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T A B L E

O F

C O N T E N T S

Bring Science Alive! 8th Grade Integrated Unwrapping a TCI Segment....................................................1

Sample NGSS-Designed Assessment..................................61

Program Contents...................................................................2

Engineering Challenge

Unwrapping a TCI Segment

A Phenomena-Rich Program............................................8

Interactive Student Notebook........................................79

Three-Dimensional Learning..........................................10

Handouts.......................................................................87

Thinking Like an Engineer..............................................12

Performance Assessment

Checking Student Progress............................................14

Lesson Guide.................................................................70

Lesson Guide.................................................................97

Segment Integrated Phenomenon

Interactive Student Notebook......................................101

Lesson Guide.................................................................16

Learning Sequence

Interactive Student Notebook........................................18

Segment Correlations..................................................112

Handout.........................................................................22

8th Grade Integrated Learning Progressions...............116

Anchoring Phenomenon

Materials............................................................................149

Lesson Guide.................................................................24

Credits ..............................................................................151

Interactive Student Notebook........................................26

Three-Dimensional Lesson Investigations

Lesson Guide.................................................................28

Student Text..................................................................44

Interactive Student Notebook........................................54


Unwrapping a TCI Segment

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8th Grade Integrated  1


P R O G R A M

C O N T E N T S

Bring Science Alive! 8th Grade Integrated Segment 1 - The Speed of Objects and Waves Integrated Phenomenon: A person floating on a raft in the middle of the ocean will not move toward shore with the waves. But the wind could blow the raft toward shore. Create an initial model to explain this phenomenon.

Forces

Anchoring Phenomenon: A go-cart covers a certain distance in a given amount of time as it moves around a track. 1 Describing Motion

Phenomenon: Sitting in a train alongside other trains, you might look out the window and be unsure about which train is in motion.

2 Forces in Interactions

Phenomenon: It takes an enormous amount of fuel to launch a rocket.

3 Effects of Forces

Phenomenon: If an astronaut throws a wrench in outer space with no other forces acting on it, the wrench will continue moving forever. Engineering Challenge: Designing Safe Go-Carts Performance Assessment: Evaluating Modern Go-Carts Anchoring Phenomenon: A go-cart covers a certain distance in a given amount of time as it moves around a track.

Mechanical Waves

Anchoring Phenomenon: Waves are eroding the coastline near the Las Olas Hermosas Restaurant more than the surrounding beaches. 4 Types of Waves

Phenomenon: At many sporting events, members of the crowd stand up and lift their hands in a pattern that people call “doing the wave.�

5 Properties of Waves

Phenomenon: Huge waves form at Mavericks, and scientists, surfers, and weather forecasters can predict when they will occur up to 48 hours in advance.

6 Wave Energy

Phenomenon: Wave energy converters produce more electricity in some locations than in other locations.

7 Waves in Different Media

Phenomenon: The sound of your finger tapping on a desktop seems much louder and lower pitched when you press your ear to the desk. Engineering Challenge: Preventing Coastal Erosion Performance Assessment: Saving the Las Olas Hermosas Restaurant Anchoring Phenomenon: Waves are eroding the coastline near the Las Olas Hermosas Restaurant more than the surrounding beaches.

Using Your Model to Explain the Phenomenon

Return to the model created at the beginning of the segment, and revise it based on what you learned about forces and mechanical waves. Then, use your model to explain the Integrated Phenomenon.

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P R O G R A M

C O N T E N T S

Segment 2 - Modeling Light in the Solar System Integrated Phenomenon: Sometimes in the last seconds before the sun dips under the horizon, you can see a small flash of green light. Create an initial model to explain this phenomenon.

The Earth-Sun-Moon System

Anchoring Phenomenon: Celestial objects appear to move in distinct patterns from Earth. 8 Earth’s Rotation and Revolution

Phenomenon: The sun appears to move across the sky during the day, and stars appear to move across the sky during the night.

9 Earth’s Tilted Axis

Phenomenon: Each year, trees sprout leaves which grow, change color, die, and fall off.

10 Phases of the Moon

Phenomenon: The appearance of the moon changes every night.

11 Eclipses

Phenomenon: Sometimes the sun appears to be blocked by the moon. Performance Assessment: Presenting a Model of the Earth-Sun-Moon System Anchoring Phenomenon: Celestial objects appear to move in distinct patterns from Earth.

Light Waves

Anchoring Phenomenon: Light creates effects that are not so easy to explain such as making diamonds sparkle, making lines at the bottom of a pool appear wavy, and making rainbows form near waterfalls. 12 The Wave Model of Light

Phenomenon: An optical illusion can make you see more fish than there really are.

13 Properties of Light Waves

Phenomenon: A single object can appear to be many colors depending on the filter you see it through. Performance Assessment: Designing a Light Art Piece Anchoring Phenomenon: Light creates effects that are not so easy to explain such as making diamonds sparkle, making lines at the bottom of a pool appear wavey, and making rainbows form near waterfalls.

Using Your Model to Explain the Phenomenon

Return to the model created at the beginning of the segment, and revise it based on what you learned about the Earth-Sun-Moon system and light waves. Then, use your model to explain the Integrated Phenomenon.

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8th Grade Integrated  3


P R O G R A M

C O N T E N T S

Segment 3 - Noncontact Forces Influence Phenomena Integrated Phenomenon: If an astronaut in orbit around a planet drops a power tool, it will move as the astronaut is moving—in orbit around the planet. Create an initial model to explain this phenomenon.

Noncontact Forces

Anchoring Phenomenon: Drones are able to overcome gravity. 14 Gravity

Phenomenon: When a piece of paper is placed on top of a book, and both objects are dropped together, they fall straight to the ground; the paper does not flutter.

15 Electricity

Phenomenon: Sometimes, you experience a shock or even see a spark as you reach for a doorknob.

16 Magnetism and Electromagnetism

Phenomenon: Headphones and speakers use wires and magnets to deliver sound to your ears. Performance Assessment: Investigating a Drone Motor Design Anchoring Phenomenon: Drones are able to overcome gravity.

The Solar System

Anchoring Phenomenon: Celestial objects in the solar system have similar characteristics which can be used to sort them into groups. 17 Gravity and the Solar System

Phenomenon: Planets revolve around stars while moons revolve around planets.

18 The Inner Solar System

Phenomenon: Astronomers believe that Mars would be an ideal place to build a colony. Engineering Challenge: Landing on Mars

19 The Outer Solar System

Phenomenon: There are millions of objects in our solar system, but we only call a few of them ‘planets.’ Performance Assessment: Classifying Planets Anchoring Phenomenon: Celestial objects in the solar system have similar characteristics which can be used to sort them into groups.

Using Your Model to Explain the Phenomenon

Return to the model created at the beginning of the segment, and revise it based on what you learned about noncontact forces and the solar system. Then, use your model to explain the Integrated Phenomenon.

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P R O G R A M

C O N T E N T S

Segment 4 - Major Collisions in the History of Life Integrated Phenomenon: The fossil record suggests that an object from space hit the Earth and led to mass extinction, but a collision of this scale on Earth has never been witnessed by humans. Create an initial model to explain this phenomenon.

The Solar System and Beyond

Anchoring Phenomenon: Celestial objects in our solar system and beyond all follow distinct patterns of movement. 20 Formation of the Solar System

Phenomenon: Humans weren’t around to watch the solar system form, but we have observed patterns that may explain its formation.

21 Beyond the Solar System

Phenomenon: It’d be extremely difficult to fit a scale model of our Milky Way Galaxy in a classroom. Engineering Challenge: Engineering a Damping Device Performance Assessment: Writing a Gravity Adventure Scene Anchoring Phenomenon: Celestial objects in our solar system and beyond all follow distinct patterns of movement.

The History of Life on Earth

Anchoring Phenomenon: Similar fossils have been found in the same aged rock in fossil digs that are over 100 miles apart. 22 Earth’s History

Phenomenon: You would usually find shells by the ocean, but fossilized shells can be found in the middle of the desert.

23 Fossils and the History of Life

Phenomenon: Dinosaurs once roamed the earth, but now we do not find them alive anywhere. Engineering Challenge: Designing a Fossil Extraction Toolset Performance Assessment: Analyzing a Fossil Dig Site Anchoring Phenomenon: Similar fossils have been found in the same aged rock in fossil digs that are over 100 miles apart.

Using Your Model to Explain the Phenomenon

Return to the model created at the beginning of the segment, and revise it based on what you learned about outer space and the history of life on Earth. Then, use your model to explain the Integrated Phenomenon.

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8th Grade Integrated  5


P R O G R A M

C O N T E N T S

Segment 5 - Evolution Explains Life’s Unity and Diversity Integrated Phenomenon: Faster cheetahs catch more food than slower cheetahs do. Create an initial model to explain this phenomenon.

The Evolution of Life

Anchoring Phenomenon: Whales live in water and look like big fish, but they have traits of land-dwelling mammals. 24 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Through Natural Selection

Phenomenon: Darwin found many kinds of finches with different sized and shaped beaks on the different islands of the Galápagos.

25 Observing Natural Selection in Action

Phenomenon: In only 2 years, the average beak size of finches on Daphne Major got almost 1mm larger.

26 Genes and Natural Selection

Phenomenon: Lovebirds in captivity have unique colorations not found in the wild population.

27 Evolutionary Relationships

Phenomenon: Crayfish, spiders, and dragonflies may seem very different at first glance, but they have many similarities. Performance Assessment: Evolutionary History of Whales Anchoring Phenomenon: Whales live in water and look like big fish, but they have traits of land-dwelling mammals.

Kinetic and Potential Energy

Anchoring Phenomenon: One small action in a Rube Goldberg machine causes a chain reaction of effects. 28 Forms of Energy

Phenomenon: A pendulum boat ride cannot swing forever under the force of gravity.

29 Measuring Kinetic Energy

Phenomenon: A wrecking ball causes more damage when it’s bigger or swung from further away.

30 Potential Energy in Systems

Phenomenon: A firework transforms from a small cardboard covered object to a large explosion of fire in the sky. Engineering Challenge: Designing Musical Instruments Performance Assessment: Analyzing a Chain Reaction Machine Anchoring Phenomenon: One small action in a Rube Goldberg machine causes a chain reaction of effects.

Using Your Model to Explain the Phenomenon

Return to the model created at the beginning of the segment, and revise it based on what you learned about the evolution of life and kinetic and potential energy. Then, use your model to explain the Integrated Phenomenon.

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P R O G R A M

C O N T E N T S

Segment 6 - Sustaining Local and Global Diversity Integrated Phenomenon: Tracking information suggests that polar bear population size is increasing in some areas while decreasing in others. Create an initial model to explain this phenomenon.

Human Impacts on Evolution

Anchoring Phenomenon: Moreton Bay in Australia is rapidly declining in health due to increases in population around the bay. 31 Artificial Selection

Phenomenon: Bulldog skulls have dramatically changed in shape over the past 150 years.

32 Genetic Engineering and Society

Phenomenon: Before 1922, diabetes was a death sentence. However, by the early 1990s, people with diabetes could live long and relatively normal lives.

33 Human Population and Global Change

Phenomenon: The Aral Sea shrunk to a quarter of its size in only 50 years. Engineering Challenge: Redesigning “Trash” to Reduce Environmental Impact Performance Assessment: Bioethics Debate Anchoring Phenomenon: Moreton Bay in Australia is rapidly declining in health due to increases in population around the bay.

Thermal Energy

Anchoring Phenomenon: Jackrabbits’ ears help them survive in the extreme heat of the desert. 34 Thermal Energy and Heat

Phenomenon: A heater in a classroom provides heat, but the temperature in the room stays the same.

35 Thermal Properties of Matter

Phenomenon: Deserts are hot during the day, with average daytime temperatures of 38°C, but they can be as cold as -4°C at night. Performance Assessment: Designing, Constructing, and Testing a Thermos Anchoring Phenomenon: Jackrabbits’ ears help them survive in the extreme heat of the desert.

Waves for Information Transfer

Anchoring Phenomenon: In the past 50 years, the vast majority of analog devices have been replaced with digital equivalents. 36 Sending Information Using Wave Pulses

Phenomenon: When a message is whispered repeatedly during a game of telephone, it changes over time. Engineering Challenge: Designing a Multi-frequency Communication System

37 Analog and Digital Information

Phenomenon: A Digital Signal Sender is a more reliable way of communicating a phone number than an Analog Signal Sender. Performance Assessment: Selling Digital Anchoring Phenomenon: In the past 50 years, the vast majority of analog devices have been replaced with digital equivalents.

Using Your Model to Explain the Phenomenon

Return to the model created at the beginning of the segment, and revise it based on what you learned about human impacts on evolution, thermal energy, and waves for information transfer. Then, use your model to explain the Integrated Phenomenon.

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8th Grade Integrated  7


U N W R A P P I N G

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T C I

S E G M E N T :

P H E N O M E N A

A Phenomena-Rich Program TCI believes that phenomena makes science more meaningful for students. Bring Science Alive! provides many opportunities for students to engage with, investigate, and make sense of natural phenomena in their own lives.

Integrated Phenomenon The integrated phenomenon ties together multiple disciplines. Students come up with an initial model to explain the phenomenon and revise it throughout the segment.

Anchoring Phenomenon The anchoring phenomenon encourages students to make connections with the world around them. Students then further explore the phenomenon during the Performance Assessment.

Lesson Phenomenon

Local Phenomenon

Each lesson begins with an investigative phenomenon that is used to pique students’ interest and drive instruction throughout the investigations. At the end of a lesson, students use what they learned to make sense of the phenomenon.

Students build a deeper, personal connection to the phenomenon through direct observation or by conducting research to find out more about the phenomenon in their local area.

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U N W R A P P I N G

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P H E N O M E N A

Bring Science Alive! covers a variety of phenomena topics to engage every student.

Multimedia Phenomena

Phenomena are presented through videos, images, and hands-on observations.

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Rich multimedia throughout the program provide easy ways for students to interpret the phenomena.

8th Grade Integrated  9


U N W R A P P I N G

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I N V E S T I G A T I O N S

Three-Dimensional Learning Students set forth to investigate each lesson’s phenomenon. Each carefully-designed investigation guides students through mastering the lesson’s science practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas.

Lessons are broken out into modules so that teachers can pick and choose what works for their classroom.

Lessons are presented in an easy-to-use, customizable slideshow format.

Pacing is provided for teachers to plan in advance.

Each and every lesson focuses on at least one Science and Engineering Practice, one Disciplinary Core Idea, and one Crosscutting Concept.

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Investigations are designed to meet Math and ELA Common Core standards as specified by NGSS.

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U N W R A P P I N G

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I N V E S T I G A T I O N S

Material Kits are prepared and organized to seamlessly integrate into each lesson.

Consumable Materials can easily be ordered online.

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Everything needed for one lesson is grouped together into a clearly labeled bag.

8th Grade Integrated  11


U N W R A P P I NG

A

TC I

S EG M EN T:

ENG I N EER I NG

C H A L L ENG ES

Thinking Like an Engineer Engineering Challenges throughout the program allow for students to think like engineers as they solve real-world problems related to the Anchoring Phenomenon.

Students are assigned roles and come together to solve an engineering problem. This mirrors a real-world engineering team.

Teams develop solutions, conduct iterative testing, and use data (or results) to improve their solutions.

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Students come up with their own metrics to measure the success of their design solution.

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U N W R A P P I NG

A

TC I

S EG M EN T:

ENG I N EER I NG

C H A L L ENG ES

Rubrics detail what is expected at each achievement level.

Engineering Challenge Rubric

Students go through the engineering design process for each challenge.

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Rubrics are provided for the students so that they can thoughtfully answer questions knowing what they will be graded on.

8th Grade Integrated  13


U N W R A P P I N G

A

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A S S E S S M E N T S

Checking Student Progress Bring Science Alive! offers a variety of assessments types to evaluate student learning.

Formative Assessment

Lesson Game In a Lesson Game, students answer selectedresponse questions about the lesson. Results are automatically tracked in your gradebook.

Key Science Concepts Videos, diagrams, and detailed illustrations provide an additional check for students’ understanding.

Notebook Monitor students’ progress in their notebooks as they go through the lesson and investigations.

Interactive Tutorials Students can check their own understanding of main ideas with Interactive Tutorials.

Simulations Students explore scientific concepts through an interactive game-like environment, which allows them to check and evaluate predictions.

Wrap-Up Slides Lead a culturally-responsive discussion with carefully designed three-dimensional questions.

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U N W R A P P I N G

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A S S E S S M E N T S

Summative Assessment Assessment items evaluate mastery of all three NGSS dimensions. Questions range in Depth of Knowledge levels 1-4.

Interactive stimuli engage students and prepare them for digital state tests.

A series of discrete items and performance tasks create a well-rounded assessment.

Performance Assessment

Students work collaboratively or individually to complete the tasks.

Hands-on Performance Assessments provide opportunities to check student understanding of the Performance Expectations.

Analytical rubrics are provided to assess student work individually. www.teachtci.com

8th Grade Integrated  15


Integrated Phenomena

INT EGR AT ED PHENOMENON: T HE SP EED OF OB JEC T S A ND WAV ES

Integrated Phenomenon The Speed of Objects and Waves

Materials: • Notebook: Integrated Phenomenon • Handout A: Claim, Evidence, and Reasoning Planner Lesson Support: • The Integrated Phenomenon is meant to integrate instruction throughout the lessons from each discipline. • After you introduce the phenomenon on the following slides, give students time to ask questions and develop a rough model that attempts to explain the phenomenon. • Have students return to their model throughout the lessons in order to revise it and fill in new information that helps explain the phenomenon.

SLIDE 2

• Sailboats can speed through the ocean when their sails catch the wind and use this force to move across the water.

SLIDE 3

• Without wind and the sail, the boat would only move with the motion of the ocean’s waves. • You might be surprised to learn that with no wind or currents, it actually stays in one location as it bobs up and down in the waves.

SLIDE 4

• Waves’ influence on moving objects is predictable and makes sense when you understand what waves are. This information will be valuable if you ever find yourself floating on a raft in the middle of the ocean!

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SLIDE 2

SLIDE 3

SLIDE 4

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SLIDE 5 •

Integrated Phenomenon: A person floating on a raft in the middle of the ocean will not move toward shore with the waves. But the wind could blow the raft toward shore. • What questions do you have about this phenomenon?

SLIDE 5

SLIDE 6

• Develop an initial model to try to explain this phenomenon. • After each lesson, record information related to the integrated phenomenon. Revise and develop your model. • After all the lessons, use your final model to write an explanation of the phenomenon.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 6

Materials Log in for a complete list of materials.

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8th Grade Integrated  17

Integrated Phenomena

INT EGR AT ED PHENOMENON: T HE SP EED OF OB JEC T S A ND WAV ES


Integrated Phenomena

I N T E G R A T E D

P H E N O M E N O N :

N O T E B O O K

I N T E G R AT E D S E G M E N T: T H E S P E E D O F O B J E C T S A N D WAV E S

Integrated Phenomenon: A person floating on a raft in the middle of the ocean will not move toward shore with the waves. But the wind could blow the raft toward shore. 1. What questions do you have about this phenomenon? How might you investigate to find answers?

2. In the space below, come up with an initial model that attempts to explain this phenomenon.

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P H E N O M E N O N :

N O T E B O O K

3. After you complete each lesson, return to the table below and add what you learned that relates to or might help explain part of the phenomenon: A person floating on a raft in the middle of the ocean will not move toward shore with the waves. But the wind could blow the raft toward shore.

Lesson

Questions to Consider

Describing Motion

How is an object’s position determined? What is an object’s average velocity? What would the velocity be if an object just moved in a circle every few seconds, returning to its same starting position each time?

Forces in Interactions

What is a force? If wind causes air to push on a sail attached to a boat, what force does the sailboat exert even though it’s moving?

Effects of Forces

When wind blows a sail, moving a sailboat that was previously at rest, are the forces balanced or unbalanced? What is friction? Do you think sailboat designers consider the friction between the water and the boat?

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What I Learned to Help Explain Part of the Phenomenon

8th Grade Integrated  19

Integrated Phenomena

I N T E G R A T E D


Integrated Phenomena

I N T E G R A T E D

P H E N O M E N O N :

Lesson

N O T E B O O K

Questions to Consider

Types of Waves

What is a mechanical wave? What kind of waves occur in water? What is moving through an ocean to the shore—matter or energy? What is a surface wave? How do objects floating on the water move with surface waves?

Properties of Waves

What is a wave’s frequency? How does the frequency of a surface wave impact how quickly an object floating on the surface reaches the shore? How would wave amplitude impact the movement of a raft floating on wavy water? How would wavelength and frequency affect the raft?

Wave Energy

What is energy? Where does the energy in the ocean’s surface waves come from?

Waves in Different Media

How do water waves change when they move from deep to shallow water?

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What I Learned to Help Explain Part of the Phenomenon

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P H E N O M E N O N :

N O T E B O O K

4. In the space below (or on your original model in question 2), revise your model based on what you learned throughout the lessons.

5. Use what you have learned, and the final model that you developed, to explain the phenomenon: A person floating on a raft in the middle of the ocean will not move toward shore with the waves. But the wind could blow the raft toward shore. Fill in Handout A: Claim, Evidence, and Reasoning Planner to plan your explanation. Then write it out in the space below.

6. How does this explanation relate to questions that have come up in your own life experience?

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8th Grade Integrated  21

Integrated Phenomena

I N T E G R A T E D


Integrated Phenomena

I N T E G R A T E D

P H E N O M E N O N :

H A N D O U T

A

Claim, Evidence, and Reasoning Planner A well made argument includes the following parts. 1. A clear claim that supports an explanation for a phenomenon Describe the phenomenon and its explanation here.

. My argument will be organized to support the following claim: . 2. Empirical evidence in support of the claim A. Describe one piece of information you think is related to your claim: . How was this data collected? (For example: An investigation by you, research done by someone else, observations you’ve made in your daily life) . Do you trust the source of this evidence? Explain. . Is the evidence empirical? . B. Describe one piece of information you think is related to your claim: . How was this data collected? (For example: An investigation by you, research done by someone else, observations you’ve made in your daily life) . Do you trust the source of this evidence? Explain. . Is the evidence empirical? .

