humor: If someone insults you, say: You do not know me. Wait until you know me before deciding how to call me. o Agree with the comment: Yes, I agree. You could be right! o Just go away. o Use positive self-talk: I'm glad I do not feel the way he / she does it.

24 Depression

Preschoolers: Overactivity, low tolerance to frustration

School children: ostility or aggression for no apparent reason, refusal to school avoidance, power struggles, sleeping in class, diminishing benefits, little interest in playing with others

Youth: Refusal to participate in school events or work in a small group, restlessness, attempts to cheat , moodiness, difficulty coping with teachers or peers, extreme sensitivity to rejection or failure self-mutilation, antisocial or delinquent behavior,

Loner - having no friends o The child looks away and avoids eye contact o Other children interpret this as and snobbish and start to avoid this child o Instead of learning or attending classes, the child wonders why he/she has no friends o Lack of participation leads to school failure and often misconduct.

25 Authority and power Teachers take on many roles: expert, motivator, administrator, evaluator, educator, colleague, partner, presenter,‌. What do we practice - authority or power? Does this depend on the way we perceive our - immature students? What does immaturity mean? O Emptiness that needs to be filled o Indifference o A developmental stage of a person that we should overcome as soon as possible (When childhood is seen as compared to adulthood) o Abuse of authority and power all the way to tyranny o Power of growth John Dewey, Democracy and education

Authority is not a quality someone has in the sense of having possession or physical qualities. Authority refers to an interpersonal relationship in which one considers one superior to the other. Erich Fromm https: // Teachers have epistemic authority: the authority of the expert in terms of knowledge as well deontic authority: related to order, norms, rule, agreements This is complemented by the authority of the judge, especially in conflicts, effective in conjunction with trust. The authority of the role model and the leader has a lasting and predominantly emotional effect and involves the subjugation of the other. The authority of the king with claim to absoluteness means tyranny.

Wherever there is a man who exercises authority, there is a man who resists authority.� Oscar Wilde Dominance of the deontic authority causes the closing of communication channels with the students. DA should be used predominantly in conflict situations. An abuse of the DA is when only information and instructions are given to maintain the discipline, this reduces the time of instruction and learning is only perceived as a duty.

26 Authority and power in the classroom Authority: an impersonal system of rules and values Power: physical and psychological compulsion, brutality, taming / manipulative methods, personal influence and pressure Types of deontic authority:  authority through sanctions and punishment - based on obedience and fear, oppressed when the goals of teacher ("hunter") and student ("loot") differ  Authority through solidarity - based on acceptance, free when teachers and students pursue the same goals

Control in the classroom Authoritarian power pressure domination anxiety punish push through criticize too high / too loud voice dominate cause fear humiliate put too high demands put pressure on someone be tough/hard



self-assessment sharing responsibility independence openness friendly communication be friendly encourage help convince to be honest influence decide excite to lead take care

chaos frustration feeling lost disorientation overestimation permissiveness excessive demands too much freedom leading to chaos anarchy

A teacher starting out with a new class must insist that the students accept his or her „formal authority”. Teachers must convey that their authority is legitimate, that it exists to maximise learning; and they must show confidence in their ability to inforce their authority.” (David Hargreaves) The power of the teacher arises through:    

charisma understanding and influence knowledge and intellectual power energy resources


Teaching styles - Distinguishing features:

o o o o o o o o o o o

the kind of discipline the relationships and interactions between teacher and students teacher behavior the organization of the class type and scope of the teacher talk the proportion of student participation the types and use of resources the method of evaluating the organization of the curriculum the style of learning the atmosphere in the classroom Formal


strict discipline a high degree of social distance between students and teachers teacher-centered instruction individual work without talking focus on book work teacher acts as an expert evaluation by means of standardized tests

free discipline less social distance between teacher and students experimental and active learning with a variety of resources work in groups evaluation is diagnostic and offers help

Disruptive behavior and possible causes: Antipathy to the school, need for social recognition, social isolation, impulsive behavior, ignoring rules, conflicts between opposing regulatory systems, affective transmission, innate human aggression (?), fear, teacher's teaching style, disorganized families, peer group pressure, lack of interest in a particular subject / school, emotional instability, rebellion against adult authority, low self-esteem, lack of appreciation, drug abuse

