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Program Contents Our Colonial Heritage 1

The First Americans How did the first Americans adapt to their environments?


European Exploration and Settlement How did Europeans explore and establish settlements in the Americas?


The English Colonies in North America What were the similarities and differences among the colonies in North America?


Life in the Colonies What was life really like in the colonies?

Revolution in the Colonies 5

Toward Independence Why was there an American Revolution?


The Declaration of Independence What principles of government are expressed in the Declaration of Independence?


The American Revolution How was the Continental army able to win the war for independence from Great Britain?

Forming a New Nation 8

Creating the Constitution What compromises emerged from the Constitutional Convention?


The Constitution: A More Perfect Union How has the Constitution created “a more perfect Union�?

10 The Bill of Rights What freedoms does the Bill of Rights protect and why are they important?

Launching the New Republic 11 Political Developments in the Early Republic How did the Federalist and Republican visions for the United States differ?

12 Foreign Affairs in the Young Nation To what extent should the United States have become involved in world affairs in the early 1800s?

13 A Growing Sense of Nationhood What did it mean to be an American in the early 1800s?

14 Andrew Jackson and the Growth of American Democracy How well did President Andrew Jackson promote democracy?

An Expanding Nation 15 Manifest Destiny and the Growing Nation How justifiable was U.S. expansion in the 1800s?

16 Life in the West What were the motives, hardships, and legacies of the groups that moved west in the 1800s?

17 Mexicano Contributions to the Southwest How have Mexicano contributions influenced life in the United States?

Americans in the Mid-1800s 18 An Era of Reform To what extent did the reform movements of the mid-1800s improve life for Americans?

19 The Worlds of North and South How was life in the North different from life in the South?

20 African Americans in the Mid-1800s How did African Americans face slavery and discrimination in the mid-1800s?

The Union Challenged 21 A Dividing Nation Which events of the mid-1800s kept the nation together and which events pulled it apart?

22 The Civil War What factors and events influenced the outcome of the Civil War?

23 The Reconstruction Era To what extent did Reconstruction bring African Americans closer to full citizenship?

Migration and Industry 24 Tensions in the West How did settlers change the West and affect American Indians?

25 The Rise of Industry Did the benefits of industrialization outweigh the costs?

26 The Great Wave of Immigration What was life like for immigrants in the early 1900s?

A Modern Nation Emerges 27 The Progressive Era Did the progressives improve life in the United States?

28 The United States Becomes a World Power Should U.S. actions in world affairs around the turn of the 20th century be praised or condemned?

29 Linking Past to Present What changes since 1914 have shaped how we live today?

What makes us different? History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism

Introduction presents six historical themes

Setting the Stage provides historical and geographical background for the unit

Lessons include over 50 engaging activities

Primary Source Investigations + Reading Further in every unit

100’s of varying Primary Sources embedded within the program

Timeline Challenges conclude each unit

Program Components I N T E R A C T I V E



Political Developments in the Early Republic

Bring Learning Alive!

How did the Federalist and Republican visions for the United States differ?

TCI offers programs for elementary, middle, and high school classrooms.


Listen to the songs “Hail, Columbia” and “Fair and Free Elections.” Then answer these questions.

Fair and Free Elections

Hail, Columbia

2. According to the lyrics, what were some of the issues of the 1800 presidential election?

1. What are three adjectives that describe the song’s mood? 2. How do you think Washington’s swearing in as president united the country? R E A D I N G

1. What are three adjectives that describe the song’s mood?

3. In what ways do you think the nation changed between Washington’s inauguration in 1789 and the election of 1800? N O T E S

Social Studies Vocabulary

As you complete the Reading Notes, use these terms in your answers. Whiskey Rebellion


Washington’s Farewell Address


loose construction

States’ Doctrine

Bring Science Alive! Social Studies Alive! History Alive! Geography Alive! Government Alive! Econ Alive!


strict construction Section 1

1. What issue divided the first Congress as the nation launched the new government?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Political Developments in the Early Republic 1

Interactive Student Notebook

Student Edition

Students engage with their learning by expressing their ideas, completing graphically organized notes, and developing personalized responses in their Interactive Student Notebooks.

The Student Text provides a rich knowledge base of concepts and guides students through their learning.

Lesson Guide

Print Lesson Guide Print Lesson Guides allow for teachers to prepare and prep for their lesson with ease from anywhere.

Teacher and Student Licenses Lesson Guides, customizable assessments, video quizzes, learning games, and more are at your fingertips.