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P H E N O M E N O N :

H A N D O U T

A

C. Describe one piece of information you think is related to your claim: . How was this data collected? (For example: An investigation by you, research done by someone else, observations you’ve made in your daily life) . Do you trust the source of this evidence? Explain. . Is the evidence empirical? . Look back at your evidence. Is the data you’ve compiled sufficient to support your entire claim? If not, print more copies of the handout and fill out more evidence bars until you have sufficient support for your claim. 3. Scientific reasoning that links the evidence to the claim A. For the evidence in 2.A, what is a clear way to state why the evidence supports the claim?

. B. For the evidence in 2.B, what is a clear way to state why the evidence supports the claim?

. C. For the evidence in 2.C, what is a clear way to state why the evidence supports the claim?

. To combine your claim, evidence, and reasoning into an argument, write out the claim followed by each piece of evidence with the reasoning that makes it appropriate to include.

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8th Grade Integrated  23

Integrated Phenomena

I N T E G R A T E D


ANCHORING

PHENOMENON:

MECHANICAL

WAVES

Anchoring Phenomenon Mechanical Waves

Anchoring Phenomena

Materials: • Notebook: Anchoring Phenomenon

SLIDE 2

• Let’s find out about the unit phenomenon and storyline. • Anchoring Phenomenon: The waves are eroding the cliff below Las Olas Hermosas restaurant more than the surrounding beaches.

SLIDE 2

SLIDE 3

• The Las Olas Hermosas Restaurant is on a peninsula that is eroding faster than the surrounding area. Throughout this unit, you will learn about waves and how to save Guillermo’s restaurant from falling into the sea. • Complete the first two columns of the KWL chart in your Interactive Student Notebook, and then take the unit Self-Assessment.

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SLIDE 3

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ANCHORING

PHENOMENON:

MECHANICAL

WAVES

Interdisciplinary Connections Make connections between physical sciences.

Lesson Support: • The Interdisciplinary Connection is meant to enhance learning by helping students to recognize the connections between related areas of content in distinct disciplines. • After you introduce the Crosscutting Concept, give students an opportunity to answer the Connection Questions. Let them know that they will have an opportunity to return to these questions and revise their answers after they complete the lessons. • Encourage students to point out interdisciplinary connections they notice throughout the lessons.

SLIDE 5 •

Energy and matter are important to every scientific field. These images show speed as distance over time, and how change in speed impacts waves. • What topics from Forces and Energy and Waves do you think are connected in these images?

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 5

Lesson Support For now, just have students brainstorm how the sciences are connected in this image as a class. By the end of the lessons, students will have more information to answer the question in detail.

SLIDE 6

• Discuss the Connection Questions in your notebook as a class. • Throughout the lessons, pay attention to the connections between Forces and Energyand Waves.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Don’t worry if students have trouble with the Connection Questions right now. By the end of the Performance Assessment and Connection Activity they will have learned more about these topics. Have them return to refine their answers after the lessons. If they have already worked on these Connection Questions, ask them to use their prior knowledge in answering the questions.

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SLIDE 6

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Anchoring Phenomena

Materials: • Notebook: Interdisciplinary Connections


A N C H O R I N G

P H E N O M E N O N :

N O T E B O O K

ANCHORING PHENOMENON

Anchoring Phenomena

Anchoring Phenomenon: The waves are eroding the cliff below Las Olas Hermosas restaurant more than the surrounding beaches.

1. Complete the first two columns of this chart. • List what you think you already know about this unit’s phenomenon. • Then write at least three questions you have about this phenomenon.

Return to this chart at the end of the unit. Add the key information you learned about this phenomenon. Give evidence! Know

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Want to Know

Learned

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I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y

C O N N E C T I O N S :

N O T E B O O K

INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS

Connection Questions

Anchoring Phenomena

1. What are forces and how do they affect the motion of objects?

2. What factors can cause objects to move at different speeds?

3. How does a wave change as it passes through different media?

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W A V E S

I N

D I F F E R E N T

M E D I A :

O B S E R V I N G

P H E N O M E N A

Observing Phenomena

Consider why American Indians pressed their ears to the ground to hear distant horses. Experience the same phenomenon in your classroom. Materials: • Notebook: Observing Phenomena SLIDE 4

• There are many stories of American Indian trackers pressing their ears against the ground so that they could hear horses or buffalo long distances away. • Do you think there is any truth to these stories?

Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Phenomenon: When you press your ear against a solid surface, you can hear sounds traveling through that material much louder than you can normally. American Indian trackers took advantage of this phenomenon to hear horses or buffalo from a long distance away, and you can experience it yourself by tapping on your desk with your ear pressed against it. Use this phenomenon to encourage students to start asking about the relationship between waves and the media they travel through.

SLIDE 4

SLIDE 5

• Try it yourself! • First, tap your finger against your desk. Listen to how your finger tap sounds. • Now, press your ear against your desk, and tap your finger against your desk again. How did your finger tap sound this time? • Discuss this phenomenon with your group. How is this related to the American Indian trackers pressing their ears to the ground to listen for horses or buffalo?

SLIDE 5

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support This lesson continues to focus on mechanical waves, not electromagnetic (light) waves. Remember that sound waves rely on air particles, so they are mechanical waves.

SLIDE 6 •

Phenomenon: The sound of your finger tapping on a desktop seems much louder and lower pitched when you press your ear to the desk. • What questions do you have about this phenomenon?

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 6

Lesson Support Have students record questions they have about this phenomenon in their notebooks. Throughout the investigations, encourage students to continue to ask questions and make connections to this lesson phenomenon.

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Investigation 1: Modeling Waves in Different Media

In this lesson, students will expand their model of waves with a description of how waves interact with the boundaries between media. Although many of these properties hold true for electromagnetic (light) waves, the lesson focuses on mechanical waves. Light waves will be discussed in other lessons.

Teacher Prep: • Students will work in groups of four to investigate how different media affect wave properties. Each group will need: • 1 spring toy • 1 piece of string approximately 1 m long (reuse from Types of Waves) • Each group will need enough space (about 2 m) in the classroom to stretch out the spring toy tied to the string and make waves.

SLIDE 8

• Can you use the model of waves that you have developed throughout this unit to explain the way your finger tapping sounds when you press your ear to your desk? • Let’s start by reviewing our current model.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 8

NGSS Developing and Using Models: Develop and/or use a model to predict and/or describe phenomena.

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Lesson Investigations

Materials: • Notebook: Investigation 1


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• What are waves? • What properties can you use to describe waves? • How are those properties related to each other?

Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

Simulation Consider having students use the Wave on a String simulation to explore the properties of waves—specifically, wavelength, amplitude, and frequency—by watching a string vibrate. Lesson Support All of the concepts that you have addressed so far are part of a model that you are developing as a class of what a wave is. Use this part of the investigation to formatively assess your students’ understanding of the previous lessons in the unit and review as necessary. How well did they grasp the DCIs, SEPs, and CCCs? They should be able to express a definition of waves that they constructed in a previous lesson, properties that you can use to describe waves (such as amplitude, wavelength, frequency, wave speed, energy, pattern of particle motion), and some relationships between those properties. All of these concepts are elements of the model of waves that they have been constructing during the unit. In the next part of the investigation, you are going to organize these elements of the wave model into a more formal structure.

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• Scientific models have three parts: • Components of the model • Relationships between the components • Connections between the model and real phenomena • Click on the orange buttons for more information about each part of a scientific model. • Let’s try to figure out how to use these terms to describe our model of waves.

SLIDE 11

• Drag and drop the parts of our current model of waves under the term that best describes what part of our model they are.

SLIDE 12

• Who can describe the phenomenon you experienced at the beginning of the lesson? • What is the difference between the sound waves in each situation? • Is there a component of the model that describes the difference between the sound waves moving through air and the ground?

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• In this investigation, you are going to revise your model by adding a new component to your model: the material, or medium, that the wave travels through. • You will also investigate the relationships between a wave’s medium and the other components of the model and develop additional connections between your model and real phenomena.

TEACHER NOTES

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SLIDE 14

• First, let’s practice identifying the medium that a wave is traveling through. For each of these examples of waves, match the wave to its medium.

SLIDE 14

SLIDE 15

Waves in Two Media Now, you are going to investigate the relationships between a wave’s medium and the other components of your model. You will attempt to answer questions like: • How does the wave speed of a sound wave compare to the wave speed of a wave traveling through water? • How does the amplitude of a wave traveling through concrete compare to the amplitude of a wave traveling through dirt? You will model these kinds of differences using a spring toy and a piece of string.

SLIDE 15

TEACHER NOTES

NGSS Systems and System Models: Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions.

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Lesson Investigations

NGSS Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. PS4.A: Wave Properties: A sound wave needs a medium through which it is transmitted.


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• Make waves in the spring toy and the piece of string. Use the same hand motion to make waves in each. • How are the waves that form in the spring toy different from the waves that form in the string? Record the relationships you find in your notebook.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Investigations

Lesson Support The sample answers provided in this ISN page are not “correct” answers. They just describe the kinds of observations students might make given the available materials. NGSS Developing and Using Models: Develop and/or use a model to predict and/or describe phenomena.

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• Everyone gather around one group. • Demonstrate the waves you made. • Point out the relationships you noticed between the wave’s medium and its properties. • Did anyone observe other relationships between a wave’s medium and its properties?

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support When a group finds an example of relationships between waves’ media and their properties, have them demonstrate the relationship to the rest of the class. They will most likely notice that the wave speed and wavelength change depending on the medium, but the frequency and amplitude do not. If the frequency of the waves is varying, it is most likely because the students are shaking the end of the rope and spring at different frequencies. If the amplitude is varying, it is most likely a result of them shaking the end of the spring and rope different distances.

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• Think about the relationships you added to your model. Do any of the relationships connect to the phenomenon you experienced in the preview? • Can you use any of them to explain why the sound of your finger tapping was so different when you pressed your ear to your desk than when you did not press your ear to your desk? • Can you use any of them to explain why American Indian trackers pressed their ears to the ground to hear horses or buffalo from far away? • These are both connections between your model and real phenomena.

SLIDE 18

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support In the Making Sense of Phenomena section of the lesson, students will be asked to write an explanation of these phenomena in their notebook. You may have students record notes now to help them construct their explanation later in the lesson.

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• You have expanded your model of waves to include differences in the media that waves travel through as a component. • What new questions do you have about waves? • Does the new component of your model make you think of new situations you could apply your model of waves to? • Can you identify a situation where you are not sure how a wave’s medium (or media) will affect the wave’s behavior?

SLIDE 19

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 20

Waves Traveling Between Media • We’re going to investigate one particular question that might have occurred to you about waves. What happens to a wave when it reaches the boundary between two media? • Can you think of any examples of waves meeting the boundary between media?

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 20

Example 1 Sound waves reaching a wall (the boundary between air and wood) Example 2 Water waves reaching the edge of a pool (the boundary between water and concrete)

SLIDE 21

• You are going to use your spring toy and string again to investigate what happens to waves when they reach the boundary between media. • But this time, you should tie the string to the end of the spring toy. • What are the two media in this investigation? • Where is the boundary between the media?

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 21

NGSS Developing and Using Models: Develop and/or use a model to predict and/or describe phenomena.

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Lesson Investigations

NGSS Asking Questions and Defining Problems: Ask questions that arise from careful observation of phenomena, models, or unexpected results, to clarify and/or seek additional information.


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• Try making waves in your string and spring toy. Watch the waves closely. What happens when they travel from one medium to the other? • Record your observations in your notebook.

Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

Hint #1 Try making waves with many different amplitudes and frequencies. Can you see different properties more easily using different waves? Hint #2 Try making repeating waves as well as wave pulses. Can you see different behaviors in each? Hint #3 Try making waves go from the spring toy to the string, and try making waves go from the string to the spring toy. Does changing the direction of the waves change their behavior? Hint #4 Watch the path of the wave closely. Does the whole wave travel into the new medium? NGSS Planning and Carrying Out Investigations: Collect data to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer scientific questions or test design solutions under a range of conditions. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations: Conduct an investigation and/or evaluate and/or revise the experimental design to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence that meet the goals of the investigation.

SLIDE 22

SLIDE 23 • • • •

Let’s see what you came up with! Who would like to demonstrate a wave behavior that they discovered? Can you think of a real phenomenon that this wave behavior explains? How many different wave behaviors can we come up with?

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 23

Lesson Support There are videos of four key wave behaviors on the following slides. Use the videos to support the discussion and help identify behaviors that students did not spot on their own.

SLIDE 24

• Let’s review some key wave behaviors you observed. Who can explain what is happening to the waves in each of these videos?

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• Drag and drop the wave behavior to match the phenomenon it could be used to explain.

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Wrap Up • How did you revise your model of waves during this investigation? • Why did you need to revise your model? What phenomenon was the previous version of your model unable to explain? • What new cause and effect relationship did you incorporate into your model to explain those phenomena?

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 26

NGSS Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation: When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light.

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Lesson Investigations

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Investigation 2: Modeling Refraction by Marching Observe refraction of waves and incorporate it into your model of waves.

Materials: • Notebook: Investigation 2 • Tape, masking

Lesson Investigations

SLIDE 28

• In the previous investigation, you saw how the medium a wave travels through affects waves traveling in a straight line. But what happens when a wave is not limited to traveling in a straight line? • Watch each of these videos of waves near a beach. What do you notice about the waves?

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Phenomenon: In these videos, you can see the phenomenon that ocean waves change direction as they approach the shore. Challenge your students to explain this phenomenon on their own. What wave properties are involved? How do those wave properties change? Why does that change cause the waves to change direction? They will likely have some ideas but have trouble formulating a specific explanation. Use the marching model of waves in this investigation to test their ideas, and encourage them to refine their explanation throughout the investigation.

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• Watch the videos again. This time, pay close attention to the direction that the waves are traveling. (Look at the waves as they move through the red boxes.) What do you notice about the direction of the waves? • Can you think of a reason that the waves would change direction as they approach the beach?

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Phenomenon: In these videos, you can see the phenomenon that ocean waves change direction as they approach the shore. Challenge your students to explain this phenomenon on their own. What wave properties are involved? How do those wave properties change? Why does that change cause the waves to change direction? They will likely have some ideas but have trouble formulating a specific explanation. Use the marching model of waves in this investigation to test their ideas, and encourage them to refine their explanation throughout the investigation.

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• Scientists often find it helpful to answer “why” questions like this one by describing cause and effect relationships. • Scientists assume that the phenomenon they observed (in this case, the waves changing direction) is an effect, and so it must have one or more causes. • Once they have identified the cause and effect relationship, they can use it to make predictions. They use the cause and effect relationships to answer questions such as: How will the phenomenon change in different situations?

SLIDE 30

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 31

• Think about the effect you observed in the videos: waves seem to change direction as they approach the shore. • Brainstorm as many possible causes for this effect as you can. Record your ideas in your notebook.

SLIDE 31

SLIDE 32

Marching Band Model • In order to investigate this phenomenon, let’s use a new model of waves. • Line up and model the wave motion by marching forward. • Just like in a marching band, everyone should step forward at the same time and take the same size steps. • Copy the marching you see in the animation.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support In order to synchronize the class stepping forward, have students take a step forward every time you clap. Practice marching until the students can consistently keep their lines straight as they walk forward. You can simplify this activity by having just one line of students do the marching, rather than have a block of several lines of students. If you do this variation, you will still be able to see the wave refracting, but you will not see the changes in wavelength that occur when the waves cross from one medium into another. NGSS Developing and Using Models: Develop and/or use a model to predict and/or describe phenomena. Systems and System Models: Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions.

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Lesson Investigations

NGSS Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.


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SLIDE 33 • • • • •

In this model, each row of students represents one wave crest. What is the wavelength in this model? What is the frequency in this model? What is the wave speed in this model? What is the amplitude in this model?

SLIDE 33

Lesson Investigations

SLIDE 34

Modeling Waves Speeding Up Now, we are going to model waves traveling from a medium where they move at a slow speed into a different medium, where they have faster wave speed. • Take small steps before you cross the line. • Take large steps after you cross the line. Remember, everyone who has crossed the line should be taking the same size steps, and everyone should still take steps at the same time.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Make sure to line students up so that they’re approaching the line at an angle. Have the class stop and observe where they are standing once about half of the students have crossed the line. You should be able to observe several changes in the wave as it crosses the line. First, the direction of the wave should change. This happens because students at one end of the wave speed up before students at the other end of the wave, so that end of the wave moves a little bit farther forward than the other end, changing the direction that the line of students is facing. Second, you should observe that the wavelength of the wave changed. There is more distance between students now that they’re moving faster, because the student in front starts taking larger steps before the student behind does. You should not observe any change in the frequency of the wave. You may want to repeat the demonstration with students standing in different positions, so they can see the effect from different perspectives.

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SLIDE 35

• What happened to the wave as you crossed the line? • When a wave is transmitted form one medium to another and speeds up or slows down, the wave changes direction. This phenomenon is called refraction. • In the last simulation, we observed what happens when a wave speeds up as it is transmitted.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 35

NGSS MS-PS4-2: Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.

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Modeling Other Changes • What other situations can we model with this simulation?

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• Based on our marching band model of waves, let’s come up with a set “rules” that describe the effects of changes in wave speed. • A wave enters a medium where its wave speed is slower. • A wave enters a medium where its wave speed is higher. • A wave enters a new medium perpendicular to the boundary between the two media. • A wave enters a new medium at an angle far from 90° with the boundary between media. • A wave is transmitted into a medium where it moves faster, and then back into a medium where it moves slower again.

SLIDE 37

TEACHER NOTES

NGSS Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation: The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends.

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Lesson Investigations

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• Guillermo, the owner of Las Olas Hermosas restaurant, is concerned about waves crashing on the cliffs below his restaurant. Trace the path that a wave would take from each of the arrows. Use your rules of refraction to predict how the waves will refract as they move into shallower water. • Then, write an explanation that describes the cause-and-effect relationship between waves and the media they travel through that causes them to refract as they move into shallower water.

Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

NGSS PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation: The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends. Math and ELA Text Types and Purposes: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Apply understanding of how connecting words or phrases link ideas, events, and reasons. • Apply understanding of how texts are organized. • Condense ideas in simple ways, such as by compounding verbs, adding prepositional phrases, and using embedded clauses, to create detailed sentences. Expanding • Apply understanding of how connecting words or phrases link ideas, events, and reasons and improve cohesion. • Apply understanding of organizational features of texts. • Condense ideas in multiple ways, such as by using different types of embedded clauses, to create detailed sentences. Bridging • Apply understanding of how connecting and transitional words or phrases link ideas, events, and reasons and improve cohesion. • Apply understanding of organizational structures of texts. • Condense ideas in multiple ways, such as by using nominalization and different types of embedded clauses, to create detailed sentences.

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Wrap Up • Think back to your observations of the water waves changing direction as they approach the beach. What causes the waves change direction? • How do you expect the wavelength and wave speed to change as the waves change direction? • Which situation in our marching band model of waves is most similar to the water waves changing direction?

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Lesson Investigations

NGSS PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation: The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends.

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Making Sense of Phenomena

Explain why tapping a desk with fingers sounds different when you press your ear against your desk. Materials: • Notebook: Making Sense of Phenomena

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• Phenomenon: The sound of your finger tapping on a desktop seems sound much louder and lower pitched when you press your ear to the desk. • Use what you have learned to explain this phenomenon.

Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

Sample Explanation Our wave model describes a cause and effect relationship between the medium that a wave travels through, the wavelength of that wave, and the wave’s speed. Traveling through the table causes the waves to have a higher wave speed and longer wavelength than if the waves were traveling through air. This causes them to sound louder and lower pitched than sound waves traveling through air. Lesson Support Have students record their explanations of the phenomenon in their notebooks. Tell them to think about the Science and Engineering Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Disciplinary Core Ideas they learned throughout the investigations. There are many other possible parts to a full explanation of this phenomenon. For example, a large portion of the sound waves likely reflect back and forth in the table, rather than being transmitted into the air. However, the bones of your skull and ear are more similar to the table than the air is. Therefore, a larger proportion of the waves’ energy is transmitted into ear when you press your head against the table, causing the sound you hear to be louder. Math and ELA Text Types and Purposes: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Apply understanding of how connecting words or phrases link ideas, events, and reasons. • Apply understanding of how texts are organized. • Condense ideas in simple ways, such as by compounding verbs, adding prepositional phrases, and using embedded clauses, to create detailed sentences. Expanding • Apply understanding of how connecting words or phrases link ideas, events, and reasons and improve cohesion. • Apply understanding of organizational features of texts. • Condense ideas in multiple ways, such as by using different types of embedded clauses, to create detailed sentences. Bridging • Apply understanding of how connecting and transitional words or phrases link ideas, events, and reasons and improve cohesion. • Apply understanding of organizational structures of texts. • Condense ideas in multiple ways, such as by using nominalization and different types of embedded clauses, to create detailed sentences. 42  8th Grade Integrated

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Simulation: Wave on a String

Investigate how changing the amplitude and frequency affect waves.

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• Investigate how changing the amplitude and frequency affect waves, and then answer the related questions in your notebook.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 43 Lesson Investigations

Lesson Support Once you are familiar with how the simulation works, select “Oscillate” and “Loose End” and then adjust the amplitude and frequency to see how these changes affect the string.

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Lesson Investigations

Reference Text provides background for students as they conduct investigations.

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What happens when waves move from one medium to another? Introduction

The lesson introduction clearly explains the purpose and carefully-crafted organization of the lesson.

