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September September 2013 2013 — Issue — 2

To applythe or hay? What not to apply? Getting the most from your feed PAGE 14

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September 2013 — Issue 2 

The Land & Livestock Post


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September 2013 — Issue 2

what you should look for to ensure you get what you need for your herd. We also have a few stories about wildlife and some about cattle, and even one about food at the State Fair. So, it’s a pretty good mix. I hope you find something you like, Thanks for reading. ’Til next time.

nother summer has come and gone, and I still don’t have a tan. My heritage is mostly Irish, and we’re not exactly a tropical folk. But given my two options — pale or bright-red and burned — I’ll stick with my lillywhiteness. JESSE WRIGHT I spend plenty of time outdoors, and even go to the pool now and again, but without sunscreen the result is akin to a brisket in the microwave. But with summer pretty much over, I just have to wait a bit and I’ll fit in with everyone else as their bronze fades away. In our feature story we have some tips that can keep you from getting burned when it comes to buying hay. We look at the selection process and

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The Land & Livestock Post  September 2013 — Issue 2

News Buck Country Classic Wildlife Expo and Cattle Conference to be Sept. 21 Special to The Post

The Buck Country Classic Wildlife Expo and Cattle Conference will be held Sept. 21 from 5-8:30 p.m. at Franklin High School in Franklin. The event, sponsored by M&M Farm Supply, is free to the public and will offer vendor booths, door prizes and a light meal. There will be guest speakers as well as a cattle seminar. Special guests will be the

Priefert Boys from Backwoods Bloodline on he Sportsman’s Channel. The cattle seminar will run from 5-6 p.m., followed by the opening of the expo and a meal from 6-7:30 p.m. There will be the speakers and and the awards ceremony from 7:30-8:30 p.m. For more information, contact the sponsor, M&M Farm Supply at 979-828-3516 or go to www.backwoodsbloodline.com.

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To p a s s the c ur re nt course options, students must g et 70 percent correct if they take the traditional two-day course or 80 percent if they take the course online. Under the new system, the passing g rade for all options will be a minimum score of 75 percent. To take the free huntr safety education course online, go to www.hunter-ed. com/texas/. The certification is valid for life and is honored in all other states and provinces.

Special to The Post

AUSTIN — Texas dove hunters should see plenty of opportunity this fall as conditions are shaping up for an above averag e season, according to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Dove season kicked off Sept. 1 across most of the state. Te x a s d ove h u n t e r s number upwards of 250,000 and collectively bag between 5-6 million doves during the 70-day season. Thanks to new rules approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service this year, hunters can possess up to 45 birds — three times the daily bag limit. Previously, the possession limit was twice the daily bag. Daily bag limits still apply. “For the last two decades, whitewinged dove populations have

steadily expanded both their numbers and their geographical extent,” said Dave Morrison, small game program director with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. “We believe, and the service agrees, an expansion is appropriate to take advantage of additional hunting opportunities.” Dove season in the North and Central zones will run concurrent from Sept. 1-Oct. 23 and Dec. 20-Jan. 5. The South Zone dove season is set for Sept. 20-Oct. 27 and Dec. 20-Jan. 20, with the regular season in the SWWDA Sept. 20-Oct. 23 and Dec. 20-Jan. 20. According to Shaun Oldenburger, Texas Park’s Dove Program leader, “It appears that breeding dove numbers have increased from last year in many regions of the state,” he said. “Increased precipitation helped improve dove production and generate ample food supplies. It should be a good season.”

September 2013 — Issue 2

Starting this fall, new hunters who need to complete the state’s required hunter education will have expanded options designed to be more convenient, flexible and accessible. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Commission has approved additional options for hunter education certification, including a streamlined, one-day basic course reducing the mandatory hours of classroom instruction from 10 to a maximum of six hours and creating an option for anyone 17 or older to take the hunting safety training completely online. The new options should be available by late September. The combination online home study and four- to five-hour skills field day course still will be offered, as well as advanced hunter education available as part of high school and college courses. Anyone born after Sept. 1, 1971, must successfully complete a hunter education training course or purchase a one-time deferral good for one license year in order to hunt legally in Texas. Based on 16 pilot classes held earlier this summer to assess new options, the core curriculum of the streamlined course brings an

An above-average dove season

even sharper focus on the key reason behind the training requirement: improved hunter safety. Since mandatory hunter education first started in 1988, the number of hunting accidents and hunting fatalities has declined steadily to less than three per 100,000 hunters. The basic course will cover only essential skills of safe, legal and ethical hunting.

Special to The Post

The Land & Livestock Post

News Steamlined Texas hunter education process approved

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The Land & Livestock Post  September 2013 — Issue 2

News

Quail show increase in numbers after 2010 decline By John Davis Texas Tech University

The well-worn, topless Jeep pulls out of the carport by the horse barn and starts down a dirt trail flanked by sage and mesquite. As the wheels bounce over the sandy terrain of his 6,000-acre quail ranch in Stonewall County, Rick Snipes starts out seeking the familiar and iconic bird call. The ranch sits in an area known for some of the nation’s best quail hunting. Only 7:30 a.m., and already the air hangs heavy with heat on this bright June morning in West Texas — a harbinger of the strangling temperature to come. Weathermen have warned to prepare for 105 degrees on this day, and Snipes wonders how lucky the group will be at tracking its quarry. He pulls into a meadow and shuts off the engine. Sitting silent for a bit, the bird rings out and heads turn to detect its location. “Bob-white!” “That’s a beautiful sound,” Snipes says as he scans the ground. The call is close, and the brown-and-white bird appears from the grass close to the Jeep. Numbers have improved slowly this summer, both on his ranch and in other parts of the state. But they’re still nowhere near the anticipated bumper crop of 2010 that seemed to almost vanish prior to the opening day of hunting season. In June of that year, Snipes said so many quail called in the mornings that he couldn’t even tell how many were in the area. For the past 20 years, the former insurance executive cleaned up his over-grazed patch of Big

Country and sculpted it into the perfect quail habitat. It seemed all his hard work paid off, and he awaited an excellent hunting season by October. That never happened. By August, the silence was deafening. The bobwhite had evacuated Snipes’ feathered Eden. Stumped and concerned, he checked with other ranchers around him. They, too, had lost their birds. It made no sense, he said, because his carefully planned ranch had sustained so many bobwhites only a few months prior. Soon, hunters, landowners and state officials realized they had a population crisis on their hands. Throughout the Plains region of Texas, Western Oklahoma and even into Kansas, quail had flown the coop. Some estimated between 70 and 90 percent of bobwhites had disappeared. Not only did this mean bad news for the birds, but also rural areas that cash in during quail season would feel the negative economic impact. Quail hunters in Texas spent an average of $8,600 dollars in pursuit of quail in 2010, and half of that was spent in the destination county, according to a Texas A&M Agrilife Extension survey of quail hunters in Texas. The Rolling Plains Quail Research Ranch, of which Snipes was a founding member and is now the current president, responded to the crisis. The ranch’s foundation receives private donations from quail hunters and Park Cities Quail, a Dallas-based conservation organization. The organization originally was conceived to fund science that would help landowners bet-

Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service photo

Devastating fires in 2007 and a mysterious die-off in 2010 devastated the quail population in Texas. Researchers from Texas A&M University, Texas A&M-Kingsville and Texas Tech University are working with the Rolling Plains Quail Research Ranch to help quail populations recover. ter manage the quail on their property. Then, studies done in 2009 and 2010 at the research ranch found high levels of parasitic worms prior to and during the population decline. That prompted the ranch’s foundation to recruit scientists from Texas Tech, Texas A&M and Texas A&M-Kingsville universities to discover other possible causes that might play a role. This culminated in a historic effort to examine the role of diseases and parasites in the decline of quail. Dubbed “Operation Idiopath-

ic Decline” as a nod to doctorspeak for a decline of “unknown cause,” the ranch’s foundation has given a total of $2.75 million to fund the project. About half the proceeds have gone to The Institute of Environmental and Human Health at Texas Tech. Scientists began looking for answers on 35 ranches or wildlife management areas located in 25 counties in West Texas and 10 in Western Oklahoma, as well as at the Rolling Plains Quail Research Ranch’s 4,700-acre ranch near Roby. Project organizers estimate the total coverage area of this study includes about 19

million acres of land. In the past two years, scientists have collected data from 647 birds. While the answer still remains elusive, some of the factors they discovered in the largest quail research project ever undertaken have surprised them and landowners alike. The good news is that populations in most areas have appeared to make a small rebound during the summer of 2013, the scientists say. Results from this summer’s collections and research could be the most telling of the three-year effort.

For Rick Snipes, nothing beats quail hunting on his Texas ranch By John Davis Texas Tech University

6

For Rick Snipes, nothing beats quail hunting. Inside his home, photos and paintings of bird dogs line the walls. On one table, a lifelike carving made from one piece of wood portrays a hawk sitting on a fence post, quail in talon. “Most of the people whose friendship I really value I met through a dog, a bird or a shotgun,” Snipes joked as he sat in the shade of his porch. For him, it’s not so much about the

Texas Tech University photo

Rick Snipes said, “The magic for a quail hunter is the dog.” bird as it is about the hunt and the relationship between man and dog. Snipes

also raises bird dogs and has a kennel with 10 pointers and one setter. “The magic for a quail hunter is the dog,” he said. “The bobwhite has an endearing characteristic, which is that it usually will hold for the dog. Bobwhites exist in a covey. So when you find one, you find 15 or 20, and they behave for a bird dog and that is what makes the bobwhite special.” Reared in South Carolina, Snipes grew up hunting quail. That was back when quail populated that state in numbers large enough to be hunted, though. Since that time, the birds have vanished due

to human encroachment and habitat change. That loss of habitat and hunting opportunity is what drove Snipes and his wife to buy a ranch in the Rolling Plains of Texas. Here, save for the barbed wire, cattle and loss of the buffalo, the land has remained relatively unchanged, and vast numbers of the birds thrived. Snipes’ home is at the end of a dirt trail flanked by sage and mesquite. “The ranch, when we first bought it, was probably typical of West Texas

See QUAIL, Page 7


Collaborative research seeks answers to quail loss by John Davis Texas Tech University

ranches in the Rolling Plains in that it was characterized by ‘subsistence agriculture,’” Snipes said. “It was radically overgrazed and overgrown with brush in certain places. But at the same time, birds were everywhere. What that tells you is that we were living in a rainy period. A nice rainy spring forgives almost all poor land management, it seems. What we did was look at the ranch and say, ‘What can we do to make it a better habitat for quail and for people?’” He started by taking every cow off the land for six years

professor of environmental toxicology. After touring the facility and discussing the scientific talent base available, Snipes said if Texas Tech would build the lab, the ranch would fund the program, donating $550,000 into the lab itself. The institute’s unique attributes as a lab dedicated to environmental toxicology made it the perfect place to study what may be impacting the quail, Snipes said. “The lab at Texas Tech was a seismic advance from where we started,” he said. “A centralized receiving lab where sampling could be coordinated and tissue samples could be collected, catalogued, archived and disseminated to the researchers was essential.” With the Rolling Plains Quail Research Ranch’s funding and a staff of three faculty, three staff members, 11 full-time graduate students and 18 additional researchers from different col-

leges participating, Kendall and Presley said the quail lab made Operation Idiopathic Decline more focused and capable of finding answers.

and allowed the native grasses to flourish. He thinned some of the brush, which in turn freed up more water for the grasses. Then, he kept a small herd of cattle to graze at high intensity for short periods to emulate buffalo. The practices worked amazingly well, he said. “The number of birds on this ranch defy belief most of the time,” he said. “From 2001 to 2008, we averaged finding five coveys an hour in good weather or bad weather, and the birds were eating purely natural feed. That is remarkable in this day and time.” For 2010, it looked like an

unprecedented crop of birds inhabited Snipes’ ranch. Each morning the air rang with their calls, and Snipes couldn’t wait for hunting season. “By September, we had no birds to speak of,” he said. “For every 100 birds we expected to have, we had four or five birds. So we said to ourselves, like anyone would, ‘What in the world happened here?’ Rather than just being quail hunters who owned a ranch, we were fortunate enough to be in the position to do some research. We knew for sure it wasn’t habitat, we knew for sure it wasn’t weather, so what was left was disease or parasites.”

Quail research A lab at The Institute of Environmental and Human Health is dedicated to studying various environmental factors impacting the quail. “The quail populations in West Texas, which has been very important as a species of interest for hunting, have dropped precipitously over the last few years,” Kendall said. “We do not think it’s entirely habitat- or weather-related. We think it’s some parasite, disease, contaminant or something to cause such a dramatic drop. In some parts of the Rolling Plains of West Texas, there may be up to 90 percent or more drop in populations. Historically, this area has been one of the great

Heavy metals

So far, scientists have found interesting evidence of lead, mercury and pesticide residue in some of the tissues, Kendall said. Heavy metals in the bodies of the quail could cause lowered immune systems. That, paired with parasites and viruses, could be responsible. “Lead in the femur bone and mercury is being seen in some of the quail muscle tissue,” he said. “In many of the birds, we see the residues of DDE, which is the residual of DDT. These are some of the early signals of the things going on. One of the most interesting things that we’ve seen is the presence of eye worms, which are parasites that occupy the eyes of quail. What is interesting is that we see a significant number of the quail in the Rolling Plains with eye worms. In South Texas, almost none are seen. There are various investigations going on to see what this means. We’re getting reports of quail flying into fences and flying into buildings or hitting cars and a lot of times we’re seeing eye worms. These worms could impair the birds’ ability to escape from a predator or find food.” Rollins said scientists also found high numbers of cecal worms in the lower gut of the quail. While these parasites aren’t thought to be overly dangerous, the unusually high numbers found in birds from the study could impair digestion, especially in the winter.

