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Program Contents Forming a New Nation 1
Creating the Constitution What compromises emerged from the Constitutional Convention?
The Constitution: A More Perfect Union How has the Constitution created â&#x20AC;&#x153;a more perfect Unionâ&#x20AC;??
The Bill of Rights What freedoms does the Bill of Rights protect and why are they important?
Launching the New Republic 4
Political Developments in the Early Republic How did the Federalist and Republican visions for the United States differ?
Foreign Affairs in the Young Nation To what extent should the United States have become involved in world affairs in the early 1800s?
A Growing Sense of Nationhood What did it mean to be an American in the early 1800s?
Andrew Jackson and the Growth of American Democracy How well did President Andrew Jackson promote democracy?
An Expanding Nation 8
Manifest Destiny and the Growing Nation How justifiable was U.S. expansion in the 1800s?
Life in the West What were the motives, hardships, and legacies of the groups that moved west in the 1800s?
10 Mexicano Contributions to the Southwest How have Mexicano contributions influenced life in the United States?
Americans in the Mid-1800s 11 An Era of Reform To what extent did the reform movements of the mid-1800s improve life for Americans?
12 The Worlds of North and South How was life in the North different from life in the South?
13 African Americans in the Mid-1800s How did African Americans face slavery and discrimination in the mid-1800s?
The Union Challenged 14 A Dividing Nation Which events of the mid-1800s kept the nation together and which events pulled it apart?
15 The Civil War What factors and events influenced the outcome of the Civil War?
16 The Reconstruction Era To what extent did Reconstruction bring African Americans closer to full citizenship?
Migration and Industry 17 Tensions in the West How did settlers change the West and affect American Indians?
18 The Rise of Industry Did the benefits of industrialization outweigh the costs?
19 The Great Wave of Immigration What was life like for immigrants in the early 1900s?
A Modern Nation Emerges 20 The Progressive Era Did the progressives improve life in the United States?
21 The United States Becomes a World Power Should U.S. actions in world affairs around the turn of the 20th century be praised or condemned?
22 Linking Past to Present What changes since 1914 have shaped how we live today?
23 The Great Depression How did the Great Depression affect the United States?
World War II and The Cold War 24 World War II What were the causes and consequences of World War II?
25 The War Effort at Home How did World War II change the United States?
26 The 1950s: Life After the War Why are the 1950s remembered as an age of affluence?
27 The Cold War How did the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union shape the world in the decades after World War II?
28 The Vietnam War What made the Vietnam War difficult to win?
A Modern Nation Emerges 29 The Civil Rights Movement How did civil rights activists improve life for African Americans?
30 The 1970s: A Period of Crisis and Change How should historians characterize the 1970s?
31 American Life in the 1980s How did the Reagan Revolution impact the nation?
32 U.S. Domestic Politics at the Turn of the 21st Century How have recent presidents tried to fulfill their domestic policy goals?
33 U.S. Foreign Policy in a Global Age How well have U.S. foreign policy decisions met the challenges of the global age?
What makes us different? History Alive! The United States Through Modern Times
Introduction presents six historical themes
Setting the Stage provides historical and geographical background for the unit
Lessons include over 50 engaging activities
Primary Source Investigations + Reading Further in every unit
100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s of varying Primary Sources embedded within the program
Timeline Challenges conclude each unit
Program Components U n i t
L E S S O N
The War Effort at Home
Bring Learning Alive! TCI offers programs for elementary, middle, and high school classrooms.
How did World War II change the United States?
Bring Science Alive!
P R E V I E W
Social Studies Alive!
Think about the events in your life that have shaped the person you are today. Choose the one event that you think has had the most impact on your life.
Make a simple sketch of the event you chose.
Geography Alive! Government Alive! Econ Alive! Write a short paragraph explaining how that event affected you.
R E A D I N G
N O T E S
Social Studies Vocabulary
As you complete the Reading Notes, use these terms in your answers. bond
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internment camp The War Effort at Home 233
Interactive Student Notebook
Students engage with their learning by expressing their ideas, completing graphically organized notes, and developing personalized responses in their Interactive Student Notebooks.
The Student Text provides a rich knowledge base of concepts and guides students through their learning.
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Print Lesson Guide Print Lesson Guides allow for teachers to prepare and prep for their lesson with ease from anywhere.
Teacher and Student Licenses Lesson Guides, customizable assessments, video quizzes, learning games, and more are at your fingertips.