Small waves nudge you back and forth as you paddle on a surfboard away from the beach. When you see a wave swell, you jump up on your board and take off. You time it perfectly to catch the wave just as it begins to slow down and grow larger. The wave breaks and white froth foams around you as the wave carries you toward the beach. You hear your friends’ cheers echo off of the nearby cliffs. Why do waves near the beach slow down and foam, making them perfect for surfing? And how are those changes related to the echoing of your friends’ voices off of the cliffs? Waves behave in predictable ways when they meet a new medium, such as shallow water or the rocky walls of the cliff. How can you use your understanding of how the properties of different materials affect waves to make predictions? For example, what information will you need to predict where the best surf waves will be? What materials and design will work best for building a concert hall? In this lesson, you will extend your model of waves to explore how waves interact with the media they travel through. You will learn what happens to a wave when it moves from one medium to another and when the properties of its medium change. Finally, you will learn how engineers use their knowledge of the interactions between sound waves and matter to build models that help them test the designs of concert halls. Standards related to each lesson are provided.

ray  a straight arrow in a diagram used to represent the direction a wave travels in reflection  when a wave reaches a boundary between two media and bounces back transmission  when a wave passes through the boundary between two media refraction  when a wave bends as it is transmitted from one medium into another medium absorption  when a wave transfers energy to the medium it is passing through scale model  a representation of an system or object that is larger or smaller than the object, but all parts of the object are the same relative size

Students preview new science terms and their definitions before they read the lesson.

Next Generation Science Standards

Performance Expectations MS-PS4-2. Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. MS-ETS1-4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. Science and Engineering Practices Developing and Using Models  • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena. • Develop a model to generate data to test ideas about designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs.

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Crosscutting Concepts Structure and Function  Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used. Cause and Effect  Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. Patterns Graphs and charts can be used to identify patterns in data.

Disciplinary Core Ideas PS4.A. A sound wave needs a medium through which it is transmitted. ETS1.B. • A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results, in order to improve it. • Models of all kinds are important for testing solutions. ETS1.C. The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.

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Lesson Investigations

Waves in Different Media

Vocabulary


Waves Reflecting off the Boundary Between Media

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Figure 1A The rays, or arrows, in this model show how reflected sound waves bounce back when they hit the surface of a new medium. The paragraph that begins each section orients and engages the reader.

1. Reflection and Transmission Suppose you are looking out a window and see some friends walking by. You yell to get their attention. Even though your voice sounds loud to you, your friends on the other side of the glass may only hear a muffled sound. Why does the sound seem so much quieter outside the window than inside? In order to answer this question, scientists need a model to help them understand how waves move through matter, such as the air and the window. A common way to model the motion of waves is using rays. A ray is a straight arrow in a diagram that is used to represent the direction that a wave travels. By using a ray model, you can describe how a wave behaves as it travels from one medium to another. Two different things happen when waves, such as sound waves, meet a boundary between two media: reflection and transmission. Reflection  Waves travel outward from their source in straight lines when they are in a medium. But a wave may change direction when it meets a boundary between two media, such as sound waves moving from air to the glass of a window. The sound waves in Figure 1A, for example, meet a boundary at walls as they travel through the air in a building. Instead of stopping at a boundary, the waves bounce off. Reflection happens when a wave reaches a boundary between two media and bounces back. When a wave changes direction, the ray representing that wave points in the new direction.

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Transmissions and Reflections in Two Kinds of String Original wave pulse

Thin string

Reflected wave pulse

Transmitted wave pulse

Thick rope

Thin string

Transmission  Waves are not only reflected when they meet a new medium; they are also transmitted. This is why your friends hear you when you shout at them through the closed classroom window. They are hearing sound waves that were transmitted through the window. Transmission happens when a wave passes from one medium into and through a new medium. When a wave hits the surface of a new medium, such as a classroom wall, the particles in the new medium vibrate. As these particles push and pull on nearby particles, the wave passes into the new medium, such as the glass of the window. Transmission allows you to hear sounds in the classroom from outside. Transmission also works in waves that move along strings and ropes. Think about tying a thick rope and thin string together, such as in Figure 1B. When you shake the rope once, you make a wave pulse. The wave pulse travels down the thick rope to the thin string, and it does not stop when it meets the string. Some of the wave pulse’s energy is reflected and travels back toward you and some of the wave pulse’s energy is transmitted and travels through the thin string. When a wave is transmitted into a new medium, many of its properties may change. For instance, the wave pulse that is transmitted to the thin string travels faster than it did in the thick rope. Sound waves also change speed when they are transmitted through a wall. They speed up as they travel through the solid parts of the wall, and they slow down on the other side of the wall when they transmit back into air. Figure 1C shows how the speed of the wave depends on the medium. Being transmitted into a new medium may also change a wave’s amplitude and wavelength. How much of a wave is reflected or transmitted when it meets a new medium depends on the media’s properties. Hard walls reflect more sound waves than carpeted floors. These reflected waves continue to transfer energy through the same medium (the air). The transmitted waves carry energy through the new medium, which is why your friends only hear sound waves that are transmitted through the window.

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Figure 1B When a wave pulse in a thick rope meets a string, part of the wave is reflected and part is transmitted. The reflected part travels back along the rope, while the transmitted part continues to travel along the string.

Captions reinforce the main idea of the section and provide supporting details.

Figure 1C Sound waves tend to travel fastest in solids, slower in liquids, and slowest in gases. So, the speed of a sound wave changes when it is transmitted into a new medium. What patterns do you see? Speed of Sound Waves in Different Media Material

v (m/s)

Diamond

12000

Iron

4480

Gold

3240

Rubber

1600

Water (25°C)

1493

Lead

1210

Air (20°C)

343

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Lesson Investigations

Thick rope


2. Refraction

Lesson Investigations

You watch distant waves as they approach the beach. When they are far away, you watch them travel in observable directions. But as they approach the shore, their direction changes. They seem to bend toward the shore. What makes ocean waves bend toward the beach?

Figure 2A The angle of a line of bikers changes when the they reach sand because they slow down at different times. Similarly, waves refract when they meet a new medium because they change speed. Different parts of the wave slow down at different times.

Reasons Waves Refract  Ocean waves changing direction and bending toward the beach is an example of refraction. Refraction is the bending of a wave when it changes speed. This usually happens when it travels from one medium to another. It also happens when the properties of a medium change, causing waves in the medium to change speed. When a wave approaches shore, it moves from deep to shallow water. Water waves move slower in shallow water than in deep water, so the waves bend when they move from deep to shallow water. You can see why a wave speeding up or slowing down causes it to change direction by picturing a line of bikers like the ones in Figure 2A. aSuppose you and your friends are biking on the pavement in a straight line. The sidewalk ends at an angle where it meets sand, and you are the first person in the line to reach the sand. You have to slow down, but your friends can keep biking fast until they reach the sand. By the time the last person in the line reaches the sand, the angle of your line of bikers has changed. A similar change happens with water waves. Water waves slow down when they move from deep to shallow water. The part of the wave that meets the shallow water first slows down first. The other parts of the wave travel farther before they meet the boundary and slow down. As a result, the wave refracts. After the wave bends, it continues traveling in a straight line until its medium changes again.

Changes in Wave Speed Cause Refraction Pavement Fast biking

Sand Slow biking

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85°

90°

Some refraction 80°

Deep water Fast Waves

90°

Amount of Refraction  The direction a wave bends and how much it bends vary. A wave does not bend at all if its direction is perpendicular to the boundary between the media. When it is perpendicular, it meets the new medium straight on. The ray showing the wave’s direction forms a 90° angle with the boundary between media. All of the parts at the front of the wave meet the boundary and change speed at the same time, so the wave passes straight into the medium without changing direction. Figure 2B shows that when a water wave moves from deep to shallow water at a 90° angle it passes straight into shallow water and does not refract. Refraction only happens when a wave meets the new medium at an angle other than 90°. How much the wave refracts depends on how different the angle is from 90° and how much the wave changes speed. As shown by Figure 2B, the further the wave is from being 90° to the boundary, the more it bends, or refracts. Whether a wave speeds up or slows down affects the direction in which the wave bends. Notice in Figure 2B that the waves traveling from deep water to shallow water bend so that the angle between the waves and the boundary is closer to 90°. The opposite happens when the waves travel from shallow water to deep water—the waves bend so that they the angle between the waves and the boundary is farther from 90°. When waves slow down, they refract so that they are closer to forming a 90° angle with the boundary. When they speed up, they refract to be farther from forming a 90° angle with the boundary.

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70°

45°

Most refraction

Scientific illustrations are carefully labeled and titled. Figure 2B Water waves refract, or bend, when they move from deep to shallow water because they travel slower in shallow water than in deep water. The further the waves are from being perpendicular to the boundary between the shallow and deep water, the more they bend.

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Lesson Investigations

Shallow Water Slow Waves

Shoreline

Direction of Refraction in Waves


Lesson Investigations

Absorption of Sound Waves

Figure 3 When a wave meets a new medium, some of its energy may be absorbed by that medium. When a sound wave traveling through air meets a concrete wall, the thick concrete will absorb the sound wave. The wave disappears as its energy is transferred into the new medium. 

Short sections, each with an informative title, make it easier for readers to understand and remember the main ideas.

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3. Absorption When you walk through the hallway on your way to your next class, you are surrounded by all kinds of sounds. However, when you enter the music classroom and close the door, the noise disappears. Why does the sound not follow you into this classroom? A wave may pass into the surface of a new medium but not travel all the way through the medium. Absorption happens when a wave transfers its energy into the medium it is passing through. When sound waves meet a concrete wall, they are partly reflected. Some of the waves also pass into the wall and are absorbed by the wall. You do not hear sound waves that are absorbed. As you can see by the direction of the narrow red arrows in Figure 3, the energy of the absorbed waves is transferred to the wall. The energy may heat the wall, causing the particles in the wall to vibrate faster. As the sound wave’s energy is absorbed by the wall, the sound wave’s amplitude gets smaller, and the sound gets quieter. The amount of energy that is absorbed by a wave’s medium depends on the medium. Some media, such as air, hardly absorb any energy at all as waves pass through them. Waves can travel long distances through these media without losing too much energy. Other media, such as a foam wall, absorb most of the energy of waves passing through them. Even a thin foam wall will absorb most of the energy of sound waves that are transmitted through it. The amount of energy absorbed by a medium can also depend on the properties of the wave. For example, some media will absorb high frequency waves, but have little effect on low frequency waves.

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Key Science Concept

Reflection, Transmission, Refraction, and Absorption When waves meet the boundary between different media, they will do a combination of two things. The waves are partly reflected off the boundary, and they are partly transmitted through to the new medium. As a wave is transmitted to a new medium, if the wave speed in the new medium is different than the old medium, the wave will also refract. Additionally, as waves travel, some of their energy is absorbed by the medium they are travelling in.

Sound waves leaving the wall slow down. They refract in the opposite direction, moving parallel to the original sound waves.

Sound waves entering the wall speed up. They refract to be farther from forming a 90° angle with the wall.

As the sound waves pass through the wall, some of the energy they carry is absorbed by the medium, heating it up.

The sound waves of the man’s voice are transmitted through the air toward a wall.

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Key science concepts support visual learners. Students can interact with these key science concepts online.

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Lesson Investigations

The sound waves are partially reflected off of the wall and partially transmitted through the wall.


Lesson Investigations

Engineering Design

Important new science and engineering vocabulary is in bold type, defined in the same sentence, and used throughout the rest of the text.

4. Engineering Concert Halls Your family might prefer that you practice playing your musical instrument in a carpeted room with the door closed to absorb some of the sound. When you play a concert in an auditorium, the music needs to reach every member of the audience. How do engineers design concert halls to provide the best sound quality for the audience? Acoustic engineers apply what they know about how sound interacts with matter to design rooms, such as concert halls. They must consider how sound waves are reflected, absorbed, and transmitted by the materials in the concert hall. Concert hall walls should not transmit sound from outside or absorb too much sound inside the hall. Engineers need to design the ceilings and walls to reflect just the right amount of sound waves to make the music sound full and rich without producing echoes. They need to choose a shape for the room so that sound waves are reflected in certain directions for the best sound quality. Once they finish their design, engineers do not begin building a concert hall right away. A mistake would be very expensive and difficult to fix. Instead, they use different kinds of models to test and optimize their design. Tests with Scale Models  One kind of model that acoustic engineers use is a model that is built to scale. A scale model is a representation of an object that is larger or smaller than the object, but all parts of the object are the same relative size. For example, the size of a scale model may be 1/20th the size of the real hall, but will have the same proportions. The model chairs, model doors, and model stage will all be 1/20th the size of their real counterparts. Engineers use scale models to test how sound waves travel through the hall. One test involves engineers making a loud noise in the scale model. Then, they use several microphones to record the sound at different parts of the concert hall model.

Acoustic engineers use scale models to design concert halls. Using their knowledge of how sound waves interact with matter, engineers consider how sound waves are reflected, transmitted, and absorbed by different media to choose the best materials to build the concert hall.

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To get the most reliable results from the tests with scale models, engineers must select materials carefully. They test the materials used to build the model. And they make sure that the model materials absorb and reflect sound in the same way that the actual materials will. Engineers even include models of people, who also reflect and absorb sound, to test the sound quality when the concert hall is full.

A three-dimensional computer model is used to predict how sound waves will travel through the room. The path of the sound waves is shown as a straight line in the model.

LESSON SUMMARY

Waves in Different Media

Lesson Investigations

Tests with Computer Models  Acoustic engineers also use computer models of the concert hall to test how sound will be reflected and absorbed. The image shows one kind of computer model. It models sound waves as rays to predict their path through the room. Engineers can use the computer models to simulate how music might sound in the concert. But the results are not always accurate. So, they are improving their computer models. Engineers use the results of the tests with the computer model and scale model to adjust their design. They apply design changes, such as a change in shape or materials, to their model. Then, they repeat the tests to see if their changes improved the sound quality. The process of testing the models and adjusting the design is repeated until the design meets the sound quality requirements. Then, the actual concert hall can be built. Acoustic engineers may not be able to use computer and scale models to predict whether or not you will enjoy the music in the concert hall. But they can design a concert hall so that you have the best possible listening experience.

A summary reinforces the key concepts in the lesson.

Reflection and Transmission  Reflection happens when a wave bounces back from the surface of a new medium. Transmission happens when a wave passes through the boundary between media and then passes through the new medium. Refraction  Refraction happens when a wave bends as its speed changes when it enters a new medium or when the properties of its medium changes. The amount that a wave refracts depends on how much its speed changes and on how close the wave’s direction of travel is to being perpendicular to the boundary. Absorption  Absorption happens when a wave transfers some or all of its energy to its medium. Absorbed waves do not pass through a medium. Engineering Concert Halls  Acoustic engineers use scale and computer models to test and improve their designs of concert halls. The optimized design should produce the best possible sound quality in the concert hall.

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W A V E S

I N

D I F F E R E N T

M E D I A :

N O T E B O O K

Waves in Different Media

Lesson Investigations

OBSERVING PHENOMENA

Phenomenon: The sound of tapping on your desk is much louder and lower pitched when you listen to it with your ear pressed against the desk. 1. What questions do you have about this phenomenon?

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W A V E S

I N

D I F F E R E N T

M E D I A :

N O T E B O O K

I N V E S T I G AT I O N 1

1. Use the differences you observe between waves that form in a spring and a piece of string to identify how the components of your wave model (such as amplitude, wavelength, energy, etc.) are affected by the medium the wave is traveling through. Component of Wave Model

Lesson Investigations

Relationship with Wave Medium

2. Record your observations about what happens to a wave when it reaches the boundary between two media.

Observations: • • • • •

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W A V E S

I N

D I F F E R E N T

M E D I A :

N O T E B O O K

1 - Reflection and Transmission

Lesson Investigations

1. When you are underwater, sounds that you hear from above the water sound much quieter than when you are not underwater. Draw a diagram of the reflection and transmission of sound waves that shows why this might be the case.

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W A V E S

I N

D I F F E R E N T

M E D I A :

N O T E B O O K

I N V E S T I G AT I O N 2

1. Brainstorm as many causes as you can for the phenomenon that waves seem to change direction as they approach the shore.

Cause

Lesson Investigations

2. Describe the effects of each of the scenarios described in the cause column. Effect

A wave enters a medium where its wave speed is slower.

A wave enters a medium where its wave speed is higher.

A wave enters a new medium perpendicular to the boundary between the two media.

A wave enters a new medium at an angle far from 90 degrees with the boundary between the two media.

A wave is transmitted into a medium where it moves faster, and then back into a medium where it moves slower again.

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W A V E S

I N

D I F F E R E N T

M E D I A :

N O T E B O O K

Lesson Investigations

3. Trace the path that a wave would take from each of the arrows. Use your rules of refraction to predict how the waves will refract as they move into shallower water.

4. Write an explanation that describes the cause and effect relationship between waves and the media they travel through that causes them to refract as they move into shallower water.

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W A V E S

I N

D I F F E R E N T

M E D I A :

N O T E B O O K

2 - Refraction

1. Describe the difference between transmission and refraction of waves.

1. In order to muffle sounds in a room, people will often put soft materials on the walls or floor, such as carpet or fabric wall hangings. Explain why these materials help make a room seem less noisy using the concepts of reflection, transmission, and absorption.

4 - Engineering Concert Halls

1. How do models help engineers effectively improve their designs?

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Lesson Investigations

3 - Absorption


W A V E S

I N

D I F F E R E N T

M E D I A :

N O T E B O O K

MAKING SENSE OF PHENOMENA

Phenomenon: The sound of tapping on your desk is much louder and lower pitched when you listen to it with your ear pressed against the desk.

Lesson Investigations

1. Use what you have learned to explain this phenomenon.

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S A M P L E

L E S S O N

A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS-Designed Summative Assessment

NGSS Assessments

Each lesson comes with a three-dimensional assessment designed to prepare students for your state’s NGSS test. The assessment items are a mix of discrete items and performance tasks and range from Depth of Knowledge levels 1 through 4.

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L E S S O N

A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS Assessments

S A M P L E

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L E S S O N

A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS Assessments

S A M P L E

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L E S S O N

A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS Assessments

S A M P L E

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L E S S O N

A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS Assessments

S A M P L E

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L E S S O N

A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS Assessments

S A M P L E

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L E S S O N

A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS Assessments

S A M P L E

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L E S S O N

A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS Assessments

S A M P L E

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L E S S O N

A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS Assessments

S A M P L E

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ENGINEERING

CHALLENGE:

PREVENTING

COASTAL

EROSION

Engineering Challenge: Preventing Coastal Erosion Teacher Prep: • During Defining the Problem, students will work in groups of four to define specific criteria and constraints for the problem they are going to solve. Each group will need a copy of the Letter from the Mayor of Beach Town (Handout B). • During Developing Possible Solutions, divide the students into pairs as they learn about a variety of different types of coastal armoring designs and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each. Each pair of students will need a copy of the Erosion Prevention Measure Rating Guide (Handout C). • Make 3–4 copies of Handout A. Students will be evaluating the Sea Wall design together as a class. Set up 6 stations for the remaining designs students will be evaluating. Each station should have 3–4 copies of one of the remaining designs in Handout A. • During Optimizing the Design Solution, students will return to the groups of four they worked in at the beginning of the Engineering Challenge. Each group will need: • A plastic container to make their beach model in • Approximately ½ lbs (1 cup) of sand for the beach model • ½ a stick of modeling clay for the highway model • A plastic plate to use as a wave paddle

• Enough water to fill the bottom 2” of the plastic container • A ruler • Scissors • A strip of masking tape

• In addition, the following building materials should be available to each group: • • • • •

5 2 5 5 5

craft sticks coupling nuts hex nuts ceramic tiles pieces of plastic mesh, cut into 2” x 2” squares

• • • •

10-15 pieces of Gravel 10 rubber bands 30 toothpicks 1 stick of modeling clay (in addition to the clay for the highway)

• • • • • • • •

Rubber band Ruler Sand, coarse Scissors Tape, masking Tile, ceramic Toothpick Water, tap

Engineering Challenges

Materials: • What you need • • • • • • • •

Bin, plastic, shoe box size Clay, modeling, 4 colors Craft stick Gravel Hex nut Mesh, roll Nut, small coupling Plates, plastic

• Print • Handout A: Coastal Armoring Designs • Handout B: Letter from the Mayor of Beach Town • Handout C: Coastal Armoring Design Rating Guide

• Handout D: Price List • Interactive Student Notebook • Notebook Answer Key

Safety Info: • Based on your students’ age and learning readiness, prepare the classroom for a safe experience. • Carefully review TCI’s risk assessment for each of the materials listed for this investigation. • Make sure to follow all district and state safety protocols for all potential risks. Please take careful note of the safety equipment you’ll need, and ensure that you have trained your students on proper handling and use of materials. 70  8th Grade Integrated

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ENGINEERING

CHALLENGE:

PREVENTING

SLIDE 3

Introduction • Erosion of beaches and cliffs is a major problem that coastal communities face. Watch this video to find out more.

COASTAL

EROSION

SLIDE 3

SLIDE 4

Defining the Engineering Problem • The residents of Beach Town need your help to solve their erosion problem. In teams of four, read Handout B: Letter from the Mayor of Beach Town. • Can you identify the problem you need to solve? What are criteria for success and the constraints for the solution? • Underline or highlight specific things that the mayor expressed as being important, then answer the questions in your notebook.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 4

Engineering Challenges

Criteria and Constraints Criteria for success: Define the goals of the solution, successful solution meets all criteria. Constraints to design: Limitations to the design; often include time, money, and resources. Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. Lesson Support Criteria for success: Define the goals of the solution, successful solution meets all criteria. Constraints to design: Limitations to the design; often include time, money, and resources. NGSS Stability and Change: Stability might be disturbed either by sudden events or gradual changes that accumulate over time.

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ENGINEERING

CHALLENGE:

PREVENTING

COASTAL

EROSION

SLIDE 5

Defining the Problem Define the engineering problem you must solve. Use the underlined portions of the letter to complete the list of criteria for success and constraints to your solution. • How did your team define the engineering problem? • What are the criteria for success of your design? • What are the constraints to your design?

SLIDE 5

SLIDE 6

Developing Possible Solutions • Think about the problem the mayor of Beach Town is asking you to solve. • Have you seen solutions to similar erosion problems in your community? What solutions did engineers design to solve your local problems? • Do you have any ideas for ways to prevent erosion near Beach Town?

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 6

Engineering Challenges

NGSS Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions: Undertake a design project, engaging in the design cycle, to construct and/or implement a solution that meets specific design criteria and constraints.

