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Indiana 6th Grade Review Guide

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What makes us different? History Alive! The Ancient World

Introduction presents six historical themes

Lessons include over 40 engaging activities

Setting the Stage provides historical and geographical background for the unit

Timeline Challenges conclude each unit

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Primary Source Investigations + Reading Further in every unit

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Journey Through a TCI Inquiry-Based Unit Immerse your students in history with TCI’s inquiry-based lessons. Each lesson comes with a readyto-teach slideshow to engage your students with guiding questions that facilitate class discussion and debate, stunning images for students to investigate, built-in audio tracks, and rich written and visual primary sources. Each unit gives several opportunities to further student inquiry through research projects and developing arguments centered around primary sources.

1

Geography Challenge

2

TCI’s Lesson Cycle

Kick-off each unit with a Geography Challenge to introduce students to a region and inspire questions about the unit.

Inquiry is built into each lesson within a unit, beginning with a Preview for students to ask questions and ending with assessments for students to apply what they learned.

3 Reading Furthers Reading Furthers are included in each lesson to enhance literacy and engage students with related topics.

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Summative Assessments Each lesson comes with a TCI-created summative assessment, which is comprised of four question sets to fully assess student mastery of content and skills. The test is ready to take, but you can edit and customize the test to meet the needs of your classroom.

Timeline Challenge

5

Each unit ends with a Timeline Challenge, an activity in which students practice their timeline and cause-and-effect skills to order major events from the unit.

4 Investigating Primary Sources In each unit, students have an opportunity to examine primary sources, connect it to their learning, and conduct an inquiry about them.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  5


1. Geography Challenge

Asking Questions Students review guiding questions and ask their own questions about the region.

Practicing Geography Skills Students examine a map of the region and do a series of geography tasks based on the map.

Interacting with Maps Students use digital resources to interact with regional maps.

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2. TCI’s Lesson Cycle

1

4

Processing/Assessments

Preview

The lesson concludes with a Processing activity where students apply what they have learned in an authentic assessment.

TCI’s lesson cycle begins with a Preview to spark interest, connect to prior learning, and inspire historical questions.

When they are ready, students take a carefully designed summative assessment to gauge their learning.

Engaging Content

Hands-on Activity

Students have an opportunity to read expository text and test their knowledge with interactive games and checks for understanding.

The lesson progresses to a handson Activity, which incorporates one of TCI’s six unique teaching strategies that engages students with rich historical materials and connects them to their reading. Through it all, students respond in their Interactive Student Notebooks as a formative assessment.

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3

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  7


3. Reading Furthers

Reading Further Painting the Gods The Greeks left behind many stone images of their gods and goddesses. These artifacts help historians better understand the relationship between the ancient Greeks and their deities. Most people today assume that when they see these realistic white sculptures in museums, they are viewing ancient pieces that have been preserved in their original form. But experts in the fields of art and archaeology are proving that wrong. Let’s explore how a German archaeologist is showing what these statues actually looked like when they were created.

This is the original marble statue Peplos Kore as she looks today in the Acropolis Museum in Athens. The statue was created around 530 b.c.e.

348

The young woman is wearing a dazzling long yellow-gold dress with a detailed design of animals in shades of red, green, and blue. Her hair is in auburn braids, and her red lips are curved in a smile. The sculpture is called the Peplos Kore and was carved in marble by an unknown artist, around 530 b.c.e. A kore is a type of ancient Greek statue depicting a female figure. Peplos Kore once stood on the acropolis, the hill above Athens, among the temples the Athenians built to honor their gods. She is still in Athens today, in the Acropolis Museum. But if you look at this statue today, you won’t find her richly colored dress, because the colors have now faded away, leaving only the white marble. Luckily, the colors that ancient Greeks once viewed can still be seen in a modern copy created by two German archaeologists, Vinzenz Brinkmann and his wife, Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann. People have believed bare, white marble sculptures to be the traditional Greek style for more than 500 years, but Vinzenz Brinkmann believes his brightly colored copies are closer to what the ancient Greeks created. What’s more, art historians think he’s right! Why White Marble?

Few Greek sculptures have survived from ancient times. Wind, rain, and the passage of time have worn away the colors that once brightened them. These same factors have also damaged the buildings in which the sculptures stood. For a thousand years after the fall of the Roman Empire, people didn’t care much about ancient art. Temples were torn down to reuse the building stone. Marble statues were burned to produce lime, which could then be used to make mortar, glass, and other useful products.

In the 1400s, interest in ancient Greek art revived. People found ancient statues buried under the ground and pulled them from the sea. When artists such as Michaelangelo saw these statues, they assumed that bare white marble had been the style of the ancient artists, so leaving stone in its natural color became the standard practice. As more ancient art pieces were uncovered, experts sometimes noted traces of color on their surfaces. But this color faded or disappeared when the sculptures were exposed to light and air. Sometimes art restorers scrubbed the color off because people of this time considered bare stone more beautiful. But evidence still remained, suggesting that the ancient Greeks had used color. One example of the ancient Greek preference for color is found in a play by the Athenian dramatist Euripides, who lived in the fifth century b.c.e. In the play, the beautiful Helen of Troy wishes that the gods had made her ugly, “as a statue from which the color has been wiped off.” Many art experts understood that ancient Greek sculpture and buildings had been brightly painted. Now and then, scholars tried to picture how these statues must have looked. A few 19th-century artists made copies of Greek statues and colored them in the current style of the artists’ time. These efforts were either laughed at or ignored. White marble was how most people preferred to picture ancient Greek art. Besides, how could anyone know what the original colors had been?

In the Reading Further, students dive into a highinterest topic and investigate the intricacies of social studies.

Enter Vinzenz Brinkmann

Vinzenz Brinkmann believed he could figure out what colors had previously appeared on pieces of ancient Greek art. Beginning in the 1980s, he and his team of archaeologists researched the pigments that ancient Greek artists had used to color their statues. He used special lamps, high-tech cameras, and computers to bring out traces of the original colors. In some cases, the color had completely faded. But even then, Brinkmann’s cameras often revealed changes in the chemistry on the surface of the stone. These changes were like clues in a detective story. They showed what minerals artists had worked with in making the original pigments. The ancient Greeks used a mineral called malachite to make green and another called cinnabar to make red. Arsenic traces on the stone showed where the color had been gold or yellow.

Lesson 31

This re-creation of Peplos Kore shows how Vinzenz Brinkmann believes she looked in ancient Greece. He figured out the missing colors through scientific research.

The Legacy of Ancient Greece

349

The reading comes with a critical thinking activity, such as evaluating cost and benefits, developing arguments, or exploring cause-and-effect of historical events.

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4. Investigating Primary Sources

Investigating Primary Sources What Do Dramas of Ancient Greece Reveal About Its Society? Just as people in today’s society are entertained by movies and television shows, ancient Greeks flocked to open-air theaters to enjoy actors performing in plays. How were these dramas put together? And what were these plays about? You will examine four primary sources related to Greek drama. Then you will create a claim about what Greek dramas reveal about that society.

The Investigating Primary Sources comes with a reading that provides a mix of visual and text-based primary sources.

This bas relief was found in Pompeii, Italy, and now resides in a museum in Naples. It shows a scene from the ancient comedy Andria, which is about a father who arranges a marriage for his son who has already chosen his own bride. Ancient Greek drama tells us about the society at the time.

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Lesson 29

Unlike today’s entertainment, in ancient Greek drama there were no lights, cameras, or microphones. There was a stage at the bottom of a bowl-shaped theater and thousands of seats around it. Scenery was painted on canvases, while actors—men only—wore masks that depicted their emotions. The scenes made audiences laugh, cry, and examine their own lives. There were three main categories of Greek plays. Comedy made fun of people’s foolishness. Tragedy, on the other hand, portrayed serious themes such as love or disappointment, making the audience think about emotional and moral situations. Satyr plays were short comic scenes inserted between acts of a tragedy and made fun of the play’s characters, the playwright, and other people. When playwrights finished writing, they selected actors and designed scenery. The artifact pictured is a carved bas relief tablet from the 2nd century b.c.e. showing a scene from an ancient comedy called Andria. The author, Publius Terentius, was a Roman comic writer who adapted Andria from a Greek drama. His play was first performed in 166 b.c.e. Identify the musician, the actors’ masks, and the scenery on the tablet. Based on this artifact and the caption, what can you learn about ancient Greek drama and ancient Greek society?

A Greek Tragedy: Prometheus Bound

Playwrights often wrote plays about the Greek gods. For example, Prometheus Bound is a famous Greek tragedy about one of the original Greek gods, Prometheus. Some scholars believe it was written by the poet Aeschylus after 458 b.c.e. It was first created as a poem and later revised into full sentences. Picture the scene: Prometheus is chained to a steep cliff. He is being punished by Zeus, the ruler of all gods. Zeus wanted to destroy mankind, but Prometheus saved them by giving them the gift of fire. In this scene, another god, Oceanus, has come to visit Prometheus during his punishment. Prometheus is recounting all he has done for mankind. What situations is Prometheus describing in this excerpt? What does the text tell you about the kinds of activities in Greek society at that time? Based on this excerpt, how would you describe the relationship between ancient Greeks and their religion and gods? How were drama and religion connected in ancient Greece?

Prometheus Bound “[Mankind] neither knew how to construct houses of brick with their fronts to the sun, nor yet the art of working in wood . . . but pursued all their occupations without discernment, until I explained to them the risings of the stars and their mysterious settings. Besides, I first discovered for them numbers, the highest of inventions; and the structure of a written language; and Memory, the mother of the Muse, effective in every art. And I was the first who bound in harness animals made obedient to the yoke; and, in order that they might prove, by their strength, the substitutes for mortals in the greatest toils, I taught the steeds to be guided by the rein in chariots, the ornaments of wealth and luxury. And no one before me invented the bark of the mariner, that traverses the sea with its canvas wings. . . . if any one was assailed by disease, there was no specific against it . . . but the sick fell away through want of medicine, until I taught them to compound soothing restoratives, by which they might be able to repel all maladies . . . But, in a few words, you shall learn at once the extent of my benefits: there is no art among men that is not derived from Prometheus.” —Aeschylus, after 458 b.c.e.

The Golden Age of Athens

329

Students conduct an inquiry about the primary sources. They collect evidence from the primary sources to develop an argument about a compelling question.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  9


5. Timeline Challenge

Analyzing Timelines Students analyze the timeline in the Students Text and answer questions about it.

Researching Events Students select more events to add to the timeline and conduct research on one of them.

Conducting an Inquiry Using their knowledge from the unit, students conduct an inquiry about world history themes. They write an argument answering a compelling question and publish their work.

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6. Summative Assessments Mastering the Content This section’s selectedresponse questions are designed to evaluate understanding of the lesson’s content.

Applying Social Studies Skills This section’s constructedresponse questions allow students to demonstrate knowledge of skill through close examination of a rich stimulus or primary source.

Exploring the Essential Content This section’s open-ended questions challenge students to use their critical thinking skills to create a final product.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  11


Universal Access TCI is designed to reach all of your learners. Here are some resources you can use in your classroom.

Reading Tools (Text to Speech) Digital text-to-audio, main ideas, and note taking tools support reading.

Enrichment Opportunities Students engage with primary sources, review literature, and study biographies of historical figures.

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Differentiating Instructions Each lesson comes with modifications for English learners, learners reading and writing below grade level, learners with special education needs, and advanced learners.

Vocabulary Cards Students review important social studies terms with vocabulary flip cards.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  13


English Language Arts (ELA) Opportunities to hone language skills are integrated into each lesson.

Notebook Students engage with the Student Text to record key ideas and make meaning out of what they read in their notebooks.

Writing for Understanding This strategy takes the class through a rich experience, such as debating complex issues, allowing students to develop ideas and form opinions to use as a springboard for writing.

H A N D O U T

H

Writing a Persuasive Speech About Athens During your walking tour of Athens, you learned about six aspects of Greek culture that thrived during the Golden Age. On a separate sheet of paper, write a speech for the Athenian leader Pericles, using information that you learned on your tour. Your speech should clearly convince Athenians and Greeks from other city-states that Athens is a great city. Your speech must be at least four paragraphs and include these elements: • • • • •

a brief introduction to Athens and the Golden Age a statement explaining why Athens is a great city a description of two or more relevant examples from your walking tour of Athens an appeal to any listeners who might say that Athens is not a great city a brief conclusion that restates your position and reminds listeners of your main points

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Reading Further Students write arguments supported with evidence and reasoning, engage and respond to high-interest Reading Furthers, and create historical news articles and journal entries.

ELA/ELD Connections

Vocabulary Development Chapter ______

Illustrated Dictionary

Follow these steps to create an Illustrated Dictionary for your Key Content Terms. Step 1: Choose a Key Content Term. Step 2: Draw a diagram, word map, or other graphic organizer that shows how the term relates to something you already know or to another key term in this chapter or in a previous chapter. Write the term in bigger or darker letters than you use for any other words. Step 3: Find the definition of each term and summarize its meaning in your own words. Step 4: Write a sentence that uses the term. Step 5: Repeat for all the other Key Content Terms. Sketch/Diagram

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In Your Own Words

These resources provide tools for students who need additional guidance and structure, such as strategies to develop vocabulary or guidelines for supporting arguments from evidence.