September 2013 — Issue 2

Quail, from Page 6

Texas Tech University photo

Researchers analyze quail tissue to identify the cause of the population decline.

cal internal condition. All the organs are extracted, examined and weighed.

Quail population decline may be attributed to more than just habitat. With the number of birds plummeting, the Rolling Plains Quail Research Ranch shifted gears and funded Operation Idiopathic Decline to discover some answers. In the project, researchers from The Institute of Environmental and Human Health at Texas Tech University, the ranch, Texas A&M and Texas A&M-Kingsville collect and share data with colleagues at other institutions. Dale Rollins said such a huge project could not have been accomplished without adequate funding, the academic expertise from the three universities and logistical support. Many landowners permitted scientists access to their lands for research. The Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation proved a valuable partner for study sites in the Sooner State. Normally, when researchers study population decline, the mantra is to look solely at the habitat. Rick Snipes, Rollins and others suspected more than environment had caused the rapid decline. Not every part of the state experienced the same problems from the drought. On Snipes’ ranch, where every available resource quail need still abounded, habitat shouldn’t have been the problem. Snipes and Rollins met with Steve Presley, an associate professor of environmental toxicology, and Ron Kendall, director emeritus at the institute and

bastions of quail populations in the nation and in Texas.” Presley, a zoonotic disease researcher in charge of the central receiving lab and disease studies at the institute, said researchers at Texas Tech haven’t found a silver bullet yet. But they don’t expect to find just one. In 2009, scientists at Texas Tech discovered some quail populations had exposure to West Nile and Newcastle disease viruses. He suspects many factors culminated the decline. “With this funding, we’re going to expand the scope on our quail population screening for diseases spread by insects and ticks,” he said. “Diseases, such as West Nile virus, may compromise quail health enough that they don’t reproduce as well or can’t escape predators as well. We’re going to expand our research to determine if quail decline is related to arthropodborne disease.” Senior scientists and graduate students trap and collect a vast array of data from bobwhites during August and October each year, Presley said. Most are weighed, measured and have blood drawn and other samples collected. About a quarter of birds sampled are sacrificed and flash-frozen for complete necropsy back at the central lab in Lubbock. “The central lab has a fleet of mobile laboratory trailers that we send out with the teams,” he said. “All of the samples have a code to identify where they came from and the date collected. Sacrificed birds are necropsied at [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health] to assess general physi-

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The Land & Livestock Post  September 2013 — Issue 2

News Second annual Texas Fruit Conference to begin Sept. 30 By Kathleen PhilliPs Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service

COLLEGE STATION — The second annual Texas Fruit Conference will offer information for both novice and experienced growers, said organizers with the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service. “While this conference is intended to assist commercial fruit producers, the materials presented will also be helpful to homeowners and gardeners who simply want to grow fruits and nuts for home consumption and pleasure,” said Monte Nesbitt, AgriLife Extension horticulturist of College Station, one of the conference organizers. The conference will be Sept. 30 and Oct. 1. An additional Texas High Tunnel Conference will be offered on Oct. 2 for those who want more information on that type of growing system. The fruit conference begins at 1 p.m. Sept. 30 at the Best Western Atrea Hotel in Old Town Center, 1920 Austin’s Colony, Bryan. Online preregistration at bit.ly/1ctfiDz is $80 for the fruit conference and $55 for the high tunnel conference, or $125 for both. At-the-door registration for the

Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service photo

Blackberries in Texas will be among the topics of the Sept. 30-Oct. 1 Texas Fruit Conference in Bryan. fruit conference will be $90. People also can register by phone at 979-845-2604. Nesbitt said experts will present the latest information on new Texas A&M AgriLife peach and nectarine varieties, commercial grape opportunities, assessing and coping with insufficient winter

chilling, stone fruit disease control, food safety for fruit growers, brown marmorated stink bug issues in Texas, blackberry production history and managing Phytophthora root rot. New growers will hear about basic issues such as tree planting, orchard es-

Beef Cattle Educational Program to be Sept. 18

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By Paul schattenBerg Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service

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FLORESVILLE — The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service in Wilson County, in cooperation with the Texas Farm Bureau, will present the “Fall Beef Cattle Educational Program” from 6-8:30 p.m Sept. 18 in Floresville. The program will be held at the Wilson County Show Barn, 435 U.S. 97 E. “This is a free educational program presented by Wilson County Farm Bureau and Agrilife Extension in Wilson County,” said Bryan Davis, AgriLife Extension agent for agriculture and natural resources. “This is a critical time for beef cattle producers to begin preparing for how to meet the nutritional requirements of their herd through the fall and winter. “The program will provide useful and timely information on this topic.” Registration will be from 6-6:30 p.m., followed by a short introduction by Tom Ortmann, president of Wilson County Farm Bureau, and Davis. The program will begin at 6:40 p.m. with a comprehensive

tablishment, disease problem solving, and assessing orchard and vineyard nutrition. On Oct. 1, speakers will cover 12 topics, including a statewide overview of renewed interest in commercial fruit crops such as pomegranates. The Texas High Tunnel Conference on Oct. 2, sponsored in part through a grant by the University of Arkansas National Strawberry Sustainability Initiative and The Walmart Foundation, will have a half day of presentations on strawberry production and management for Texas growers, and a half day on other fruits and vegetables in low-cost, frost protection shelters, according to Russ Wallace, AgriLife Extension horticulturist in Lubbock, conference organizer. Wallace said the daylong conference, also will include talks on high tunnels in the U.S. and around the world, construction techniques, crop and cultivar selection, pest management, economics and the U.S. Department of AgricultureNatural Resources Conservation Service high tunnel programs for growers. Texas Department of Agriculture pesticide continuing education units will be offered at both events.

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Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service photo by Robert Burns

A beef cattle education program focusing on fall and winter forage preparation will be held Sept. 17 in Floresville. One Texas Department of Agpresentation by Rick Machen, AgriLife Extension livestock riculture continuing education specialist in Uvalde, titled “Win- unit is offered in the general ter 2013 — Holding on with Hay category. and Mirror, Mirror … What Lies While there is no charge for Just Ahead?” the program, seating is limit“Dr. Machen will provide ed, so attendees are requested information on forage and hay to RSVP to the Wilson County requirements for producers to Farm Bureau Office at 830-393get cattle through the 2013 fall 2481. For more information on the and winter,” Davis said. “He will also give a winter market program, contact Davis at 830393-7357 or by-davis@tamu.edu. outlook.”