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ENGINEERING

CHALLENGE:

PREVENTING

COASTAL

EROSION

SLIDE 7

• An important step that engineers take when starting a new design is researching how other engineers have solved similar problems. • You are going to visit each of the stations around the room to learn about various coastal armoring designs that engineers have used. • As you read about each design in Handout A, use Handout C: Coastal Armoring Design Rating Guide to determine a rating for each of the seven designs. Record your score for each design across the five dimensions in your notebook. • We will practice by going through the rating process for as ea wall together.

TEACHER NOTES

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SLIDE 7

Engineering Challenges

Teacher Prep Make 3–4 copies of Handout A. Students will be evaluating the Sea Wall design together as a class. Set up 6 stations for the remaining designs students will be evaluating. Each station should have 3–4 copies of one of the remaining designs in Handout A. Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. NGSS MS-ETS1-2: Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. Engaging in Argument from Evidence: Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria. Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information: Critically read scientific texts adapted for classroom use to determine the central ideas and/or obtain scientific and/or technical information to describe patterns in and/or evidence about the natural and designed world(s). Math and ELA Research to Build and Present Knowledge: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. MP.Reason abstractly and quantitatively: CC.K-12.MP.2.Mathematically proficient students make sense of the quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Write collaboratively and independently. • Write in complete sentences and use key words. Expanding • Organize text in an appropriate manner. • Write in a concise manner. Bridging • Better understand register. • Write in a clear and coherent manner.

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ENGINEERING

CHALLENGE:

PREVENTING

COASTAL

EROSION

SLIDE 8 • • • •

Let’s practice by going through the rating process for a sea wall together. Take a moment to read about the Sea Wall in Handout A. Use the Rating Guide from Handout C to help you rate sea walls in each category. Add up the numbers for the five categories to find the Overall Rating

TEACHER NOTES

Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. Lesson Support Complete the sea wall section of the decision matrix as a class. Allow 2-3 minutes for each group to determine ratings. It might be helpful to leave the sea wall handout up on the screen while students read it, or have a student volunteer to read it aloud. NGSS ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions: There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem.

SLIDE 8

SLIDE 9

• Within your team, split into pairs. With your partner, go to each station and rate the design described at that station. Record your ratings in your notebook. • Add your ratings together to find the overall rating for the design.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 9

Engineering Challenges

NGSS MS-ETS1-2: Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. Engaging in Argument from Evidence: Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria. ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions: There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem.

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ENGINEERING

CHALLENGE:

PREVENTING

COASTAL

EROSION

SLIDE 10

• Revisit your list of criteria and constraints. Compare the overall ratings for each erosion prevention measure. Are there any designs that are clearly inappropriate for solving Beach Town’s erosion problem? • Work together to identify four possible solutions. Each group member is responsible for designing one model to build and test. The models may be inspired by a single erosion prevention measure, or a combination of measures.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 10

Engineering Challenges

Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. NGSS MS-PS4-2: Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. Math and ELA Research to Build and Present Knowledge: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with basic modal expressions. • Justify opinions by providing textual evidence or background knowledge, with substantial support. • Write collaboratively and independently. • Write in complete sentences and use key words. Expanding • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with familiar modal expressions. • Justify opinions or persuade others by providing textual evidence or background knowledge, with moderate support. • Organize text in an appropriate manner. • Write in a concise manner. Bridging • Better understand register. • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with nuanced modal expressions. • Justify opinions or persuade others by providing detailed textual evidence or background knowledge, with minimal support. • Write in a clear and coherent manner.

SLIDE 11

• As a team, decide which of your four possible solutions each team member will be responsible for designing. Draw a diagram of your design in your notebook. • Record the type and amount of each material used, and use the Price List on Handout D to determine the total cost of your design.

TEACHER NOTES

Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. NGSS Structure and Function: Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used.

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SLIDE 11

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ENGINEERING

CHALLENGE:

PREVENTING

COASTAL

EROSION

SLIDE 12

Optimizing the Design Solution • In order to come up with the best possible design for preventing erosion near Beach Town, you will test each of the designs your group came up with, and determine the best characteristics of each. Then, you will combine those characteristics into a single design. • Each group member will take turns in the following roles: • Beach Builder – Build the model of the beach and Highway 1. • Engineer – Design and build the coastal armoring being tested. • Wave Maker – Simulate ocean waves for the model. • Data Recorder – Record the number of waves for each trial.

SLIDE 12

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support This is an opportunity to try to position or encourage girls and young women to be leaders during this group activity.

SLIDE 13

First, you will test the amount of erosion that occurs without any structures to prevent it. Start by following these steps to construct your model beach and highway. • Use a ruler and piece of masking tape to make a line across the bottom of the tank, three inches from the end. • The Beach Builder should pour sand in the container. You’ll want all the sand on one side of the container. • Gently pour 400 mL of water into the plastic container. • Shape the sand into a beach model. The beach should be about three inches wide. • Use a strip of clay one inch wide to create a model of Highway 1 on top of the beach. Make the highway as flat as possible.

SLIDE 13

Engineering Challenges

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Emphasize that building the same beach and highway model in each test will help make your students’ results as accurate as possible.

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ENGINEERING

CHALLENGE:

PREVENTING

COASTAL

EROSION

SLIDE 14

Now, follow these steps to test the amount of erosion that occurs without any coastal armoring. • The Wave Maker should use the wave paddle to make one wave every two seconds. Make the tests as accurate as possible by creating the same size waves for each test! • Continue creating waves until the highway moves from its initial position, or is no longer flat. Stop the test if the highway moves, or if you reach 50 waves. • The Data Recorder should record the number of waves that occurred until the highway moved or 50 waves have passed. Rebuild your model, making it as similar as you can to the first time you build it. Repeat the test two more times and record the results in your notebook.

SLIDE 14

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Emphasize that each group should use a consistent, systematic process to test their designs. They should try to make all of the tests as similar as possible. If you want to make the task more open-ended, you can allow each group to come up with their own testing procedure, including designing a data sheet to record their results, etc.

SLIDE 15

Next, you will build one of the coastal armoring designs, and test its effectiveness in slowing erosion and protecting the highway. • Rebuild the beach and highway model, making it as similar as you can to your previous models. • The Engineer should construct the erosion prevention design in the plastic container. Follow the drawing and materials list you created in your notebook. • Follow the same test procedure you used to measure erosion without any coastal armoring. After the highway moves or you reach 50 waves, record the number of waves that passed. • Repeat the testing procedure three times for the design.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 15

SLIDE 16

• After you test a design three times, rotate roles. • Rebuild the beach model, build the new Engineer’s design, and test it three times. Repeat until each group member has tested his or her design.

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Engineering Challenges

Lesson Support Emphasize that each group should use a consistent, systematic process to test their designs. They should try to make all of the tests as similar as possible. If you want to make the task more open-ended, you can allow each group to come up with their own testing procedure, including designing a data sheet to record their results, etc. NGSS ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions: There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem.

SLIDE 16 8th Grade Integrated  77


ENGINEERING

CHALLENGE:

PREVENTING

COASTAL

EROSION

SLIDE 17

Compare the results of your tests by discussing these questions with your group. For each question, try to identify what aspects of the design make it effective in meeting that criterion. • Which design prevented erosion most effectively? • Which design was most cost effective (prevents the most erosion per dollar spent)? • Which design would likely have the least impact on local wildlife? Try to come up with a new design that combines the best aspects of your previous designs. Can you prevent erosion more cost effectively, without impacting local wildlife? Draw a diagram of your new design in your notebook.

TEACHER NOTES

NGSS MS-ETS1-2: Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. Engaging in Argument from Evidence: Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria. Structure and Function: Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used. ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions: There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem.

SLIDE 17

SLIDE 18

Engineering Challenges

Wrap Up • Which designs worked well? Which did not work as well? Were you surprised? • How was the rating system you used helpful in deciding what design you should test? Did the ratings you put into the matrix match the results of your tests? • How could you make a more accurate model of the Beach Town’s beach and Highway 1? • Which wave behavior was most important for preventing erosion: transmission, reflection, absorption, or refraction?

SLIDE 18

SLIDE 19

• Think about your community. Is there anywhere that you know of where erosion is a problem? • Have engineers used designs similar to the ones you learned about or built in this lesson to slow erosion in your community? • What factors do you think would influence the criteria and constraints that local engineers would need to consider to solve erosion related problems in your community? • How are they similar or different from the factors in Beach Town?

SLIDE 20

Assessment Rubric • Use the rubric to evaluate your performance on this engineering challenge.

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SLIDE 19

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

ENGINEERING CHALLENGE

Preventing Coastal Erosion Defining the Engineering Problem 1. Read the letter from the mayor of Beach Town, then decide whether each of the statements below is true or false. Statement

True or False?

An ideal solution would prevent further erosion, but only for a few years.

There are no budgetary constraints on this project.

Ideally, the engineering solution should not obstruct beach access or the scenic view.

Engineering Challenges

Environmental impacts are of no concern, since the Monterey Bay is already protected.

Storm waves carry more energy and cause more erosion in a short time.

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8th Grade Integrated  79


E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

2. In the spaces below, define the problem that must be solved. Then, write down the criteria and constraints that the mayor discussed in the letter. Engineering Problem

Engineering Challenges

Criteria for Success

Constraints on the Solution

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

Developing Possible Solutions 1. Use the Coastal Armoring Rating Guide to give the coastal armoring designs a score in each of the five dimensions. Add together all five scores to find an overall rating for each design. Then, write a sentence explaining how the design uses the properties of waves to prevent erosion.

Sea Wall

Gabion

Groyne

Revetment

Rip-rap

Breakwater

Artificial Reef

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Construction Environmental Overall Aesthetics Effectiveness Durability Cost Impact Rating

How it works:

How it works:

How it works:

How it works:

Engineering Challenges

Design

How it works:

How it works:

How it works:

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

Engineering Challenges

2. Draw a diagram of the design you will build and test.

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

3. Record the number of each material you will use. Calculate the total cost for each material, then add the costs together to find the total cost for the design. Photo

Cost

1 rubber band

$1 M

3 toothpicks

$2 M

1 mesh square

$2 M

3 pebbles

$10 M

1 hex nut

$15 M

1 craft stick

$20 M

1 coupling nut

$35 M

1 tile

$40 M

1/2 stick of clay

$50 M

Number

Total Material Cost

Engineering Challenges

Material

Total Design Cost:

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

Optimizing the Solution 1. Complete the data table below as you test the four solutions you chose. The first test will serve as a baseline and should be done without any erosion prevention measure. Coastal Armoring Design (Describe the design being tested)

Trial

Total Waves Before Collapse

Years of Protection (Total Waves divided by 3)

1 None

2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Engineering Challenges

1 2 3 1 2 3

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

Engineering Challenges

2. Work with your group to come up with a new design that combines the best aspects of your previous designs. Consider which design prevented the most erosion, how much each design cost, and which design would be least likely to impact local wildlife. Draw a diagram of your new design.

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8th Grade Integrated  85


E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

Engineering Challenge Assessment Use the rubric below to evaluate your work on this engineering task. Then record your score in the Score column. Engineering Process

Achievement Levels Proficient (2 points)

Emergent (1 point)

Not Present (0 points)

Defining the Engineering Problem

Identified design criteria and constraints with precision and clarity.

Understood the engineering task but the design criteria and constraints are not clearly identified.

Did not identify the design criteria and constraints of the engineering problem.

Developing Possible Solutions

Researched all seven possible solutions and collected data about each.

Researched some possible solutions and collected data about each.

Did not research any possible solutions.

Evaluated competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria.

Evaluated competing design solutions, but did not base selections on design criteria.

Did not evaluate design solutions.

Testing was done in a logical, systematic manner and produced complete results for analysis.

Testing was done randomly or incompletely and produced incomplete results.

Did not conduct any tests.

Conducted several tests and gathered relevant data based on average values.

Conducted a few tests and/or data are incomplete.

Data were not collected.

Engineering Challenges

Optimizing the Design Solution

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Score

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

A

Sea Wall

The reflected wave energy may cause increased erosion in the area directly in front of the sea wall. They may have a vertical, curved or sloped profile and can be difficult to construct. The installation of a sea wall typically makes beaches difficult to access, and may disturb coastal wildlife close to the shore. Sea walls change the natural look of the area they are built to protect. In some places, roads or walkways may be built on top to provide scenic vistas for motorists, pedestrians or bicyclists. The cost of building a sea wall varies with the size of the wall to be built. One section of a seawall constructed in Japan cost more than $1 billion. Generally, modern sea walls cost $20M - $33M per kilometer to build. In order to be effective, sea walls must also be maintained regularly. Some Floridians pay a large tax to help with the maintenance costs of the sea walls that help protect their coastal cities from hurricanes. As sea level rise, some seawalls will start becoming less effective. Generally though, these types of structures are considered very long-lasting. In fact, the Romans built a sea wall that still exists today – more than 2,000 years later! www.teachtci.com

8th Grade Integrated  87

Engineering Challenges

A wall or embankment built to protect an area of land from erosion by the sea is called a sea wall. Sea walls may be made of brick, concrete, or stone and are typically built close to the shore to reflect incoming wave energy.


E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

A

Gabion

A gabion is a steel cage filled with rocks or other heavy materials like sand, gravel or rip-rap. The are commonly used along river banks and water ways, but have been implemented into various architectural designs. Cages may be stacked and oriented to create unique and versatile designs.

Engineering Challenges

At about $14,000 per kilometer, this simple solution makes gabions a relatively inexpensive option for mitigating erosion. The durability of gabions, however, is limited because they can become damaged or even dislodged during severe storms. The spaces between the rocks in gabion cages helps to absorb some of the erosive wave energy. Water passes through the open cages easily, but sediment may be trapped, causing build up near the cage. Depending on the frequency and strength of the waves, gabions may need to be maintained or refreshed infrequently. There is not a significant environmental impact associated with the use of gabion cages. They tend to draw attention away form the natural beauty of the locations in which they are installed. Some have useful benches or tables installed on top to add to their functionality, and decrease their visual intrusiveness.

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

A

Groyne

Beach material builds up along a groyne as the current pushes it downdrift. This makes for wider beach areas and better protection against erosion as more sand is available to absorb the wave energy. The environmental impact of groynes is complicated. There is a corresponding loss of beach material on the updrift side, requiring that another groyne be built in that location. This typically leads to more and more groynes being installed along vast stretches of coastline. Groynes are among the most cost-effective measures taken to prevent coastal erosion since they require very little maintenance and can last for 10 – 20 years. With an average cost of $18 million per kilometer, it is no surprise that groynes are the most widely used method of erosion prevention. While effective against sandy beach erosion, groynes do not protect the beach against storm-driven waves. If placed too close together, groynes will create currents, which will carry more sand material offshore. Many communities have opposed the use of groynes because they tend to cause more problems to neighboring beaches and are drastically change the natural look of the areas where they are installed.

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Engineering Challenges

Groynes are barriers or walls installed perpendicular to the sea. They are often made of concrete, rock or wood. Groynes are typically used in areas with a prevailing current flows at an angle to the shore, which causes beach material to drift in once direction.


E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

A

Revetment

A revetment is a slanted blockade made of wood or concrete, and may be bolstered with stone riprap. The most common material for revetment construction is timber, but in recent years, the use of concrete has become more common along river banks.

Engineering Challenges

The slanted, slotted walls allow wave energy to be partially absorbed, partially reflected, and partially transmitted. Absorbed wave energy can cause damage to the material, requiring revetments to be maintained frequently. Average rock-filled timber revetments can cost $15 - $20 million per kilometer to install. Revetments ae good options in locations that do not receive severe storms. Powerful storms can dislodge planks and reduce the expected life-span of a revetment significantly. The retention of dry sand areas behind revetments allow sea birds like the snowy plover to retain their nesting grounds. Rock-filled timber revetments have an average useful life-span of 20 – 25 years, which is great news for the snowy plover and other seabirds native to the Monterey Bay.

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

A

Rip-Rap

From gravel rock used to fill gabion cages or revetments, to large heavy boulders or formed concrete, rip-rap comes in a variety of shapes and sizes. The many different sizing options allow rip-rap to be a very versatile and cost-effective erosion prevention measure. The use of large rocks or stone near the coastline, however, can reduce or inhibit beach access and is generally considered rather unsightly. Rock armor is a very good option for cliff protection as the cost is around $2M per kilometer, depending on the type of material used. Due to its loose nature, rip-rap structures do not last very long. Rip-rap structures are not effective against powerful storm waves, and as the sediment below erodes, the pile structure of the rock armor begins to dissipate and its effectiveness decreases. In some locations, rip-rap structures have been known to need ‘refreshment’ infrequently. The addition of large rocky material can also cause tidepool dwelling creatures to become displaced, or damaged during the armoring process.

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Engineering Challenges

The use of loose rocks, large stones or concrete blocks is likely the oldest and most commonly used erosion prevention measure. Rip-rap, also called rock armor, is a general term for loose, heavy material used for absorbing wave energy to mitigate erosion caused by wave motion.


E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

A

Breakwater

Engineering Challenges

Breakwaters are artificial land masses added offshore to reflect and absorb incoming wave energy. They are often composed of huge boulders or concrete blocks and can be installed parallel to the ocean or sometimes perpendicularly to it. It is common to find roads or even lighthouses built at the end of a breakwater. The incoming waves break at the location of the giant sunken boulders, thereby reducing the amount of wave energy that makes it to the beach. Some breakwaters are installed in a curving fashion to create artificial harbors which redirect energetic storm waves away from boats and other shoreline structures. Breakwaters are common for coastal communities along the Gulf of Mexico where hurricanes are common. While installation of a breakwater can cost $25 – 39M and temporarily disrupt marine life, there is no long-term negative impact to ocean fauna. Actually, plants and other sedentary creatures (like barnacles and clams) may find the new structures provide a new, unpopulated surface on which to call home. Generally considered a long-term measure, breakwaters have expected lifespans of 5 - 10 decades.

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

A

Artificial Reef

Artificial reefs are designed to endure the forces of heavy waves and are typically constructed of durable materials such as concrete, rock, or specialty sandbags. Structures built using sandbags have the advantage of improved safety as well as being easily modified or removed. They are virtually unseen by tourists, except for scuba enthusiasts. Artificial reef structures are generally considered very long term and can last for centuries on a stable seafloor. Their effectiveness at dissipating wave energy by decreasing wave height is well documented. They have also been known to improve surfing conditions, but with a price tag of $2639M per kilometer, artificial reefs are not cheap.

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Engineering Challenges

Artificial reefs are among the most aesthetically pleasing and environmentally friendly erosion prevention measures. An artificial reef can be constructed in a number of ways – sunken naval vessels, concrete ships, or even artistic statues. Some companies make specially designed shapes to maximize the number of species that can inhabit an area of artificial reef.


E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

B

Letter from the Mayor of Beach Town

From the Office of the Mayor of Beach Town, California: A recent report from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has identified Beach Town as one of the most erosive beaches in the state of California, yet again. It has been suggested that we consult your team of engineers in order to identify appropriate measures to be taken to prevent further erosion of the Beach Town coastline. It is imperative that these measures protect the coastal developments and the scenic three kilometer stretch of Highway 1 that runs along this region of the Monterey Bay. The neighboring city governments have not offered to assist us in this venture, since the beaches nearby are also experiencing erosion. Beach Town has a population of roughly 351 people, which makes it the smallest municipality on the Monterey Bay coast. This limits our available budget for the project to $100M. The solution we choose must be within the budget and also very effective against severe storms. A single season of El Niño storms waves can cause as much damage as 20 years of regular waves.

Engineering Challenges

The miles of uninterrupted beach that run from Monterey all the way to Santa Cruz are one of California’s main tourist attractions. Visitors flock from all over the world to whale watch, surf, scuba dive, kayak and enjoy the beauty of the Monterey Bay. If we do nothing, the beaches of Beach Town will be no more, and tourists will undoubtedly pass us by. Beach access for tourists must be maintained at all costs and your solution must not drastically interfere with the natural beauty of this region. Please keep in mind that this region of the Pacific Ocean is part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) and is under very strict federal protection. We should try to minimize any negative ecological impacts that may affect the many species that live in and around the bay. This amazing marine habitat contains the nation’s largest kelp forests and is home to an incredible variety of marine life, including 34 species of marine mammals, more than 180 species of seabirds and shorebirds, at least 525 species of fishes. It has remained generally untouched since 1992, allowing for hundreds of species to recover from over-fishing in the early 19th century. The NOAA report estimates that if no erosion prevention measure is taken, the coastline will continue to erode. The report provides data that suggests that a re-routing of Highway 1 will be required within the next 30 years. With no beach access and no highway, this could bring about the end of our city! We would like your team to engineer a solution to our erosion problem so that we can prevent this from ever happening. Please help us save Beach Town. Sincerely, The Mayor of Beach Town

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a

How well will this solve my problem?

a

Allows beach access for tourists

inhibits a Significantly beach access for tourists

a

Does not address the main cause of the problem

be damaged by a May severe storms

beach access for a Restricts tourists

causes new a Potentially problems

not meet any of the a Does solution criteria

frequently

a replacement required

Maintenance or

be severely damaged a May by storms

a Expected to last 0-5 years

H A N D O U T

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Engineering Challenges

Allows beach access for tourists

a

Effectiveness

a

required in a Maintenance required a Maintenance 2-5 year intervals regularly

maintenance a Minimal required

Addresses the main cause of the problem

to withstand a Expected average storms

to withstand a Expected severe storms

to last 5-25 a Expected years

to last 25-50 a Expected years

or obstructs a Impedes scenic vistas

changes the a Drastically look of the area

to last 50-100 a Expected years

unpleasant or a Looks overly artificial

local flora or a Displaces fauna

habitats

attention away a Draws from natural beauty

ecological a Disrupts processes

Causes severe

C H A L L E N G E :

Addresses the main cause of the problem

a

techniques High level of difficulty to build

a Damages natural habitats a degradation to natural

a

Moderate level of difficulty to build

Durability

How long will this last before needing repair or replacement?

Requires special

materials may be a Special a materials, tools, or required

the look of the a Changes area, but not unpleasant

or preserves a Protects local ecology

a

Level 1

construction a $21M-$40M construction a $11M-$20M cost per kilometer cost per kilometer

Level 2

from a Indistinguishable natural beauty

new beneficial a Creates habitat or ecosystem

a Easy to build

Low level of difficulty to build

special materials a No required

expensive a Least materials required

kilometer

construction a $1M-$10M cost per kilometer

Level 3

a construction cost per

Less than $1M

Level 4

How will this affect the natural beauty of the region?