Journey Through a TCI Inquiry-Based Unit Immerse your students in history with TCI’s inquiry-based lessons. Each lesson comes with a readyto-teach slideshow to engage your students with guiding questions that facilitate class discussion and debate, stunning images for students to investigate, built-in audio tracks, and rich written and visual primary sources. Each unit gives several opportunities to further student inquiry through research projects and developing arguments centered around primary sources.



Geography Challenge Kick-off each unit with a Geography Challenge to introduce students to a region and inspire questions about the unit.

TCI’s Lesson Cycle Inquiry is built into each lesson within a unit, beginning with a Preview for students to ask questions and ending with assessments for students to apply what they learned.

3 Reading Furthers Reading Furthers are included in each lesson to enhance literacy and engage students with related topics.


Summative Assessments Each lesson comes with a TCI-created summative assessment, which is comprised of four question sets to fully assess student mastery of content and skills. The test is ready to take, but you can edit and customize the test to meet the needs of your classroom.

Timeline Challenge


Each unit ends with a Timeline Challenge, an activity in which students practice their timeline and cause-and-effect skills to order major events from the unit.

4 Investigating Primary Sources In each unit, students have an opportunity to examine primary sources, connect it to their learning, and conduct an inquiry about them.

1. Geography Challenge

Asking Questions Students review guiding questions and ask their own questions about the region.

Practicing Geography Skills Students examine a map of the region and do a series of geography tasks based on the map.

Interacting with Maps Students use digital resources to interact with regional maps.

2. TCI’s Lesson Cycle





The lesson concludes with a Processing activity where students apply what they have learned in an authentic assessment.

TCI’s lesson cycle begins with a Preview to spark interest, connect to prior learning, and inspire historical questions.

When they are ready, students take a carefully designed summative assessment to gauge their learning.

Engaging Content

Hands-on Activity

Students have an opportunity to read expository text and test their knowledge with interactive games and checks for understanding.

The lesson progresses to a handson Activity, which incorporates one of TCI’s six unique teaching strategies that engages students with rich historical materials and connects them to their reading. Through it all, students respond in their Interactive Student Notebooks as a formative assessment.



3. Reading Furthers

Reading Further Digging Up the Past As a boy growing up in southern Illinois in the 1960s, Tim Pauketat loved to explore and to collect the ancient arrowheads that he found. One day, as he rode in his father’s delivery truck, he saw a great, flat-topped pyramid. To Tim, it looked 100 feet tall, all built of earth. He was instantly captivated by the mysterious mounds of Cahokia.

This serpent mound in Ohio is more than a quarter of a mile long and about 3 feet high. Scholars believe it was built between 1,000 and 1,500 years ago.


Many mysteries surround the mounds of Cahokia (kuhHO-key-uh). As an adult, Tim Pauketat would devote his time to solving some of them. The first mystery was who built the mounds. Tens of thousands of mounds, some shaped as tremendous snakes, birds, or cones, have been discovered in the nation’s interior. The most enormous of these mounds is the great mound of Cahokia, which is more massive than the pyramids of Egypt, rises 10 stories high, and contains 25 million cubic feet of earth. Early settlers pushing west in the 1700s first discovered the mounds. The settlers believed that the American Indians who lived in the area could never have been capable of building such awesome earthworks. Instead, the settlers believed that a lost race of superior beings had built the magnificent mounds. Popular books and poems were written about the “lost race” that had built a great civilization and then vanished. The mystery gripped the public as they looked to Europe, Asia, and Africa for ancient mound builders. Some claimed that the mound builders were Vikings, while others were sure they were Phoenicians. Hindus, Greeks, Romans, Persians, and the lost tribes of Israel were each “proven,” incorrectly, to be the lost race of mound builders. The first American to answer the question scientifically was the third president, Thomas Jefferson. Based on the skeletons and artifacts he found when he dug into a mound, Jefferson was certain that American Indians were the builders. People claimed, however, that Jefferson was wrong, and 100 years later, the battle over who built the mysterious mounds still raged. Finally, in 1881, the Smithsonian Institution hired archaeologist Cyrus Thomas to find out who the mound builders really were. Like most people, Thomas thought the mounds were built by a long-lost race. Over seven years, Thomas and his team unearthed thousands of artifacts. In the end, he disproved his own theory, declaring that the mound builders were indeed early American Indians. But many mysteries remained that Tim Pauketat, the young boy from Illinois, became interested in solving. What culture had built the monumental works, and why had that culture vanished?