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The Land & Livestock Post  September 2013 — Issue 2

News

USDA study shows benefits of weaning calves early By Sandra avant Special to The Post

Photo courtesy of USDA

It pays to wean calves early when severe weather conditions such as drought hinder beef cattle production, U.S. Department of Agriculture studies confirm. During drought, limited forage for livestock grazing can restrict calf growth, resulting in lighter calf weaning weights. Drought also may cause cows to lose body weight and may weaken their immune functions, reducing their overall health and reproductive performance. Animal scientist Richard Waterman, at the Agricultural Research Service’s Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory in Miles City, Mont., examines management options to minimize the effects of severe drought on rangeland livestock production. The Agricultural Research Service is USDA’s principal intramural scientific research agency, and this research supports the USDA

When drought limits forage, it can be more productive for cattle ranchers to wean calves earlier. priority of promoting international food security. Working with local ranchers,

Montana State University scientists and American Simmental Association collaborators in Bozeman, Mont., Waterman evaluated the early weaning of beef calves and its impact

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Preventing respiratory acidosis in newborn calves By Glenn Selk, Oklahoma State University

Special to The Post

Calves in stage 2 labor more than one hour can suffer from respsiratory acidosis and may need help to be born. delay in the intake of colostrum may reduce the amount of passive immunity that the calf receives from its mother.

Merck suspends Zilmax sales NEW YORK (AP) — Merck is suspending sales of its cattle feed additive Zilmax in the U.S. and Canada while it studies a possible link between Zilmax and lameness in cattle. Merck and Co. said on Aug. 30 that stopping sales will allow it to set up a study protocol and follow certain cattle to find out possible causes of lameness and other mobility problems. The

Published by Bryan-College Station Communications, Inc. (979) 776-4444 or (800) 299-7355

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company also plans to review other possible factors such as nutrition and transportation of the cattle. Zilmax is mixed into food and is used to bulk up cattle before they are slaughtered. It has been on the market in the U.S. since 2007 and is one of two supplements approved for that purpose. The products can help feedyards get roughly 25 more pounds of beef from each carcass. They’ve been increasingly used to offset dwindling cattle herd numbers, especially in the face of last year’s drought. Zilmax is the more potent of the two, and requires a threeday withdrawal period prior to slaughter. Merck reported $159 million in U.S. and Canadian sales of Zilmax in 2012. Tyson Foods said Aug. 9 that it would stop buying animals that were fed Zilmax, citing experts who said it may be causing cattle to become lame. Tyson, based in Springdale, Ark., is one of the nation’s largest beef processors. It said its decision, to take effect starting Sept. 6, was based on concerns about animal welfare, not food safety. Merck has said it doesn’t believe Zilmax is the cause of the problems. “We believe in the science that supports Zilmax.”

Compounding the problem is the ongoing acidosis. Research has shown that calves that are acidotic will be

September 2013 — Issue 2

less able to absorb the antibodies that are contained in the colostrum, even if it is ingested on time. As we observe cows and especially first calf heifers in this fall calving season, it is to our economic advantage to save as many calves as possible. Providing timely assistance to a cow or heifer struggling with the delivery process can be important in getting the most possible calves to market next year at sale time.

We have previously discussed the research that indicates that the average length of time that a mature cow is in stage 2 of calving is less than half an hour. The average length of time that a first calf 2-year old is in stage 2 of labor is about an hour. Remember stage 2 of calving is considered the time from the first appearance of a water bag and ends when the calf is delivered completely. What happens if a cow or heifer is allowed to stay in labor for a much longer time? Every baby calf has a certain degree of respiratory acidosis. Acidosis is the result of the deprivation of oxygen and the accumulation of carbon dioxide that results from the passage of the calf through the birth canal. The excess of carbon dioxide results in a build-up of lactic acid (therefore the acidosis.) In order to correct the lack of

oxygen and the excess of carbon dioxide and its by-products, the healthy calf will pant vigorously shortly after birth. The panting will allow the calf to take in more oxygen and release more carbon dioxide and the blood gas concentrations soon return to normal. Some calves, if they have been subjected to a lengthy stage 2 of calving, may be sluggish and slow to begin this corrective process. Depending on the severity of the respiratory acidosis, total correction may take place too late to prevent some damage to key organs. Oxygen deprivation to the brain may result in what ranchers h ave termed “dummy” calves. In moderate respiratory acidosis, the calf may be slow to rise to its feet and therefore slow to find the teat and nurse. Colostrum intake in the first six hours of life is critical to the disease defense of the calf and any

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The Land & Livestock Post  September 2013 — Issue 2

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News

Sept. 19 training in Killeen to focus on Nolan Creek By Paul SchattenBerg Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service

KILLEEN — A Texas Watershed Steward workshop on water quality issues related to Nolan Creek will be held from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Sept. 19 at Texas A&M University-Central Texas, 1001 Leadership Place, Killeen. The free training is open to anyone interested in improving water quality in the Killeen area, said program coordinators. Participants are encouraged to preregister at tws.tamu.edu. The workshop is sponsored by the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board as part of the Texas Watershed Steward program, and is being held in coordination with the Texas Institute for Applied Environmental Research. “The workshop is designed to help watershed residents improve and protect their water resources and gain a better understanding of how water quality in Nolan Creek is being managed,” said Lyle Zoeller, AgriLife Extension agent for Bell County. “It will include an overview of water quality and watershed management in Texas, but primarily focus on water quality issues relating to Nolan Creek, including current efforts to help improve and protect this important water body,” Zoeller said. “Nolan Creek extends from its headwaters northwest of Killeen to its confluence with the Leon River just south of Belton,” said Nikki Jackson, senior project and policy director with the environmental research institute. “Nolan Creek is an important part of the area, having been used for recreation and also serving as a wildlife habitat for many species.” The training will include a discussion of watershed systems, types and sources of water pollution and ways to improve and protect water quality. There also will be a group discussion on community-driven watershed protection

A free Texas Watershed Steward training relating to water quality issues in and around Nolan Creek will be Sept. 19 in Killeen.

and management. “Nolan Creek is on the state list of impaired waters for elevated levels of bacteria” Jackson said. “It first appeared on that list in 1996 and current efforts are aimed at further assessing the extent of the impairment.” Jackson encouraged stakeholders to attend the Texas Watershed Steward Workshop to learn about the dangers of water pollution and how to become involved in water quality protection efforts. Participants will receive a copy of the Texas Watershed Steward Handbook and a certificate of completion. The program also offers seven continuing education units in soil and water management for certified crop advisors, seven units for professional engineers and

certified planners, and seven continuing education credits for certified teachers. The workshop also offers three general continuing education units for Texas Department of Agriculture pesticide license holders, seven for certified landscape architects and three for certified floodplain managers. “Participating in the Texas Watershed Steward training is a great opportunity to get involved and make a difference in your watershed,” said Galen Roberts, AgriLife Extension program specialist and coordinator for the Texas Watershed Steward Program. For more information and to preregister, go to tws.tamu.edu or contact Galen Roberts at 979862-8070, groberts@ag.tamu. edu, or Lyle Zoeller at 254-933-