Aesthetics

How will this affect the local environment?

Environmental Impact

How much will this cost to build and install?

($1M = $1 million)

Initial Cost

Solution Criteria

Coastal Armoring Design Rating Guide

E N G I N E E R I N G C


E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

D

Price List Use this price list to calculate the cost of your erosion prevention solution. Each price listed is in millions of dollars per item.

Engineering Challenges

Item

Photo

Item Cost

1 Rubber Band

$1 M

3 Toothpicks

$2 M

1 Mesh Square

$2 M

3 Pieces of Gravel

$10 M

1 Hex Nut

$15 M

1 Craft Stick

$20 M

1 Coupling Nut

$35 M

1 Tile

$40 M

½ Stick of Clay

$50 M

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P E R F O R M A N C E A S S E S S M E N T: S A V I N G T H E L A S O L A S H E R M O S A S R E S T A U R A N T

Performance Assessment: Saving the Las Olas Hermosas Restaurant Write a proposal for an engineering solution to prevent the erosion of the cliffs near Las Olas Hermosas restaurant.

Teacher Prep: • Students work individually for this performance assessment. • You may print out the coastal armoring design handouts from the engineering investigation for students to review as inspiration for their designs. These can be helpful for students who did not do the engineering investigation, or who need additional support. Lesson Support: • Step 2: To find the energy of an average wave, students need to find the value of k in the formula E = k*A2 using the January data. In this case, k = 2.5. Then, they plug in the amplitude values for each other month into the formula to find the energy. • To find the number of waves, they need to multiply the average frequency by the number of minutes in that particular month. 60 min/hour * 24 hours/day * # days/month. • To find the total energy, the need to multiply the energy of an average wave by the number of waves. • Since the relationship between amplitude and energy is not linear, the energy of an average wave is not the same as the average energy per wave. As a result, you cannot calculate the total energy without information about the distribution of wave amplitudes. In order to get around this problem, students should assume that every wave has the same amplitude as an average wave. • Step 3: If any of your students did not complete the Engineering Challenge for this unit, you may want to provide the Coastal Armoring design handouts to them so that they can research common designs for preventing coastal erosion. Materials: • What you need • Calculator • Print • Handout A: Coastal Armoring Designs • Interactive Student Notebook • Notebook Answer Key

• Guillermo, the owner of Las Olas Restaurant, is concerned about waves crashing on the cliffs below his restaurant. Throughout this unit, you have learned about the properties of waves and the energy that they carry. • You will now use what you’ve learned to come up with a solution to Guillermo’s problem and save the Las Olas Restaurant.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 2

Teacher Prep Students work individually for this performance assessment. You may print out the coastal armoring design handouts from the engineering investigation for students to review as inspiration for their designs. These can be helpful for students who did not do the engineering investigation, or who need additional support.

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Performance Assessment

SLIDE 2


P E R F O R M A N C E A S S E S S M E N T: S A V I N G T H E L A S O L A S H E R M O S A S R E S T A U R A N T

SLIDE 3

Performance Assessment Requirements Your proposal to Guillermo should include: • An explanation as to why the waves erode the cliff under Guillermo’s restaurant more than the surrounding beaches. • A calculation of the total wave energy that reaches the cliff each month. • An argument about the waves from which months are most important to prevent from eroding the cliff. • A diagram of the structure you will build to prevent erosion of the cliff. • A description of how the structures reflect, absorb, or transmit and refract waves to prevent erosion.

SLIDE 3

SLIDE 4

To design your proposal, you will: • Explain the Bending Wave Phenomenon • Draw a diagram that shows the path that waves take toward the restaurant, and use the diagram to explain why the waves are eroding the peninsula more than the surrounding beaches. • Calculate the Total Wave Energy for Each Month • Using the data Guillermo collected in your Interactive Student Notebook, determine which waves Guillermo should focus on preventing from reaching the cliffs around his restaurant. • Design a Coastal Armoring Structure • Design and draw a diagram of a coastal armoring that would help prevent erosion of the cliff. • Write a Design Proposal • In your proposal, explain your design. Describe how it reflects, transmits, absorbs, or refracts waves to prevent them from eroding the cliff.

Performance Assessment

TEACHER NOTES

Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. Lesson Support Step 2: To find the energy of an average wave, students need to find the value of k in the formula E = k*A 2 using the January data. In this case, k = 2.5. Then, they plug in the amplitude values for each other month into the formula to find the energy. To find the number of waves, they need to multiply the average frequency by the number of minutes in that particular month. 60 min/hour * 24 hours/day * # days/month. To find the total energy, the need to multiply the energy of an average wave by the number of waves. Since the relationship between amplitude and energy is not linear, the energy of an average wave is not the same as the average energy per wave. As a result, you cannot calculate the total energy without information about the distribution of wave amplitudes. In order to get around this problem, students should assume that every wave has the same amplitude as an average wave. Step 3: If any of your students did not complete the Engineering Challenge for this unit, you may want to provide the Coastal Armoring design handouts to them so that they can research common designs for preventing coastal erosion.

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P E R F O R M A N C E A S S E S S M E N T: S A V I N G T H E L A S O L A S H E R M O S A S R E S T A U R A N T

SLIDE 5

Performance Assessment Rubric • Before you start, read each statement in the Proficient column of your rubric. Do you have any questions? • When you have no more questions, you may start designing a solution. • When you are finished, look at the rubric in your notebook. Read each row, and decide which statement best describes your work. Fill in your score in your notebook.

SLIDE 5

SLIDE 6

SLIDE 6

Performance Assessment

Unit Wrap Up Think back on the work you did during this unit and performance assessment. • How did your model of waves change during this unit? How did the revisions you made to your model help you solve Guillermo’s problem? • How did using mathematical representations of wave amplitude and energy help you solve Guillermo’s problem? • What structures did you design to prevent erosion? How do their shape and materials they’re made of help them function?

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P E R F O R M A N C E A S S E S S M E N T: S A V I N G T H E L A S O L A S H E R M O S A S R E S T A U R A N T

Interdisciplinary Connections Make connections between physical sciences.

Materials: • Notebook: Interdisciplinary Connections Lesson Support: • If students have already seen these questions with another Performance Assessment, ask them how their understanding has grown with the latest lessons completed.

SLIDE 8

• By learning about energy and matter, you build understanding in many areas of science. • Answer Questions 1 and 2 in your notebook.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support If students have already seen these questions with another Performance Assessment, ask them how their understanding has grown with the latest lessons completed.

SLIDE 8

SLIDE 9

Connection Activity • Complete the Connection Activity in your notebook.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 9

Performance Assessment

Lesson Support If a connection topic feels advanced for students who have not yet learned the relevant material, just teach the connection with the depth that will work best for your class. If students have already seen this activity with another Performance Assessment, ask them how their understanding has grown with the latest lessons completed.

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

Cr

ss

o

Saving the Las Olas Hermosas Restaurant

Science and neering Prac Engi tice s

cu

ttin g Con c e pt s

ry in a Discipl eas Core Id

Throughout this unit, you have learned about the properties of waves, and about the energy they carry. You’ve investigated the waves that crash into the coastline near the Las Olas Hermosas Restaurant. Now it’s time for you to use everything you’ve learned to come up with a solution to Guillermo problem and save the restaurant.

Performance Assessment Requirements

Performance Assessment

Your proposal to Guillermo should include: • an explanation as to why the waves erode the cliff under Guillermo’s restaurant more than the surrounding beaches. • a calculation of the total wave energy that reaches the cliff each month. • an argument about the waves from which months are most important to prevent from eroding the cliff. • a diagram of the structure you will build to prevent erosion of the cliff. • a description of how the structures reflect, absorb, or transmit and refract waves to prevent erosion.

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

_____ Step 1: Explaining the Bending Wave Phenomenon Draw a diagram to show Guillermo the path that waves take toward his restaurant.

Performance Assessment

Use the diagram you drew to explain to Guillermo why the waves are eroding the cliff below his restaurant more than the surrounding beaches.

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

_____ Step 2: Calculating the Total Wave Energy for Each Month Calculate the energy of an average wave during each month of the year, the number of waves during each month, and the total energy transferred to the cliff by waves each month. Average Frequency (waves per minute)

8.1

5

Month

Direction

January (31 days)

Northwest

1.8

February (28 days)

Southwest

1.4

7

March (31 days)

Southwest

1.2

6

April (30 days)

Southwest

1.1

6

May (31 days)

Southwest

0.9

5

June (30 days)

Southwest

0.6

7

July (31 days)

Southwest

0.7

5

August (31 days)

Southwest

1.0

4

September Southwest (30 days)

0.8

6

Southwest

1.2

8

November Northwest (30 days)

1.9

4

December Northwest (31 days)

2.0

5

October (31 days)

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Total Number of Waves

Total Energy (kJ)

Performance Assessment

Energy of an Average Wave (kJ)

Average Amplitude (m)

8th Grade Integrated  103


P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

Should Guillermo focus on preventing erosion from waves coming from the northwest or southwest? Make a claim and support it with evidence. Use logical connections and conceptual reasoning to explain how your evidence supports your claim. Claim: Evidence: Reasoning:

_____ Step 3: Designing a Coastal Armoring Structure

Performance Assessment

Design a coastal armoring structure to help Guillermo prevent erosion of the cliff below his restaurant.

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

_____ Step 4: Writing a Design Proposal

Performance Assessment

Explain to Guillermo why the coastal armoring structure you designed will effectively prevent erosion. Describe how the shape of the structure as well as the material it is made of allows it to reflect, transmit, absorb, or refract waves to prevent erosion.

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8th Grade Integrated  105


P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

Performance Assessment Rubric Use the rubric to evaluate your work on this Performance Assessment. Achievement Levels Dimension Science and Engineering Practices Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking Use mathematical representations to describe and/or support scientific conclusions and design solutions.

Developing and Using Models Develop and use a model to describe phenomena.

Crosscutting Concepts Patterns Graphs and charts can be used to identify patterns in data.

Performance Assessment

Structure and Function Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used.

106  8th Grade Integrated

Score

Proficient (2 points)

Emergent (1 point)

Not Present (0 points)

Used mathematical representations of waves to determine how much energy is carried by waves of different amplitudes, and used those representations as evidence to support an argument about which waves would cause the most erosion.

Used mathematical representations of waves to determine how much energy is carried by waves of different amplitudes, but did not use those representations as evidence to support an argument about which waves would cause the most erosion.

Did not use mathematical representations of waves to determine how much energy is carried by waves of different amplitudes.

Used a model to describe the behavior of waves when they change media, including reflection, absorption, and transmission with refraction, and explain how a coastal armoring structure prevents waves from causing erosion.

Used a model to describe the behaviors waves when they change media, but did not use those behaviors to explain how a coastal armoring structure functions to prevent erosion.

Did not use a model to describe the behaviors of waves when the change media.

Identified patterns in the chart of the total energy of waves during each month to determine which sets of waves cause the most erosion.

Identified patterns in the chart of total energy of waves, but did not use them to determine which waves cause the most erosion.

Did not identify patterns in the chart of total energy of waves.

Described how the materials structures are made of as well as their shapes allow them to function to prevent erosion using reflection, absorption, and/or refraction of waves.

Described how coastal armoring structures prevent erosion, but did not relate the explanation to wave behaviors such as reflection, absorption, transmission, or refraction.

Did not describe how structures prevent erosion.

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

Achievement Levels Dimension Disciplinary Core Ideas PS4.A Wave Properties A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. A sound wave needs a medium through which it is transmitted.

PS4.B Electromagnetic Radiation

Emergent (1 point)

Not Present (0 points)

Used frequency and amplitudes of waves to calculate the total energy of waves which impacted the cliffs and caused erosion in each month of the year.

Incorrectly used amplitude and frequency to find the energy carried by waves causing erosion.

Did not use amplitude and frequency to find the total energy of the waves which caused erosion.

Described that mechanical waves can be reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through a medium when they meet the boundary between two mediums, and then when they are transmitted through they will often be refracted, rather than traveling in a straight line.

Partially described how waves interact with the boundary between media.

Did not describe how waves interact with the boundary between media.

Score

Performance Assessment

When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light. The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends.

Proficient (2 points)

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8th Grade Integrated  107


I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y

C O N N E C T I O N S :

N O T E B O O K

INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS

1. How were energy and matter involved in this Performance Assessment?

2. Study the figure. How is it related to Forces and Energy? To Waves? Use evidence from the lessons and your prior knowledge. Describing the Speed of an Object Using a Rate 12 meters 4 seconds

6 meters

6 meters

2 seconds

2 seconds

3 meters

3 meters

3 meters

3 meters

1 second

1 second

1 second

1 second

Changes in Wave Speed Cause Refraction Pavement Fast biking

Sand

Performance Assessment

Slow biking

108  8th Grade Integrated

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I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y

C O N N E C T I O N S :

N O T E B O O K

Connection Activity 3. The image shows seven bowling balls. Rank them from fastest to slowest by writing a number over each ball, with 1 as the fastest and 7 as the slowest. If more than one ball share a speed, those balls can share the same number.

Describing the Speed of an Object Using a Rate 12 meters 4 seconds

6 meters

6 meters

2 seconds

2 seconds

3 meters

3 meters

3 meters

3 meters

1 second

1 second

1 second

1 second

4. This image shows nine bikers. First, label which are moving fast and which are moving slow by writing “F” or “S” over each biker. Changes in Wave Speed Cause Refraction Pavement Fast biking

Sand

Performance Assessment

Slow biking

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8th Grade Integrated  109


I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y

C O N N E C T I O N S :

N O T E B O O K

What is different about how matter moves in this representation of a wave and in a real water wave?

Performance Assessment

5. Do you think moving on pavement is always faster than moving on sand? Draw a new image in the space below to show what would happen to the wave if bikers were moving from sand to pavement rather than from pavement to sand. You can represent each biker as a circle.

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I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y

C O N N E C T I O N S :

N O T E B O O K

6. How can thinking about matter and energy in the speed of objects and waves relate to your home, neighborhood, community, or culture? For example: • Do you ever track your speed as you walk, run, or bike? • Do you live near a location that experiences strong waves? Write a paragraph describing an important personal or local connection with the matter and energy involved in the speed of objects or waves.

7. Refine your answers to the Connection Questions based on what you learned in the lessons.

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8th Grade Integrated  111

Performance Assessment


S E G M E N T

C O R R E L A T I O N S

Segment Alignment with NGSS Performance Expectations MS-PS4-1

Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.

MS-ETS1-1 Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. MS-ETS1-2 Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. MS-PS4-2

Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.

MS-ETS1-4 Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. MS-PS2-2

Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

MS-PS2-1

Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.

MS-ETS1-3 Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

Science and Engineering Practices Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking • Use mathematical representations to describe and/or support scientific conclusions and design solutions. • Apply mathematical concepts and/or processes (e.g., ratio, rate, percent, basic operations, simple algebra) to scientific and engineering questions and problems. • Decide when to use qualitative vs. quantitative data. Asking Questions and Defining Problems • Define a design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process or system and includes multiple criteria and constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible solutions. • Ask questions that arise from careful observation of phenomena, models, or unexpected results, to clarify and/or seek additional information. • Ask questions that can be investigated within the scope of the classroom, outdoor environment, and museums and other public facilities with available resources and, when appropriate, frame a hypothesis based on observations and scientific principles. Engaging in Argument from Evidence • Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria. • Construct, use, and/or present an oral and written argument supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon or a solution to a problem. Developing and Using Models • Develop and/or use a model to predict and/or describe phenomena. • Develop and/or use a model to generate data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales. • Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations • Conduct an investigation and/or evaluate and/or revise the experimental design to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence that meet the goals of the investigation. • Collect data to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer scientific questions or test design solutions under a range of conditions. • Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim. Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information • Critically read scientific texts adapted for classroom use to determine the central ideas and/or obtain scientific and/or technical information to describe patterns in and/or evidence about the natural and designed world(s). Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions • Undertake a design project, engaging in the design cycle, to construct and/or implement a solution that meets specific design criteria and constraints. • Apply scientific ideas or principles to design, construct, and/or test a design of an object, tool, process or system. Analyzing and Interpreting Data • Construct, analyze, and/or interpret graphical displays of data and/or large data sets to identify linear and nonlinear relationships. • Consider limitations of data analysis (e.g., measurement error), and/or seek to improve precision and accuracy of data with better technological tools and methods (e.g., multiple trials). • Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings.

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S E G M E N T

C O R R E L A T I O N S

Crosscutting Concepts Patterns • Graphs, charts, and images can be used to identify patterns in data. • Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of microscopic and atomic-level structure. • Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships. • Patterns in rates of change and other numerical relationships can provide information about natural systems. Cause and Effect • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. Structure and Function • Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used. Systems and System Models • Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions. • Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions—such as inputs, processes and outputs—and energy and matter flows within systems. Stability and Change • Stability might be disturbed either by sudden events or gradual changes that accumulate over time. • Explanations of stability and change in natural or designed systems can be constructed by examining the changes over time and processes at different scales, including the atomic scale. Energy and Matter • Within a natural or designed system, the transfer of energy drives the motion and/or cycling of matter. • The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a designed or natural system. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity • Proportional relationships (e.g. speed as the ratio of distance traveled to time taken) among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties and processes. • Scientific relationships can be represented through the use of algebraic expressions and equations.

Disciplinary Core Ideas PS4.A. Wave Properties • A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. • A sound wave needs a medium through which it is transmitted. ETS1.A. Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems • The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that are likely to limit possible solutions. ETS1.B. Developing Possible Solutions • There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem. • A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results, in order to improve it. • Models of all kinds are important for testing solutions. • Sometimes parts of different solutions can be combined to create a solution that is better than any of its predecessors. PS2.A: Forces and Motion • The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. • All positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described in an arbitrarily chosen reference frame and arbitrarily chosen units of size. In order to share information with other people, these choices must also be shared. • For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law). PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation • When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light. • The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends. ETS1.C. Optimizing the Design Solution • The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution. • Although one design may not perform the best across all tests, identifying the characteristics of the design that performed the best in each test can provide useful information for the redesign process—that is, some of the characteristics may be incorporated into the new design.

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S E G M E N T

C O R R E L A T I O N S

Connections to Nature of Science Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence • Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations.

Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World • All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment. • The uses of technologies are driven by people’s needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions.

Common Core ELA Standards Reading Craft and Structure • Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6–8 texts and topics. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas • Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. Key Ideas and Details • Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. Writing Text Types and Purposes • Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. • Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. Research to Build and Present Knowledge • Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. • Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. Speaking and Listening Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas • Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. Comprehension and Collaboration • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

Common Core Math Standards Math MP.Reason abstractly and quantitatively • CC.K-12.MP.2.Mathematically proficient students make sense of the quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects. Define, evaluate, and compare functions. • Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s^2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.

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S E G M E N T

C O R R E L A T I O N S

MP.Model with mathematics • CC.K-12.MP.4.Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, two-way tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose. Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations. • Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed. Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems. • Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole given a part and the percent. • Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. For example, “The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 21, because for every 2 wings there was 1 beak.” “For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes.” Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations. • Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. •

Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations as strategies to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. For example If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation.

Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers. • Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, debits/credits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation. MP.Use appropriate tools strategically • CC.K-12.MP.5.Mathematically proficient students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. For example, mathematically proficient high school students analyze graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator. They detect possible errors by strategically using estimation and other mathematical knowledge. When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts. Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. • Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that “increase by 5%” is the same as “multiply by 1.05.”

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116  8th Grade Integrated

Describing Motion Sitting in a train alongside other trains, you might look out the window and be unsure which train is in motion.

Lesson Phenomenon

Students explain the relative motion of trains by understanding that the positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described in an arbitrarily chosen reference frame. Students watch videos to make conceptual connections between evidence and explanations about the relative motion of trains. (PS2.A) (ETS1.B)

Students find out how to describe and calculate velocity using proportional relationships and demonstrate that there are many ways to move with an average velocity of 4 m/s. Next, students watch videos that demonstrate the acceleration of various objects and then describe how they would demonstrate acceleration.

CCC

Students use videos and drawings to understand frames of reference and relative motion. They then plan and carry out an investigation by constructing a model that meets given criteria to describe motion from different reference frames.

SEP

MS-PS2-2 MS-ETS1-2

PE

An object’s position is determined based on its distance from a set reference point. This is important for being able to determine if an object has moved. Average velocity is an object’s directional movement over a certain period of time. An object returning in a circle to its original position repeatedly would have an average velocity of zero. Students create a model of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

DCI

MS-PS2-1, MS-PS2-2, MS-PS4-1, MS-PS4-2, MS-ETS1-1, MS-ETS1-2, MS-ETS1-3, MS-ETS1-4

Performance Expectations:

G R A D E

3D Learning Sequence

In this integrated segment, students figure out why a person floating on a raft in the middle of the ocean cannot rely on the waves to move them toward shore and will only move toward shore if the wind blows them there. Students create a model of the integrated phenomenon to explain it and revise their model as they gain knowledge. To understand this phenomenon, students take a closer look at the speed of objects and waves. First, they investigate concepts that describe motion including reference frames, velocity, and acceleration. They examine the forces involved in the interactions and the effects of forces by taking a look at Newton’s first and second laws. In the first Engineering Challenge, students design, build, test, and modify a model go-cart that can withstand different amounts of force. In a Performance Assessment, students take on the role of an engineer to evaluate how mass and speed affect the forces in a collision. Next, students examine the different types of waves and their properties. They find out about wave energy and the way that waves behave across different media. In the second Engineering Challenge, students research, design, test, and optimize a structure used to prevent erosion of the coast to mitigate the effects of wave action. Last, students write a proposal for an engineering solution to prevent the erosion of the cliffs by waves at a seaside. Using what they know, how will students explain why the person on the raft will not move toward shore by wave action?

Segment Progression:

Sample Included p. 16

A person floating on a raft in the middle of the ocean will not move toward shore with the waves. But the wind could blow the raft toward shore.