In a Sentence

History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  15


Geography Challenge

ANCIENT

GREECE:

LESSON

GUIDE

Lesson: Ancient Greece Title: Complete Lesson Guide

Investigation Planning Unit Overview Estimated Time: 10 mins Overview: In this unit, learn about ancient Greece's people, cultures, and ideas. Teacher Prep: N/A Materials: None

Geography Challenge Estimated Time: 30 mins Overview: Learn about the geography of Greece and complete a Geography Challenge activity. Teacher Prep: N/A Materials: None

Complete Materials List For more detailed information on materials needed for this lesson log in to your Teacher Account. (

)

Lesson Handout: KWL Chart Interactive Student Notebook: Geography Challenge Notebook Answer Key: Geography Challenge Spanish: Interactive Student Notebook: Geography Challenge

Unit Overview None

Geography Challenge None

UNIT OVERVIEW SLIDE 1

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GREECE:

LESSON

GUIDE

Ancient Greece How did the environment of the Greek peninsula and islands, the Anatolian coast, and the surrounding seas affect the development of Greek societies? What were the differences in point of view and perspective between the Persians and the Greeks, and between Athenians and Spartans? What were the political forms adopted by Greek urban societies? What were the achievements and limitations of Athenian democracy? How did Greek thought (a cultural package of mythology, humanistic art, emphasis on reason and intellectual development, and historical, scientific and literary forms) support individuals, states, and societies? How did Greek trade, travel, and colonies, followed by the conquests of Alexander the Great and the spread of Hellenistic culture, affect increasing connections among regions in Afroeurasia?

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 2 In this unit, you will learn about the early civilizations of ancient Greece, including geography of Greece and the Mediterranean region. the expansion of Greece along the Greek peninsula. the many cultural advancements that developed in ancient Greece. the conflicts that Persians and Greeks faced. the similarities and differences between Greek city-states such as Athens and Sparta. the changes in government and the idea of citizenship that developed during this time. the spread of Greek and Hellenistic cultures in Afroeurasia. the lasting achievements of Alexander the Great.

Notes:

If you wish to pre-teach the vocabulary in this unit, have students use the Vocabulary Cards in the Student Account.

SLIDE 3 Think about these guiding questions: How did the environment of the Greek peninsula and islands, the Anatolian coast, and the surrounding seas affect the development of Greek societies? What were the differences in point of view and perspective between the Persians and the Greeks, and between Athenians and Spartans? What were the political forms adopted by Greek urban societies? What were the achievements and limitations of Athenian democracy?

Notes: Have students create individual KWL charts, or create a KWL chart for the class. Use student responses to gauge how much additional background information they will need as you progress through the unit. Have students return to the KWL chart at the end of the unit and add the key information they learned.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  21

Geography Challenge

ANCIENT


Geography Challenge

ANCIENT

GREECE:

LESSON

GUIDE

SLIDE 4 Think about these guiding questions: How did Greek thought (a cultural package of mythology, humanistic art, emphasis on reason and intellectual development, and historical, scientific and literary forms) support individuals, states, and societies? How did Greek trade, travel, and colonies, followed by the conquests of Alexander the Great and the spread of Hellenistic culture, affect increasing connections among regions in Afroeurasia?

Notes: Have students create individual KWL charts, or create a KWL chart for the class. Use student responses to gauge how much additional background information they will need as you progress through the unit. Have students return to the KWL chart at the end of the unit and add the key information they learned.

SLIDE 5 Fill out the first column of this chart. List everything you know about early civilizations in Greece. Now list other questions that you have. We’ll explore these questions throughout the unit!

Notes: Have students create individual KWL charts, or create a KWL chart for the class. Use student responses to gauge how much additional background information they will need as you progress through the unit. Have students return to the KWL chart at the end of the unit and add the key information they learned.

GEOGRAPHY CHALLENGE SLIDE 6

Read “Setting the Stage” in the Student Text for this unit.

Notes: Essential Geographic Understandings: Location of ancient Greece Key physical features including the Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Black Sea, and Asia Minor Location of Greek colonies Location of key Greek cities

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GREECE:

LESSON

GUIDE

SLIDE 7 Geography Challenge Go to the Geography Challenge in the notebook. Follow the directions to complete the map and answer the questions. Let’s check your answers to the Geography Skills and Critical Thinking questions. Discuss: What was the geographic relationship of the key Greek cities?

Notes: You may wish to have students play the Lesson Game for this lesson to assess what they learned during the Geography Challenge.

SLIDE 8 Geography Challenge Can you find these six key locations without referring to your map? Drag each label to the correct location on the map. Good luck! Athens Ionian Sea Aegean Sea Adriatic Sea Sparta Mediterranean Sea

Notes:

In the online Student Account, the Geography Challenge is found in the Setting the Stage section.

Have students drag the labels as accurately as possible onto the map. Click the small Answer Key thumbnail to check their work.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  23

Geography Challenge

ANCIENT


Unit 5 Setting the Stage Ancient Greece

Greece has three main parts: the mainland, which is part of southern Europe; the peninsula, which is connected to the mainland by just a thin strip of land; and the islands, which number more than 2,000. The peninsula, where the Mycenaeans once thrived, is called the Peloponnesus. The largest island, Crete, lies in the Mediterranean Sea, south of the mainland. The Minoans lived on Crete, but most of the islands of ancient Greece were not suitable places to live.

As sunlight falls on the mountains, hills, and coasts of Greece, reflecting off the surfaces of the sea, white-washed buildings, and ancient ruins, it is dazzling, brilliant, and vibrant. In ancient times, the light of Greece was unaffected by the haze of modern pollution and was surely even more magical than it is today.

The World of the Ancient Greeks, About 550 B.C.E.

E U R O P E

Black

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Ionian Sea

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Troy

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a n Se gea Ae

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Sicily

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Me Crete dite rranea n Sea

500 miles

0 250 500 kilometers Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection

Sea

R HO DOPE M

US

BALEARIC Sardinia ISLANDS

PIN D

NE S

Se

c

NI

Corsica

ria

S

Ad

EE

EN

IBERIAN PENINSULA

AP

PY RE N

Cyprus

A S I A

Ancient Greece Greek colonies

A F R I C A

EGYPT

Trade routes

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Ancient Greece Adriat

R M OH O D O UNT PE AINS

Black Sea

ea ic S

gea

Olympia

A S I A M I N O R

a

Thebes

e n S

Delphi

Ionian Sea

Troy

Ae

S S D UA I N PIN NT U MO

Mount Olympus 9,570 ft., 2,917 m

Marathon Athens Mycenae

PELOPONNESUS

N

Sparta E

W S 0

50

100 miles

0 50 100 kilometers Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection

Mediterranean Sea AW_SE_U05_02 Ancient Greece in ancient Greece was inBlackSettlement Cyan Magenta Yellow Third Proof fluenced by geography, just as it was for TCI18 135

people of other ancient cultures. High mountains separated ancient Greek communities from one another, which made it easier for the Greek people to interact with outsiders than with each other. Most of Greece is covered with steep mountains. Mount Olympus is the highest, rising about 9,500 feet above sea level. The rest of Greece is made up of lowlands along its many miles of coastline. Greece is surrounded by seas on three sides: the Aegean to the east, the Mediterranean to the south, and the Ionian to the west. Carved out of the land where it meets the sea are many deep inlets and protected bays, so shipbuilding, fishing, and seafaring were important in ancient Greece.

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Crete

In early times, coastal villages were separated by the high mountains. The soil was poor, and level land was scarce, but farmers grew olives, grapes, and fruit and nut trees along the coast. Cattle could not graze on the steep hillsides of Greece, so the Greeks raised sheep and goats. Over time, as the population of ancient Greece grew, it became harder to produce enough food for everyone. So the Greeks took to the seas, traveling to Asia Minor (present-day Turkey), France, Italy, Spain, and Africa to set up trading colonies. The map The World of the Ancient Greeks, About 550 b.c.e. shows Greek colonies and trading routes. In this unit, you will learn more about the “land of light” and the ways in which the mountains and the sea shaped the history of ancient Greece. History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  25

Ancient Greece 283


GREECE:

INTERACTIVE

STUDENT

NOTEBOOK

Ancient Greece

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0 250 500 kilómetros Proyección azimutal equiárea de Lambert

0

O

S

N

E

250

500 millas

GRECIA

Geography Challenge

ANCIENT

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GREECE:

INTERACTIVE

STUDENT

NOTEBOOK

Geography Skills

Analyze the maps in “Setting the Stage” for Unit 5 the Student Text. Then answer the following questions and fill out the map as directed. 1. Locate the sea that is south of ancient Greece. Label it.

What sea lies along the eastern coast of Greece? Label it.

2. On what continent is ancient Greece located? Label it. 3. On which continents did the ancient Greeks establish settlements? On your map, shade these colonies and label the continents on which they are located.

4. Use the large map in the Student Text to name the peninsula in Europe that had Greek colonies that were the farthest away from mainland Greece. Then use the scale of miles on the map in the Student Text to measure the approximate distance from mainland Greece to this colony.

5. Locate the Adriatic and the Ionian seas on your map and label them. How did the seas surrounding ancient Greece influence its development?

6. In what direction would you travel to get from ancient Greece to Egypt?

7. Locate and label the cities of Athens and Sparta. Which one was farther north?

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  27

Geography Challenge

ANCIENT


Geography Challenge

ANCIENT

GREECE:

INTERACTIVE

STUDENT

NOTEBOOK

Critical Thinking

Answer the following questions in complete sentences.

8. Review the Unit 5 “Setting the Stage” feature in the Student Text. The Greeks did not have much level land for farming or grazing cattle. How did they meet this challenge?

9. Over time, as the population of ancient Greek communities increased, some communities did not have enough farmland to produce enough food for the population. Using the large map in the Unit 5 “Setting the Stage” feature, predict what ancient Greeks did to solve this problem.

10. Most of the Greek islands lie between the Greek mainland and Asia Minor (present-day Turkey). Would this fact have made travel to Asia Minor easier or more difficult? Explain your answer.

11. When the ancient Greeks established settlements in other countries, they came into contact with people from other cultures. How might this have affected the history of ancient Greece?

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GREECE:

TOOLKIT

compass Rose What is it? Mapmakers use a diagram called a compass rose

to show directions on a map. A simple compass rose has two short lines that cross at right angles. The ends of the lines are labeled N for north, S for south, E for east, and W for west. These are the cardinal directions. A more complex compass rose has lines between the cardinal points to show intermediate directions. These lines are labeled NE for northeast, SE for southeast, SW for southwest, and NW for northwest.

Geography Challenge

ANCIENT

N NE

NW

W

E

SE

SW

S

how to do it. Use the compass rose to tell where one place is in relation to

another. Find Colorado (CO) and Wyoming (WY) on the map below. The compass rose tells you that Colorado is south of Wyoming. This is one way to state its TCI18 relative location. Now find Wisconsin (WI). From the compass rose, you can see 163 LMSK_06 Compass Rose Art that Minnesota (MN) is west of Wisconsin. You can also see that Indiana (IN) is southeast of Wisconsin. Second proof continental united States

WA OR

ID NV

cA

Vt

ND

Mt WY

MN

SD

ut

AZ

cO

NM

PACIFIC OCEAN

NY

WI

MI

IN

IL

KS OK tX

Gulf of Mexico

N E

W

MA RI ct NJ DE MD

PA Oh WV VA KY MO Nc tN Sc AR ATLANTIC AL GA MS OCEAN LA FL

IA

NE

Nh ME

S

0 0

400 400

800 miles

800 kilometers

try it. Use this map to answer the following questions. TCI18 164 LMSK_07

1. Which state borders Oregon (OR) on the east? The north? Continental United States Third Proof 2. If you traveled from Georgia (GA) to Missouri (MO), in which direction would you go? 3. Find Colorado (CO) and Nebraska (NE). Where is Nebraska in relation to Colorado? 4. Suppose you go north from Texas (TX) to the next state. Then you go to the state to the west. Where would you be?

6 Map Skills Toolkit www.teachtci.com

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  29


O V E R V I E W

The Ancient World: The Golden Age of Athens Essential Question: What were the major cultural achievements of Athens?