28 Why do some students have a problem with authority - what role does the family play? Lack of availability - some children grow up in unenlightened environments and are neglected. Lack of Reliability - Parents who are constantly breaking their promises make it impossible for children to trust them. Lack of recognition - children want and need attention. When parents neglect the child, they do not feel well-accepted and do not develop self-esteem Excessive criticism - persistent and excessive criticism often leads to a child that annoys all adults. The child can also become over-sensitive to criticism and perceive utterances as criticism, even if this is not intended. Lack of respect - Parents who do not respect their children in many ways: make fun of their feelings, dismiss requests or wishes as unimportant, do not listen to them, find their children disturbing, and have an unfriendly tone Lack of limits - children learn what acceptable behavior is by testing the rules. If there are no clear rules or rules are not rigorously and fairly enforced, the child may disregard the authority of the parent. Some parents believe that they are good parents through excessive freedom of movement and generosity. The result is a child, even at school expecting that all adults are as lenient as their parents. Abuse of power - Parents unduly punish the misbehavior of their children. The result is a child who develops a deep fear and distrust of all adults. One cause of the fact that parents and teachers lose their authority could be the shift from traditional authority to modern (media) heroes and role models, who have special qualities, powers and abilities, whereas real people have weaknesses and come to their limits. (cited from a course paper)

How to deal with it? Our discussion topics: o o o o o o o o o

Cooperation with parents What if they do not cooperate? Child welfare - cooperation with other institutions Clinical diagnoses / parental consent The immense importance of elementary school Catchment areas of schools - social and family conditions Composition of the classes Teaching style Curricular requirements and educational freedom


Discipline - Preventing and solving problems - Models and theories: Marlene and Lee Canter: Positive behavior, taking responsibility, quietly but definitely replacing students inertia and hostile behavior with a firm, positive insistence of the teacher Assertive Discipline is a direct and positive approach to enable the teacher to teach trouble-free and the students to learn without being disturbed. Principles: 1. Teachers should insist on responsible behavior. 2. When teachers fail, this is usually due to poor class control. They cannot teach and the children are kept away from learning. 3. Many teachers believe that strict control is inhumane. Not correct. Firm control, mediated humanely, is liberating. 4. Teachers have basic rights as educators: o The right to maintain an optimal teaching attitude. o The right to expect appropriate behavior. o The right to expect help from the administration and parents when needed. 5. Students have basic rights as learners: o The right to teachers who help them. o The right to adequate support for appropriate behavior. o The right to vote if you know the consequences 6. These needs and conditions are subject to the best practices of the teacher and never violate the interests of the students. Assertive discipline consists of the following: o Bring in and teach expectations early. o Perseverance, expectations and wishes like "I need you to ..." and "I ...". Statements of this nature do not disturb the student's positive self-esteem, unlike, for example, "why do not you want to behave yourself?" o Use a clear, calm, steady voice and eye contact. o Use non-verbal gestures that support verbal statements. o Influencing student behavior without threats or shouts. o Method of "broken record": Repeat messages calmly every time when a student tries to argue instead of letting the situation escalate into a quarrel. 7. The assertive teacher is more effective than the unassailable or hostile teacher. It is hostility and "wischi-washi" behavior of the teacher that causes confusion and psychological trauma to students, not a calm, firm, consistent behavior in conjunction with assertiveness. The self-assured teacher can maintain a positive, caring, and productive climate in the classroom. Such a climate creates a positive learning climate.


William Glasser: Theory of Reality - practical, real, current topics, rules are important, behavior is followed by consequences Glasser's work in the field of school discipline has two main focuses. The first is to provide a classroom environment and curriculum that will motivate students and reduce conspicuous or disruptive behavior by meeting students' basic needs for affiliation, power, fun, and freedom. The second focus is to help students make appropriate behaviors that ultimately lead to personal success. The most important ideas of Glasser: 1. Students are rational beings. They can control their own behavior. They decide to behave the way they do. 2. Good decisions lead to good behavior. Bad decisions produce bad behavior. 3. Teachers must always try to help students make good choices. 4. Teachers who really care about their students do not accept excuses for misconduct. 5. Reasonable consequences should always follow students' behavior, whether it's good or bad. 6. Class rules are essential and must be enforced. 7. Class reunions are effective for class rules, behavior, and discipline.

Jakob S. Kounin: Wave effect, group management, lesson content in the focus     

Being there / omnipresence: the teacher indicates that he is aware of all the classroom processes. Overlap: the teacher realizes that he has no problems controlling different things at the same time. Togetherness: the teacher chooses a tempo that most students find appropriate. Fluidity: In the control of lesson sequences, the transition from one topic to another seems smooth and not erratic. Group activation: he teacher manages to mobilize the class for very specific tasks and to involve as many students as possible into the tasks.

based on B.F. Skinner: Behavior - consequence - reinforcement Design desired behavior. B. F. Skinner is the father of behavioral education in psychology, a development of behaviorism is gaining in popularity. • Behavior is conditioned by its consequences. A behavior is intensified if immediate recognition takes place. The behavior becomes weakened if it is not reinforced. ["Extinction"] • The behavior is also weakened when it comes to punishment.