Integrated Phenomenon:

Segment Progression: The Speed of Objects and Waves

8 T H S E Q U E N C E

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Students watch a rocket launch, and think about how the rocket is able to get off the ground relative to forces and motion. Students form hypotheses and then conduct a short research project to confirm their understanding of rocket motion and Newton’s third law. (PS2.A) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.A)

Students find out what would happen to a wrench thrown in outer space by considering how the motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it. Students then write a story about the wrench that involves Newton’s laws. (PS2.A) (ETS1.A)

Students take on the role of engineers to design, build, test, and modify a model of a safe go-cart that can withstand collisions. Students use their understanding of forces and motion in designing their models. (PS2.A) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

Effects of Forces If an astronaut throws a wrench in outer space with no other forces acting on it, the wrench will continue moving forever.

Engineering Challenge Design, build, test, and modify a model go-cart which can withstand collisions. The designs must prove to be safe for riders. Consider the forces involved in the collisions and use Newton’s laws to inform the designs.

DCI

Forces in Interactions It takes an enormous amount of fuel to launch a rocket.

Lesson Phenomenon

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Taking into account systems and their interactions, students design a blueprint of their models. Then they construct and test their designs.

Students examine net force and balanced/unbalanced forces by understanding stability and change. Students draw force arrows on videos and images, perform calculations, and use a simulation to model forces. Students learn Newton’s first and second laws and apply them to images and videos by using F=ma to calculate force, mass, and acceleration.

Students define Newton’s third law and apply it to situations in videos and images. Then, understanding and using proportional relationships, they come up with their own examples that involve Newton’s third law.

CCC

MS-PS2-2 MS-ETS1-1

MS-PS2-1 MS-ETS1-1

PE

Students and teacher come up with MS-ETS1-3 criteria and constraints for models MS-ETS1-4 and answer questions to prepare for developing the models. Students repeat tests on the models by dropping a ball down a track from different heights to apply different amounts of force. They modify their designs along the way.

Students play a game and plan and carry out an investigation demonstrating how the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and its mass.

Students develop and use a model that shows forces by using arrows on videos and images. Then they calculate the force needed to lift certain objects. Students test a hands-on model and create drawings for a zipline return system.

SEP

Students should compare their go-cart models to the integrated phenomenon. Can they explain how force, mass, and acceleration would be involved with a raft being blown to shore? How can they model this phenomenon?

Wind moves a sailboat with unbalanced forces causing movement. Friction is a force that opposes the motion between two surfaces that are touching. There is little friction between the sailboat and the water—it is designed to minimize friction.

A force is a push or a pull on an object. The sailboat pushes back on the air as it glides through the water.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

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Students act as engineers for GoGo Go-Carts and consider safety and fun as they analyze the forces exerted on the go-carts and how mass and speed affect the forces in collisions.

Does the “wave” seen at sporting events demonstrate actual wave behavior? Students explore this phenomenon as they compare wave properties in the way people move when doing the “wave” to the way particles move in an ocean wave, a waving flag, and a sound wave. (PS4.A)

Types of Waves At many sporting events, members of the crowd stand up and lift their hands in a pattern that people call "doing the wave."

DCI

Performance Assessment

Lesson Phenomenon

118  8th Grade Integrated MS-PS4-1

MS-PS2-1 MS-PS2-2

PE

A mechanical wave is a wave in which matter moves back and forth in repeating patterns. Water waves are mechanical waves because particles move in a repeating circular pattern as the wave travels through water. The wave carries energy through water, it doesn’t carry water across the ocean. The particles of water do not move very far from their original position. In surface waves, particles move in circles. An object floating on the surface will make a circle with the motion of particles moved by the waves.

What would the velocity be if an object just moved in a circle every few seconds, returning to its same starting position each time? If wind causes air to push on a sail attached to a boat, what force does the sailboat exert even though it’s moving? When wind blows a sail, moving a sailboat that was previously at rest, are the forces balanced or unbalanced? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

In defining waves, students make waves with a variety of materials and develop a model of waves based on their investigation.

Students plan and carry out an investigation to test independent and dependent variables and controls on the go-carts and which criteria and constraints should be used to determine whether each design is safe.

SEP

G R A D E

Students watch videos of a variety of phenomena and use their model of waves to argue whether the phenomenon in each video is a wave. Students use dance moves to model different patterns of motion in waves.

Understanding stability and change in designed systems, students calculate and interpret go-cart data and use Newton's laws to explain what happens in a crash scenario.

CCC

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Students find out about a surfing contest held at Mavericks and explain the properties of waves that are measured and used to predict surfing conditions. (PS4.A)

Students observe a video of a wave energy converter and develop possible solutions as they discuss the factors that determine whether a location is good for building wave energy converters. (PS4.A) (ETS1.A) (ETS1.B)

Why does the sound of a finger tapping on a desktop seem louder and lower in pitch than when your ear is pressed to a desk? Students answer this question as they examine properties of waves moving through different media. (PS4.A) (PS4.B) (ETS1.B)

Wave Energy Wave energy converters produce more electricity in some locations than in other locations.

Waves in Different Media The sound of your finger tapping on a desktop seems much louder and lower pitched when you press your ear to the desk.

DCI

Properties of Waves Huge waves form at Mavericks, and scientists, surfers, and weather forecasters can predict when they will occur up to 48 hours in advance.

Lesson Phenomenon

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MS-PS4-1

PE

Students use springs and ropes to MS-PS4-2 develop and use a model of waves MS-ETS1-4 that demonstrates how waves interact within the boundaries between media. They observe and describe absorption, transmission, and reflection of waves in the springs and rope.

Engaging in an argument from evidence, students explain how the properties of waves affect the amount of energy carried by those waves, and how that influences which locations are good for building wave energy converters.

Students plan and carry out an investigation to measure the properties of waves. They graph their data and analyze the patterns to determine what relationships exist between variables and then compare their data to data from the coastline near the Las Olas Hermosas Restaurant.

SEP

Sample Included p. 28

Water waves slow down when they move from deep to shallow water. The part of the wave that meets the shallow water first slows down first. The other parts of the wave travel farther before they meet the boundary and slow down.

Energy is the ability to move objects or cause change. The ocean’s surface waves get their energy from air particles that are moving with wind energy.

A wave’s frequency is the number of wave cycles that pass a certain point in a given period of time. This property has no impact on how quickly an object floating on surface waves would reach the shore, because this object would just be moving in repeated circles. Amplitude would affect a raft by determining the highs and lows of its cycle of movement. Wavelength and frequency would affect how often the cycle occurs.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

G R A D E

Students use their knowledge of cause and effect and line up and march to model waves moving across a boundary between media. Using this model, they observe the refraction of waves and incorporate this into their model of waves.

Students identify patterns in data on wave energy and amplitude, then analyze the data to determine the mathematical relationship between the two wave properties.

Using their understanding of patterns, students create waves with their bodies, receiving instructions on how to make them through a game of Simon Says. Students then compare ways the waves can differ from one another.

CCC

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8th Grade Integrated  119


120  8th Grade Integrated Students design and draw a diagram of a coastal armoring structure that would help prevent erosion of the cliff, using what they know about structure and function.

PE

Using the data Guillermo collected MS-PS4-1 in their Interactive Student NoteMS-PS4-2 books and developing a model to predict phenomena, students determine which waves Guillermo should focus on preventing from reaching the cliffs around his restaurant.

Students explore coastal erosion MS-PS4-2 along the Monterey Bay and MS-ETS1-2 determine specific design criteria and constraints by reading a letter from MBNMS. Students identify possible engineering solutions to the coastal erosion problem by evaluating information about different designs. Students then test each of the designs and determine the best characteristics to combine into a single design.

SEP Sample

How do objects floating on the water move with surface waves? How does the frequency of a surface wave impact how quickly an object floating on the surface reaches the shore? How would wave amplitude impact the movement of a raft floating on wavy water? Where does the energy in the ocean’s surface waves come from? Answering these questions helps students to summarize their findings and make the final revisions to their model. Students use their completed model to support their explanation of the integrated phenomenon.

Sample Included p. 97

Students use their Included p. 70 knowledge gained from the Engineering Challenge to think of different solutions that could alter the effects of wave action.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Sample Explanation: A raft will only move when a force is applied to it, and while surface waves will bring circular particle motion to make the raft bob up and down as it floats, wind can apply a directional force that transfers to the raft. Water waves are mechanical surface waves, so water particles move in a repeating circular pattern as the wave travels through water. The particles of water do not move very far from their original position, and an object floating on the surface will make a circle with the motion of particles moved by the waves. An object’s position is determined based on its distance from a set reference point. An object returning in a circle to its original position repeatedly would have an average velocity of zero, which means it is not moving toward shore. Wind moves an object on water with unbalanced forces causing movement. The push from moving air molecules could transfer to a raft or other object that sits on the water’s surface causing it to move directionally.

Students understand the effect of wave erosion upon the coastline near Las Olas Hermosas Restaurant. Using their knowledge of wave properties, students draw a diagram that shows the path that waves take toward the restaurant and use the diagram to explain why the waves are eroding the peninsula more than the surrounding beaches.

Performance Assessment

Understanding structure and function, students construct a model of a sandy beach and then design, build, and test various erosion prevention measures. Students evaluate the efficacy of their designs by collecting data and comparing results.

CCC

G R A D E

Integrated Phenomenon: A person floating on a raft in the middle of the ocean will not move toward shore with the waves. But the wind could blow the raft toward shore.

Students are hired by the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) to develop possible solutions to help prevent the erosion of the sandy beaches that line Monterey Bay and affect residents of Sand City. (ETS1.B)

DCI

Engineering Challenge Students are hired by the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) to help prevent the erosion of the sandy beaches that line the Monterey Bay by evaluating and designing appropriate erosion prevention measures.

Lesson Phenomenon

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Earth’s Rotation and Revolution The sun appears to move across the sky during the day, and stars appear to move across the sky during the night.

Students observe videos showing sunrise and sunset and, after developing a model of Earth’s rotation and revolution, design a storyboard to show their understanding of the pattern of the apparent motion of the sun in the sky. (ESS1.A)

Using their bodies to demonstrate patterns of the movement of celestial objects, students model Earth’s rotation and the movement of constellations.

PE Students use a small Earth to model MS-ESS1-1 how Earth rotates on an axis that MS-ETS1-1 points towards Polaris.

SEP

Earth’s daily rotation, or spinning around an axis, causes the sun to appear in one direction as we spin toward facing it, then pass overhead as we spin by it, then set as we spin away from it. Students create a model of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

G R A D E

Lesson Phenomenon CCC

MS-ESS1-1, MS-PS4-2, MS-ETS1-1, MS-ETS1-4

Performance Expectations:

DCI

In this integrated segment, students find out about modeling light in the solar system. Students are introduced to the integrated phenomenon of how a small flash of green light may be seen on the horizon in the very last seconds before sunset. Students create a model of this phenomenon and revise it as they gain more knowledge. First, students explore Earth’s rotation and revolution around the sun. Next, they discover how Earth’s tilted axis creates seasonal patterns. Students model the phases of the moon and investigate the roles the sun and moon play in eclipses. Students participate in a contest to educate adults about a pattern of movement of a celestial object. They then examine the relationship between light and vision, and identify examples of reflection, absorption, transmission, and refraction of light. Students deepen their understanding of light waves by applying the properties of mechanical waves, such as frequency and amplitude, to light. Last, students design a light art piece and then explain their art piece to the class. Using what they know about the way light waves behave in our solar system, how will students explain the small green flashes of light that may appear seconds before the sun sets below the horizon?

Segment Progression:

3D Learning Sequence

Sometimes in the last seconds before the sun dips under the horizon, you can see a small flash of green light.

Integrated Phenomenon:

Segment Progression: Modeling Light in the Solar System

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Students make observations about the seasons and design a storyboard demonstrating how Earth’s tilted axis causes seasons. (ESS1.A) (ESS1.B)

Students observe how the moon appears to change every night and then use a mirror to model how we see light reflected off the moon. Students design a storyboard that explains the apparent motion of the moon in the sky. (ESS1.A) (ETS1.A)

Phases of the Moon The appearance of the moon changes every night.

DCI

Earth’s Tilted Axis Each year, trees sprout leaves which grow, change color, die, and fall off.

Lesson Phenomenon MS-ESS1-1

PE

122  8th Grade Integrated The moon does not produce any light, but when sunlight hits the moon’s surface and reflects off of it, this reflected light sometimes reaches Earth, making the moon appear to be lit. Sunlight moves in straight lines, so we can predict what parts of objects will be illuminated by what parts are facing the sun. Sunlight reaching Earth from the moon can look orange or red if it passes through an atmosphere with many particles that scatter the bluer light.

Earth has a tilted axis, which causes one hemisphere to lean toward or away from the sun at different parts of the year as Earth revolves around the sun. This affects how much direct sunlight reaches certain locations. Due to the tilted axis, the poles get 24 hours of sun in summer and 24 hours of dark in winter, so sunset and sunrise would not occur at those times.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Students make and use a MoonBelt MS-ESS1-1 to model the lit side of the moon MS-ETS1-1 and the resulting light seen from Earth. Students use their models to predict the moon phase given an Earth-sun-moon orientation and to predict the orientation of the system given a moon phase.

Students develop and use a model that allows them to measure concentrated light on Earth’s surface at different latitudes during different seasons.

SEP

G R A D E

Students model the rotation and revolution of the moon using their bodies and model how the shape of light on the moon changes in a cyclic pattern.

Students model how Earth’s tilted axis causes seasonal patterns. Then students explain how Earth’s tilted axis causes the seasons.

CCC

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Students explore eclipses and design a storyboard that uses a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to explain what causes eclipses of the sun and the moon and why these eclipses are infrequent. (ESS1.A) (ESS1.B)

Students understand why celestial objects appear to move in distinct patterns from Earth and can explain patterns of the apparent motion of the sun, the moon, and stars in the sky as well as eclipses of the sun and moon.

Performance Assessment

DCI

Eclipses Sometimes the sun appears to be blocked by the moon.

Lesson Phenomenon

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Students record a video presentation of their model of the Earthsun-moon system to participate in a contest to educate adults about a celestial pattern that can be observed from Earth.

Students use foam balls in the classroom planetarium to find patterns that explain why eclipses occur and model the orbital plane of the moon to find patterns that reveal why eclipses are rare.

CCC

PE

Students develop a model to repre- MS-ESS1-1 sent the position of celestial bodies in the Earth-sun-moon system, including their orientation, movement, and location with respect to Earth’s orbital plane.

Students develop and revise models MS-ESS1-1 that can describe, test, and predict information about eclipses. Then, students plan and carry out an investigation to show why the moon and sun appear about the same size from Earth.

SEP

What causes the appearance of the sun rising and setting each day? Why does the amount of sunlight reaching one location on Earth vary seasonally? How is it that we can predict what parts of celestial objects will be hit by sunlight? How can a small object block light from a large object? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model of the integrated phenomenon.

A solar eclipse occurs when the moon blocks the sun’s light from reaching Earth. The moon is much smaller than the sun, but since it is closer it can block the sun completely. But only for a short time, because when it moves slightly, it no longer blocks the sun. The green flash is not related to an eclipse, because it happens at sunset when Earth’s horizon blocks the sun’s light.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

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8th Grade Integrated  123


Students explore an optical illusion where it appears that there are more fish in a tank than there really are. Next, they explain why they see multiple images of the same fish because when light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object. (PS4.A) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

Students examine how a single object can be many colors depending on the filter it is viewed through by constructing a pair of glasses that filters the light that reaches their eyes. Students discover how when light shines on an object, it is reflected or absorbed through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light. (PS4.B)

Properties of Light Waves A single object can appear to be many colors depending on the filter you see it through.

DCI

The Wave Model of Light An optical illusion can make you see more fish than there really are.

Lesson Phenomenon

124  8th Grade Integrated Students experiment with prisms to find out how to use them to make a rainbow. They carefully examine the path that light takes as it forms the rainbow, and then construct an explanation of how the prism is designed to carry out this function.

To explain light rays and vision, students develop a model using cardboard boxes and flashlights to demonstrate the way that light rays travel, allowing you to see objects.

SEP

MS-PS4-2

MS-PS4-2 MS-ETS1-4

PE

Visible light has very small wavelengths, and the variation causes us to see it as different colors. The sun emits white light, made up of all the colors of light. During a sunset, sunlight passes through a greater distance of atmosphere. Thus, the scattering effect is strengthened, blue and violet light are lost, and you see reds and yellows more clearly. Since green light is not scattered, it could become more visible when the reds through yellows disappear under the horizon.

A light ray is light as a wave moving directionally in a straight line. Refraction is when a wave, such as a light wave, bends as it changes speed when passing through a new medium. In addition to the refracted transmitted light, some light will be absorbed in the new medium, and some may be reflected. Sunlight is refracted by the atmosphere.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

G R A D E

Students visit stations representing systems and their interactions to investigate the color of a light source, the ways that objects interact with light, and the way your eyes and brain process visual signals that determine the color that objects appear to you.

Using their understanding of cause and effect relationships, students observe test tubes full of air, water, and oil being placed into beakers full of water and oil, and attempt to explain why the oil-filled test tube disappears when submerged in oil.

CCC

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Examining how structures can be designed to serve a particular function, students create a light art piece that demonstrates the many amazing properties of light.

CCC

PE

Students apply scientific ideas and MS-PS4-2 evidence to construct an explanation for each of the properties of light their art piece demonstrates by writing a script for an audio tour as part of their art piece.

SEP What happens to light when it passes through a new medium? Is sunlight refracted by the atmosphere? Since green light is not scattered, when do you think it could be seen in the sunset? Answering these questions helps students to summarize their findings and make the final revisions to their model. Students use their completed model to support their explanation of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

Sample Explanation: When the atmosphere makes a thick layer between you and the sun at sunset and refracts the colors of light coming from the sun, blue and violet are scattered, and green is the last color to dip over the horizon, becoming visible when the other light disappears. Earth’s rotation causes the sun to appear in one direction as we spin toward it, then set in the opposite direction as we spin away from it. When the sun dips under the horizon, it’s because Earth is spinning away from it until it is no longer visible. When white sunlight—made up of all colors—passes through the atmosphere, it refracts. Since each frequency travels at a slightly different speed, they each bend a different amount, with violet bending the most and red bending the least. During a sunset, the sunlight passes through a greater distance of atmosphere, and more blue and violet light are lost in scattering. Since green light is not scattered, it will become more visible on its own when red through yellow sunlight disappears under the horizon.

Students develop a wave model of light in the form of a light art piece to demonstrate their understanding of how light creates various effects.

DCI

Integrated Phenomenon: Sometimes in the last seconds before the sun dips under the horizon, you can see a small flash of green light.

Performance Assessment

Lesson Phenomenon

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8th Grade Integrated  125


If an astronaut in orbit around a planet drops a power tool, it will move as the astronaut is moving—in orbit. In this integrated segment, students explain the integrated phenomenon of how when an astronaut in orbit around a planet drops a power tool, the tool moves in orbit as the astronaut does. Students create a model of the integrated phenomenon and revise it as they gain knowledge. To understand why the tool continues to move in orbit with the astronaut, students take a look at how noncontact forces influence phenomena. Students first investigate how mass affects gravitational force. Next, they examine electric charges, currents, and circuits and explore magnetic fields by building electromagnets and motors to understand how power tools in space work. Students then analyze a drone to explain how gravity works against it. Next, students discover how gravity allows celestial bodies in a solar system to remain in orbit around other celestial bodies. Students explore the inner solar system and characteristics of its planets and then the outer solar system and the immense size of its planets. In the Engineering Challenge, students design a vehicle that can land on Mars. Last, students prepare and present a memo to the International Astronomical Union describing the planets' characteristics. Applying what they know about noncontact forces and the solar system, what information will students use to explain why an astronaut's dropped power tool remains in orbit with the astronaut? MS-PS2-3, MS-PS2-4, MS-PS2-5, MS-ESS1-2, MS-ESS1-3, MS-ETS1-1, MS-ETS1-2, MS-ETS1-3, MS-ETS1-4

Integrated Phenomenon:

Segment Progression:

Performance Expectations:

Segment Progression: Noncontact Forces Influence Phenomena

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126  8th Grade Integrated

S E Q U E N C E

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Gravity When a piece of paper is placed on top of a book and both objects are dropped together, they fall straight to the ground; the paper does not flutter.

Lesson Phenomenon

DCI

As they explore the types of interactions and gravitational forces between two masses, students observe what happens when a piece of paper is placed on top of a book and both are dropped simultaneously. (PS2.B)

3D Learning Sequence

Students use models (drawings) to represent systems and their interactions and to understand that fields exist where there are noncontact forces such as gravitational force.

CCC Students examine the effects of air resistance and find out about the relationships between gravitational force, acceleration, and mass. Students construct arguments supported by evidence after investigating how mass affects gravitational force and using simulations.

SEP MS-PS2-4 MS-PS2-5

PE

Gravitational forces are attractive noncontact forces between objects that have mass. Gravity on Earth is very strong and pulls objects toward the center of Earth. In space, other directional forces combine with gravity to cause some objects to orbit a massive object. Rockets push a spacecraft up and then push it horizontally to “throw� the spacecraft around Earth. If the spacecraft travels with the right speed, it falls into orbit around the planet. Astronauts float in spacecrafts because they are moving in an orbit around Earth with the space station they are inside of! The astronauts fall because the gravitational forces on them cause their bodies to accelerate toward Earth. However, the astronauts do not land on the floor of the station because gravity causes the station to fall down at the same rate. So, the presence of gravity causes astronauts to appear weightless by making them fall with the falling space station. Students create a model of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

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8th Grade Integrated  127


Students find out about electric forces and the magnitude of their charges and then explain what happens when someone reaches for a doorknob and experiences a shock. (PS2.B) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

Applying their understanding of electromagnetic forces, currents, and the distances between interacting objects, students examine how headphones and speakers work. (PS2.B) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

Magnetism and Electromagnetism Headphones and speakers use wires and magnets to deliver sound to your ears.

DCI

Electricity Sometimes you experience a shock or even see a spark as you reach for a doorknob.