Sample Lesson

Lesson

Lesson Overview: In a Writing for Understanding activity, students take a “walking tour” of Athens, visiting six sites to learn about various aspects of Greek culture. Students then write a speech describing Athens during its Golden Age. Lesson Objectives: Social Studies • describe the role of Pericles in leading Athens into its Golden Age. • discuss the significance of religion in the everyday life of the ancient Greeks. • identify ways in which Greek literature permeates modern English language and literature. • explain how Athenian achievements in architecture, sculpture, drama, philosophy, and sports contributed to its Golden Age. Language Arts • support a clearly stated position, using organized and relevant evidence. • revise writing to improve the organization and clarity of ideas within paragraphs. • deliver a persuasive presentation that is focused and coherent. Standards: View how each program correlates to your state’s standards by visiting http://bit.ly/TCISocialStudiesStandards. Universal Access (pg. 47-48): • ELA: Reading • English Learners • ELD: Vocabulary • Vocabulary: Illustrated Dictionary • Reading Toolkit • Learners Reading and Writing Below Grade Level • Advanced Learners • ELA: Communicating and Critiquing Conclusions • Learners with Special Education Needs • ELD: Writing • Deeper Coverage • ELA: Writing • Writing Toolkit

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THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

AT HENS:

LESSON

GUIDE

Lesson: The Golden Age of Athens Title: Complete Lesson Guide Standards Covered

Reading

Writing

Speaking and Listening

Language

Key Ideas and Details CC.K-12.R.R.1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. CC.K-12.R.R.2 Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. CC.K-12.R.R.3 Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

Production and Distribution of Writing CC.K-12.W.R.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. CC.K-12.W.R.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

Comprehension and Collaboration CC.K-12.SL.R.2 Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. CC.K-12.SL.R.3 Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

Knowledge of Language CC.K-12.L.R.3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

Craft and Structure CC.K-12.R.R.4 Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

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Research to Build and Present Knowledge CC.K-12.W.R.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. CC.K-12.W.R.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. CC.K-12.W.R.9 Draw

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use CC.K-12.L.R.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate. CC.K-12.L.R.6 Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in

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Common Core ELA Standards


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Integration of Knowledge and Ideas CC.K-12.R.R.7 Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity CC.K-12.R.R.10 Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

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evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

GUIDE gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Range of Writing CC.K-12.W.R.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Investigation Planning Preview Estimated Time: 45 mins Overview: Analyze an excerpt from Pericles’ Funeral Oration to explore what made Athens a unique city during the fifth century B.C.E. Teacher Prep: N/A Materials: None

Activity Estimated Time: 180 mins Overview: Take a “walking tour” of Athens during its Golden Age in the fifth century B.C.E.. Write a speech about why Athens is a great city. Teacher Prep: N/A Materials: None

Vocabulary Estimated Time: 5 mins Overview: Review vocabulary terms from this lesson. Teacher Prep: N/A Materials: None

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Investigating Primary Sources Estimated Time: N/A Overview: Create an argument to answer the question: What do dramas of ancient Greece reveal about its society? Teacher Prep: N/A Materials: None

Complete Materials List For more detailed information on materials needed for this lesson log in to your Teacher Account. (

)

Lesson Pencil, assorted colors Stopwatch Straw Tape, masking Yard sticks Audio Transcripts Handout A: Myth Cards and Word Cards Handout B: Template Blueprint Handout C: Egyptian Statue Puzzle and Greek Statue Puzzle Handout D: Antigone Script Handout E: Socrates’s Quotations Handout F: Judge’s Score Sheet Handout G: Station Directions Handout H: Writing a Persuasive Speech About Athens Interactive Student Notebook Notebook Answer Key Placards A-F Spanish: Handouts Spanish: Interactive Student Notebook

Preview None

Activity None

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Estimated Time: 20 mins Overview: Write a paragraph that answers the question: What were the major cultural achievements of Athens? Teacher Prep: N/A Materials: None


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ACTIVITY SLIDE 1 The Golden Age of Athens

What were the major cultural achievements of Athens?

Notes: Use this Lesson Guide to plan and teach the lesson! The Overview slide summarizes the parts of the lesson and gives estimated times. In the Teacher Note, you’ll find Social Studies and Language Arts objectives. The Materials and Preparation slides tell you what to gather and prep before class. When you’re ready to teach the lesson, start with thePreview slides. The Activity slides walk students through every step of the interactive lesson. Students are instructed when to read each section in the Student Text and when to complete their print or online Interactive Student Notebooks. Use the Vocabulary slides to review key Social Studies terms. Finally, students complete theProcessing assignment in their notebooks. Use it to assess what students have learned.

SLIDE 2 Notes: Watch this quick video to find out the highlights of the lesson.

SLIDE 3 Essential Question

What were the major cultural achievements of Athens? Preview Students analyze an excerpt from Pericles’ Funeral Oration to explore what made Athens a unique city during the fifth century B.C.E. [15 min + 30 min for vocabulary]

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Activity In a Writing for Understanding activity, students take a “walking tour” of Athens during its Golden Age in the fifth century B.C.E. and then write a speech about why Athens is a great city. [Phase 1: 90 min; Phase 2: 90 min] Processing (optional)

Investigating Primary Sources Students create an argument to answer the question: What do dramas of ancient Greece reveal about its society? [optional]

Notes: Objectives In the course of reading this lesson and participating in the classroom activity, students will:

Social Studies describe the role of Pericles in leading Athens into its Golden Age. discuss the significance of religion in the everyday life of the ancient Greeks. identify ways in which Greek literature permeates modern English language and literature. explain how Athenian achievements in architecture, sculpture, drama, philosophy, and sports contributed to its Golden Age.

Language Arts support a clearly stated position, using organized and relevant evidence. revise writing to improve the organization and clarity of ideas within paragraphs. deliver a persuasive presentation that is focused and coherent.

SLIDE 4 Materials to Print Interactive Student Notebook (1 per student) Handout D: Antigone Script (1 per pair of students) Placards A–F: Greek Culture (1 per class) Handout E: Socrates’s Quotations (2 copies) Handout A: Myth Cards and Word Cards (2 copies, each page cut apart) Handout F: Judge’s Score Sheet (2 copies) Handout B: Template Blueprint (1 per pair of students) Handout G: Station Directions (1 per pair of students) Handout C: Egyptian Statue Puzzle and Greek Statue Puzzle (2 copies, each page cut apart) Handout H: Writing a Persuasive Speech About Athens (1 per student) Materials: 1 of 2

Notes: N/A

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The persuasive speech serves as this lesson’s Processing activity. Should you choose not to have students do the writing activity, you might use the optional Processing activity in the Interactive Student Notebook. [20 min]


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SLIDE 5 Teacher Supplied Materials Masking tape Colored pencils (12 sets per class) Straws (4 per class) Lesson

Yardsticks (2 per class) Stopwatches (2 per class, optional) Materials: 2 of 2

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 6 Before class: 1. Consider how you will teach the activity over the course of several days. The suggested time for this Writing for Understanding activity is 180 minutes. 2. Create six stations for Phase 1 of the activity by placing two or three desks together against the wall at various points. Post the appropriate placard on each station wall, in between the desks, and place copies of the Student Text at each station. 3. Print extra copies of Placards A–F as needed. 4. Consider printing Handout A: Myth Cards and Word Cards and Handout C: Egyptian Statue Puzzle and Greek Statue Puzzle on heavy paper or cardstock so that they may be reused by students in different classes.

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 7 The Golden Age of Athens

What were the major cultural achievements of Athens?

Notes: N/A

PREVIEW SLIDE 8 Preview In Athens, public funerals were held for soldiers who had died in battle. In 430 B.C.E., after a difficult year of war, an Athenian leader named Pericles spoke at such a funeral. In his speech, he described the greatness of Athens and why it was important to keep on fighting.

Notes: N/A

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SLIDE 9 . . . we have not forgotten to provide for our weary spirits many relaxations from toil; we have regular games and sacrifices throughout the year; our homes are beautiful and elegant; and the delight which we daily feel in all these things helps to banish sorrow. Because of the greatness of our city, the fruits of the whole earth flow in upon us; so that we enjoy the goods of other countries as freely as our own. . .To sum up: I say that Athens is the school of Hellas . . . Such is the city for whose sake these men nobly fought and died. . . Pericles, Funeral Oration, in History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 10 Explore what made Athens a unique city during the the fifth century B.C.E. Analyze the excerpt from Pericles’s Funeral Oration. Then go to the Preview assignment in your print or online Interactive Student Notebook and answer the questions. When you are finished, share your responses with a partner.

Notes: If you are using the Interactive Student Notebook, you can access it three ways: Online: Go to the “Student View,” and navigate to the Notebook. Online: Go to the “Materials” tab, and print out the PDF notebook pages. Print: Use the print Interactive Student Notebooks in your classroom. In the Student Account, you can find the Preview assignment in the Introduction section.

SLIDE 11 Pericles had many reasons to think of Athens as a great city and as the “school of Greece.” At the time he gave his speech, Athens had just ended a period of peace and prosperity known as the Golden Age. During that time, Athens had become the artistic and cultural center of Greece. In this lesson, you will learn about several aspects of Greek culture that thrived during the Golden Age of Athens.

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 12 Vocabulary Development Locate the Social Studies Vocabulary for this lesson in your notebook. Pericles Parthenon acropolis myth www.teachtci.com

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Here is an excerpt from his speech:


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drama Socrates Panathenaic Games These important terms will help you understand the main ideas of the lesson.

Notes: Lesson

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SLIDE 13 Read the Introduction in your Student Text. Use information from the Introduction and from the lesson opener image to propose some possible answers to the Essential Question:

What were the major cultural achievements of Athens?

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 14 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens Section 1 in your Student Text provides background information about Athens after the Persian wars. Read Section 1, Athens After the Persian Wars, in your Student Text, and answer the questions in your notebook.

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 15 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens Welcome to the walking tour of Athens. In this activity, you will visit six stations and learn about a different aspect of Greek culture at each. Afterward, you will use your notes from the tour to help you write a speech for Pericles describing the greatness of Athens during its Golden Age.

Notes: Arrange the classroom before class. Use desks to set up the stations as shown in the diagram. Follow the instructions on the back of Placards A–F to set up the materials at each station. Then post the appropriate placard on each station wall, in between the two desks. Prepare to play the audio, “Socrates Speaks,” between the two desks at Station E.

SLIDE 16 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens The stations in our classroom represent different sites in or near ancient Athens. At each station, you will: Examine an image and respond to a question on a placard. Read and complete the Reading Notes for a section of your Student Text.

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Read a short paragraph about why you are visiting that station. Complete a short activity, such as designing a temple or performing a play. Get your work checked before moving on to the next station.

Notes:

SLIDE 17 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens Here are the sites you will visit: Site A: Temple of Apollo at Delphi Site B: Parthenon Site C: Marble workshop Site D: Theater of Dionysus Site E: Agora Site F: Panathenaic Games

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 18 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens At Station A, A the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, you will learn about religion. This site is just outside Athens. With your partner, you will play a game in which you match a Myth Card to its related Word Card.

Notes: At Station A, students read Section 2, Greek Religion. Place two copies of Handout A: Myth Cards and Word Cardsat Station A. The cards should be cut apart. Each set of Myth Cards should be paired with a set of Word Cards.

SLIDE 19 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens At Station B, B the Parthenon, you will learn about architecture. With your partner, you will design a temple on a copy of the temple blueprint according to the guidelines provided. You will also complete sentences to explain your design.

Notes: At Station B, students read Section 3, Greek Architecture.

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SLIDE 20 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens At Station C, C the marble workshop, you will learn about sculpture.

Lesson

With your partner, you will assemble the pieces of an Egyptian statue and a Greek statue.

Notes: At Station C, students read Section 4, Greek Sculpture. Place two copies of Handout B: Egyptian Statue Puzzle and Greek Statue Puzzleat Station B. The puzzle pieces should be cut apart. Each Egyptian Statue Puzzle should be paired with a Greek Statue Puzzle.

SLIDE 21 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens At Station D , the Theater of Dionysus, you will learn about drama. With your partner, you will rehearse part of Sophocles’s play, Antigone. Each of you will take one part and perform the selection by reading your character’s part. Then you will write your names on the paper provided and write the answer to this question: Will Antigone break the law, and what do you think will happen to her?

Notes: At Station D, students read Section 5, Greek Drama. Place a sheet of lined paper at Station D so students may respond to the question at Step 4.

SLIDE 22 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens At Station E , the agora, you will learn about philosophy. You and your partner will think about Socrates’s ideas and fill in a row of the chart for each quotation with: your names what you think Socrates means whether you agree or disagree To listen to Socrates’s ideas, play the audio “Socrates Speaks.”

Notes: At Station E, students read Section 6, Greek Philosophy.

Place two copies ofHandout E: Socrates’s Quotations at Station E.

Addressing Misconceptions: Studying dynamic historical figures like Socrates can heighten student interest and increase students’ desire to take actions to improve the world around them. It is also important to guide students in drawing connections between historical figures and across time periods, For example, point out some elements about the life and death of Socrates. His enemies accused him of dishonoring the gods and of leading young people into error and disloyalty. He was then tried, sentenced to death, and did nothing to avoid his punishment. Point out that, while Socrates is not

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considered to be a religious leader, his life and death do share some similarities to the life and death of Jesus Christ. Mention that students will learn more about the origins of Christianity in Unit 6: Ancient Rome.

SLIDE 23 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens At Station F, F the Panathenaic Games, you will learn about sports. Lesson

You will compete in three events: throwing the javelin (straw) jumping with your feet together balancing a book on the back of your hand You will measure the distance and time, and record your scores on the score sheet.

Notes: At Station F, students read Section 7, Greek Sports. Place two copies of Handout F: Judge’s Score Sheet at Station F.

SLIDE 24 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens You and your partner may now go to your first station. Follow the directions for each station, and be sure to leave each station in the condition in which you found it. At Station E, play the audio “Socrates Speaks” to hear Socrates’s ideas. Remember to get your worked checked before moving on to the next station.

Notes: Place students in pairs and conduct the walking tour. Have pairs go to different stations. Monitor pairs at each station. Use the Answer Key to check students’ work before they move on to another station.

SLIDE 25 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens Now that you have completed your Reading Notes for each section in this lesson, let’s review our answers. We’ll begin with Sections 2 and 3.

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 26 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens Let’s review the answers for Sections 4 and 5.

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Notes: N/A

SLIDE 27 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens

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Let’s review the answers for Sections 6 and 7.

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 28 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens Let’s review what we learned at the stations during the first part of the activity. Match each myth-related word to its definition. panic tantalize herculean narcissism titanic 1. something needing great strength or courage 2. great in size or strength 3. extreme fear 4. too much pride in oneself or one’s appearance 5. to tease or torment someone with something he or she cannot have.

Notes: Use this as a starting point to review what students learned at the stations. Station B: Ask pairs to share their Temple Blueprint and explain their design choices. Station D: Invite students to provide their answer to question at Step 4 on Handout D:Will Antigone break the law, and what do you will happen to her? Station E: Review the meaning of each of Socrates’ quotations. Poll whether students agree or disagree with Socrates, and ask them to explain their response. Station F: Announce who scored the highest in the each of the Panathenaic Games events.