Journey Through a TCI Inquiry-Based Unit Immerse your students in history with TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inquiry-based lessons. Each lesson comes with a readyto-teach slideshow to engage your students with guiding questions that facilitate class discussion and debate, stunning images for students to investigate, built-in audio tracks, and rich written and visual primary sources. Each unit gives several opportunities to further student inquiry through research projects and developing arguments centered around primary sources.
Geography Challenge Kick-off each unit with a Geography Challenge to introduce students to a region and inspire questions about the unit.
TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Lesson Cycle Inquiry is built into each lesson within a unit, beginning with a Preview for students to ask questions and ending with assessments for students to apply what they learned.
3 Reading Furthers Reading Furthers are included in each lesson to enhance literacy and engage students with related topics.
Summative Assessments Each lesson comes with a TCI-created summative assessment, which is comprised of four question sets to fully assess student mastery of content and skills. The test is ready to take, but you can edit and customize the test to meet the needs of your classroom.
Each unit ends with a Timeline Challenge, an activity in which students practice their timeline and cause-and-effect skills to order major events from the unit.
4 Investigating Primary Sources In each unit, students have an opportunity to examine primary sources, connect it to their learning, and conduct an inquiry about them.
1. Geography Challenge
Asking Questions Students review guiding questions and ask their own questions about the region.
Practicing Geography Skills Students examine a map of the region and do a series of geography tasks based on the map.
Interacting with Maps Students use digital resources to interact with regional maps.
2. TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Lesson Cycle
The lesson concludes with a Processing activity where students apply what they have learned in an authentic assessment.
TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lesson cycle begins with a Preview to spark interest, connect to prior learning, and inspire historical questions.
When they are ready, students take a carefully designed summative assessment to gauge their learning.
Students have an opportunity to read expository text and test their knowledge with interactive games and checks for understanding.
The lesson progresses to a handson Activity, which incorporates one of TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s six unique teaching strategies that engages students with rich historical materials and connects them to their reading. Through it all, students respond in their Interactive Student Notebooks as a formative assessment.
3. Reading Furthers
Reading Further The United States in a Global Economy With improved communication and transportation technologies, the world is now more connected than ever, and business is increasingly conducted on a worldwide scale. The United States plays a key role in the modern global economy, working to protect American interests while also helping people in need across the world.
A cargo ship passes under the Golden Gate Bridge while leaving the San Francisco Bay. Large cargo ships allow American companies to cheaply and efficiently transport goods around the world. As a result, American companies can conduct business across multiple continents, producing and selling their products on an international scale.
The Silicon Valley region of California is one of the most exciting places in America. In both small start-up companies and large corporations, engineers race to develop the next popular apps, websites, and electronic devices. Many consumer products, including smartphones and personal computers, are designed in the area. But once the hightech products are imagined, invented, and designed, where are they actually made? Although many new technologies are developed in Silicon Valley, computer corporations often rely on overseas manufacturers to produce their goods. Most computers are built in developing countries, such as China or Indonesia. In these nations, labor is plentiful and wages are low. Workers tend to work much longer hours. With information technology playing such an important role in the modern world, computers have become a huge business. Over 350 million computers were shipped worldwide in 2011. The electronics industry is not alone in its business practices. Clothing, shoes, toys, and other labor-intensive goods are also produced abroad to reduce costs. This international approach is just one effect of a changing world. New technologies and political agreements have altered the way companies do business. The move toward a true world economy is called globalization. Over the past few decades, the U.S. government has taken a leading role in the process of globalization. From making free trade agreements to offering financial aid to regions in need, the United States has assumed a leadership position in the global economy. From Protectionism to Cooperation Before World War II, the practice of protectionism often limited international trade. Countries would heavily tax or block the import of goods from other nations in order to encourage people to buy domestic products. In the aftermath of World War II, however, international cooperation began to increase. With Europe in ruins, world leaders talked over a new approach to the global economy. The discussions led to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1947. GATT set the stage for globalization by lowering taxes on international trade and discouraging the practice of protectionism. This promoted the exchange of goods and ideas between different nations.
The reading comes with a critical thinking activity, such as evaluating cost and benefits, developing arguments, or exploring cause-and-effect of historical events.