Lesson Phenomenon

128  8th Grade Integrated MS-PS2-3 MS-PS2-5 MS-ETS1-4

MS-PS2-3 MS-PS2-5

PE

Electric devices that have moving parts contain electric motors that move those parts. An electric motor is a device that uses electric currents to produce motion using permanent magnets and electromagnets. An electric motor has electric current as an input and motion as an output. Electric motors have loops of wire that are pushed by magnetic forces. Motors are designed so that these loops of wire continually spin when a current is in the wire. In an electric device, the loop of wire is attached to a rod that rotates with the wire. The rotating rod is then attached to the moving parts of the electric device.

A battery can be used as a current source for electric tools so they do not need to be plugged into a stationary power source. When a loop of wire connects the negative end of the battery to the positive end, charged particles flow as a current from the negative end to the positive end. If an electric device, such as an astronaut’s power tool, is placed within the loop of wire, the current travels through the device and powers it.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Students build and test an electromagnet to determine the factors that affect electromagnetic force. Students plan and carry out an investigation on a hand-crank flashlight and work to improve the design.

Modeling electric fields, students ask questions and experiment with a simulation of electric fields. Students examine electric current and circuits, draw circuit diagrams, and build a circuit.

SEP

G R A D E

Understanding that models can be used to represent systems and their interactions, students build a simple motor to find out how motors work. Students also model magnetic fields using bar magnets and iron filings.

Students discover the cause and effect relationships behind how static electricity works in terms of electric charge and electric force. Students try various hands-on activities involving static electricity.

CCC

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How do drones defy gravity? Students answer this question by analyzing a drone’s motor, detailing how it works, and explaining the gravitational force upon its mass.

Students examine why planets revolve around stars and moons revolve around planets as they find out how the solar system consists of the sun and a collection of objects that are held in orbit around the sun by its gravitational pull on them. (ESS1.B)

Gravity and the Solar System Planets revolve around stars while moons revolve around planets.

DCI

Performance Assessment

Lesson Phenomenon

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Understanding how space phenomena can be observed at various scales, students create a largescale model of the solar system and then “visit” the planets. Next, students calculate the distances of the planets on a small-scale model and determine their locations.

Students use magnets, paperclips, and a ruler to demonstrate the cause and effect relationships behind two factors that affect the strength of a magnetic field.

CCC MS-PS2-3 MS-PS2-4 MS-PS2-5

PE

Students apply mathematical MS-ESS1-2 concepts in the form of ratios to cal- MS-ESS1-3 culate relative sizes and distances in a series of scale models of the Earth-sun-moon system.

Students ask questions and investigate a gif of an engineer's drone motor design and then analyze the data that an engineer collected while modifying the design of the motor.

SEP

The strength of a gravitational force depends on two things: mass and distance. It increases as the masses of the objects increase. It decreases quickly as the distance between the objects increases. The gravitational force between the sun and Earth pulls on Earth, but Earth is not pulled into the sun. Instead, Earth moves perpendicularly at a very high speed while being pulled by the force. As a result, Earth constantly moves so that it revolves around the sun. If Earth was not moving as quickly, it would fall toward the sun until they collided.

How is gravity different on Earth and in space? Why do astronauts look like they are weightless in spacecraft? How could a power tool work without being plugged into something? How does the motor of a power drill work? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

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8th Grade Integrated  129


Students consider the potential colonization of Mars by going through a systematic process for evaluating solutions. (ESS1.B) (ETS1.B)

Students study the Curiosity rover's landing sequence in preparation for developing possible solutions for building a landing vehicle for an astronaut on Mars. (ESS1.B) (ETS1.B)

Students discover how only a few of the celestial objects in our solar system are called planets as they examine Earth and the solar system. (ESS1.B) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

Engineering Challenge Design a vehicle that can land on Mars.

The Outer Solar System There are millions of objects in our solar system, but we only call a few of them 'planets.'

DCI

The Inner Solar System Astronomers believe that Mars would be an ideal place to build a colony.

Lesson Phenomenon

130  8th Grade Integrated To classify planets, students organize, MS-ESS1-3 analyze, and interpret the data on MS-ETS1-3 planets gathered in a previous lesson.

MS-ETS1-1

MS-ESS1-3 MS-ETS1-2

PE

Jupiter's radiation is made of high-energy charged particles, which can damage electronic tools. Jupiter has strong gravitational forces since it is so massive. But again, dropping a power tool around Jupiter would just mean that the power tool would orbit Jupiter.

Students examine the characteristics of Mars to properly design the Mars Lander Assembly prototype.

Earth is the largest terrestrial planet. Mercury has a weaker gravitational force because it has a smaller mass. But dropping a power tool while already orbiting Mercury would just mean the power tool would orbit Mercury rather than Earth.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Using patterns in the data on planets, students develop and present arguments about how to best classify the planets.

Students use data from iterative testing to modify and optimize their prototype. Students identify problem areas and attempt to design solutions in order to meet the goals of the challenge.

Students research the classification of Pluto as a dwarf planet, analyze various sources, and then engage in an argument as to how Pluto should be classified. Next, students gather and begin to analyze and interpret data about the eight planets in our solar system.

SEP

G R A D E

Using an understanding of structure and function, students create a Mars Lander Assembly prototype from fabricated parts using materials provided. Students identify individual engineering goals and constraints in order to design a part of the prototype that solves a selected problem.

Understanding ways that large-scale space phenomena can be observed, students design a space mission to study the planets of the inner solar system.

CCC

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Using patterns in planet characteristics, students assess a variety of classification systems and then pick the best one.

CCC Students contribute their informed scientific opinion to an International Astronomical Union mentor by presenting a written argument supported by empirical evidence in the form of a memo about planet classification.

SEP MS-ESS1-3

PE How does gravity contribute to Earth orbiting the sun? How is the gravitational force of Earth different than that of Mercury? Would it be any different to drop a power tool while orbiting Mercury rather than Earth? Would it be any different to drop a power tool while orbiting Jupiter rather than Earth? Answering these questions helps students to summarize their findings and make the final revisions to their model. Students use their completed model to support their explanation of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

Sample Explanation: If an astronaut is orbiting a planet, the power tools in hand are also orbiting the planet, and simply being dropped won’t apply a force to change the path of movement caused by the planet’s gravitational pull in combination with a directional speed. An electric power tool can be handheld and not plugged in because a battery can be used as the source of current. Thus the power tool’s movement is free from being tethered and depends on the forces acting on it. A spacecraft can orbit Earth when rockets push it forward at the right speed that acts with gravity pulling the craft toward Earth to make it fall continuously around the planet. If the power tool and the astronaut are moving in orbit around Earth in a spacecraft, then simply letting go of the power tool will not apply a force, and the power tool will continue to move due to gravity and the directional speed pushing everything forward. Earth has a greater mass than other terrestrial planets, but a smaller mass than the gas planets. However, the scenario works the same once a spacecraft carrying an astronaut and power tool is in orbit around any planet, because all three objects are moving due to the force of gravity balanced by directional speed in orbit, and they will continue to move this way if they are not touching each other.

To prepare and present an argument about the best way to classify celestial objects in the solar system, students use their knowledge about the classification of planets and understanding of Earth and the solar system.

DCI

Integrated Phenomenon: If an astronaut in orbit around a planet drops a power tool, it will move as the astronaut is moving—in orbit.

Performance Assessment

Lesson Phenomenon

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132  8th Grade Integrated

Formation of the Solar System Humans weren't around to watch the solar system form, but we have observed patterns that may explain its formation.

Lesson Phenomenon

Students conclude that the solar system has been around long before humans, and observed patterns help explain how the solar system appears to have formed from a disk of dust and gas, drawn together by gravity. (ESS1.B)

After analyzing the solar system to determine how it functions, students create a flip book showing how the solar system formed from a nebula. Students also evaluate video animations depicting aspects of the solar system’s formation for scientific accuracy.

CCC

PE Modeling gravitational forces, MS-ESS1-1 students use a gravity well to model MS-ESS1-2 gravity’s role in several processes that contributed to solar system formation.

SEP

Gravity is an attractive force that pulls less massive objects toward more massive objects. Gravity pulled together tiny particles of a nebula. Gravity explains a lot of solar system interactions, including the moon orbiting Earth. Since materials early in the formation of the solar system clumped together or entered regular orbiting, there is not a lot of free material to be pulled to Earth. Students create a model of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

MS-ESS1-1, MS-ESS1-2, MS-ESS1-4, MS-LS4-1, MS-ETS1-4

Performance Expectations:

L E A R N I N G

DCI

In this integrated segment, students find out how major collisions in our solar system impacted the history of life on Earth. Students are introduced to the integrated phenomenon of how the fossil record suggests that a space object hit Earth and caused a mass extinction, although a collision of this scale on Earth has never been witnessed by humans. First, students take a look at how the solar system formed, understanding gravity’s role in its formation. Students go beyond the solar system to explore how the Milky Way galaxy is part of a group of galaxies. In the first Engineering Challenge, students design and test a space capsule that protects a camera from being damaged when it returns from space. They write a movie script for the climax about gravity’s force on a celestial object. Students explore Earth’s history by examining rock strata and the fossil record. In the second Engineering Challenge, students design a tool for extracting fossils and act as paleontologists to analyze a fossil dig site. Acting as science consultants, students write and fix a script for the climax of a movie about the formation and interaction of planets, solar systems, and galaxies and a paragraph that explains how gravity works. Applying what they know about space objects, gravity, and evidence from the fossil record, how will students explain how a major collision from a space object affected life on Earth?

Segment Progression:

G R A D E

3D Learning Sequence

The fossil record suggests that an object from space hit the Earth and led to mass extinction, but a collision of this scale on Earth has never been witnessed by humans.

Integrated Phenomenon:

Segment Progression: Major Collisions in the History of Life

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Applying a knowledge of spatial relationships as they explore the universe and its stars, students determine that a scale model of the Milky Way Galaxy would need a room bigger than a classroom to fit it. (ESS1.A) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

After watching a video of a rocket launch, students develop several possible design solutions for a space capsule that will protect a camera from being damaged upon its return from space. Next, students evaluate the cameras to choose the best damping device that meets their criteria and constraints. (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

Students explain how all celestial objects in solar systems follow distinct patterns of movement, using their knowledge of the universe and its stars, and the Earth and the solar system. Students act out the script they develop for the class.

Engineering Challenge Design and test a "space capsule" that will protect a camera from being smashed upon its return from space.

Performance Assessment

DCI

Beyond the Solar System It'd be extremely difficult to fit a scale model of our Milky Way Galaxy in a classroom.

Lesson Phenomenon

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Playing the role of science consultants that find and fix inaccuracies about gravity, students brainstorm ideas for a movie storyline that uses an understanding of gravity that is consistent with the patterns and interactions observed in galaxies and the solar system.

Students take into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used as they identify possible criteria and constraints of developing a damping device.

Understanding that space phenomena can be observed at various scales using models, students use familiar maps to model the scale of distance between celestial bodies. Students also model how gravity between stars depends on mass and distance by using their own bodies.

CCC

Students develop a model in the form of a script for the climax of a movie about the formation and interaction of planets, solar systems, and galaxies, and a paragraph that explains how gravity works within the movie storyline.

Students develop a model of a damping device to use in vibration tests and improve upon it by identifying the points of failure in their designs.

Students use math and computational thinking to determine whether distant celestial objects are within reach for space explorers. Students then develop and use models to show how gravity influences galaxies.

SEP

MS-ESS1-2

MS-ETS1-4

MS-ESS1-2 MS-ETS1-4

PE

How was gravity involved in the formation of the solar system? Why aren’t there objects being pulled in to the planets frequently? How likely is it that Earth would crash into a large object that would have a big impact on the Earth? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model of the integrated phenomenon.

Students consider special designs that are needed for equipment to withstand the rigors of space and re-entry to Earth from trips within the solar system.

The moon is about 384,400 km away. The closest star is Proxima Centauri, which is 271,000 AU away. There is a lot of empty space around us. This makes it very unlikely that we would crash into a large object that would have a big impact on Earth.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

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8th Grade Integrated  133


What are fossilized sea shells doing in the middle of a desert? Students answer this question by taking a close look at rock strata and the fossil record when exploring the history of planet Earth. Students describe how the environment has changed over time. (ESS1.C)

How do we know that dinosaurs once roamed Earth? Students examine this phenomenon by understanding how the fossil record can be used as evidence to support the theory that life has changed over time since some organisms that once existed long ago no longer exist. (LS4.A)

Fossils and the History of Life Dinosaurs once roamed the earth, but now we do not find them alive anywhere.

DCI

Earth’s History You would usually find shells by the ocean, but fossilized shells can be found in the middle of the desert.

Lesson Phenomenon PE

134  8th Grade Integrated A mass extinction event is when a large number of species go extinct in a very short period of time. Scientific evidence shows that an object from space measuring about 10 kilometers across struck Mexico. A large crater has been found in this location. Scientists think that the collision caused firestorms on land and produced airborne debris that blocked the sun for a year or more. The lack of sunlight would have killed plants first, then the animals that eat them. Volcanic activity near the end of the Cretaceous period may also have contributed to the mass extinction.

The bombardment stopped about 4 billion years ago, because the planets had swept up most of the dust and clumps in their paths with gravity. Scientists know that a huge object crashed into Earth around the time many dinosaurs went extinct because of a thin layer of iridium in rocks all over the planet. Large amounts of iridium are rare in Earth’s rocks but common in rocks from space. Scientists can date rocks and fossils using absolute dating and then match up the dates of the iridium layer and dinosaur fossils.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Students use a model to predict and MS-LS4-1 describe phenomena of how fossils in sedimentary rock form. Students make deductions about modern day organisms and their environment versus fossilized organisms and their environment.

Students use graphs and models of MS-ESS1-4 radioactive decay to understand the concept of absolute dating and how it is used to tell a fossil’s exact age.

SEP

G R A D E

Students analyze patterns in the fossil record to interpret life on Earth and draw conclusions about mass extinction events, adaptive radiation events, and changes in types of organisms over time.

As they collect and identify fossils, students are challenged to find patterns in data as they compare the similarities and differences in two different fossil dig sites to form a larger timeline of life on Earth.

CCC

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Students draw a picture of the layers of strata and the fossils found there to create a 3D model of their fossil site. Students record patterns they find in the data.

PE

Students construct a scientific MS-ESS1-4 explanation based on evidence ob- MS-LS4-1 tained from sources to present their 3D model and fossil site findings at a conference.

Students develop and use a model MS-ETS1-4 that preserves the fossil while removing the rock and identify criteria and constraints for the solution.

SEP

When did early Earth’s constant bombardment by objects from space stop, and why? How do scientists know that a huge object hit Earth at the time of dinosaurs? What do scientists think caused the mass extinction of dinosaurs? Answering these questions helps students to summarize their findings and make the final revisions to their model. Students use their completed model to support their explanation of the integrated phenomenon.

Students can compare the tool they designed to extract a plaster model of a fossil to the actual tools paleontologists use in the field to extract real fossils. How are they different? How are they the same?

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

Sample Explanation: Although major bombardment by rocks stopped billions of years ago in the formation of the solar system, a huge object from space appears to have struck Earth in the time of dinosaurs, blocking the sun and killing off plants and the animals that ate them. Gravity pulls less massive objects into more massive objects. This process turned a cloud of nebula dust into clumps and then large planets orbiting a sun when the solar system formed, leaving few small objects in the empty space between planets. A layer of iridium in the planet’s rock strata has been dated to around the same time period as layers of rock where dinosaur fossils are found. Since iridium is found in rocks from space, this suggests that a large object from space struck Earth around the time dinosaurs went extinct. A massive crater in Mexico resulted from an object 10 km across striking Earth. Scientists think this could be the location where a huge rocky object full of iridium struck at the time of dinosaurs, initiating a mass extinction event.

Students observe how similar fossils have been found in fossil digs in locations that are far apart. By acting as the site director on a fossil site, students understand the existence of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth.

Performance Assessment

Using their knowledge of structure and function, students optimize the design solution of their extraction tool by switching tools or improving their protocol.

CCC

G R A D E

Integrated Phenomenon: The fossil record suggests that an object from space hit the Earth and led to mass extinction, but a collision of this scale on Earth has never been witnessed by humans.

By designing a tool to extract a plaster model of a fossil, students develop possible solutions and assess their design using a rubric. (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C) (LS4.A)

DCI

Engineering Challenge Design a tool set based on criteria and constraints, then use it to extract a plaster model of a fossil.

Lesson Phenomenon

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8th Grade Integrated  135


Faster cheetahs catch more food than slower cheetahs do. In this integrated segment, students examine how faster cheetahs are able to catch more food than slower cheetahs. Students create a model of the integrated phenomenon to explain it and revise it as they gain knowledge. To understand the phenomenon, students explore evolution's role in life's unity and diversity. First, they take a look at Darwin’s theory of evolution through natural selection and observe natural selection in action. Students discover the role genes and mutations have in natural selection and evolutionary relationships. Next, students find out about forms of energy and investigate the transformations between kinetic and potential energy. Students figure out the relationships between kinetic energy, mass, and speed, and understand the potential energy in systems. In the Engineering Challenge, students design musical instruments based on the principles of energy conservation, transfer, and transformations. They then analyze what is happening in a Rube Goldberg machine, construct arguments regarding energy transformations, graph the relationship between mass and kinetic energy, investigate the relationship between kinetic energy and speed, and model energy transformations. Using what they know about diversity and energy conservation, transformation, and transfer, how will students explain why faster cheetahs catch more food than slower cheetahs? MS-LS3-1, MS-LS4-2, MS-LS4-3, MS-LS4-4, MS-LS4-6, MS-PS3-1, MS-PS3-2, MS-PS3-5, MS-ETS1-2, MS-ETS1-4

Integrated Phenomenon:

Segment Progression:

Performance Expectations:

Segment Progression: Evolution Explains Life's Unity and Diversity

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136  8th Grade Integrated

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Knowing that natural selection leads to the predominance of certain traits in a population and the suppression of others, students construct an explanation for Darwin's hypothesis that posits there was only one population of ancestor finches that had arrived to the islands of the Galápagos. (LS4.B)

Students see how adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time by examining the beak size of finches on Daphne Major, playing a natural selection hunting game, and graphing out deer traits across four generations. (LS4.C)

Observing Natural Selection in Action In only 2 years, the average beak size of finches on Daphne Major got almost 1mm larger.

DCI

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Through Natural Selection Darwin found many kinds of finches with different sized and shaped beaks on the different islands of the Galápagos.

Lesson Phenomenon

3D Learning Sequence

MS-LS4-4

PE

Students plan and carry out MS-LS4-6 investigations that uses guppies in identifying the role of camouflage as a selective advantage in a predation situation.

Students construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.

SEP

When some traits help individuals in a population live longer than other individuals without that trait in a population, the ones that live longer have more chances to reproduce and pass the trait on to their offspring. Running faster to catch more prey will give animals more energy to help them survive longer, so they can have more chances to reproduce and pass their running speed on to offspring.

Natural selection occurs when individuals in a population with certain inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than individuals with less favorable traits in a specific environment. Evolution is when inherited changes occur in a population over time through processes like natural selection. Over many generations, natural selection causes populations of living things to evolve traits that make populations more likely to survive and reproduce in the environment. These traits are adaptations. Students create a model of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

G R A D E

Students predict the changes in fish populations by applying cause and effect relationships in cichlid sexual selection.

Students examine why very similar finches on the Galapagos Islands have such different beaks and discover phenomena may have more than one cause, and some cause and effect relationships in systems can only be described using probability.

CCC

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8th Grade Integrated  137


Observing how captive lovebirds have more variety in color than populations in the wild, students find out how genetic mutations result in changes to proteins which can change traits. (LS3.A) (LS3.B)

Students compare embryological development of different species to reveal similarities as they collect data and then create a poster detailing the patterns in anatomical structures they found in various embryonic organisms. (LS4.A)

Students explore evidence of common ancestry and diversity as they complete an organism comparison chart used to compare physical features of whales to those of other ocean organisms.

Evolutionary Relationships Crayfish, spiders, and dragonflies may seem very different at first glance, but they have many similarities.

Performance Assessment

DCI

Genes and Natural Selection Lovebirds in captivity have unique colorations not found in the wild population.

Lesson Phenomenon

138  8th Grade Integrated To construct an explanation that describes phenomenon, students gather data about whales and use that data to construct an argument.

Students apply scientific principles to construct an explanation for real-world phenomena as they categorize modern-day organisms to find commonalities that indicate the organisms share a common ancestor.

MS-LS3-1 MS-LS4-2 MS-LS4-3 MS-LS4-4 MS-LS4-6

MS-LS4-2 MS-LS4-3

How is Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection related to adaptations? Could the ability to run faster to catch more prey impact an animal’s ability to survive? What might happen if a mutation caused a cheetah to have bigger leg muscles? Are cheetahs that can run fast only able to mate with other cheetahs that can run fast? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model of the integrated phenomenon.

A species is a group of living things that share traits and can breed successfully with one another but not other groups. Since all cheetahs are one species, any cheetah can mate with other cheetahs regardless of how fast they run.

Genes are instructions for building proteins, which make up the structures of organisms, or their traits. An allele is a specific form of a gene. A mutation is a random change to an organism’s DNA. Sometimes mutations change proteins in ways that are beneficial, but sometimes they are harmful or neutral. A cheetah with bigger leg muscles might run faster, catch more food, survive longer, and have more offspring.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Students use a diagram to identify patterns and traits of land-dwelling mammals to reveal which modern-day animal is the closest living relative to the whale.

PE

Students develop a model of genes, MS-LS3-1 proteins, and genetic mutations by MS-LS4-4 making paper airplanes to show how genetic mutations can change an organism’s traits and function.

SEP

G R A D E

Students discover how to find patterns in morphology that illustrate the similarities between crayfish, spiders, and dragonflies to understand the evolutionary relationships between different organisms.

Examining cause and effect relationships, students get a better look at mutations as they analyze lab results of bacterial plates gaining antibiotic resistance.

CCC

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Students observe a pendulum boat ride and use their knowledge of conservation of energy and energy transfer to determine what happens to the energy of the pendulum as a result of friction and gravity. (PS3.A) (PS3.B) (PS3.C)

Students watch a video of a wrecking ball and consider what factors affect how hard it hits an object by examining how kinetic energy is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed. (PS3.A) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

Measuring Kinetic Energy A wrecking ball causes more damage when it's bigger or swung from further away.