SLIDE 29 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens Match each myth-related word to its definition. stentorian nemesis museum echo 6. a repeated sound 42  History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide

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6. a repeated sound 7. something or someone that causes failure or harm 8. a place where valuable objects of art and science are displayed 9. very loud

Notes:

SLIDE 30 Writing for Understanding: Phase 1 Taking a Walking Tour of Athens Click each word card to reveal its related myth.

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 31 Writing for Understanding: Phase 2 Writing a Speech for Pericles Phase 2 Writing a Speech for Pericles In the Preview activity, you examined an excerpt from a speech given by the Athenian leader Pericles. In the speech, he described the greatness of Athens. He called the city the “school of Greece.” Each of you will now write another speech for Pericles using information you learned at the six sites on your walking tour. Your speech should clearly convince Athenians and Greeks from other city-states that Athens is a great city.

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 32 Writing for Understanding: Phase 2 Writing a Speech for Pericles Your speech must be at least four paragraphs and include the elements listed on Handout H: Writing a Persuasive Speech About Athens . After you have written your speech, practice quietly reading your draft aloud to your partner. Then edit and revise your speech.

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 33 Writing for Understanding: Phase 2 Writing a Speech for Pericles Form groups of four, two pairs to a group. Take turns reading your speeches aloud to your groups. As you listen, record the most persuasive statement you hear from each speech. When your group is finished, share with the class your group’s most persuasive quotations.

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VOCABULARY

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SLIDE 34

Drag each term to its correct definition. Pericles Parthenon acropolis myth 1. a traditional story that helps explain a culture’s beliefs 2. the temple built on the acropolis above Athens, honoring the goddess Athena 3. a great leader who developed Athens’s culture, democracy, and power during the Golden Age 4. the hill above a Greek city, on which temples were built Vocabulary: 1 of 2

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 35

Drag each term to its correct definition. drama Socrates Panathenaic Games 5. a great ancient Greek philosopher who taught by asking his students thought-provoking questions 6. the art of writing, acting in, and producing plays 7. athletic events, including horse races and chariot races, held as part of the festival called Panathenaea, honoring the goddess Athena Vocabulary: 2 of 2

Notes: N/A

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PROCESSING SLIDE 36 Processing Go to the Processing activity in your notebook. Write a paragraph that answers the Essential Question:

What were the major cultural achievements of Athens? When you are finished, share your paragraph with your partner.

Notes:

In the Student Account, you can find the Processing assignment in the Summary section.

The persuasive speech in the Writing for Understanding section serves as the Processing activity for this lesson. Assign the Processing activity in the Interactive Student Notebook only if you skipped the speech writing assignment.

INVESTIGATING PRIMARY SOURCES SLIDE 37 Investigating Primary Sources What do you know about ancient Greek drama? Let’s use primary sources to further explore what these dramas tell us about Greek society. Read Investigating Primary Sources, What Do Dramas of Ancient Greece Reveal About Its Society?, in the Student Text.

Notes: Students can use information from the lesson, the activity, and prior knowledge to tell what they know about the Greek drama.

You may wish to point out the questions listed in the text for each primary source and have students answer the questions as they read.

Addressing Misconceptions: Analyzing primary sources are an excellent way for students to act as historians themselves and draw their own conclusions. However, some students assume that simply because primary sources were made by people who lived during the time, they are therefore “better” than secondary sources. Make sure students take into account how authors’ goals, beliefs, and perspectives affect the sources they create. Most primary sources, both written and visual, only tell part of the story and from a very specific viewpoint. Since students are working with persuasive language and writing in this lesson, mention that some primary sources do attempt to persuade their readers. Students should always inquire about other possible primary and secondary sources to get a broader picture of the topic, circumstance, or event that is discussed in the source.

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Let’s assess what you have learned.


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SLIDE 38 Go to the Investigating Primary Sources assignment in your notebook. Examine the four primary source documents in the reading. Write down evidence from each source that helps answer this question.

Lesson

What do dramas of ancient Greece reveal about its society?

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 39 What do dramas of ancient Greece reveal about its society? Use evidence from the primary source documents to make a claim to this question. Then create an argument that clearly states your claim, includes evidence, and provides explanations to support the claim.

Notes: You may want to have students write their arguments as an essay or create an outline detailing their claim, evidence, and explanations.

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U N I V E R S A L

A C C E S S

Universal Access Quicker Coverage Have Students Choose Sites After students complete Phase 1 of the Writing for Understanding activity, introduce the writing activity and review the speech guidelines on Handout H: Writing a Persuasive Speech About Athens. Tell students that they will choose to visit three of the six sites in their walking tour. They should choose the sites they would most like to write about in their speeches. Students then complete their three stations for the walking tour. Before they begin the writing activity, they should read and complete the Reading Notes for the remaining three sections. Eliminate the Speech Writing After students complete their walking tour of Athens, wrap up the activity with a brief discussion. Ask students these questions: What was the most interesting place you visited? Which site did you find most impressive and why? How did the city of Athens support the growth of Greek culture? What were the major cultural achievements of Athens? Deeper Coverage Research Pericles Have students work in pairs or in small groups to research the life of Pericles. To share what they learn, students should write a funeral oration, or eulogy, for Pericles. In their eulogies, students should summarize three important details about the life of Pericles, highlight his beliefs about democracy, and present evidence for why he should be remembered. Consider having students also include a quotation from Pericles, such as one from his Funeral Oration speech that he gave at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. Replace the Speech with a Scrapbook In place of the speech-writing activity, have students create a scrapbook of their walking tour of Athens. Their scrapbook should include an appropriately decorated cover and three or more pages about their visit. Each page should focus on what students learned at one of the six sites and include the following: • an illustration of the student at the site • a description of what the student learned at the site • a memento from the site (e.g., a postcard from Delphi, a theater ticket, a note from Socrates) Allow students to use technology to find or create their illustrations, write their descriptions, and make their mementos. English Learners Simplify the Preview Activity Separate and simplify the main points of the quotation from Pericles, provided on the Preview assignment in the notebook. Consider bulleting these main points: • We provide entertainment so people can relax after working hard. • We hold athletic games. • We have beautiful homes. • We are happy because we have nice things in our city. • We enjoy products from many places.

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Our lessons can be modified to reach all your learners and to fit your schedule. These suggestions are some ways you can adapt the lesson to fit the needs of your class. You can also find these tips at point-of-use throughout the lesson guide.


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Simplify the Station Directions and Activities Modify Handout G: Station Directions to ensure that students understand what they need to do. Also consider modifying those activities that require a lot of reading. Below are several suggestions: • Station A: Draw pictures to show how the oracle’s matching game should work; eliminate four Myth Cards and their corresponding Word Cards so that students make only five matches. • Station B: Annotate the temple blueprint with the specific tasks listed in Step 4 of the directions for Station B. • Station D: Ahead of time, have two volunteers record a performance of the play so that students can listen to the recording while reading the script; define any difficult words in the script. • Station E: Allow students to choose one quotation to respond to, and to replay the track if necessary. • Station F: Find or draw simple visuals of each of the events in Step 4 of the directions for Station F. Design a Poster As an alternative to the writing activity, students work individually or in pairs to design a poster advertising why Athens would be a great city to visit during its Golden Age. The poster should highlight the top three things to do while visiting Athens and include a catchy title and three or more visuals with captions. Learners Reading and Writing Below Grade Level Conduct a Prewriting Activity After students have completed the walking tour, they work with partners to complete a brief prewriting activity. For each of the sites they visited, students write a sentence describing what they learned and a sentence explaining its relation to Athens’s Golden Age. You might provide sentence starters, such as these: • At Delphi, I learned . . . • This shows that Athens was in its Golden Age because . . . Learners with Special Education Needs Preview and Limit Stations Require students to visit three of the six stations and complete the Reading Notes for only those stations they visit. To help students choose their three stations, introduce the topics at each station, provide a brief overview of the topic, and summarize the activity students would complete at each station. Adapt the Speech-Writing Activity Eliminate the requirement to appeal to those listeners who might say that Athens is not a great city. Alternatively, provide a list of counterarguments, such as: • Athens is not a great city because Socrates was killed there. • Athens is not a great city because its achievements are not anything special. • Athens is not a great city because Sparta is better. • Athens is not a great city because other civilizations had better achievements. Advanced Learners Discuss the End of the Golden Age Provide students with varying viewpoints or have them research different historians’ points of view about why the Golden Age of Athens ended. Examples might include a discussion of the trial of Socrates, the role of Pericles, and the start of the Peloponnesian War. Students identify the main points of view and then discuss as a class the one they think is most valid.

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E N R I C H M E N T

Enrichment

Mythweb http://www.mythweb.com/index.html Devoted to the “heroes, gods and monsters of Greek mythology,” Mythweb is an outstanding tool for examining the stories and lives of ancient Greek mythology. Search the encyclopedia to find specific figures, click on the “Heroes” section to read some of the fabled adventures, and see the 12 Olympians atop their home on Mount Olympus. This site provides a helpful connection with study of the Golden Age of Athens. The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization (PBS) http://www.pbs.org/empires/thegreeks/htmlver/index.html Created as a supplement to the PBS documentary series on ancient Greece, The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization allows you to take in “The Acropolis Experience,” which includes a virtual tour of the Acropolis. The timeline is an excellent start to any research exploration, including that of famous Greek figures. Worth visiting is the section “The Greeks Interactive,” where you can try different scenarios to see what your life would have been like if you had lived in ancient Athens or listen to ancient Greek to learn how to speak like the ancients. This site is good for study of the Golden Age of Athens. The Greeks Interactive (PBS) http://www.pbs.org/empires/thegreeks/igreeks/ It is amazing to think of all the wonderful contributions made by the ancient Greeks. From architecture to theater, the ancient Greeks left our world many special gifts. At this site, a visitor can click on three options: “Interactive Map,” “Life in Athens,” and “Speak Like An Ancient Greek.” The interactive map allows students to zoom in to see a city map of ancient Athens, where students can hear the pronunciation of buildings and symbols in Greek. When the buildings and links are clicked on, a quick history and pictures of each building/symbol pop up. The “Life In Athens” tab allows students to compare ancient Greece with today’s Greece, and the “Speak Like An Ancient Greek” page allows students to learn how to speak Greek by teaching letters and pronunciations of key words. Biography In Search of a Perfect World: The Life of Plato A Model Citizen: The Life of Pericles Primary Source Pericles’ Funeral Oration

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Lesson

Literature Recommendations The following books offer opportunities to extend the content in this lesson. • Dramatizing Greek Mythology by Louise Thistle (Lyme, NH: Smith and Kraus, 2002) • Life in Ancient Athens (Picture the Past) by Jane Shuter (Mankato, MN: Heinemann-Raintree, 2005) • Socrates: The Public Conscience of Golden Age Athens by Jun Lim (New York: Rosen Central, 2006)


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Lesson 29

Online: Reading support is built into the Student Text online. Students can use the text-to-audio tool, highlight the main ideas, and add notes to the text.

The Golden Age of Athens What were the major cultural achievements of Athens? Introduction

Essential questions support reading Social Studies for meaning.

At the end of the Greco-Persian wars, the city of Athens was in ruins. Despite this setback, a great Athenian named Pericles (PER-uh-kleez) inspired the people of Athens to rebuild their city. Under his leadership, Athens entered its Golden Age, a period of peace and wealth. Between 479 and 431 b.c.e., Athens was the artistic and cultural center of Greece. Suppose you could visit Athens during its Golden Age. Passing through the city’s gates, you would wind your way through narrow streets to the agora, the public meeting place in the center of the city. The agora is a large square with magnificent public buildings on two of its sides. The other two sides have covered walkways where you would meet and talk with friends about current issues. In the center of the square are market stalls with a variety of goods for sale, from all over Greece and beyond. Nearby, you would see the acropolis, a high, craggy hill crowned with great temples, rising above the city. What information about the ancient Athenians can these places provide? In this lesson, you will explore several important sites in ancient Athens, including the Parthenon. This temple was one of the most famous buildings in Athens, and its ruins still remain today. At each location, you will discover the major cultural achievements accomplished during Athens’s Golden Age. You will learn about Greek religion, architecture, sculpture, drama, philosophy, and sports.

Vocabulary acropolis drama myth Panathenaic Games Parthenon Pericles Socrates

The Introduction is designed to build background knowledge and prepare readers for the rest of the lesson.

This temple at the Athenian acropolis still stands today. The Golden Age of Athens 319 www.teachtci.com

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1. Athens After the Greco-Persian Wars During the Greco-Persian wars, the Persians burned Athens to the ground, in 480 b.c.e., after defeating the Greeks in the Battle of Thermopylae. Although the Greeks eventually defeated the Persians, the wars left Athens in ruins.

Pericles a great leader who

developed Athens’s culture, democracy, and power during the Golden Age

Parthenon the temple

built on the acropolis above Athens, honoring the goddess Athena

acropolis the hill above a

Greek city, on which temples were built Captions reinforce main ideas and provide further context for the images.

In this engraving, Pericles, stands and delivers a famous speech at a funeral. His words honored those who lost their lives in a war.