Lesson 1

The reading comes with a critical thinking activity, such as evaluating cost and benefits, developing arguments, or exploring cause-and-effect of historical events.

Cahokia Uncovered Today, Tim Pauketat teaches archaeology and brings his students to Cahokia, where they dig very carefully, looking for clues to the past. What they and other archaeologists have learned helps us imagine what Cahokia might have been like in the year 1150 c.e. At dawn, the Great Chief might have stood atop what was the greatest earth mound in the Americas. As he raised his arms to welcome the sun, its first rays would have hit his tall-feathered headdress. Slowly, the sun would have lit his jewelry, made from carved shells and copper, and the cape of feathers that hung from his shoulders. The sun was sacred to the people of Cahokia for it made the corn grow. The mound the Great Chief called home, which we know as Monks Mound, rose 100 feet from the vast, flat plain of what is now southern Illinois. From its top, the Great Chief could look down upon a city of some 20,000 subjects. In addition, thousands lived in villages beyond the city. Consequently, the chief ruled what was probably the largest urban area in the world at the time. He could have seen more than 120 other mounds nearby, and more in the distance (toward what is now St. Louis, Missouri). A towering wall surrounded the city’s center. To the west was a great circle of upright logs—a kind of giant solar calendar that priests used to mark the beginning of spring and fall (the equinoxes) and winter and summer (the solstices).

For centuries, archaeologists have been trying to learn more about the civilization that built Monks Mound. Although the civilization is gone, many clues about it still remain.

The First Americans


In the Reading Further, students dive into a highinterest topic and investigate the intricacies of social studies.

4. Investigating Primary Sources

Investigating Primary Sources Was Christopher Columbus a Hero? Was Christopher Columbus a brave hero for introducing the Americas to Europe? Or was he a greedy conqueror responsible for the deaths of millions of American Indians? Or was he something in between? You will analyze two primary sources that can help you evaluate Columbus’s effect on the Americas.

The Investigating Primary Sources comes with a reading that provides a mix of visual and text-based primary sources.

At daybreak on October 12, 1492, on a small Caribbean island, a group of Taino people observed from a distance as ships landed on their beach. Christopher Columbus and his crew came ashore and planted Spain’s flags in the sand. What did the Taino think when they saw these foreign-looking strangers? We will never know. The Taino had no written language, so their reaction has been lost to history. Most of what we know about the consequences of Columbus’s voyages is based on a few primary sources from the time. One of these sources is Columbus’s ship’s log, or diary of his travels, which he wrote on his first voyage from Spain to the Americas. He wrote it in Spanish in 1492, and it was translated into different languages for people in other countries to read. The log explains Columbus’s purpose for making the voyage, which was to find a new route to the East Indies that would give Spain access to the spice trade with Asia. Along the way, he also hoped to discover gold and other riches, claim land for Spain, and spread the Catholic religion. The following primary source was written by Columbus himself. As you read, ask these questions: How does Columbus depict himself in his writing? How does he depict the Taino? What good does he expect to come from his voyage? Primary sources describe Christopher Columbus as both a heroic explorer and as a conqueror driven by gold and riches. This painting by Currier & Ives is from 1846 and shows the landing of Christopher Columbus with his crew on October 12, 1492.

The Log of Christopher Columbus Friday, October 12, 1492 . . . Presently many inhabitants of the island assembled. What follows is in the actual words of the Admiral in his book of the first navigation and discovery of the Indies. “I,” he says, “that we might form great friendship, for I knew that they were a people who could be more easily freed and converted to our holy faith by love than by force, gave to some of them red caps, and glass beads to put round their necks, and many other things of little value, which gave them great pleasure, and made them so much our friends that it was a marvel to see . . . Saturday, October 13, 1492 “. . . I was attentive, and took trouble to ascertain if there was gold. I saw that some of them had a small piece fastened in a hole they have in the nose, and by signs I was able to make out that to the south, or going from the island to the south, there was a king who had great cups full, and who possessed a great quantity. I tried to get them to go there, but afterwards I saw that they had no inclination. I resolved to wait until tomorrow in the afternoon and then to depart, shaping a course to the S.W., for, according to what many of them told me, there was land to the S., to the S.W., and N.W., and that the natives from the N.W. often came to attack them, and went on to the S.W. in search of gold and precious stones. “This island is rather large and very flat, with bright green trees, much water, and a very large lake in the centre, without any mountain, and the whole land so green that it is a pleasure to look on it. The people are very docile, and for the longing to possess our things, and not having anything to give in return, they take what they can get, and presently swim away. Still, they give away all they have got, for whatever may be given to them, down to broken bits of crockery and glass. I saw one give 16 skeins of cotton for three ceotis of Portugal, equal to one hlanca of Spain, the skeins being as much as an arroha of cotton thread. I shall keep it, and shall allow no one to take it, preserving it all for your Highnesses, for it may be obtained in abundance.” —Christopher Columbus, 1492 After reading the log, consider the following questions: By writing about this important journey in a diary, what do you suppose Columbus wanted to accomplish? For whom is Columbus writing this diary? What does this document say about Columbus’s treatment of and opinions about American Indians? How do you think this source supports the claim that Columbus was a historic hero? What kind of primary source might give evidence that contradicts this image of Columbus as a hero?