DCI

Forms of Energy A pendulum boat ride cannot swing forever under the force of gravity.

Lesson Phenomenon

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Students graph the relationships between kinetic energy and mass as well as kinetic energy and speed. Students then determine whether these relationships are proportional, linear, both, or neither by understanding how proportional relationships among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties and processes.

Understanding that models can be used to represent systems and their interactions, students model kinetic energy transfers by using drawings and analyzing situations where energy changes, but is always conserved.

CCC MS-PS3-2 MS-PS3-5

PE

Students watch demonstrations MS-PS3-1 and videos to observe how kinetic MS-ETS1-4 energy relates to mass and speed. Students then make predictions about how changes in mass or speed affect kinetic energy. Students develop and test wrecking ball models to see how mass and speed affect kinetic energy.

Students relate energy to forces as they examine potential energy and kinetic energy and develop a model to demonstrate the forces.

SEP

Objects with greater mass have greater kinetic energy when moving at the same speed. Objects of the same mass with greater speed have more kinetic energy. Of two cheetahs the same size, the faster one has greater kinetic energy.

Energy is the ability to cause motion or change. Food has stored energy. When you digest food, the energy is released and your body uses this energy to do things like breathe and move around. Energy is not made of matter, but all matter has energy. The form of energy stored in a system due to the positions of objects interacting at a distance is potential energy. Kinetic energy is the energy an object has due to its motion. Moving cheetahs have kinetic energy because they have the ability to move another object and cause it to move or change.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

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8th Grade Integrated  139


How does a firework transform from a cardboard-covered object to a ball of fire in the sky? Students consider the types of potential energy involved in fireworks as they explore the relationship between energy and forces. (PS3.A) (ETS1.B) (PS3.C)

Students are tasked with designing a simple instrument as part of a community service project. Students define the problem and then come up with the criteria and constraints. They also create a rubric for evaluating one anothers’ designs. (ETS1.B) (ETS1.A)

Engineering Challenge Design musical instruments based on principles of energy conservation, transfer, and transformation.

DCI

Potential Energy in Systems A firework transforms from a small, cardboard-covered object to a large explosion of fire in the sky.

Lesson Phenomenon Understanding that models can be used to represent systems and their interactions, students investigate a skate park simulation to understand gravitational potential energy. They give short presentations to demonstrate the relationships between potential energy, distance above the ground, and mass.

CCC

PE

L E A R N I N G

140  8th Grade Integrated Students review the principles of energy conservation, transfer, and transformation by creating a musical instrument.

Food has chemical potential energy, which is energy stored in the chemical bonds that hold atoms and molecules together. Because of the properties of the atoms and molecules involved, chemical potential energy is a combination of kinetic energy, electric potential energy, and magnetic potential energy. Chemical potential energy can be released when bonds holding matter together are broken. When a cheetah digests food, the chemical bonds are broken and the chemical potential energy is released. The cheetah then uses the released energy to move.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

G R A D E

Students design and construct a mu- MS-ETS1-1 sical instrument. They perform the MS-ETS1-2 use of the instrument and describe the transformations and transfers of energy. Students evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria.

Students develop and use a model MS-PS3-2 by using simple objects to represent MS-ETS1-2 electric charges and electric forces. They think about what happens to potential energy when they push objects closer together or pull them apart. Students also model other forms of potential energy and energy conversions through hands-on experiments at stations.

SEP

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Students visit stations that represent systems and their interactions to record information and identify gravitational potential energy. At each station, students draw logical connections between the video and their understanding of the scientific principles.

CCC Students develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms by drawing diagrams of gravitational potential energy and magnetic potential energy.

SEP MS-PS3-1 MS-PS3-2 MS-PS3-5

PE What kind of energy is present in a cheetah that is moving very fast? If one cheetah runs faster than another cheetah the same size, which has greater kinetic energy? How do cheetahs use the potential energy in food? Answering these questions helps students to summarize their findings and make the final revisions to their model. Students use their completed model to support their explanation of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

Sample Explanation: These faster cheetahs are more likely to survive and reproduce, so eventually the cheetah population will evolve faster running. Food stores chemical potential energy that can be released when digested and then used for moving around. When animals get more food, they have more energy to move quickly and this helps them survive longer. Organisms that live longer have more opportunities to mate. Cheetahs with more energy to survive longer will have more opportunities to reproduce. Traits form from proteins that are made based on the instructions found in genes. Since genes are inherited, all the cheetah offspring of the faster cheetahs will also be able to run faster (as long as running speed is an inherited trait).

Understanding that when the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time, students act as research physicists studying energy and explain how a small action in a Rube Goldberg machine causes a chain reaction of effects.

DCI

Integrated Phenomenon: Faster cheetahs catch more food than slower cheetahs do.

Performance Assessment

Lesson Phenomenon

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8th Grade Integrated  141


Tracking information suggests that polar bear population size is increasing in some areas while decreasing in others. In this integrated segment, students discover why tracking information suggests polar bear populations are increasing in some areas while decreasing in others. Students create a model of the integrated phenomenon and revise it as they gain knowledge. To understand the integrated phenomenon, students explore sustaining local and global diversity. First, students examine the role of human impact on evolution by taking a look at artificial selection. They find out about genetic engineering and how a growing human population affects global change. In the first Engineering Challenge, students redesign trash in effort to reduce environmental impact. Acting as a member of a bioethics committee, students debate the problems of a changing environment due to human impact. To understand global change in temperatures, students determine the difference between thermal energy and heat, investigate the thermal properties of matter, and take a closer look at thermal conductivity. Acting as designers for a thermos company, students design, construct, and test a thermos that keeps things cold in a hot environment. Next, students compare the effectiveness, speed, and reliability of different methods of sending messages over a distance, and in the second Engineering Challenge, they design a communication system. Students compare a variety of analog and digital technologies with similar functions and design an ad which explains why digital is more reliable. Last, they explore methods that engineers have developed for encoding information digitally. What ideas about human impact on global change, thermal energy, and sending information will students use to explain why tracking data on polar bears suggest their population size is changing in areas? MS-ESS3-4, MS-LS4-5, MS-PS3-3, MS-PS3-4, MS-PS3-5, MS-PS4-3, MS-ETS1-1, MS-ETS1-2, MS-ETS1-3

Integrated Phenomenon:

Segment Progression:

Performance Expectations:

Segment Progression: Sustaining Local and Global Diversity

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142  8th Grade Integrated

S E Q U E N C E

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Seeing how, by using artificial selection, humans have the capacity to influence certain characteristics of organisms through selective breeding, students question why bulldog skulls have changed shape so dramatically over the past 150 years. (LS4.B)

Students explore treatments that allow people with diabetes to live long and relatively normal lives because of genetic engineering advances. (LS4.B)

Genetic Engineering and Society Before 1922, diabetes was a death sentence. However, by the early 1990s, people with diabetes could live long and relatively normal lives.

DCI

Artificial Selection Bulldog skulls have dramatically changed in shape over the past 150 years.

Lesson Phenomenon

3D Learning Sequence

Understanding cause and effect, students explain why a GMO was developed for the treatment of diabetes.

Students play a game comparing the natural selection process and the artificial selection process on a population of aurochs while understanding phenomena may have more than one cause.

CCC

PE

Students discuss the ideas behind MS-LS4-5 transferring one organism’s genes to another and then gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources to research and present on a GMO.

Students gather, read, and synMS-LS4-5 thesize information from multiple appropriate sources to research and present information on plants or animals that have been bred using artificial selection.

SEP

People determine what traits they want to spread through the population, but with genetic engineering the change can spread more quickly and the change can be greater since people can insert genes from organisms that would never mate with the target organism. Although people can use genetic engineering to change wild populations, using genetic engineering to cause helpful changes in wild animals is tricky because one change can cause multiple effects and the environment can change.

Natural selection produces traits that make organisms well suited to living and reproducing in natural environments. Artificial selection produces traits that are desirable to humans. Traits that evolve through artificial selection often do not make organisms well suited to surviving in the wild. Even if people tried to artificially select traits that we think would work well in a changing world, it’s not a given that these traits would actually help animals survive in the wild. Students create a model to explain the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

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8th Grade Integrated  143


Students explore what might have happened to cause the Aral Sea to shrink in size. Students explain human impacts on Earth systems and how the shrinking of the Aral Sea affects the evolution of the local organisms. (ESS3.C)

Students collect second-hand materials and develop a test for determining how well their materials work for their solution. Students test their design solution to see if it fulfills the criteria and constraints knowing that the more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. (ETS1.A)

Engineering Challenge Design a solution for a local environmental problem using second hand materials.

DCI

Human Population and Global Change The Aral Sea shrunk to a quarter of its size in only 50 years.

Lesson Phenomenon Students use cause and effect relationships to play a game that models how humans impact their environment and how populations are affected by resource competition.

CCC

PE

144  8th Grade Integrated Students explore ways in which humans can reduce harmful impacts on their environment.

L E A R N I N G

MS-ETS1-1

The human population is growing dramatically. Not only has total global energy consumption increased, per capita energy consumption has also been growing. When fossil fuels are burned for energy, carbon dioxide gas is released into the atmosphere, causing temperatures of the atmosphere to rise with the greenhouse effect, eventually warming the oceans, too. Some species respond to climate change by moving to areas with a more appropriate climate. But not all species can move to new habitats. Polar bears already live at the northern extremes of Earth and have nowhere else to go. People cause the environment to change so quickly that animals with long generation times cannot evolve in response and are in danger of going extinct.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

G R A D E

In effort to design a solution for a local environmental problem using second-hand materials, students precisely define a design problem based on information about the needs of organisms in their environment. Then, students identify criteria and constraints of the solution. Students revise and retest their design solutions and present their final design.

Engaging in argument from eviMS-ESS3-4 dence, students interpret case studies on strange animal occurrences directly related to human impacts and argue how these are different than other environmental influences on populations.

SEP

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Students summarize the reasons why human population increases caused the health of Moreton Bay organisms to decline. Using their knowledge on human impacts on Earth systems, students write a recommendation based on what they learn in a debate and from their own opinions.

Students think about how a classroom can remain the same temperature even though a heater is on as they explore how energy is spontaneously transferred out of hotter regions or objects and into colder ones. (PS3.B) (PS3.A)

Thermal Energy and Heat A heater in a classroom provides heat, but the temperature in the room stays the same.

DCI

Performance Assessment

Lesson Phenomenon

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Exploring energy and matter, students use images and construct arguments to understand relationships between thermal energy, heat, temperature, and thermal equilibrium. Students then make posters depicting a scene with the three different types of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation.

Understanding that phenomena may have more than one cause, students act as a member of a bioethics committee to become familiar with the sides of a debate and research their side using reliable resources to support their arguments.

CCC

Students plan and carry out investigations as they design and conduct experiments to determine relationships between thermal energy, temperature, mass, state of matter, and type of matter.

Students construct, use, and present an oral and written argument for a debate supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning. Students plan out who will say what during the debate and debate the other two teams.

SEP

MS-PS3-4 MS-PS3-5

PE

Ice, liquid water, and water vapor are the same substance (water) in three different states. A lot of energy has to be added to ice to change it to liquid water. The hot sun emits energy carried to the Earth by sunlight, so when sunlight reaches our atmosphere, it introduces energy that can change ice to liquid water.

Can people use artificial selection to save animals that are not domesticated and live in the wild? Can people use genetic engineering to save animals that are not domesticated and live in the wild? How does the rate of change in the environment caused by human activities affect organisms’ ability to evolve in response? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

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8th Grade Integrated  145


Students determine why the desert has large temperature swings between day and night as they find out how the relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present. Students construct an argument for what kind of terrain would be best for a park. (PS3.B) (PS3.A) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

Understanding heat transfer in the desert and conservation of energy, students apply what they know to explain how a jack rabbit’s ears help it survive desert heat.

Performance Assessment

DCI

Thermal Properties of Matter Deserts are hot during the day, with average daytime temperatures of 38°C, but they can be as cold as -4°C at night.

Lesson Phenomenon

146  8th Grade Integrated MS-PS3-3 MS-PS3-4 MS-PS3-5 MS-ETS1-3

MS-PS3-3 MS-PS3-4 MS-ETS1-3

PE

What is the energy source that is heating the climate and melting ice in polar bear habitat? What is another way, related to global warming, that energy from sunlight could end up contributing to ice melting at the polar caps? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model of the integrated phenomenon.

A lot of thermal energy is absorbed when a solid changes into a liquid. Direct sunlight can introduce thermal energy to a surface it hits, but sunlight can also add thermal energy to the atmosphere, and then that energy can be trapped by the greenhouse effect. With the atmosphere and oceans warming, ice at the poles could gain thermal energy that doesn’t depend on direct sunlight.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Students decide on the criteria and constraints for their thermos designs, plan for an investigation that would test how well the design performs, and then analyze and interpret data from test results.

Students plan and carry out an investigation to track temperature as ice changes to water and water changes to water vapor. They use this information to understand the relationship between thermal energy and changes of state.

SEP

G R A D E

Understanding that the transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a designed system, students act as designers for a thermos company to design, construct, and test a thermos that can be used in the desert.

Students determine whether sand or water has a higher heat capacity by conducting an experiment using cause and effect relationships. Students use knowledge of heat capacity and thermal conductivity to determine the best material for a waffle maker. They also distinguish objects as thermal conductors or thermal insulators.

CCC

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Students find out how when a message is repeated during a game of “telephone,� the message ultimately changes as they investigate how digitized signals are a more reliable way to transmit information. (PS4.C) (ETS1.A) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

Students design a communication system similar to Morse code using multiple different colors of light to make it more efficient while developing and optimizing possible design solutions. Students decide on the way they will represent each character in their system and clearly define how they will evaluate the success of a system. (PS4.C) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

Engineering Challenge Design a communication system that encodes letters, numbers, and symbols using multiple different frequencies of light. Evaluate your system by using it to send a variety of messages, and make improvements to the system based on your results.

DCI

Sending Information Using Wave Pulses When a message is whispered repeatedly during a game of telephone, it changes over time.

Lesson Phenomenon

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Students examine a video showing fiber optic cables used for communication and determine the structure and function of the cables.

Students explore Morse code, and its inputs, processes, and outputs. Students then compare how long it takes to send a message by moving matter from one place to another to how long it takes to send a message using waves by racing to send messages using both methods.

CCC MS-PS4-3 MS-ETS1-1 MS-ETS1-2 MS-ETS1-3

PE

Students test their communication MS-ETS1-3 system using four different kinds of test messages. They analyze and interpret the data from their tests to determine the strengths and weaknesses of their communication system, compare it to the communication systems developed by other groups, and revise.

Students use their experiences in The Great Message Race to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of whispering a message as a communication method as they analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings.

SEP

Students are challenged to work with materials that enable digital messaging by designing a communication system.

Waves travel fast and can carry messages long distances, and some kinds can pass through objects. But wave messages often require advanced technology and complex codes. Scientists can use Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to study polar bears. Biologists can place GPS devices on polar bears to map and measure their paths. A GPS device uses radio waves to communicate long distances with a system of satellites in space to determine the exact location of the device on Earth.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

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148  8th Grade Integrated Comparing structure and function, students research how the digital and analog versions of their product work and then describe the differences that would be experienced when using a digital product and an analog product with a similar function. Students write a scientific explanation about why there are differences between the digital and analog products.

PE

Students obtain and communicate information to explain how their product works. Next, they evaluate a science testimonial explaining why their product is more reliable than the analog option. Last, they use this information to present their TV commercial, radio ad, or billboard.

MS-PS4-3

Students use a model of storing MS-PS4-3 information in an analog format and MS-ETS1-1 a digital format to investigate which format is more reliable.

SEP

How do scientists use wave messages to study polar bears? How does a GPS device work? Why would a scientist want to store GPS information about polar bear habits? Answering these questions helps students to summarize their findings and make the final revisions to their model. Students use their completed model to support their explanation of the integrated phenomenon.

Radio waves are analog because they vary continuously. But a computer could store information about a radio wave in digital format. Scientists could store polar bear GPS information in order to compare locations over a long period of time to detect any patterns of change.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Sample Explanation: The bears are moving to new locations as global warming causes ice to melt and reduces good habitat for hunting. Since a growing human population has contributed to the greenhouse effect, the atmosphere and oceans are warming. The change in climate makes certain locations unfit for animals that were previously adapted to their environment. With the atmosphere and oceans warming, ice at the poles will gain thermal energy and melt to become liquid water. Without ice covering the ocean, polar bears will not be able to successfully hunt the food they are specialized to capture: seals. Scientists can use GPS data collected from radio tracking collars to determine where polar bears are located over time even if they travel great distances. If trends show some populations decreasing and others increasing, it indicates the bears are moving from one place to another.

Students have discovered how the majority of analog devices have been replaced by digital equivalents. Understanding the use of information technologies and instrumentation, students create an advertising campaign that explains how those different kinds of signals are used for communication purposes.

Performance Assessment

Students compare an analog clock to a digital clock by analyzing the structure and function of each. Students determine if measurements taken with analog or digital devices are generally more accurate and how the design of each of the devices affects the way it functions.

CCC

G R A D E

Integrated Phenomenon: Tracking information suggests that polar bear population size is increasing in some areas while decreasing in others.

Students compare a digital signal sender to an analog signal sender as they examine information technologies and instrumentation. (PS4.C) (ETS1.A)

DCI

Analog and Digital Information A Digital Signal Sender is a more reliable way of communicating a phone number than an Analog Signal Sender.

Lesson Phenomenon

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M A T E R I A L S

Materials • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Segment 1 Hall’s carriage Paper clip, small Tape, masking Tape, measuring Balloon Paper clip, small Straw String Ball, multiple types Digital scale Beaker, 250 mL Cardboard Centimeter cube Container, plastic shoebox Cotton ball Pipe insulation Protractor Rubber band Test tube, plastic with cap Index cards Food coloring Bottles, plastic Vegetable oil Spring toys Index cards Sticky notes, 3x3” Stopwatch Clay Craft sticks Nuts Plates, plastic Rubber bands Toothpicks, round Containers, plastic Mesh, roll Gravel Sand Tiles, ceramic

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Segment 2 Bamboo skewer Light bulb Light bulb stand Mini-Earth model Tape, painter’s Yarn Earth model, inflatable Flashlight Protractor Ball, styrene, 3” Mirror Toy hoop Beaker Cardboard boxes Construction paper Heat lamp bulb Protractors Sticky notes Test tubes Test tube rack Thermometers Heat lamp Vegetable oil Concave lenses Convex lenses LED flashlights, white Mirrors Cardboard boxes Cellophane Spectroscopes Color filters sets LED flashlights Markers, water-based Mirror stands Prisms, triangular

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Segment 3 Paper clip, small Towel, bath* Alligator clip leads Bubble solution Cotton balls Lights, LEDs Containers, plastic shoebox PVC Pipes Balloons Batteries, size D Cloth, wool Straws String Batteries, AA Bolts Cups, souffle, 2 oz Earbuds Flashlight, hand crank Iron filings, 200g Markers, permanent, black Pliers, needle nose Screwdriver, phillips head Wire, 22 gauge Bar magnets Batteries, size D Digital scale Magnet, Neodymium Masking tape Paper clips Rubber bands, #33 Magnet, Neodymium Paper clip, small Ball on string Balloons Cone Marble Tennis ball Earth model, inflatable Protractor Tape, measuring Craft sticks Note cards Paper cups and plates Rubber bands Straws, flex tip Super bounce balls

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M A T E R I A L S

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Segment 4

Marbles Spandex sheets 2 lb Medicine balls Tent poles Tape, measuring Plastic baggies Paper cups Cotton balls Feathers Rubber bands Straws, flex tip Foam peanuts Plastic jars, with lids Beads Beakers Bottle, with cap Measuring cup Plastic bags, 6x6” Cups, 9 oz Sand Soil, potting Plaster of paris Bags, drawstring Fossil models Push pins String Chisel sets Chopsticks, pack Drill bit set Funnels Hand drills Mallets Molds, silicone Nails, pack Paint brushes, 1” Paint brushes, synthetic Paint powder Sandpaper, pack Toothbrushes Toothpicks, packs

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Segment 5 Balls, styrofoam Branches, plastic, packs Jars, pack Marbles, pack Nail clippers Pliers Scoops Skewers, pack Spoons Sporks, plastic Teaspoons, plastic Test tubes Tweezers Cups, 9 oz Acetate, red and blue Beans, assorted Boxes LED flashlights Cardboard Balloons Balls, multiple types Cloth, wool Cups, plastic Masking tape Pipe insulation Protractor String Centimeter cube Magnet, bar Paper, graph Beaker, 250 mL Container, plastic shoebox Hall’s carriage Hydrogen peroxide Rubber band Tablespoon Teaspoon, measuring Thermometer Yeast Bells, jingle Rubber bands, #33

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Segment 6 Chip, counting Oil, vegetable, 16 oz Bath towel Beakers, 250 mL Containers, plastic shoebox Digital scale Oven mitts Thermometers Candle, tealight Conductometer Matches Sand, fine Paper, graph Cup, plastic Disc cones Whistle Stopwatch LED flashlights, multiple colors Paper fasteners Transparency sheets Color filters sets Markers, water-based

View all Program Materials Kits online.

150  8th Grade Integrated

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C R E D I T S

Cover/Title page: T: Shutterstock BL: Getty Images BR: Shutterstock 18: Shutterstock 26: Pond5 44: iStockphoto 46L: Thinkstock 46R: Thinkstock 50L: Thinkstock 50R: Thinkstock 51BL: Thinkstock 52: Volker Steger/Science Source 53: (c) Bridget Shield, Trevor Cox 1999/2000. http://www.acoustics. salford.ac.uk/acoustics_info/ concert_hall_acoustics 87: Shutterstock 88: Humberto Olarte Cupas/Alamy 89: Shutterstock 90: iStockphoto 91: iStockphoto 92: iStockphoto 93: Reinhard Dirscherl/Alamy

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8th Grade Integrated  151


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Bring Science Alive! 8th Grade Integrated Review Guide  

Bring Science Alive! 8th Grade Integrated Review Guide