Pericles, Leader of Athens From about 460 to 429 b.c.e., Pericles was the leader of Athens’s government. One of his chief contributions was to direct the rebuilding of the city. Pericles promoted constructing many public and religious buildings, including the Parthenon, the most famous temple in Athens. Pericles believed that Athens was a model—in culture and in government—for all the Greek city-states. While the leader of Athens, he encouraged creativity in all of the arts, including music and drama. He was an avid supporter of democracy and created reforms to encourage its growth. He believed that all citizens had an equal right to participate in government. Under Pericles’s leadership, Athens paid the salaries of men who held public office. This enabled poor men, who would otherwise have been unable to afford to leave their jobs and farms, the opportunity to serve in government positions. A City of Contrasts Ancient Athens was a city of great contrasts. Although the city’s public spaces and buildings were large and stately, many people lived in small, uncomfortable houses that lined narrow streets. Most homes in Athens were one story high and constructed of mud bricks. The homes of poor families were very simple, while the wealthier people had larger, more elaborate houses with rooms surrounding a central courtyard. Athenian houses had few windows, so homes were usually lit by oil lamps. The public spaces and buildings were the pride of Athens. The Athenians erected large government buildings made of stone around the agora. On the acropolis, the hill above the city, the Athenians built magnificent temples as earthly homes for their gods and goddesses.

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Olympian Gods and Goddesses Zeus Ruler of the gods Hera Wife of Zeus; goddess of marriage Poseidon Brother of Zeus; god of the sea Hestia Sister of Zeus; goddess of the hearth (the family fire) Demeter Sister of Zeus; goddess of agriculture Ares Son of Zeus; god of war

Athena Daughter of Zeus; goddess of wisdom and war Apollo Son of Zeus; god of the sun, poetry, and music Artemis Daughter of Zeus; goddess of the moon and the hunt Hephaestus Son of Zeus; god of fire and metalworkers Aphrodite Daughter of Zeus; goddess of love and beauty

2. Greek Religion The ancient Greeks thought that the gods and goddesses they worshipped resembled and often acted like humans, but did not age and die. Every city-state honored a god or goddess, who was thought to provide its people with special protection. For example, Athens was named for the goddess Athena. The Greeks believed that each god or goddess had power over a particular area of life. Athena was the goddess of war and wisdom. The Greeks placed a colossal (huge) statue of her inside the Parthenon, the temple they created in her honor. Another famous temple was in the city of Delphi. This temple was dedicated to the god Apollo. People would visit the temple to ask Apollo for advice. A priestess, called the oracle of Delphi, would answer their questions by going into a trance. The priestess’s words were believed to be Apollo’s. The Greeks told myths, or stories, about the gods. According to these stories, the home of the gods was Mount Olympus, a real mountain in Greece. Twelve of the gods and goddesses were particularly significant and are often referred to as the Olympian gods. The Olympian gods and goddesses were part of everyday life in ancient Greece. For example, before embarking on journeys by land or sea, the Greeks would request their help. The Greeks dedicated their festivals and sporting events to their deities. Greek artists decorated the temples with intricate images of them.

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Hermes Son of Zeus; messenger of the gods and god of travel

This Parthenon frieze shows Poseidon, Apollo, and Artemis.

The lesson is divided into clearly defined sections to make the content easier to understand.

myth a traditional story that helps explain a culture’s beliefs

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3. Greek Architecture Features of Greek architecture seen in the Parthenon include pediments, friezes, and three kinds of columns. Here, from left to right, are Doric columns, Ionic columns with scrolled tops, and decorative Corinthian columns.

Temples are good examples of the Greeks’ talent for architecture. The Greeks built their temples, not as places in which to worship, but as beautiful dwellings for the gods and goddesses. Religious ceremonies were conducted outside. The temples show the importance of balance and order in the Greeks’ idea of beauty. Temples were built with rows of tall columns. The Greeks used three styles of columns. The Doric column was the simplest, as it had no base and narrowed toward the top. The Ionic column was thinner, sat on a base, and had scrolls carved into the top. The Corinthian column was the most complex, with carvings that looked like leaves at the top. Athenians built three temples on the acropolis to honor Athena. As you have read, one of these was the Parthenon. One of the most spectacular temples in ancient Greece, the Parthenon was constructed on a long rectangular platform. There were 8 columns across both the front and the back, and 17 along each side. The roof was slanted, creating triangles, called pediments, at the front and back of the building. Above the columns was a band of sculptures called a frieze (freez). The sculptures themselves are called metopes (MEH-tuh-pees).

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There were many different sizes of Greek temples, but their basic shape was similar. The majority had a main room with a statue of the temple’s god or goddess. The Parthenon, for instance, had a magnificent statue of Athena that stood 30 feet high. Made of wood, the statue was covered with ivory so it appeared more lifelike. Then it was dressed in clothes and decorated with gold. Like the temple itself, the statue expressed both the Greeks’ love of beauty and their awe of the gods.

4. Greek Sculpture The statue of Athena in the Parthenon was a wonderful example of another important Greek art: sculpture. Sculptors in Athens often established a workshop near the site where the finished statue would be placed. Sculptor apprentices initially made a life-size clay model supported by wooden or metal frames. The general outline of the statue was then roughed out in marble, to which a master sculptor added details and finishing touches. Greek statues were colorful. Metalworkers attached appropriate bronze pieces to the statue, like spears and shields. Painters applied wax and bright colors to a statue’s hair, lips, clothes, and headdress. Creating lifelike statues was one of the great achievements of Greek sculptors. The earliest Greek statues had been influenced by Egyptian styles. Like the Egyptians, the Greeks created larger-than-life figures that faced front, with their arms held stiffly at their sides. Later Greek sculptors made more realistic statues in natural poses, showing muscles, hair, and clothing in much greater detail. One of the most famous Athenian sculptors was a man named Phidias (FIH-dee-uhs) who designed the figures that line the frieze on the Parthenon. He also sculpted the statue of Athena that stood inside the temple. The statue carried a shield of gold, with carvings of two faces—those of the great Athenian leader Pericles and of Phidias himself.

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The sculptor Phidias created the huge statue of Athena that stood inside the Parthenon. A replica, completed in 1990 by an American artist, is shown here.

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The ruins of the stone theater, the Odeon of Herodes Atticus, are still visible in Athens. Built in 161 c.e., it could hold about 5,000 spectators.

5. Greek Drama drama the art of writing,

acting in, and producing plays

Vocabulary are bolded in blue and definitions are provided at point of use.

In addition to architecture and sculpture, the ancient Greeks excelled in drama, the art of the theater. Attending the theater was a regular part of Athenian life. The Theater of Dionysus (dy-uhNIE-suhs), in Athens, could accommodate thousands of people. Dionysus was the god of merriment. Greek plays developed out of the songs and dances that the Greeks performed at harvest time to honor him. As Greek playwrights improved their art, they began to write plays that told stories. The plays included a few main characters and a chorus. The chorus was a group of men who recited lines that commented on the actions of the main characters. The words spoken by the chorus helped explain and expand on the story. There were no women actors in ancient Greece. Because men played all the characters, both male and female, actors wore masks. The masks were decorated so that the audience could easily see a character’s emotions. Plays were staged in open-air theaters built into the sides of hills. A Greek theater was shaped like a bowl so that everyone could hear what was said. The seats rose in a semicircle around a stage at the bottom of the bowl. Scenery was painted on canvas and hung behind the actors. Plays were often a form of competition that could last for days. Judges selected winners in four categories: tragic playwright, comic playwright, leading tragic actor, and leading comic actor. The winning writers and actors were crowned with olive leaves and awarded prizes such as figs.

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6. Greek Philosophy Athenians, like other Greeks, loved to talk and argue. In the sheltered spaces to one side of the agora, men often gathered to discuss the world around them. They talked about nature, often exchanging ideas about the natural world, such as what it consisted of and how it functioned. They also discussed things they couldn’t see, such as the meaning of life, justice, truth, and beauty. This kind of thinking is called philosophy, which means “the love of wisdom.” One of the greatest philosophers in Athens was a man named Socrates (SAH-kruh-teez), who encouraged people to question the very things they thought they knew. He taught others by asking them such questions as, What makes a good life? What is truth? How do you know? In this way, he led his students to consider their beliefs. Even in Athens, where people welcomed new ideas, this constant questioning brought Socrates into trouble. His enemies accused him of dishonoring the gods and of leading young people into error and disloyalty. In 399 b.c.e., Socrates was brought to trial for these crimes. In defending himself, Socrates declared that he was the wisest man in Greece because he recognized how little he knew. The jury found Socrates guilty and sentenced him to death. Although friends encouraged him to escape from Athens, Socrates insisted on honoring the law. He died by drinking hemlock, the juice of a poisonous plant. The example of Socrates inspired many other influential Greek thinkers, especially his student Plato (PLAYtoh). In turn, Plato taught another great philosopher, Aristotle (ar-uh-STOT-uhl).

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Narrative style keeps students engaged throughout the reading.

Socrates a great ancient

Greek philosopher who taught by asking his students thought-provoking questions

Socrates calmly drank poison after an Athenian jury sentenced him to death. In this illustration, some of his friends avert their eyes in agony.

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7. Greek Sports Online: Review terms and definitions with the Online Tutorial, Vocabulary Cards, or the Student Text. Then, as a class, complete the Vocabulary activity in the Lesson Guide.

Panathenaic Games athletic

events, including horse races and chariot races, held as part of the festival called Panathenaea, honoring the goddess Athena

This illustration depicts the result of a chariot race from the Olympics in Ancient Greece. Here, the champion receives a crown for winning the race.

The Greeks’ interest in philosophy demonstrates how much they valued the mind. Their love of many kinds of sports shows that they also prized physical fitness. The Greeks often held athletic events to honor their gods and goddesses. In Athens, games were held as part of a festival called the Panathenaea (pan-ath-uh-NEE-uh), which honored the goddess Athena. The high point of the festival was the procession, or solemn parade. The Athenians attached a new robe, as a gift for the statue of Athena, to the mast of a ship and pulled it through the city to the temple. The Panathenaic Games included many events. There were horse races and chariot races, including one event in which men jumped on and off a moving chariot. Men also competed in footraces. In one race, men ran in their armor. Additionally, the games included combat sports, such as boxing and wrestling. In an event called the pancratium, men were allowed to punch, kick, and even choke each other. The event ended when one fighter surrendered, lost consciousness, or died. Another set of games, to honor the god Zeus, was played every four years at Olympia. Called the Olympics, these games were so meaningful to the Greeks that they would call a truce from all wars so athletes could travel safely to the games.

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Lesson Summary In this lesson, you explored major achievements in ancient Greek culture during the Golden Age of Athens. Athens After the Greco-Persian Wars Pericles was a great leader who promoted both the reconstruction of Athens and the growth of Greek culture and democracy. Greek Religion The Greek worship of gods and goddesses was part of daily life. Athens was named for the goddess Athena, and the Parthenon honored her. The temple at Delphi honored the god Apollo. The Greeks told myths, or stories, about their many gods. Greek Architecture and Sculpture The temples on the acropolis in Athens were examples of the Greek talent for architecture. The lifelike marble statues created in workshops displayed the art of sculpture. Greek Drama and Philosophy Athenians enjoyed dramas staged in large open-air theaters. Only male actors performed. The Greeks also enjoyed discussing philosophy. Socrates was one of the greatest philosophers in Athens. Greek Sports The Greeks competed in athletic events at the Panathenaic Games and the Olympics. Events included races and combat sports. A summary is provided at the end of every lesson to ensure students understand the main ideas.

This photograph shows the ruins of the Parthenon as they stand today, at the top of the acropolis in Athens.

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Investigating Primary Sources The title frames an engaging, compelling question that guides the entire piece.

A bold introduction paragraph sets up the compelling question and the sources that students will explore.

This bas relief was found in Pompeii, Italy, and now resides in a museum in Naples. It shows a scene from the ancient comedy Andria, which is about a father who arranges a marriage for his son who has already chosen his own bride. Ancient Greek drama tells us about the society at the time.

What Do Dramas of Ancient Greece Reveal About Its Society? Just as people in today’s society are entertained by movies and television shows, ancient Greeks flocked to open-air theaters to enjoy actors performing in plays. How were these dramas put together? And what were these plays about? You will examine four primary sources related to Greek drama. Then you will create a claim about what Greek dramas reveal about that society.

Unlike today’s entertainment, in ancient Greek drama there were no lights, cameras, or microphones. There was a stage at the bottom of a bowl-shaped theater and thousands of seats around it. Scenery was painted on canvases, while actors—men only—wore masks that depicted their emotions. The scenes made audiences laugh, cry, and examine their own lives. There were three main categories of Greek plays. Comedy made fun of people’s foolishness. Tragedy, on the other hand, portrayed serious themes such as love or disappointment, making the audience think about emotional and moral situations. Satyr plays were short comic scenes inserted between acts of a tragedy and made fun of the play’s characters, the playwright, and other people. When playwrights finished writing, they selected actors and designed scenery. The artifact pictured is a carved bas relief tablet from the 2nd century b.c.e. showing a scene from an ancient comedy called Andria. The author, Publius Terentius, was a Roman comic writer who adapted Andria from a Greek drama. His play was first performed in 166 b.c.e. Identify the musician, the actors’ masks, and the scenery on the tablet. Based on this artifact and the caption, what can you learn about ancient Greek drama and ancient Greek society?

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A Greek Tragedy: Prometheus Bound

Playwrights often wrote plays about the Greek gods. For example, Prometheus Bound is a famous Greek tragedy about one of the original Greek gods, Prometheus. Some scholars believe it was written by the poet Aeschylus after 458 b.c.e. It was first created as a poem and later revised into full sentences. Picture the scene: Prometheus is chained to a steep cliff. He is being punished by Zeus, the ruler of all gods. Zeus wanted to destroy mankind, but Prometheus saved them by giving them the gift of fire. In this scene, another god, Oceanus, has come to visit Prometheus during his punishment. Prometheus is recounting all he has done for mankind. What situations is Prometheus describing in this excerpt? What does the text tell you about the kinds of activities in Greek society at that time? Based on this excerpt, how would you describe the relationship between ancient Greeks and their religion and gods? How were drama and religion connected in ancient Greece?