31 • In the initial stages of learning, reinforcement is provided each time. • Frequent reinforcement produces the best results. •The behavior can be sustained by irregular reinforcement. • Reinforcement includes : verbal approval, smile, "thumbs up", good grades, free reading time, goodies, awards, …. cf.

Rudolf Dreikurs: logical consequences, education for self-discipline The model: confrontation with failed goals      

 

Discipline is not a punishment. It means self-control. The role of the teacher is to help students set boundaries for themselves. Teachers can model democratic behavior through guidance and leadership by by involving students in shaping rules and consequences. All students want to belong. Their behavior is based on belonging. Misconduct is the result of their mistaken belief that it will give them peer recognition. It is usually a mistake to assume that misconduct is an attack on the teacher. Wrong behavior is aimed at wrong goals, getting attention, gaining power, taking revenge and showing inadequacy. The trick is to identify the goal and act in a way that does not support false goals. Teachers should encourage students' efforts (...). Support the idea that negative consequences follow inadequately.


Frederic H. Jones: Motivation of learners, behavior in the classroom Process of positive discipline: 1) limit setting, 2) responsibility training, 3) omission training, 4) a backup system. These four systems must run in parallel if the entire discipline system is to work. Medium backup system: includes timeout, loss of permissions, parenting conferences and detention


Sanctions to Jones: 1) Time out in the classroom 2) Time out in the classroom of a colleague Time out 1 and 2: a) Clearly formulated rules and expectations b) Consequences described and presented in advance c) Choice of an appropriate time-out location Less acceptable: 3) Public warning 4) Threat 5) Be sent to the hall 6) Detention 7) Loss of privileges 8) Parents' Conference Bad practice: 9) Lowering the student's grade 10) Additional homework

Our task: Identify elements related to authority, power, styles, types of classroom control, reasons for disruptive behavior in the classroom, and ways to address those behaviors in selected scenes from the movie Dangerous Minds .

Successful teachers    

strive to promote the class community meet the students appreciatively, openly and honestly try to understand the students even if they cause difficulties, seek the conversation with the students and give them a certain amount of discretion.

The quality of personal relationships in the classroom is considered a relevant strategy for successful class management. Schönbächler, 2007


34 Annex 1 – Course Doc

High-need students


Passive fear of relationships fear of failure


Aggressive hostile oppositional covert



Hostile It is closely related to the clinical diagnosis of conduct disorder. Characteristics: poor anger control poor impulse control low capacity for empathy a heightened sense of entitlement inability to see the consequences of one’s actions low self-esteem propensity for thrill-seeking behavior and a propensity to align with deviant peer groups and criminal behavior. Oppositional It closely relates to the oppositional defiant classification. Characteristics: consistent resistance to following rules arguing with adults frequent use of harsh, angry language propensity to criticize, blame, and annoy others.


Covert Characterisitics: quite pleasant and even charming at times often around or nearby when trouble starts seem to operate at the periphery of disruptive behavior, engaging in activities that skirt the letter of the law avoid punishment.


Attention Problems hyperactive inattentive


Hyperactive corresponds to the diagnoses of ADHD, predominately hyperactive impulsive type. Characteristics: poor impulse control inability to stay seated or work quietly propensity to blurt out questions and answers trouble taking turns propensity to interrupt others tend to be more impulsive




Inattentive corresponds to the classification of ADHD, predominately inattentive type. Characteristics: failing to give close attention to details rarely appearing to listen having difficulty organizing tasks forgetfulness in daily activities being easily distracted by extraneous stimuli

Perfectionist It corresponds to the diagnosis of obsessive compulsive personality disorder. Characterisitics: - self-critical - have low selfesteem - have deep feelings of inferiority and vulnerability - consider that being perfect is the only way to gain love, respect, or attention - strongly believe that they are liked or loved for what they can do, not for who they are (when confronted with a situation in which they feel they can’t produce exceptional results, they may give up, or make up excuses why they can’t perform the task) - perfectionism can be self-destructive as characteristic behaviors and thinking patterns might lead to depression and even suicide.