5305, l-zoeller@tamu.edu. For more information about the “Nolan Creek Assessment of Water Quality and Watershed Based Planning” project, visit www.tceq.texas.gov/waterquality/nonpoint-source/ projects/. The Texas Watershed Steward program is funded through

Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service graphic

a Clean Water Act nonpoint source grant from the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

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The Land & Livestock Post

News A prairie chicken’s long journey throughout Iowa

FALL BULL & FEMALE SALE

September 2013 — Issue 2

reintroduce the species. Flocks of up to 30,000 of the birds once gathered in Iowa but the species largely was gone from the state by the 1950s due to overhunting and habitat loss. Bird No. 112, which came from Nebraska, was among 10 that were fitted with GPS trackers. One bird shed the transmitter and the other eight were killed by predators. Vogel said no one knows why the bird traveled so much, but one theory is that since it was moved from Nebraska, it was looking for a suitable spot to call home. “We might assume that since she came from Nebraska and we moved her to Iowa, she doesn’t know where the appropriate habitat might be,” she said. “It seems like the bird is looking.” Scientists said prairie chickens are an “umbrella species.” That means that efforts to build habitat and grow the bird’s population will indirectly help other species.

DES MOINES, Iowa (AP) — The long, circular path taken by a prairie chicken has surprised Iowa researchers who are studying the bird as part of an effort to reintroduce the species to Iowa. The hen was fitted with a GPS tracker and released April 4 near Kellerton in south-central Iowa. It has logged nearly 1,200 miles since, flying south into northern Missouri and back again, as far north as Guthrie County in Iowa. The bird seems to have settled down in Union County. Jen Vogel, a research associate at Iowa State University who has monitored Bird No. 112, said researchers expected the bird to travel, but not nearly so far. “We did expect a range of maybe 50 miles. We really didn’t expect this distance,” Vogel told The Des Moines Register (dmreg. co/17555dG). The Iowa Department of Natural Resources is studying prairie chickens as it works to

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The Land & Livestock Post  September 2013 — Issue 2

News

Hay now

Selecting, buying and feeding hay By RoBeRt FeaRs Special to The Post

Placing value on hay is critical to the success of any cattle operation. The Next Generation Agricultural Conference was held in Bryan during May and dealt primarily with financial risk reduction. Placing value on hay for a cattle operation was a selected topic because of the tremendous expense in buying forage during the drought. Jason Banta of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service at Overton led the discussion and most of the material in this article is taken from his presentation.

Selection and purchase

14

When buying hay, it always is wise to ask for a nutrient analysis. Compare the analysis results with the crude protein and total digestible nutrients requirements of cattle, which are shown in Table 1. If there are not enough nutrients in the hay to meet animal needs, the deficits will need to be filled by feeding supplements. If a nutrient analysis cannot be obtained, ask when the hay was harvested because time of year influences warm-season perennial grass quality. Digestible dry matter content of warmseason grasses is good in the spring, declines as temperatures increase and then improves as temperatures cool in the fall. So the best quality hay is usually harvested in the spring and fall. Although the peaks and valleys of digestible dry matter content are similar among warm-season perennial grasses, overall values vary among the different grass species. Since good quality hay with high nutrient value is usually sold at a higher price than low-quality hay, selections need to be based on economics of the feeding program. Is it less costly to buy lower quality hay and supplement than buy high quality hay that doesn’t require supplementation? To answer this question, additional information is needed. Is the requirement a protein supplement or an energy feed? What is the price of the

Photo by Robert Fears

Hay wraps help conserve quality, but not as well as storing hay in a shed. The quality of the hay depends on several factors, which producers would be wise to learn before purchasing hay for their herds. See photo, page 15. required supplements? How often Bale weight, as determined by denculate its nutrient cost. will the supplement need to be fed? sity and size, affects hay value in addiLet’s assume that the nutrient analysis of hay showed it to contain 14 perSupplemental energy from total digest- tion to nutrient content. To compare ible nutrients should be fed every day, values of different loads of hay, divide cent crude protein and 60 percent total whereas protein supplement may be the cost per bale by the bale weight and digestible nutrients. We calculated the price per ton to be $90. Cost per pound fed less frequently if certain guidelines multiply by 2,000 to determine cost per are followed. ton. The importance of doing these cal- of Crude protein and total digestible culations is emphasized in Table 2. What is the distance between operanutrients is calculated by the following tions? This affects time and fuel costs. If all of the bales listed in Table 2 steps: The best selection of hay quality based are being offered for sale at $50 per 2,000 pounds X 14 percent = 280 bale, price per ton changes dramation economics varies among ranches, pounds of crude protein so each manager needs to calculate cally with differences in bale size and $90 ÷ 280 = $0.321 per pound of crude what is most cost effective for his or weight. See HAY, Page 16 her operation. To further determine hay value, cal-


The Land & Livestock Post

News

 September 2013 — Issue 2

Photo by Robert Fears

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The Land & Livestock Post  September 2013 — Issue 2

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News Hay, from Page 14 protein 2,000 pounds X 60 percent = 1,200 pounds of total digestible nutrients $90 ÷ 1,200 = $0.075 per pound of total digestible nutrients Per pound cost of crude protein and total digestible nutrients in hay can be compared with that in a bag of supplement to determine the best value. Percent crude protein in a sack of feed is listed on the tag, but percent total digestible nutrients is not. You have to contact the manufacturer for the amount of total digestible nutrients. If the manufacturer cannot furnish this information, you might want to consider switching to a different product. Once percent crude protein and percent total digestible nutrients in the supplement are known, the same calculations, as shown above, can be used to determine the cost per pound of each nutrient. Calculating

cost per pound of nutrient helps answer the question of whether buying low quality hay and feeding a larger amount of supplement is more economical than purchasing better quality hay and feeding fewer supplements.