Each section provides well-researched background related to the primary sources and their historical contexts.

Each page concludes with a set of supporting questions that help students pursue the main question.

Prometheus Bound “[Mankind] neither knew how to construct houses of brick with their fronts to the sun, nor yet the art of working in wood . . . but pursued all their occupations without discernment, until I explained to them the risings of the stars and their mysterious settings. Besides, I first discovered for them numbers, the highest of inventions; and the structure of a written language; and Memory, the mother of the Muse, effective in every art. And I was the first who bound in harness animals made obedient to the yoke; and, in order that they might prove, by their strength, the substitutes for mortals in the greatest toils, I taught the steeds to be guided by the rein in chariots, the ornaments of wealth and luxury. And no one before me invented the bark of the mariner, that traverses the sea with its canvas wings. . . . if any one was assailed by disease, there was no specific against it . . . but the sick fell away through want of medicine, until I taught them to compound soothing restoratives, by which they might be able to repel all maladies . . . But, in a few words, you shall learn at once the extent of my benefits: there is no art among men that is not derived from Prometheus.” —Aeschylus, after 458 b.c.e.

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Another Greek Tragedy: The Persians

Textual primary sources are easily identifiable. Students are challenged to analyze these primary sources and use their analysis in a supported claim.

Here is an excerpt from another play by Aeschylus. He was one of the most famous writers of Greek tragedies and won several awards at Athens’s major drama competition, the Great Dionysia, held every March. This play, The Persians, won the first-place prize in 472 b.c.e. as part of a three-play trilogy. Unfortunately, the other two plays have been lost. Aeschylus was a Greek soldier in the Greco-Persian wars. When he returned home, he wrote The Persians, which takes place in Susa, Persia. In this scene, the royal family is anxiously awaiting news about the recent battle between Persia and Greece. Finally, a messenger arrives and describes the battle.

The Persians “A Grecian ship first began the attack . . . At first, indeed, the torrent of the Persian forces made head against the attack; but when their numerous ships were crowded together in the Straits, and no aid could be afforded to one another . . . the Grecian ships with no unskilful tactics bore down upon them, encompassed in a circle . . . and the sea could no longer be discerned, being covered with the wrecks of the ships and the slaughtered bodies of men . . . and every ship rowed away in disorderly flight, as many as belonged to the armament of the Barbarians. But the Greeks kept striking and hacking them . . . with the fragments of the oars and the splinters of the wrecks . . . till the eye of dark night broke off the combat. But I could not fully unfold to you the multitude of our evils, not even though I should describe them in order for ten days: for be well assured of this, that never in one day did so great a number of men perish.” —Aeschylus, prior to 472 b.c.e. In this scene, what does the messenger tell the Persian royalty about the battle? Based on this excerpt, what can you understand about the relationship between Persia and Greece in ancient times? What do you learn about the military of ancient Greece? How does the fact that the author was a Greek soldier affect the play? How might it have been different if the playwright had been a Persian soldier? Why would a Greek audience enjoy this play?

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Winning a drama competition brought great fame and respect to a playwright. Playwrights took their work very seriously, as did the audiences, so it is no wonder that playwrights insisted on many long hours of preparation and practice before a performance. This ancient vase from 425–375 b.c.e. shows details of the preparation for a satyr production in Athens. The vase was found in southern Italy. The details on the vase give viewers a glimpse of how preparation for a performance may have looked. In the top center image, we see two Greek gods. Not only were gods the subjects of many plays, they also were thought to attend the plays. In the far top right corner, two actors are conversing before the play begins. The left actor is dressed as Heracles, a kind and very powerful son of Zeus (also known by the Roman name Hercules). At the bottom of the vase, we see a musician, singers, and dancers holding their masks and practicing lines. What does it tell you about Greek society that these dramas were so well-prepared? Why would ancients Greeks create competitions for their dramas? What does that say about the society? Why were poets and playwrights so highly respected in Greek society? Review the four primary sources. Prepare a claim about what drama of ancient Greece reveals about its society, supporting your claim with evidence from the primary sources. You may want to note what additional information or sources would be helpful to provide several viewpoints.

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Students are invited to observe images of artifacts, portraits, and more to better understand the content. Captions highlight important details of the accompanying image.

This ancient vase depicts scenes of actors, dancers, and musicians practicing for a play. Everyone worked hard to give an excellent performance, which reveals something about the importance of drama in Greek society.

Every feature ends with an activity that requires students to think critically and answer the compelling question.

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THE

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The Golden Age of Athens What were the major cultural achievements of Athens?

Notebook

P R E V I E W

In Athens, public funerals were held for soldiers who had died in battle. In 430 B.C.E., after a difficult year of war, an Athenian leader named Pericles spoke at such a funeral. In his speech, he described the greatness of Athens and why it was important to keep on fighting. Below is an excerpt from that speech. Carefully read the excerpt and then answer the questions that follow.

. . . we have not forgotten to provide for our weary [tired] spirits many relaxations from toil [hard work]; we have regular games and sacrifices throughout the year; our homes are beautiful and elegant; and the delight which we daily feel in all these things helps to banish [send away] sorrow. Because of the greatness of our city, the fruits of the whole earth flow in upon us; so that we enjoy the goods of other countries as freely as our own. . . . To sum up: I say that Athens is the school of Hellas [Greece]. . . . Such is the city for whose sake these men nobly fought and died. . . . — Pericles, Funeral Oration, in History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides. 1. According to Pericles, what made Athens great?

2. What else have you learned about Athens that might make people think of it as a great city?

3. Why do you think Pericles would call Athens the “school of Greece”?

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Social Studies Vocabulary

As you complete the Reading Notes, use these terms in your answers. Pericles Parthenon acropolis

myth drama

Socrates Panathenaic Games

Section 1

Notebook

1. What contributions did Pericles make to Athens after the Greco-Persian wars?

2. Why can Athens be called a city of contrasts?

Sections 2 to 7

As you begin each section of the Reading Notes, locate the related site on the map of Athens below. Then answer the questions for that section. Athens, 479–431 B.C.E.

ISN29.01 – Revise illustrated map 28p6W x 26pD

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Section 2

The Site: You are visiting the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, a town outside Athens, to learn about religion. 1. Why would a person go to see an oracle?

Notebook

2. What did the ancient Greeks believe about where gods and goddesses lived and what they were like?

3. In what ways was religion a part of the everyday lives of the ancient Greeks?

Section 3

The Site: You are standing among the grand temples on the acropolis in Athens to learn about architecture. 1. Why did the ancient Greeks build temples like the Parthenon?

2. Identify the three types of Greek columns and describe one characteristic of each.

3. What features made the Parthenon one of the most beautiful temples in ancient Greece?

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Section 4

The Site: You are visiting a marble workshop to learn about sculpture.

1. How did the styles of ancient Egyptian statues influence those of the ancient Greeks?

Notebook

2. How did styles of Greek sculpture change over time?

3. Who was Phidias, and what did he do?

Section 5

The Site: You are visiting the Theater of Dionysus to learn about drama.

1. How many people could a theater hold, and how might its shape help a large audience?

2. Identify two ways in which ancient Greek drama differed from modern plays and movies.

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Section 6

The Site: You are standing in the agora in Athens to learn about philosophy. 1. What did Greek philosophers do?

Notebook

2. How did Socrates try to teach others?

3. What happened to Socrates?

Section 7

The Site: You are watching the Panathenaic Games, a series of athletic competitions, to learn about sports. 1. What was the purpose of the Panathenaic Games?

2. What events were held as part of the Panathenaic Games?

3. Identify one event that is still part of athletic competitions today, and then one event that is not.

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P R O C E S S I N G

In the space below, write a paragraph that answers the Essential Question: What were the major cultural achievements of Athens?

Notebook

In your paragraph, identify and describe at least three specific examples from your Reading Notes.

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I N V E S T I G RA ET A I ND GI N PG R IN MO AT RE Y S

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Identifying Evidence

Consider this question: What do dramas of ancient Greece reveal about its society? Examine the four primary sources in the reading, and write down evidence from each source that helps answer this question. Primary Source 2

Primary Source 3

Primary Source 4

Notebook

Primary Source 1

Use the evidence you gathered to make a claim to the question. Claim:

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NOTEBOOK

Constructing an Argument

Create an argument to answer the question: What do dramas of ancient Greece reveal about its society? Your argument should: • clearly state your claim.

• include evidence from multiple sources.

Notebook

• provide explanations for how the sources support the claim.

Use this rubric to evaluate your argument. Make changes as needed. Score

Description

3

The claim clearly answers the question. The argument uses evidence from two or more primary sources that strongly support the claim. The explanations accurately connect to the evidence and claim.

2

The claim answers the question. The argument uses evidence from one or more primary sources that support the claim. Some of the explanations connect to the evidence and claim.

1

The claim fails to answer the question. The argument lacks evidence from primary sources. Explanations are missing or are unrelated to the evidence and claim.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  71


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Myth Cards Myth Card

Myth Card

Pan

Tantalus

Hercules

Pan was half man and half goat. His bright red face, his flat nose, and the two horns growing from his head made him very frightening.

The gods punished Tantalus by placing him in a lake. When he tried to drink the water in the lake, the water level dropped. When he tried to eat the fruit that hung above him, the branches blew away.

As punishment for killing his children, Hercules had to do 12 difficult jobs. One job was to kill a vicious lion.

Myth Card Student Handout

Myth Card

Myth Card

Myth Card

Narcissus

Titans

Stentor

Narcissus was very handsome and very conceited. He treated badly the people who loved him. Narcissus fell in love with his reflection in a pool of water and died staring at himself.

The Titans were huge creatures who ruled the world until they were defeated by Zeus and the other Olympian gods.

Stentor was in the Greek army during the Trojan War. He shouted announcements to the soldiers. His voice was as loud as 50 men shouting together.

Myth Card

Myth Card

Myth Card

Nemesis

Muses

Echo

Nemesis was the goddess who judged men. She caused unhappiness in the lives of people she thought were too happy. Nemesis punished those who were conceited or guilty of crimes.

The Muses were nine daughters of Zeus. They ruled over the arts of history, poetry, music, dance, and drama.

Hera was Zeus’s wife. One day, Hera punished the forest nymph Echo. Echo’s punishment was that she could speak only when spoken to, but even then, she could only repeat what was said.

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Word Cards Word Card

Word Card

Panic

Tantalize

Herculean

Definition: extreme fear

Definition: to tease or torment someone with something he or she cannot have.

Definition: something needing great strength or courage

Example: There was panic in the audience when the fire broke out.

Example: Please don’t tantalize me with candy when I’m on a diet.

Word Card

Example: It was a herculean task to lift the car off the trapped boy.

Word Card

Word Card

Narcissism

Titanic

Stentorian

Definition: too much pride in oneself or one’s appearance

Definition: great in size or strength

Definition: very loud

Example: The artist created a titanic sculpture for the town square.

Example: His stentorian commands leave a ringing in my ears.

Example: His narcissism prevents him from thinking of anyone but himself.

Word Card

Word Card

Word Card

Nemesis

Museum

Echo

Definition: something or someone that causes failure or harm

Definition: a place where valuable objects of art and science are displayed

Definition: a repeated sound

Example: I don’t do well in school because taking tests is my nemesis.

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Example: The Greek statues are kept in a museum.

Example: When you speak in an empty room, you sometimes hear an echo.

History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  73

Student Handout

Word Card


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Template Blueprint Front

We chose this color for the pediment because…

We drew the metope for the frieze because…

Student Handout

We chose this style of column because…

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Front

Back

Bird’s Eye View We placed our statue here because…

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C

Student Handout

Egyptian Statue Puzzle

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  75


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HANDOUT

C

Student Handout

Greek Statue Puzzle

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HANDOUT

D

Antigone Script Background The play opens with two sisters, Antigone (an-TIH-guh-nee) and Ismene (is-MEE-nee), discussing the tragic events of their family. Their two brothers, Eteocles (ih-TEE-uh-kleez) and Polyneices (pol-uh-NIE-seez), had agreed to share power by alternating as King of Thebes. When Eteocles refused to give up power, Polyneices attacked Thebes with a foreign army. The brothers end up killing each other in battle. The new king, Creon (KREE-on), has honored Eteocles with a funeral because Eteocles had to defend the city. But Creon has forbidden anyone to properly bury Polyneices because he attacked the city.

Antigone:

Now, dear Ismene, my own blood sister, do you have any sense of all the troubles Zeus keeps bringing on the two of us, as long as we’re alive?

Ismene:

What is it? The way you look makes it seem you’re thinking of some dark and gloomy news.

Antigone:

Look—what is Creon doing with our two brothers? He’s honoring one with a full funeral and treating the other one disgracefully!

Ismene:

Oh, my poor sister, if that’s what is happening, what can I say that would be any help to ease the situation or resolve it?

Antigone:

Think whether you will work with me in this and act together.

Ismene:

In what kind of work? What do you mean?

Antigone:

Will you help these hands take up Polyneices’ corpse and bury it?

Ismene:

What? You’re going to bury Polyneices, when that has been made a crime for all in Thebes?

Antigone:

Yes. I’ll do my duty to my brother—and yours as well, if you’re not prepared to. I won’t be caught betraying him.

Ismene:

You’re too rash. Has Creon not expressly banned the act?

Antigone:

Yes. But he is not right to keep me from what is mine.