More recently, the United States has made trade easier by directly negotiating with other governments. One of its major diplomatic tools is the free trade agreement, a contract in which two or more nations agree to eliminate taxes and restrictions on each other’s goods. Free trade agreements encourage the flow of products and services between different countries and can help to keep prices stable. In 1992, President George H. W. Bush signed a deal with the Canadian and Mexican governments called the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). President Bill Clinton later secured congressional approval for the agreement. NAFTA largely eliminated tariffs, or taxes on trade, and other trade restrictions between the three countries, increasing economic cooperation in North America. Supporters of NAFTA claimed that it would increase the market for American exports and would create new, high-wage jobs for American workers. Opponents argued that Mexico’s lower labor costs would attract American factories, costing jobs in the United States. The effect of NAFTA on the U.S. economy remains a subject of debate. Changing Business Practices With fewer barriers to international trade, business models for corporations changed over time. The spread of the Internet and cell phones made long-distance communication easy. Changes like these allowed the American computer industry to have its products designed in California, manufactured in China, and then shipped across the world. Many of the largest American companies have grown in size by offering their products and services in other countries. McDonald’s was once a single restaurant in San Bernardino, California. The McDonald’s Corporation now owns more than 33,000 restaurants in 119 countries. The Oregon-based athletic apparel brand, Nike, Inc., offers its products in more than 160 countries across the world. Corporations can save money in this world economy by moving certain jobs to developing countries. In 2008, the average American manufacturing worker cost $32.26 per hour. A Chinese worker, in comparison, cost only $1.36 per hour. Because of this huge difference in pay, many American companies moved manufacturing jobs overseas, and many American workers lost their positions to foreign competitors.
Wangfujing Street is a famous shopping area in Beijing, hosting an array of different American, European, and Asian brands. Globalization has allowed companies to offer their products and services across the world.
The Rise of the Rest The beginning of the 21st century has been marked by the dramatic rise of new economic powers. Many developing nations, such as China, India, and Brazil, benefitted from globalization. Once considered minor economic competitors, these nations are now important players in the international economy. While the United States struggled to compete with cheap labor, developing nations took advantage of their populations. With large, young populations, these countries hold a huge advantage in manpower.
U.S. Foreign Policy in a Global Age
In the Reading Further, students dive into a highinterest topic and investigate the intricacies of social studies.
4. Investigating Primary Sources
Investigating Primary Sources What Is Watergate’s Most Important Legacy? The Watergate scandal brought down the presidency of Richard Nixon. However, it had a much larger effect beyond changing who lived in the White House. Watergate influenced American culture, particularly attitudes toward government and politics. Today, people continue to debate the scandal’s long-term effects. You will examine primary sources about Watergate’s effects and then write a claim about this scandal’s most important legacy.
The Investigating Primary Sources comes with a reading that provides a mix of visual and text-based primary sources.
On June 17, 1972, five men broke into the offices of the Democratic National Committee, located in the Watergate building in Washington, D.C. They were arrested, and an investigation found that they had ties to President Richard Nixon’s reelection campaign. Despite news reports of the break-in, Nixon won the 1972 election in a landslide. But the burglary and cover-up would lead to his downfall. As president, Richard Nixon claimed to be as powerful as Louis XIV, an absolute monarch of 17th-century France, and therefore not subject to court rulings, other than impeachment, during the term of his presidency. The courts rejected this and said that the law did indeed apply to the president.
Abusing Power to Limit Dissent The Watergate burglars’ actions were part of a larger pattern of Nixon abusing presidential power. He authorized the FBI to tap the phones of news reporters whom he felt were biased against him, as well as members of his own staff whom he distrusted. Because a judge had not authorized these wiretaps, they were unconstitutional. Thus, they represented an abuse of power. Concerns about secrecy led Nixon to establish his own White House security operation to investigate leaks of damaging information to the press. This group was nicknamed “the plumbers” because their primary task was to “plug” leaks. They helped organize the botched Watergate burglary. The Watergate Scandal Unfolds The Watergate break-in might have been forgotten after Nixon’s reelection if not for the work of two Washington Post reporters, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein. Woodward and Bernstein discovered that Nixon’s reelection campaign had paid the burglars to bug the Democrats’ offices. After the burglars’ trial, the Senate formed a committee to investigate the Watergate affair. In televised hearings, a former White House official testified that Nixon had participated in efforts to cover up the White House’s role in the break-in. Another former Nixon aide revealed that the president had recorded conversations in the Oval Office.
In July 1973, the Senate Watergate Committee issued a subpoena, or court order, for Nixon to turn over several tapes. Nixon refused, invoking the right to withhold information known as executive privilege. Since the time of George Washington, presidents have argued that the separation of powers grants the executive branch the right to operate without disclosing the details of every conversation and working document to the other government branches. Over the next few months, Nixon battled both Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox and the Senate Committee over the release of the White House tapes. On October 20, 1973, in what became known as the “Saturday Night Massacre,” Nixon fired Cox. The president’s own attorney general resigned in protest. No One Is Above the Law Meanwhile, the case to compel Nixon to hand over the tapes made its way through the court system. A district court judge issued a subpoena to force Nixon to release the tapes. Again, he refused. The case then went to the appeals court. There, Nixon’s lawyer claimed that his client had executive privilege: “The President wants me to argue that he is as powerful a monarch as Louis XIV, only four years at a time, and is not subject to the processes of any court in the land except the court of impeachment.” The appeals court rejected this argument and upheld the lower court’s order. Read the following excerpts from an editorial published after the appeals court decision, and answer the following questions: What did the decision indicate about who must follow the law? How did it reflect the effectiveness of the U.S. legal system?