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See FEEDING, Page 17

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The Land & Livestock Post

News Feeding, from Page 16

 September 2013 — Issue 2

bottom should reduce waste to around 12 to 13 percent. Using a cone style feeder or modified cone feeder with a sheeted bottom should reduce waste to around 5 to 8 percent of the original bale weight.” “A common practice is unrolling round bales when feeding,” said Jason Cleere of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service at College Station. “Don’t unroll the entire bale at one time. Unroll only what the cattle need to eat in one to two days. Make them vacuum it up to prevent waste from trampling and fecal contamination.” Feeding in one area destroys sod and usually causes muddy conditions. In this situation, feed on concrete or gravel to reduce hay losses and eliminate some of the muddy conditions. Waste also can be reduced by frequently moving the feeding sites to other areas in the pasture. Banta recommends feeding in an area of the pasture that is less productive. Organic matter produced by the mixture of decomposed hay, feces and urine helps improve soil health in these areas and eventually makes them more productive. To derive the best value from hay, select quality that fits the herd nutrition program, buy at a price that provides good value and feed with minimum waste.

Nutrient content is preserved when hay is stored under a roof. Using the proper feeder and location can make a difference, too.

Photo by Robert Fears

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The Land & Livestock Post  September 2013 — Issue 2

News Fried Cuban roll, Thanksgiving dinner top Fair honors By DIANA HEIDGERD Associated Press

DALLAS — A fried Cuban roll filled with chopped ham and slow-cooked pork shoulder, cheese and pickles drew “Best Taste” honors at a State Fair of Texas fried food contest. A Thanksgiving dinner of stuffing, turkey and creamed corn rolled into a ball and deep-fried took “Most Creative” honors at the Big Tex Choice Awards. A three-judge panel on Sept. 2 taste-tested eight finalists before awarding the prizes. Other contenders were a deep fried Nutella, a deep fried King Ranch casserole and chicken-fried meatloaf. were selected Sept. 2 by a three-judge panel. All eight food finalists will be for sale during the State Fair of Texas, which runs Sept. 27 through Oct. 20, fair spokeswoman Sue Gooding said. “We really do have incredible food,” Gooding said. “I would encourage people who come to the fair to be prepared to share the treats so that you can try even more.” The Southern-style meatloaf slices are coated in chicken-

fried breading and then deep fried and served with garlic mashed potatoes, Texas cream gravy and a glaze for dipping. Among the other treats that were up for the choice awards include a deep-fried Nutella cream cheese and hazelnut spread on flaky dough sheets, that are rolled and deep fried. It’s served with honey and shaved almonds. Made in the shape of Texas, Fernie’s deep-fried King Ranch Casserole is a mix of melted cheese dipped in an egg wash and coated in bread crumbs. Another entry was millionaire pie: sweetened creamcheese filling with pineapple and Texas pecans, then wrapped in a pie crust and deep fried. There’s also spinach dip bites, which are coated with crispy tortilla chips and then fried. For bacon lovers, the Texasfried fireball rolls pimento cheese, pickles, cayenne pepper AP Photo/State Fair of Texas and bacon into a ball, which is Above, Southern style chicken fried meatloaf competed was one of eight finalists for the State Fair of Texas Big Tex Choice then dipped in buttermilk, covAwards. Opposite page, fried Thasnksgiving dinner was one selected as “Most Creative” in the fair’s fried food contest. ered with a jalapeno-infused batter and deep fried. Last year’s Best Taste winner was a fried bacon cinnamon roll, and the Most Creative new food in 2012 was deep-fried jambalaya.

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Millionaire pie was one of eight finalists for the State Fair of Texas Big Tex Choice Awards. Winners for Best Taste and Most Creative new foods were selected Sept. 2 by a three-judge panel. A fried Cuban roll filled with chopped ham and slowcooked pork shoulder, cheese and pickles drew “Best Taste” honors


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The Land & Livestock Post

News

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September 2013 — Issue 2 

The Land & Livestock Post


Cotton harvest well underway throughout Texas By RoBeRt BuRns Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service

use more moisture, he said. “In most of the High Plains, the dryland crop really doesn’t exist, but the Rolling Plains dryland crop was planted late, got some moisture and should make a respectable crop,” Morgan said. What could spoil the prospects for the High Plains and Rolling Plains cotton would be an early freeze as the crop is still a little behind in maturity, he said. More information on the current Texas drought and wildfire alerts can be found on the AgriLife Extension Agricultural Drought Task Force website at agrilife.tamu.edu/ drought/. AgriLife Extension district reporters compiled the following summaries: Central — The region was hot and mainly dry, with a few showers over the Labor Day weekend. Stock water was becoming an issue in some areas. Grasshoppers still had a presence, and armyworms were found in a few locations. Corn and sorghum yields were good. Producers were defoliating cotton. Pecan trees were dropping nuts, and there were reports of heavy aphid infestations. Hay fields showed little

growth. Livestock body condition scores were declining due to the lack of grazing across the area. Coastal Bend — Many areas received much-needed rain, bringing from 0.7 inch to 2 inches of moisture. The rain temporarily put the cotton and soybean harvests on hold. Some grain sorghum and corn were yet to be harvested. Most of the cotton being harvested was showing below-average yields. Sesame was beginning to dry down, and the harvest was expected to start within two weeks. Rice farmers continued to deal with limited to no water from the Lower Colorado River Authority. The harvest of the primary rice crop was nearly finished, and with the assistance of irrigation wells, some farmers have flooded for the ratoon crop. Quality and yield looked good for the primary crop. Armyworm damage in pastures and hay meadows was reported in some areas. The rain greened areas up, but growth of pasture grasses remained minimal. Some hay was still being made, but it was being fed almost as fast as it was harvested as many pastures were bare and out of grass. Producers continued supplemental feeding of livestock and were beginning to cull cows based on performance. Black Spanish

grapes were delivered to the wineries, which marked the end of the grape harvest. Most growers reported average yields of more than four tons per acre. East — The entire region needed rain as drought conditions continued to worsen. The lack of rain, high temperatures and winds, along with armyworm infestations, took their toll on hay crops and forages. Burn bans were in effect throughout the region. Grasshoppers continued to be a problem as well. Very little grazing was available to livestock, and some producers were already feeding hay. Lack of stock-water supplies in pastures were also a problem. Despite the lack of grazing, cattle remained in good condition. Weaning and selling

September 2013 — Issue 2

Texas A&M AgriLife Extension

Cotton harvesting has begun in some areas of the Blacklands and sped up the second week of September, according to a Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service expert.