Ismene:

Oh, dear. Think, Antigone. Think how we’ll die far worse than all the rest, if we defy the law and move against the king’s decree, against his royal power.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  77

Student Handout

Selection from Antigone by Sophocles


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Socrates’s First Quotation THE UNEXAMINED LIFE IS NOT WORTH LIVING.

We think Socrates means . . .

Student Handout

Names

We agree/disagree with Socrates.

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Socrates’s Second Quotation THE ONLY GOOD IS KNOWLEDGE, AND THE ONLY EVIL IS IGNORANCE.

We think Socrates means . . .

Student Handout

Names

We agree/disagree with Socrates.

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Socrates’s Third Quotation BAD MEN LIVE THAT THEY MAY EAT AND DRINK, WHEREAS GOOD MEN EAT AND DRINK THAT THEY MAY LIVE.

We think Socrates means . . .

Student Handout

Names

We agree/disagree with Socrates.

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Athlete’s Name

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Javelin Throw

Broad Jump

Book Hold

__________ inches

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Student Handout

Judge’s Score Sheet


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Station Directions A: Religion The Site: You are visiting the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, a town outside Athens, to learn about religion. 1. Examine the image on the placard on the wall at the station. Discuss the question with your partner and record your ideas in Section 2 of your Reading Notes. 2. Read Section 2 in the Student Text and complete the corresponding Reading Notes for that section. Correct or add any details to your original response to the first question.

Student Handout

3. Read this paragraph to learn why you are visiting this site: You have been learning about Greek mythology. You told your teacher that you saw no point in studying this subject. Your teacher sent you to Delphi to ask the oracle if mythology would be important in the future. The oracle has said, “Greek mythology will be the origin of many words in a great language of the future. To learn a few words of this new language, play the game I have designed.” 4. With your partner, play the game the oracle has designed. Follow these guidelines:

• The goal of the game is to get as many matches as possible. A match is made when a player finds both a Myth Card and a Word Card that are clearly related. A match is not made if a player finds two Myth Cards, two Word Cards, or a Myth Card and a Word Card that are not related. • One partner begins the game by flipping over two cards. If there is a match, that player keeps the two cards and takes another turn. If there is not a match, the player returns the cards to their facedown positions, and the other partner takes a turn. • The winner of the game is the player who collects the most cards.

5. Return the station to the condition in which you found it, and have the teacher check your work.

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Station Directions B: Architecture The Site: You are standing among the grand temples on the acropolis in Athens to learn about architecture. 1. Examine the image on the placard on the wall at the station. Discuss the question with your partner and record your ideas in Section 3 of your Reading Notes. 2. Read Section 3 in the Student Text and complete the corresponding Reading Notes for that section. Correct or add any details to your original response to the first question.

You are participating in a design contest for a new temple on the acropolis in Athens. The best design will be built next to the Parthenon. This temple will celebrate the naming of Athens. According to Greek myth, the goddess Athena battled her uncle Poseidon to be the protector of Athens. Poseidon offered the people a gift of a saltwater spring. Athena offered the gift of an olive tree. Athena won, and the city was named for her. The daughter of Zeus, she is the goddess of wisdom, war, and the arts. 4. With your partner, design your temple on one copy of the temple blueprint. Follow these guidelines: • Color in the pediment with your choice of color. • Draw one metope for the frieze.

• Pick one type of column (Doric, Ionian, or Corinthian) and sketch your choice. • Mark an X on the bird’s-eye view of the temple to show where you will place your statue of Athena. • Complete the sentences explaining your design. • Tape your design on the wall near the station.

5. Return the station to the condition in which you found it, and have your teacher check your work.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  83

Student Handout

3. Read this paragraph to learn why you are visiting this site:


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Station Directions C: Sculpture The Site: You are visiting a marble workshop to learn about sculpture. 1. Examine the image on the placard on the wall at the station. Discuss the question with your partner and record your ideas in Section 4 of your Reading Notes. 2. Read Section 4 in the Student Text and complete the corresponding Reading Notes for that section. Correct or add any details to your original response to the first question.

Student Handout

3. Read this paragraph to learn why you are visiting this site: There has been an accident in the marble workshop. Two statues were broken into several pieces. The sculptor apprentices need to reassemble the pieces so the master sculptor can repair the statues. The apprentices, however, still have much to learn about sculpture, so they need your help to reassemble the statues correctly. The apprentices tell you that one of these statues was carved many years before the other. 4. With your partner, correctly assemble the pieces of each statue. Since one statue was carved much earlier, the assembled statues should clearly differ in style. 5. Return the station to the condition in which you found it, and have your teacher check your work.

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Station Directions D: Drama The Site: You are visiting the Theater of Dionysus to learn about drama. 1. Examine the image on the placard on the wall at the station. Discuss the question with your partner and record your ideas in Section 5 of your Reading Notes. 2. Read Section 5 in the Student Text and complete the corresponding Reading Notes for that section. Correct or add any details to your original response to the first question.

The city of Athens is the host for several days of drama competitions at the Theater of Dionysus. The playwright Sophocles has submitted a tragedy for the competition. In a tragedy, the main character meets his or her downfall at the end. Sophocles has asked for your help in rehearsing part of the play. 4. With your partner, help rehearse part of Sophocles’s play, Antigone. Follow these guidelines:

• Take a copy of the script for Antigone and assign one part to each person. • Perform the selection from Antigone by reading your character’s part.

• On the lined paper, write your names and the answer to this question: Will Antigone break the law, and what do you think will happen to her? 5. Return the station to the condition in which you found it, and have your teacher check your work.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  85

Student Handout

3. Read this paragraph to learn why you are visiting this site:


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Station Directions E: Philosophy The Site: You are standing in the agora in Athens to learn about philosophy. 1. Examine the image on the placard on the wall at the station. Discuss the question with your partner and record your ideas in Section 6 of your Reading Notes.

Student Handout

2. Read Section 6 in the Student Text and complete the corresponding Reading Notes for that section. Correct or add any details to your original response to the first question. 3. You are visiting this site to talk with Socrates. Play the audio, “Socrates Speaks,” to meet him. Stop the audio when he pauses to let you think about his first idea. 4. With your partner, think about Socrates’s ideas. Follow these guidelines: • Find the handout for Socrates’s first quotation. • In the first column, write your names.

• In the second column, briefly describe what you think Socrates means.

• In the third column, write down whether you agree or disagree with Socrates.

• Continue playing “Socrates Speaks” and complete the handouts for the second and third quotations. 5. Return the station to the condition in which you found it, and have your teacher check your work.

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Stations Directions F: Sports The Site: You are watching the Panathenaic Games, a series of athletic events and competitions, to learn about sports. 1. Examine the image on the placard on the wall at the station. Discuss the question with your partner and record your ideas in Section 7 of your Reading Notes. 2. Read Section 7 in the Student Text and complete the corresponding Reading Notes for that section. Correct or add any details to your original response to the first question.

The city of Athens is celebrating the festival of Panathenaea. As part of the festival, superb athletes are competing in a series of events. You are going to compete in three of those events. In the javelin event, you will test your throwing ability. In the broad jump event, you will test your jumping ability. In the book hold event, you will test your strength. The athlete with the best distance or time in each of these events will be recognized as the winner of that event. 4. With your partner, compete in the three events. Follow these guidelines:

• Find the Judge’s Score Sheet and write your names in the first column.

• Stand on the masking tape. Throw the javelin (straw) as far as you can. Have your partner use the yardstick to measure your distance, and record it on the Judge’s Score Sheet.

• Stand on the masking tape. With your feet together, jump as far as you can. Have your partner use the yardstick to measure your distance, and record it on the Judge’s Score Sheet. • Stand with one arm extended out in front of you, with your palm facing down. Balance a copy of History Alive! The Ancient World on the back of your hand. Have your partner time how many seconds you can hold the book, and record the time on the Judge’s Score Sheet. 5. Return the station to the condition in which you found it, and have your teacher check your work.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  87

Student Handout

3. Read this paragraph to learn why you are visiting this site:


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Writing a Persuasive Speech About Athens During your walking tour of Athens, you learned about six aspects of Greek culture that thrived during the Golden Age. On a separate sheet of paper, write a speech for the Athenian leader Pericles, using information that you learned on your tour. Your speech should clearly convince Athenians and Greeks from other city-states that Athens is a great city.

Student Handout

Your speech must be at least four paragraphs and include these elements: • a brief introduction to Athens and the Golden Age • a statement explaining why Athens is a great city • a description of two or more relevant examples from your walking tour of Athens • an appeal to any listeners who might say that Athens is not a great city • a brief conclusion that restates your position and reminds listeners of your main points

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Proficient (2 points)

Emergent (1 point)

Not Present (0 points)

Introduction

Specifically mentioned both Athens and the Golden Age.

Specifically mentioned either Athens or the Golden Age.

Did not mention Athens and did not mention the Golden Age.

Persuasive Technique and Appeal to Listeners

Used more than one persuasive technique such as overstatement and a stirring tone to explain why Athens is a great city. Appeal clearly convinced listeners of the greatness of Athens.

Used a persuasive technique such as overstatement or a stirring tone to explain why Athens is a great city. Appeal partially convinced listeners of the greatness of Athens.

Did not use any persuasive techniques to explain why Athens is a great city. Appeal did not convince listeners of the greatness of Athens.

Examples

Described two or more relevant examples from the walking tour of Athens.

Described one relevant example from the walking tour of Athens.

Did not describe any examples from the walking tour of Athens. Examples were not relevant.

Conclusion

Provided a conclusion that restated a position and reminded listeners of main points.

Provided a conclusion that restated a position or reminded listeners of main points.

Did not provide a conclusion statement or section.

Paragraph Structure and Required Elements

Included four paragraphs and all required elements of the assignment.

Included two or three paragraphs and some required elements of the assignment.

Included only one paragraph and did not include most required elements of the assignment.

Spelling and Grammar

Used correct spelling and grammar, such as capitalizing proper names.

Used correct spelling and grammar most of the time. There are some spelling and grammatical errors.

Did not use correct spelling and grammar. There are many spelling and grammatical errors.

Criteria

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  89

Student Handout

Use this rubric to evaluate your persuasive speech. Make changes as needed.


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PLACARD

A

Placard

Greek Religion

A special priestess called an oracle (left) sits on a stool and speaks to King Aegeus (right). Why would a person go to see an oracle?

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STAT ION

SETUP:

STAT ION

A

You will need the following materials to set up the desks at Station A: • Handout A: Myth Cards and Word Cards (2 copies of each page) • Handout G: Station Directions A: Religion (2 copies) • Placard A To set up each desk at Station A: • Cut apart a set of Myth Cards and Word Cards from one copy of Handout A. • Shuffle the cards together and spread them facedown on the desk.

Placard

Each desk at Station A should look like the diagram below. Post Placard A on the station wall, in between the two desks.

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PLACARD

B

Placard

Greek Architecture

This temple, known as the Parthenon, included many columns and beautiful sculptures. Why did the ancient Greeks build temples like the Parthenon?

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STAT ION

SETUP:

STAT ION

B

You will need the following materials to set up the desks at Station B: • Handout B: Template Blueprint (1 per pair of students) • Handout G: Station Directions B: Architecture (2 copies) • tape • colored pencils (2 sets) • Placard B To set up each desk at Station B: • Place copies of Handout B in a pile on the desk. • Place some tape and a set of colored pencils on the desk.

Placard

Each desk at Station B should look like the diagram below. Post Placard B on the station wall, in between the two desks.

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PLACARD

C

Placard

Greek Sculpture

There are similar features on the ancient Egyptian statue of Ramses II (left) and the ancient Greek statue of a young woman (right). How did the styles of ancient Egyptian statues influence those of the ancient Greeks?

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SETUP:

STAT ION

C

You will need the following materials to set up the desks at Station C: • Handout C: Egyptian Statue Puzzle and Greek Statue Puzzle (2 copies of each page) • Handout G: Station Directions C: Sculpture (2 copies) • Placard C To set up each desk at Station C: • Cut apart the pieces of the Egyptian and the Greek statue puzzles from a copy of Handout C. • Shuffle the pieces together and spread them facedown on the desk.

Placard

Each desk at Station C should look like the diagram below. Post Placard C on the station wall, in between the two desks.

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PLACARD

D

Placard

Greek Drama

A Greek theater was shaped like a bowl, with rows of seats that ran in a semicircle around the stage. How many people could a theater hold, and how might its shape help a large audience?

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SETUP:

STAT ION

D

You will need the following materials to set up the desks at Station D: • Handout D: Antigone Script (1 per pair of students) • Handout G: Station Directions D: Drama (2 copies) • lined paper • Placard D To set up each desk at Station D: • Place copies of Handout D on the desk. • Tape a piece of lined paper to the top of the desk.

Placard

Each desk at Station D should look like the diagram below. Post Placard D on the station wall, in between the two desks.

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PLACARD

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Placard

Greek Philosophy

Socrates was a great philosopher in ancient Athens. What did Greek philosophers do?

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SETUP:

STAT ION

E

You will need the following materials to set up the desks at Station E: • Handout E: Socrates’s Quotations (2 copies) • Handout G: Station Directions E: Philosophy (2 copies) • Placard E To set up each desk at Station E: • Tape a copy of each of the three pages of Station Materials E to the desk. • Prepare to play the audio “Socrates Speaks” at this station.

Placard

Each desk at Station E should look like the diagram below. Post Placard E on the station wall, in between the two desks.

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PLACARD

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Greek Sports

Placard

This site was created from the ancient ruins where the Athenians held an event known as the Panathenaic Games. What was the purpose of these games?