Lesson 2

European Exploration and Settlement


Students conduct an inquiry about the primary sources. They collect evidence from the primary sources to develop an argument about a compelling question.

5. Timeline Challenge

Analyzing Timelines Students analyze the timeline in the Students Text and answer questions about it.

Researching Events Students select more events to add to the timeline and conduct research on one of them.

Conducting an Inquiry Using their knowledge from the unit, students conduct an inquiry about world history themes. They write an argument answering a compelling question and publish their work.

6. Summative Assessments Mastering the Content This section’s selectedresponse questions are designed to evaluate understanding of the lesson’s content.

Applying Social Studies Skills This section’s constructedresponse questions allow students to demonstrate knowledge of skill through close examination of a rich stimulus or primary source.

Exploring the Essential Content This section’s open-ended questions challenge students to use their critical thinking skills to create a final product.

Universal Access TCI is designed to reach all of your learners. Here are some resources you can use in your classroom.

Reading Tools Digital text-to-audio, main ideas, and note taking tools support reading.

Enrichment Opportunities Students engage with primary sources, review literature, and study biographies of historical figures.

Differentiating Instructions Each lesson comes with modifications for English learners, learners reading and writing below grade level, learners with special education needs, and advanced learners.

Vocabulary Cards Students review important social studies terms with vocabulary flip cards.

English Language Arts (ELA) Opportunities to hone language skills are integrated into each lesson.

Notebook Students engage with the Student Text to record key ideas and make meaning out of what they read in their notebooks.

Writing for Understanding This strategy takes the class through a rich experience, such as debating complex issues, allowing students to develop ideas and form opinions to use as a springboard for writing.



Creating a Chapter of a Book Suppose you are Alexis de Tocqueville, the 25-year-old Frenchman who traveled the United States from 1831 to 1832. During your visit, you created the first draft of a book about U.S. politics and culture. You are about to return to France when you realize you have lost a chapter of your manuscript. You are thankful you still have your field notes. Re-create your lost chapter on Americans’ growing national identity. The chapter should be written from the perspective of a European and answer this question: What did it mean to be an American in the early 1800s? Use your Reading Notes and the Student Text to help you. Your chapter should be five pages long and have these elements: 1. An introductory page with a title, introductory paragraph, and visual. • The introductory paragraph must contain a thesis that directly answers this question: What did it mean to be an American in the early 1800s? • Use one of these theses, or create one of your own: Being an American means having tremendous pride in one’s country. Being an American means having a sense of individualism. Being an American means promoting national unity. 2. Three pages with paragraphs that support your thesis, and accompanying visuals. • Each page should have at least one paragraph and one visual. • Paragraphs should explore one or more of these topics: politics, art, music, or literature. • Each paragraph should have a topic sentence and examples that support your thesis. For example, you might explain how Davy Crockett’s work reflected Americans’ sense of individualism. Or you might explain how Henry Clay’s American System attempted to unify the country.

Reading Further Students write arguments supported with evidence and reasoning, engage and respond to high-interest Reading Furthers, and create historical news articles and journal entries.

ELA/ELD Connections

Vocabulary Development Chapter ______

Illustrated Dictionary

Follow these steps to create an Illustrated Dictionary for your Key Content Terms. Step 1: Choose a Key Content Term. Step 2: Draw a diagram, word map, or other graphic organizer that shows how the term relates to something you already know or to another key term in this chapter or in a previous chapter. Write the term in bigger or darker letters than you use for any other words. Step 3: Find the definition of each term and summarize its meaning in your own words. Step 4: Write a sentence that uses the term. Step 5: Repeat for all the other Key Content Terms. Sketch/Diagram

In Your Own Words

In a Sentence

These resources provide tools for students who need additional guidance and structure, such as strategies to develop vocabulary or guidelines for supporting arguments from evidence.