In ringing terms, the court reiterated the fundamental principle that no man, not even the President, is above the law . . . If there is a single buttress [source of support] that has been strengthening the country as it has faced the . . . Watergate [scandal], it has been the renewed demonstration that the laws do indeed apply to those in high places. Sometimes the processes seem to work with painful slowness . . . Slowly, though, the nation’s institutions—the courts, the federal prosecutors, the Justice Department—are calling the executive branch to account. The President is subject to the law . . . The rule of law is being restored, and the public official who tries to ignore its claim does so at his own peril. This includes especially the President of the United States. —Detroit Free Press, October 16, 1973
The 1970s: A Period of Crisis and Change
Students conduct an inquiry about the primary sources. They collect evidence from the primary sources to develop an argument about a compelling question.
5. Timeline Challenge
Analyzing Timelines Students analyze the timeline in the Students Text and answer questions about it.
Researching Events Students select more events to add to the timeline and conduct research on one of them.
Conducting an Inquiry Using their knowledge from the unit, students conduct an inquiry about world history themes. They write an argument answering a compelling question and publish their work.
6. Summative Assessments Mastering the Content This section’s selectedresponse questions are designed to evaluate understanding of the lesson’s content.
Applying Social Studies Skills This section’s constructedresponse questions allow students to demonstrate knowledge of skill through close examination of a rich stimulus or primary source.
Exploring the Essential Content This section’s open-ended questions challenge students to use their critical thinking skills to create a final product.
Universal Access TCI is designed to reach all of your learners. Here are some resources you can use in your classroom.
Reading Tools Digital text-to-audio, main ideas, and note taking tools support reading.
Enrichment Opportunities Students engage with primary sources, review literature, and study biographies of historical figures.
Differentiating Instruction Each lesson comes with modifications for English learners, learners reading and writing below grade level, learners with special education needs, and advanced learners.
Vocabulary Cards Students review important social studies terms with vocabulary flip cards.
English Language Arts (ELA) Opportunities to hone language skills are integrated into each lesson.
Notebook Students engage with the Student Text to record key ideas and make meaning out of what they read in their notebooks.
Writing for Understanding This strategy takes the class through a rich experience, such as debating complex issues, allowing students to develop ideas and form opinions to use as a springboard for writing.
H A N D O U T
Preparing a Radio Broadcast Work with your group to create a realistic, entertaining radio broadcast that includes interesting stories, sound effects, and music. Follow the steps below. Step 1: Assign groups. Circle the name of the group to which you have been assigned. the military
Step 2: Review and assign the roles. Read the information below. Assign everyone a role and make sure everyone understands his or her responsibilities. Station Manager: You will create the radio stationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s promotional poster and the introduction and conclusion to the broadcast. You are also responsible for the sound effects for the introduction and conclusion. News Anchor: You will write and report the lead story for the broadcast. You are also responsible for the sound effects for the lead story. Reporter: You will write and report the human-interest story for the broadcast. You are also responsible for the sound effects for the human-interest story. Ad Manager: You are responsible for writing and performing the advertisement for the broadcast. You are also responsible for the sound effects for the advertisement. Step 3: Learn about your assigned group. Read the section in your Student Text about your assigned group, and complete the corresponding section of your Reading Notes.
Reading Further Students write arguments supported with evidence and reasoning, engage and respond to high-interest Reading Furthers, and create historical news articles and journal entries.
Vocabulary Development Chapter ______
Follow these steps to create an Illustrated Dictionary for your Key Content Terms. Step 1: Choose a Key Content Term. Step 2: Draw a diagram, word map, or other graphic organizer that shows how the term relates to something you already know or to another key term in this chapter or in a previous chapter. Write the term in bigger or darker letters than you use for any other words. Step 3: Find the definition of each term and summarize its meaning in your own words. Step 4: Write a sentence that uses the term. Step 5: Repeat for all the other Key Content Terms. Sketch/Diagram
In Your Own Words
In a Sentence
These resources provide tools for students who need additional guidance and structure, such as strategies to develop vocabulary or guidelines for supporting arguments from evidence.