Socially Inept - have difficulty in making and keeping friends - stand too close and touch others in annoying ways - talk too much - make “stupid” or embarrassing remarks - misread others’ comments, and, in general - don’t seem to fit in - often feel sad, confused, and different from others


Annex 2 Kurs-Dokument The ABCs of thought-catching PRACTICING THE ABCs Use these examples of = Adversity, = Belief, and = Consequences with your students to help them understand how to change their thinking and empower them with optimism. A. He bumped into me in the hall. B. He did it on purpose. He was trying to start a fight. C. I’ll show him. He’ll get that fight he’s looking for. (You’re angry.) OR B. I think he looks so preoccupied he didn’t even see me. C. I’ll just ignore it this time. (You feel OK)

A. She took my pencil. B. She thinks she can steal and get away with it. C. A tugging war begins as you grab it back. You feel angry. OR B. Maybe she mistook my pencil for hers. They do look alike. C. You tell her it’s OK if she needs to borrow your pencil. A. J. called me a slob. B. I’ll never do anything right. I know she doesn’t like me. C. You start crying and run away. (You feel sad.) OR B. I’m glad I have plenty of friends already. I wouldn’t want someone to be my friend who says cruel things. C. You feel OK. A. Your teacher picks M. to help her. B. I’m never picked to do anything fun. She likes M. better. C. You feel sad and depressed. OR B. I was picked last month. I guess it’s her turn. C. I feel OK.



Annex 3 Task for all participants/ small group work

Germany- France-Spain, Secondary 1, Planning an excursion to the Nobel Peace Centre Concept Info letter for parents one week beforehand – form at all our schools, to be signed and returned to the teacher (general info: date/time, costs, rules, especially for free time, insurance, ….) ……………………………………………………. Info for pupils: Rules 1. Be on time 2. Listen to your teacher´s announcements 3. Respect the rules at the museum. If you don´t , the whole class might have to leave. So: a. b. c. d. e.

Be quiet – speak low Do not run Switch your mobile phone to mute mode and use it only for taking pictures Food and drinks only in the cafeteria / outside Be prepared to leave big bags in the lockers.

Safety Rules 1. Always follow traffic rules (especially when crossing the street) 2. Don´t push when you enter or leave the bus 3. Stay in your groups 4. Just in case anything unexpected might happen: call your teacher and security staff

39 Securing students´attention 

When I stop walking and raise my hand, you gather around me and listen carefully. You will repeat in the big group as well as in your small groups to ensure everybody is well-informed. (Alternative for big groups: T, take a whistle with you) In your groups, you will share responsibility: o

Group Manager: will report to the teacher in case there are any problems (noise, e.g., lost stuff,..) o Time Master: will check the time and takes cares that everybody is punctual o Map Reader: checks map and directions, support from group members OK ( valid for outdoors) Your behavior and attention during the guided tour/ the visit will be evaluated and can have a positive impact on the final work result

Organising: Form groups of at least three up to five students (depending on the situation of the class, whether T lets pupils decide or decides him/herself)) Giving instructions: ( s.a Info letter for parents) 

Rules: clearly explained beforehand, students repeat, to be noted in the register)

Info about tasks: Should be embedded in the unit plan, revising former content, leading to a discussion about present conflicts/ migration e.g., - depending on lesson plans (maybe an example, but not too much, as they might google ;)

Learning Goals Pupils will  find out about Alfred Nobel and the history of the Nobel Peace Prize  learn about some representative winners and the reasons why they were given the prize  develop a deeper understanding as regards the importance of this prize  understand that this prize is crucial to promote human rights  discuss how to take action in their own school to prevent discrimination and racism Expected results Based on the results of your completed worksheet:  Prepare a presentation in class – either as a poster or a PPT. Present a Nobel Peace Prize Winner of your own choice. Your presentation must include:    

His/her name and a short bio, the country of origin, the year in which the prize was awarded and the historical- political context of this year the reason why he/she was give the prize the impact on past and present politics


Evaluation/Grading: Production poster/ppt: Presentation: Written assignment: Attitude/ work during our visit:

Content, creativity,… according to our presentation evaluation sheets Oral skills Short test on general topics Social skills

30% 40% 20% 10%

Good luck and have fun! ……………………………………………………………………………..

The Nobel Peace Prize 2017 was awarded to International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) "for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons."

Effective Classroom Management  

Erasmus+ KA 1 Course Report: How an effective classroom management can lead to students´academic performances increase, to early school leav...

Effective Classroom Management  

Erasmus+ KA 1 Course Report: How an effective classroom management can lead to students´academic performances increase, to early school leav...