From the Gulf Coast to Dallas, cotton harvesting. or preparations for it, were going “fast and furious” at the start of September, according to a Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service expert. “There’s going to be a lot of cotton coming out of these fields in a fairly compressed period compared to most years,” said Gaylon Morgan, AgriLife Extension statewide cotton specialist in College Station. In the Upper Gulf Coast, the cotton harvest actually started in mid- to late-August, but was delayed by rain. However, now the harvesting has actively resumed, Morgan said. Coastal counties, such as Matagorda, are mostly finished, with Wharton and Colorado making great progress, and harvest activities were progressing up through the Central Texas Blacklands, he said. “A lot of defoliating has gone on in the past seven to 10 days in the Blacklands, and will continue for the next week,” he said in early September. “Harvesting has begun is some areas of the Blacklands, and will increase this week.” Without any tropical storms on the immediate horizon, Morgan expected the harvest in the southern half of the state to continue with minimal issues. “In many cases, we have tropical storms or fall weather bringing more precipitation into the Upper Gulf Coast and Blacklands, but we haven’t had that this year, which has been great for timely harvest and should also keep the fiber quality up,” he said. South Plains and Rolling Plains cotton — at least that which is irrigated — has made progress thanks to warmer weather, according to Morgan. “Increased heat units the past couple of weeks have allowed the crop to catch up on maturity,” he said. “The bad news, they haven’t had much moisture.” In the Rolling Plains, the crop has been late but has looked pretty good most of the summer, but the dryland could

of spring calves and cull cows continued. Field preparation for winter pasture planting was slow due to the drought. Far West — Days were hot and dry and nights mild. Some areas reported scattered showers with a trace to 0.2 inch of accumulation. Where there was rain, grass was growing rapidly. Area pastures and rangeland without rain were doing poorly. Grasshoppers were beginning to cause problems in cotton fields. North — Soil-moisture levels were very short in some areas. Pastures and rangeland were deteriorating very quickly and livestock watering ponds were dropping. Bermuda grass was turning brown. Pastures in some counties were grazed down to the point where most producers had to start heavily feeding supplemental hay. Livestock showed signs of heat stress. Local burn bans were being initiated across the region. Corn and grain sorghum growers continued to harvest, with aboveaverage yields for both crops, and the harvest was 80-85 percent complete in most counties and 100 percent in others. Cotton was beginning to open bolls in Delta County. Farmers there had a problem with sugarcane aphids on sorghum gumming up equipment. Panhandle — Temperatures were hot and dry for most of the region. Many producers were either planting or preparing to plant winter wheat. Irrigation on corn was very active. Despite the dry conditions, corn looked pretty good. Irrigated grain sorghum was doing well, but the dryland crop was struggling to survive. The potato harvest was underway. Rangeland and pastures continued to improve with the recent moisture but were still mostly in very poor to poor condition. Cattle were in good condition. Producers were weaning spring calves

The Land & Livestock Post

News

See COTTON, Page 27

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The Land & Livestock Post  September 2013 — Issue 2

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News Activists are hurting, not helping wild horses

T

he furor of lawsuit threats, animal rights terrorists, gesticulating celebrity actors and ex-politicians traveling the countryside like Barnum and Bailey is finally bringing out those who really have something at stake in the wild horse/ domestic horse slaughter issue. BAXTER BLACK It is easy On the Edge of for a movie Common Sense star or politician or animal rights advocate to fall under the trance that horses live forever and eventually go to horse heaven, because that is about as deep as they think. Their weak solutions to the abandoned horse problem that they have helped create are like ducks peeing on a forest fire. I don’t wish to ridicule them. I appreciate their compassion, their concern for animals being mistreated, and their wish that horses wouldn’t die. But they live in a dream world. Buster, a life-long cowboy and horse trainer takes it personally when he sees pictures of starving, skeletal abandoned horses. He says, “There are a lot more humane ways for a horse to die than starvation.” The “Wild Horse Wreck” we have created by not allowing the Bureau of Land Management to cull the herds of wild horses and burros is as big a fiasco as the Forest Service’s misguided policy of banning timber and grazing in national and state forests. Oh, how we have to learn the hard way. The American Indians have always held the horse in high esteem ever since Coronado crossed the border in 1535 and introduced them to America. The horse is revered, valued and used by them as chattel. But the Indians also take the responsibility of caring for the herd and the land. They now are trying to talk to people who live behind a desk about “nature’s balance.” The Navajo Nation in New Mexico, the biggest tribe in the

United States, has joined the National Congress of Indians and other tribes in support of horse slaughter in the U.S. “We … can no longer support the estimated 75,000 feral horses that are drinking wells dry and causing ecological damage to the drought-stricken range,” its leaders say. They aren’t kiddin’ and they know what they’re talking about. Studies of cost to feed and maintain one horse for a year in a rescue, feedlot, summer pasture, or refuge can be as low as $2,400 to $3,650. Using the lowest estimate, $200/ month or $2,400/year x 75,000 horses comes to $1.8 million. Three of the entities actively involved in preventing the horse slaughter plant in New Mexico are ex-Gov. Bill Richardson, movie star Robert Redford and the Humane Society of the U.S. I have listened to their speeches and read their quotes. I do not doubt they are sincere. I don’t question their emotional motives. I have yet, however, to hear a viable solution for not just New Mexico’s impending crisis, but for our whole country’s equine catastrophe that was the result of cessation of horse slaughter plants. I would suggest that Richardson, Redford and the others put their money where their mouth is. Gov. Richardson has had some legal problems due to shady politics, but I would guess he could come up with $250,000. Redford has an estimated net worth of $170 million, and in the recent budgets of the Humane Society of the U.S., spending runs about $250 million a year. They could ante up together and make the first donation, $420 million. That will take are of the Navajos for two years. Well, we all know they don’t intend to spend their own money — they don’t care that much. But the train is comin’ down the track and they are standin’ right between the rails and they better turn around and see it before it’s too late. • Contact Baxter Black at www.baxterblack.com.

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The Land & Livestock Post 

September 2013 — Issue 2

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The Land & Livestock Post  September 2013 — Issue 2

News LIVESTOCK MARKET REPORT Brazos Valley Results of the Brazos Valley Livestock Commission’s Aug. 27 sale: Head: 1,239 Steers: 200-300 lbs., $195$270; 300-400 lbs., $185-$250; 400-500 lbs., $160-$190; 500600 lbs., $144-$170; 600-700 lbs., $130-$155; 700-800 lbs., $132-$141. Heifers: 200-300 lbs., $177$215, 300-400 lbs., $154-$179; 400-500 lbs., $138-$158; 500600 lbs., $130-$157; 600-700 lbs., $130-$157; 700-800 lbs., $123-$132. Slaughter bulls: $89-$103. Slaughter cows: $65-$87.50. Bred cows: $925-$1,450. Cow/calf pairs: $1,000-$1,575

Buffalo Results of the Buffalo Livestock Marketing’s August 24 sale: Head: 1,981 Steers: 150-200 lbs., $200$290; 200-300 lbs., $195-$285;

300-400 lbs., $175-$260; 400500 lbs.,$160-$212; 500-600 lbs., $150-$182; 600-700 lbs., $145$153; 700-800 lbs., $130-$148. Heifers: 150-200 lbs., $190$240; 200-300 lbs., $185-$235; 300-400 lbs., $165-$230; 400500 lbs.,$145-$200; 500-600 lbs., $140-$175; 600-700 lbs., $130$170; 700-800 lbs., $120-$165. Slaughter bulls: $82-$105. Slaughter cows: $55-$93. Bred cows: $975-$1,625. Cow/calf pairs: $1,000-$1,860

Caldwell Results of the Caldwell Livestock Commission’s Aug. 14 sale: Head: 702 Steers: 200-300 lbs., $220$260; 300-400 lbs., $200-$230; 400-500 lbs., $160-$190; 500600 lbs., $150-$165; 600-700 lbs., $140-$155; 700-800 lbs., $135-$145. Heifers: 200-300 lbs., $180$210; 300-400 lbs., $170-$225; 400-500 lbs., $160-$235; 500600 lbs., $140-$170; 600-700

lbs., $135-$155; 700-800 lbs., $130-$145. Slaughter bulls: $96-$110. Slaughter cows: $60-$97. Stocker cows: $800-$1,350. Cow/calf pairs: $1,075-$1,475.