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SETUP:

STAT ION

F

You will need the following materials to set up the desks at Station F: • Handout F: Judge’s Score Sheet (2 copies) • Handout G: Station Directions F: Sports (2 copies) • 2 straws • yardstick • stopwatch (optional) • masking tape • Placard F To set up each desk at Station F: • Tape a copy of Handout F to the desk. • Place the straws, yardstick, and stopwatch (optional) on the desk. • Place a 3-foot strip of masking tape on the floor beside the desk.

Placard

Each desk at Station F should look like the diagram below. Post Placard F on the station wall, in between the two desks.

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VOCABULARY

TOOLKIT

Illustrated Dictionary Follow these steps to create an Illustrated Dictionary for your Vocabulary Terms. Step 1: Choose a Vocabulary Term. Step 2: Draw a diagram, word map, or other graphic organizer that shows how the term relates to something you already know or to another key term in this lesson or in a previous lesson. Write the term in bigger or darker letters than you use for any other words. Step 3: Find the definition of each term and summarize its meaning in your own words. Step 4: Write a sentence that uses the term. Step 5: Repeat for all the other Vocabulary Terms. In Your Own Words

In a Sentence

Toolkit

Sketch/Diagram

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WRITING

TOOLKIT

Prewriting: Evaluating Evidence To be persuasive in your essay, you will need to provide relevant and accurate evidence to back up your position. You can use facts, statistics, examples, reasons, quotations, and anecdotes. To recognize useful evidence, ask these questions: Is the information relevant? • How closely is the information related to the topic of my essay? • Does the information help me support my opinion? Is the information complete? • Does the author appear to tell only part of the story or only some of the facts?

Toolkit

Is the information accurate? • Who wrote it? Is that person an expert? When was it written? • Can I find this same information in books and on Web sites that are made by the government, by museums, and by people who are experts in their field?

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ANCIENT

GREECE:

LESSON

GUIDE

Lesson: Timeline: Ancient Greece Title: Complete Lesson Guide

Investigation Planning Timeline Challenge Estimated Time: 30 mins Overview: Build and analyze a timeline summarizing key events from the unit. Conduct research about an additional event and share your findings. Teacher Prep: N/A Materials: None

World History Themes Estimated Time: 20 mins Overview: Connect what you've learned to six themes. Choose one theme and write compelling questions you still have. Research the answers. Teacher Prep: N/A Materials: None

Complete Materials List For more detailed information on materials needed for this lesson log in to your Teacher Account. (

)

Lesson Interactive Student Notebook: Timeline Challenge Notebook Answer Key: Timeline Challenge Spanish: Interactive Student Notebook: Timeline Challenge Spanish: Timeline Challenge Cards Timeline Challenge Cards

Timeline Challenge None

World History Themes Timeline Challenge

None

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ANCIENT

GREECE:

LESSON

GUIDE

TIMELINE CHALLENGE SLIDE 1 Look at the Ancient Greece Timeline in the Student Text.

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 2 Complete the Timeline Challenge questions in your notebook. Let’s check our work.

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 3 Now let’s create a class timeline on the wall. Mark off time intervals using masking tape or colored paper. Each pair will get a timeline card. Tape your card to the correct location along the class timeline.

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 4

Drag each event to its appropriate location on the timeline.

Notes:

Timeline Challenge

N/A

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  105


ANCIENT

GREECE:

LESSON

GUIDE

SLIDE 5 Which three events did you suggest should be added to the timeline? Choose one of your three events and conduct Internet research. Then create an additional Timeline Challenge Card using word processing or presentation software. Include the following: a title and date for your event an appropriate image to represent your event a written timeline entry below the image

Notes: N/A

WORLD HISTORY THEMES SLIDE 6 Finally, let’s think about this unit thematically. In your notebook online, list at least one thing you learned in this unit that connects to each of these six themes: Human-Environment Interaction Rise of Civilizations Growth and Changes in Societies Development of Political Institutions and Ideas Belief Systems Interconnectedness of Societies

Notes: N/A

SLIDE 7 Choose one theme you liked learning about in this unit. Now, write a compelling question you still have about this theme. Share your question with a partner. Write two more supporting questions that will help you answer your first question. Let’s conduct research to answer these questions! Be sure to include everything from the bulleted list.

Notes: N/A

Timeline Challenge

SLIDE 8 Review your writing and find all claims that are clearly supported by reasons and evidence. Share your supported claims with a partner. Now, publish your finished work online!

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ANCIENT

GREECE:

LESSON

GUIDE

Notes: Follow district guidelines regarding students publishing their writing online.

Timeline Challenge

Encourage students to create multimedia presentations of their work.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  107


line Unit Challenge 5 Timeline Challenge

ece Ancient Greece About 500 B.C.E. By 800 B.C.E.

ace

Oligarchies Replace By Mid-600s B.C.E. Monarchies OligarchiesTyrannies replace Replace Oligarchies monarchies as the form Tyranny becomes the of government in most form of government in Greek city-states.

ce e form most .

many Greek city-states.

900 B.C.E. 800

Greek City-States Flourish Greek city-states establish By Mid-600scolonies B.C.E. and conduct trade Tyrannies Replace in the wider Mediterranean Oligarchies region. Tyranny becomes the form of government in many Greek city-states.

800 700B.C.E. B.C.E.

By 500 B.C.E.

By 500 B.C.E.

Democracy Develops in Athens n Athens, democracy gives hared ruling power to all citizens.

Democracy Develops in Athens In Athens, democracy gives shared ruling power to all citizens.

108  History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide 352 Unit 5

700 600 B.C.E. B.C.E.

About 500 B.C.E. Greek City-States Flourish Greek city-states establish colonies and conduct trade in the wider Mediterranean region.

500 B.C.E.600 B.C.E.

500 B.C.E.

499–479 B.C.E.

499–479 B.C.E.

Greco-Persian Wars The Greco-Persian wars end with a Greek victory aided by the alliance of Athens and Sparta.

Greco-Persian Wars The Greco-Persian wars end with a Greek victory aided by the alliance of Athens and Sparta.

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431 B.C.E. 479– 431 B.C.E. Golden Age of Athens The Golden Age of Athens makes the city-state the artistic and cultural center of Greece.

431 B.C.E.

Pericles’ Funeral Oration Pericles praises the 479– 431 B.C.E. greatness Athens in his Golden Age ofofAthens Funeral Oration honoring The Golden Age of Athens Athenian soldiers killed in makes the city-state the artistic the Peloponnesian War. and cultural center of Greece.

Pericles’ Funeral Oration About 400 B.C.E. Pericles praises the Death of Thucydides greatness of Athens in historian his The Funeral Oration honoring Thucydides writes Athenian soldiers killed aboutinthe history of the the PeloponnesianPeloponnesian War. War.

A

D T T a P

399 B.C.E. Death of Socrates A jury finds the philosopher Socrates guilty and sentences him to death.

500 B.C.E.

400 B.C.E.

500 B.C.E.

B.C.E. 300400 B.C.E.

200300 B.C.E. B.C.E.

431– 404 B.C.E.

431– 404 B.C.E.

Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, each with its own allies, weakens the Greek city-states.

Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, each with its own allies, weakens the Greek city-states.

200 B.C.E.

About 300 B.C.E. 334–323 B.C.E. Empire of Alexander the Great Alexander the Great builds a vast empire and spreads Greek culture to Asia and Africa.

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Euclid Writes About Geometry 334–323 B.C.E. The mathematician Euclid Empire of Alexander the Great writes The Elements, Alexander the Great builds a a collection 13 booksGreek vast empire andofspreads about geometry. culture to Asia and Africa.

History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  109

Ancient Greece 353


ANCIENT

GREECE:

INTERACTIVE

STUDENT

NOTEBOOK

Timeline Skills

Analyze the Unit 5 timeline in the Student Text. Also think about what you have learned in this unit. Then answer the following questions. 1. By about what year were Greek city-states flourishing?

2. Of democracy, oligarchy, and tyranny, which form of government was first used in Greece? 3. About how many years after the development of oligarchies did democracy appear? 4. Where did democracy develop? About when did that happen? 5. Did the Golden Age of Athens happen before or after the Greco-Persian Wars? 6. The Golden Age ends at the same time as another event begins. What is this event, and why might it have contributed to the end of the Golden Age?

7. During which war did Pericles deliver his Funeral Oration speech? 8. Was Alexander the Great tutored by the Greek philosopher Socrates? How do you know?

9. What did Alexander the Great accomplish?

Timeline Challenge

10. Who was Euclid, and why is he important?

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ANCIENT

GREECE:

INTERACTIVE

STUDENT

NOTEBOOK

Critical Thinking

Use the timeline and the lessons in the unit to answer the following questions.

11. Democracy is a form of government that developed from earlier forms of government and continued to change over time. a. What were the earlier forms of government, and what were their disadvantages?

b. How does the democracy of ancient Greece compare with that of the United States? Identify one similarity and one difference.

12. Compare and contrast the city-states of Athens and Sparta. How are they similar, and how are they different?

13. Identify an important ancient Greek figure in the arts and sciences that you think made the most significant contribution and explain your choice.

14. If you could add three more events to this timeline, which ones would you choose? List each event and explain why you think it is important enough to add to the timeline. a.

Timeline Challenge

b. c.

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History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  111


ANCIENT

GREECE:

HANDOUT

Unit 5 Timeline Challenge Cards

Oligarchies Replace Monarchies By 800 B.C.E.

Oligarchies replace monarchies as the form of government in most Greek city-states.

Greek City-States Flourish About 500 B.C.E.

Tyrannies Replace Oligarchies By Mid-600s B.C.E.

Tyranny becomes the form of government in many Greek city-states.

Democracy Develops in Athens

Timeline Challenge

By 500 B.C.E.

Greek city-states establish colonies and conduct trade in the wider Mediterranean region.

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In Athens, democracy gives shared ruling power to all citizens.

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ANCIENT

GREECE:

HANDOUT

Greco-Persian Wars

Golden Age of Athens

499–479 B.C.E.

479–431 B.C.E.

The Golden Age of Athens makes the city-state the artistic and cultural center of Greece.

Peloponnesian War

Pericles’ Funeral Oration

431–404 B.C.E.

431 B.C.E.

The Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, each with its own allies, weakens the Greek city-states.

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Pericles praises the greatness of Athens in his Funeral Oration honoring Athenian soldiers killed in the Peloponnesian War.

History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  113

Timeline Challenge

The Greco-Persian wars end with a Greek victory aided by the alliance of Athens and Sparta.


ANCIENT

GREECE:

HANDOUT

Death of Thucydides

Death of Socrates

About 400 B.C.E.

399 B.C.E.

Timeline Challenge

The historian Thucydides writes about the history of the Peloponnesian War.

A jury finds the philosopher Socrates guilty and sentences him to death.

Empire of Alexander the Great

Euclid Writes About Geometry

334–323 B.C.E.

About 300 B.C.E.

Alexander the Great builds a vast empire and spreads Greek culture to Asia and Africa.

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The mathematician Euclid writes The Elements, a collection of 13 books about geometry.

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THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

AT HENS:

ASSESSMENT

Summative Assessment The TCI-Created Assessment for this and every lesson in this program is comprised of selected-response and critical thinking questions to fully assess student mastery of content and skills. The test is ready to take, but you can edit and customize the test to meet the needs of your classroom. Below are samples of questions you will encounter in the assessment. Mastering the Content: These questions are selected-response questions designed to check students’ understanding of the lesson’s content. Why was Pericles famous? A. He was the author of important plays. B. He was the architect of a major temple. C. He led the army during the Persian wars. D. He led the government during the Golden Age.

Applying Social Studies Skills: These are short answer questions that allow students to demonstrate knowledge of skill through close examination of a rich stimulus or primary source. Use the map and your knowledge of history to answer the questions. Write the word or phrase in the space provided.

The Northern Long Wall and the Southern Long Wall protected the route between Athens and its main seaport. The map suggests that the seaport was in which direction from Athens? Exploring the Essential Question: These questions challenge students to use their critical thinking skills to create a final product. Design a travel poster advertising a visit to the city-state of Athens during its Golden Age. Include the following in your poster: • Four drawings that represent places or objects a visitor should see, or activities a traveler should participate in. • A caption that explains why the visitor should do each of the four things suggested on the poster. For example, a caption might read, “Learn your future. Visit Delphi.” www.teachtci.com

History Alive! The Ancient World Review Guide  115


C R E D I T S

Cover: Christian Delbert/ Dreamstime 4C: monkeybusinessimages 50: iStockphoto 52: Georgios Kollidas/Dreamstime 53: age fotostock/Alamy 54T: iStockphoto 55: Neil Letson/Dreamstime 56: Shutterstock 57: Georgios Kollidas/Dreamstime 58: Classic Image/Alamy 59: Radius Images/ Alamy 60: Leemage/Corbis 63: Album / Art Resource, NY 90: The Gallery Collection/Corbis 94L: Jiss/Dreamstime 94R: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/ Art Resource, NY 96: Stefano Bianchetti/Corbis 98: Shutterstock 100: Shutterstock 112TL: 123RF. com 112TR: Wikimedia 112BL: 123RF.com 112BR: 123RF.com 113TL: 123RF.com 113TR: Photos.com 113BL: 123RF.com 113BR: 123RF.com 114TL: Pavel Parmenov/Dreamstime 114TR: Photos.com 114BL: 123RF.com 114BR: Photos.com 115T: Jozef Sedmak/Dreamstime

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Profile for Teachers' Curriculum Institute (TCI)

TCI for Indiana- 6th Grade Review Guide  

TCI for Indiana- 6th Grade Review Guide  

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