Groesbeck Results of the Groesbeck Auction and Livestock Exchange’s Aug. 13 sale: Head: 606. Steers: 300-400 lbs., $185$230; 400-500 lbs., $175-$205; 500-600 lbs.,$150-$170; 600-700 lbs., $145-$165. Heifers: 300-400 lbs., $170$200; 400-500 lbs., $160-$190; 500-600 lbs., $1405-$155; 600700 lbs., $130-$150. Slaughter bulls: $96-$106. Slaughter cows: $70-$91. Stocker cows: $800-$1,400. Cow/calf pairs: $900-$1,600.

Jordan Results of the Jordan Cattle Auc-

tion Market Aug. 8 sale: Head: 1,296 Steers: 300-400 lbs., $190$240; 400-500 lbs., $185-$210; 500-600 lbs.,$150-$172; 600-700 lbs., $145-$165. Heifers: 300-400 lbs., $170$200; 400-500 lbs., $1,650-$190; 500-600 lbs.,$145-$160; 600-700 lbs., $135-$155. Slaughter bulls: $96-$106. Slaughter cows: $70-$92. Stocker cows: $850-$1,400.

Milano Results of the Milano Livestock Exchange’s Aug. 27 sale: Head: 725. Steers: 300-400 lbs., $132$237; 400-500 lbs., $120-$187; 500-600 lbs.,$125-$187; 600-700 lbs., $110-$149. Heifers: 300-400 lbs., $130$201; 400-500 lbs., $125-$203; 500-600 lbs.,$117-$169; 600-700 lbs., $111-$143. Slaughter bulls: $93-$102. Slaughter cows: $60-$89. Stocker cows: $985-$1,375.

Cow/calf pairs: $1,275-$2,000.

Navasota Results of the Navasota Livestock Auction Co.’s Aug. 24 sale: Head: 2,423. Steers: 150-300 lbs., $150$270; 300-400 lbs., $150-$250; 400-500 lbs.,$125-$195; 500-600 lbs., $120-$172.50; 600-700 lbs., $115-$157.50. Heifers: 150-300 lbs., $135$230; 300-400 lbs., $130-$195; 400-500 lbs.,$120-$170; 500-600 lbs., $115-$157.50; 600-700 lbs., $115-$149. Slaughter bulls: $80-$107. Slaughter cows: $65-$89. Stocker cows: $750-$1,425. — Special to The Post

Oct. 5 – Heart of Texas Special

Replacement Female Sale. Groesbeck, TX.

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Events Calendar September: Sept. 16 - Jordan Cattle Auction Special

Bull & Female Sale Complete Dispersal. Throckmorton, TX. 940-849-0611

Sept. 21 - Jordan Cattle Auction Special

Oct. 19- Central Texas BBA Beef “On” Forage

Sept. 21 - Muleshoe Ranch Annual

Oct. 23 - Texas Hereford Association Fall

Range Ready Hereford & Angus Bull Sale, Breckenridge, TX

Sept. 26 - Advertising Deadline for the

Land & Livestock Post

Sept 26 - Jordan Cattle Auction Special Stocker & Feeder Sale. San Saba, TX

Sept. 27 – Real Estate Auction. Jourdanton, TX. 979-885-2400 Sept. 28 - Live Oak BBA Fall Sale. Three

Rivers, TX

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Oct. 9-11 - RA Brown Ranch 39th Annual

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Replacement Female Sale, San Saba, TX

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Performance Tested Bull Sale, Brenham, TX.

Classic Bull Sale. Buffalo, TX.

Oct. 26 – The Sale at 44 Farms. Cameron, TX. 254-697-4401

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Registered Bull Sale. Chappell Hill, TX. 979836-6832

Do you have a sale or event you’d like listed? Call Jesse Wright at (979) 731-4721 or email jesse.wright@theeagle.com


Wean, from Page 10

agement option, presents fewer problems and allows producers to control better their production environment. He also demonstrated that early weaning increases the likelihood that heifers will become pregnant on time in the next season. Additional studies showed t h at e a rly - we a n e d s t e e r s reached maturity sooner than traditionally weaned steers when body weight gain, feedlot performance and carcass traits were measured. Waterman noted that management of early-weaned steers directly can impact how they grade at harvest.

 September 2013 — Issue 2

on cow, heifer and steer performance. Calves at two locations in Montana — Judith Gap and the Livestock and Range Research Laboratory — were weaned at 80 days and at the more traditional age of 215 days. Cows that weaned early weighed more and were in better body condition at the start of winter. As a result, the amount of harvested feedstuffs required for cows to maintain satisfactory body weights and condition throughout winter was reduced. Waterman confirmed that early weaning is a viable man-

The Land & Livestock Post

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The Land & Livestock Post  September 2013 — Issue 2

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Cotton, from Page 21

Sales: Tuesdays @ 12 Noon 6097 East Hwy. 21 • Bryan, TX

September 2013 — Issue 2

Brazos Valley Livestock Brazos Valley Livestock Commission, Inc. Commission, Inc.

early. The fall calving season was just starting for some. Horn flies were bad on cattle in feedlots and pastures. There was an increase in insect populations in all crops, with corn earworm and cotton bollworm presence increasing in particular. Southwest — Scattered showers were reported, but generally, hot and dry conditions persisted over most of the region. Range and row crops were declining. However, fall corn made good progress. Farmers were spraying cotton defoliants and preparing fields for planting of oats and

winter wheat. Livestock remained in good to fair condition with continued supplemental feeding. The deer fawn crop looked good, with large numbers having survived the summer. West Central — The region was dry with triple-digit temperatures returning. Soil-moisture levels were declining due to the extreme heat and lack of rain. A few areas reported scattered showers that helped somewhat. Cotton was maturing rapidly. The corn harvest was underway with good yields being reported. Some producers continued cutting and baling hay. Pecans looked promising.

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